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Chapter 11: Applications and


Processing of Metal Alloys

ISSUES TO ADDRESS...
How are metal alloys ____________ and what are their
common applications ?
What are some of the common ____________ techniques
for _________?
What heat treatment procedures are used to improve the
mechanical properties of both __________________ alloys?

Chapter 11 - 1

Classification of Metal Alloys


Metal Alloys

Adapted from Fig.


Ferrous Nonferrous 11.1, Callister &
Rethwisch 8e.

_______
Steels __________
Cast Irons
_________
<1.4wt%C 3-4.5 wt%C
___________

T(C) microstructure: ferrite,


1600 graphite/cementite

1400 L

+L Adapted from Fig. 9.24, Callister &
1200 1148C L+Fe3C Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 9.24 adapted from
austenite Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams, 2nd ed.,
Eutectic: Vol. 1, T.B. Massalski (Ed.-in-Chief),
1000 4.30
ASM International, Materials Park, OH,

+Fe3C 1990.)
+


800 727C Fe3C

ferrite Eutectoid: cementite


600 0.76
+Fe3C
400
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 6.7
(Fe)
Co , wt% C Chapter 11 - 2

Steels
Low Alloy High Alloy
low carbon Med carbon high carbon
<0.25 wt% C 0.25-0.6 wt% C 0.6-1.4 wt% C

heat
Name plain HSLA plain plain tool stainless
treatable
Cr,V Cr, Ni Cr, V,
Additions none none none Cr, Ni, Mo
Ni, Mo Mo Mo, W
Example 1010 4310 1040 43 40 1095 4190 304, 409
Hardenability 0 + + ++ ++ +++ varies
TS - 0 + ++ + ++ varies
EL + + 0 - - -- ++
Uses auto bridges crank pistons wear drills high T
struc. towers shafts gears applic. saws applic.
sheet press. bolts wear dies turbines
vessels hammers applic. furnaces
blades Very corros.
resistant
increasing strength, cost, decreasing ductility
Based on data provided in Tables 11.1(b), 11.2(b), 11.3, and 11.4, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
Chapter 11 - 3

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Refinement of Steel from Ore


________
Iron Ore _____________

BLAST FURNACE
heat generation
gas C + O2 CO2
refractory
vessel reduction of iron ore to metal
layers of ______ CO2 + C 2CO
and __________ _______________________

air purification
slag
Molten iron CaCO3 CaO+CO2
CaO + SiO2 + Al2O3 slag

Chapter 11 - 4

Ferrous Alloys
Iron-based alloys
Steels
Cast Irons

Nomenclature for steels (AISI/SAE)


10xx ____________________
11xx Plain Carbon Steels (resulfurized for machinability)
15xx Mn (1.00 - 1.65%)
40xx Mo (0.20 ~ 0.30%)
43xx Ni (1.65 - 2.00%), Cr (0.40 - 0.90%), Mo (0.20 - 0.30%)
44xx Mo (0.5%)
where xx is wt% C x 100
example: 1060 steel plain carbon steel with 0.60 wt% C
____________________ >11% Cr
Chapter 11 - 5

Cast Irons
Ferrous alloys with > ____________
more _________________________
Low melting relatively easy to cast
Generally brittle

Cementite decomposes to _____ + ________


Fe3C 3 Fe () + C (__________)

generally a slow process

Chapter 11 - 6

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Fe-C True Equilibrium Diagram


T(C)
1600
Graphite formation
1400 L Liquid +
promoted by
+L Graphite
__________ 1200 1153C
Austenite 4.2 wt% C
__________
1000
+ + Graphite
800
740C
0.65

600
Adapted from Fig. 11.2,
+ Graphite
Callister & Rethwisch 8e. 400
[Fig. 11.2 adapted from 0 1 2 3 4 90 100
Binary Alloy Phase (Fe) C, wt% C
Diagrams, 2nd ed.,
Vol. 1, T.B. Massalski (Ed.-
in-Chief), ASM International,
Materials Park, OH, 1990.]
Chapter 11 - 7

Types of Cast Iron


Adapted from Fig.
11.3(a) & (b),
______ iron Callister &
Rethwisch 8e.
_________________
weak & brittle in tension
stronger in compression
excellent _________ dampening
wear resistant

________ iron
add Mg and/or Ce
graphite as ________ not flakes
matrix often pearlite stronger
but less ductile
Chapter 11 - 8

Types of Cast Iron (cont.)


Adapted from Fig.
11.3(c) & (d),
White iron Callister &
Rethwisch 8e.
< 1 wt% Si
pearlite + ________
very hard and _______

__________ iron
heat treat white iron at 800-900C
graphite in __________
reasonably strong and ductile

Chapter 11 - 9

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Types of Cast Iron (cont.)


Compacted _________ iron
relatively high _________________
good resistance to thermal shock
lower oxidation at elevated
temperatures

Adapted from Fig. 11.3(e),


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Chapter 11 - 10

Production of Cast Irons

Adapted from Fig.11.5,


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Chapter 11 - 11

Limitations of Ferrous Alloys

1) Relatively high densities


2) Relatively low electrical conductivities
3) Generally poor corrosion resistance

Chapter 11 - 12

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Nonferrous Alloys
Cu Alloys Al Alloys
Brass: Zn is subst. impurity -low : 2.7 g/cm3
(costume jewelry, coins, -Cu, Mg, Si, Mn, Zn additions
corrosion resistant) -solid sol. or precip.
Bronze : Sn, Al, Si, Ni are strengthened (struct.
subst. impurities aircraft parts
(bushings, landing & packaging)
gear) NonFerrous Mg Alloys
Cu-Be : -very low : 1.7g/cm3
precip. hardened Alloys -ignites easily
for strength -aircraft, missiles
Ti Alloys
-relatively low : 4.5 g/cm3 Refractory metals
-high melting Ts
vs 7.9 for steel Noble metals -Nb, Mo, W, Ta
-reactive at high Ts -Ag, Au, Pt
-space applic. -oxid./corr. resistant
Based on discussion and data provided in Section 11.3, Callister & Rethwisch 3e.
Chapter 11 - 13

Metal Fabrication
How do we fabricate metals?
___________ - hammer (forged)
Cast molten metal into mold

___________________
Rough stock formed to final shape

Hot working vs. Cold working


Deformation ____________ Deformation below
high enough for ________________
________________ temperature
Large ______________ Strain hardening occurs
Small ______________

Chapter 11 - 14

Metal Fabrication Methods (i)

FORMING CASTING MISCELLANEOUS


Forging (__________________) Rolling (________________)
(wrenches, crankshafts) (I-beams, rails, sheet & plate)
force
die roll
Ad
A o blank A d often at Ao
elev. T
roll
Adapted from
force Fig. 11.8,
Drawing __________ Callister &
Rethwisch 8e.
(rods, wire, tubing) (rods, tubing)
Ao
die Ad container
tensile die holder
Ao force
force ram billet extrusion Ad
die
containerdie
die must be well lubricated & clean ductile metals, e.g. Cu, Al (hot)
Chapter 11 - 15

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Metal Fabrication Methods (ii)

FORMING CASTING MISCELLANEOUS

Casting- mold is filled with molten metal


__________________________, perhaps alloying
elements added, then _______ in a mold
____________________________
gives good production of shapes
weaker products, internal defects
____________________________

Chapter 11 - 16

Metal Fabrication Methods (iii)

FORMING CASTING MISCELLANEOUS


________ Casting
(large parts, e.g.,
What material will withstand T >1600C
auto engine blocks)
and is ____________ and easy to mold?
Answer: ________!!!
Sand Sand
To create mold, pack _____ around form
molten metal (pattern) of desired shape

Chapter 11 - 17

Metal Fabrication Methods (iv)

FORMING CASTING MISCELLANEOUS


_____________________
(low volume, complex shapes
e.g., jewelry, turbine blades)
Stage I _____ formed by pouring wax I
____________ around wax pattern.
Plaster allowed to harden.
Stage II Wax is melted and then
poured from moldhollow mold
II
cavity remains.
Stage III ___________________
into mold and allowed to solidify. III

Chapter 11 - 18

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Metal Fabrication Methods (v)

FORMING CASTING MISCELLANEOUS


Die Casting Continuous Casting
-- high ____________ -- _________ shapes
-- for alloys having ____ melting (e.g., rectangular slabs,
temperatures cylinders)

molten
solidified

Chapter 11 - 19

Metal Fabrication Methods (vi)

FORMING CASTING MISCELLANEOUS


_______________ _____________
(metals w/low ductilities) (when fabrication of one large
part is impractical)
pressure
filler metal (melted)
base metal (melted)
fused base metal
heat
heat-affected zone
area unaffected unaffected
contact piece 1 piece 2 Adapted from Fig.
11.9, Callister 7e.
densify (Fig. 11.9 from Iron
Castings
Heat-affected _______:Handbook, C.F.
point contact densification Walton and T.J.
by diffusion at
(region in which the Opar (Ed.), 1981.)
at low T
higher T microstructure has been
changed).
Chapter 11 - 20

Thermal Processing of Metals


Annealing: Heat to Tanneal, then cool slowly.
tress Relief: Reduce
S __________ (steels):
stresses resulting from: Make very soft steels for
- plastic deformation good machining. Heat just
- ___________ cooling below Teutectoid & hold for
- phase transform. 15-25 h.

Full Anneal (steels):


Types of Make soft steels for
good forming. Heat
Annealing to get , then furnace-cool
to obtain coarse pearlite.
______________:
_
Negate effects of
cold working by
________(steels): Deform
_
steel with large grains. Then heat
(recovery/
treat to allow _______________
recrystallization)
and formation of smaller grains.

Based on discussion in Section 11.7, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.


Chapter 11 - 21

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Heat Treatment Temperature-Time Paths

a) _____________ A
b) _____________ P

c) Tempering
(Tempered
Martensite) A
B
10
0%
50
0% %

Fig. 10.25,
Callister &
Rethwisch 8e.

b) a)
c)
Chapter 11 - 22

Hardenability -- Steels
__________ measure of the ability to form martensite
Jominy end quench test used to measure ____________.
Adapted from Fig. 11.11,
flat ground Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
specimen (Fig. 11.11 adapted from
A.G. Guy, Essentials of
(heated to Materials Science,
phase field) Rockwell C McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York,
24C water hardness tests 1978.)

Plot __________ versus distance from the quenched end.


Hardness, HRC

Adapted from Fig. 11.12,


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Distance from quenched end


Chapter 11 - 23

Reason Why Hardness Changes with


Distance
The cooling rate _________ with distance from quenched end.
Hardness, HRC

60

40

20 distance from quenched end (in)


0 1 2 3
T(C) 0%
600 P 100%
Adapted from Fig. 11.13, Callister &
A
Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 11.13 adapted from H.
400 Boyer (Ed.) Atlas of Isothermal
Transformation and Cooling
M(start) Transformation Diagrams, American
200 Society for Metals, 1977, p. 376.)
AM
Pe Fine ens

0 M(finish)
ar P ite
M
M ens

lite ea +
ar
ar ite
t
t

rli Pe
te ar

0.1 1 10 100 1000


Time (s)
lite

Chapter 11 - 24

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Hardenability vs Alloy Composition


100 10 3 2 Cooling rate (C/s)
_____________ curves for
60

Hardness, HRC
five alloys each with, 100

80 %M
C = ______________ 4340
50
40 4140

Adapted from Fig. 11.14, Callister &


8640

10
Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 11.14 adapted from

4
5140

0
figure furnished courtesy Republic Steel 20
Corporation.) 0 10 20 30 40 50
Distance from quenched end (mm)

"Alloy Steels" 800


(4140, 4340, 5140, 8640) T(C) TE
600
-- contain Ni, Cr, Mo A B
(0.2 to 2 wt%) 400
-- these ___________ shift
the "nose" to longer times M(start)
200
(from A to B) M(90%)
-- martensite is easier 0 -1 3 5
10 10 10 10 Time (s)
to form Chapter 11 - 25

Influences of Quenching Medium &


Specimen Geometry
Effect of quenching medium:
Severity of Quench Hardness
Medium ________ ________
air ________ ________
oil ________ ________
water
Effect of specimen geometry:
When surface area-to-volume ratio increases:
-- cooling rate throughout interior increases
-- hardness throughout interior increases
Position Cooling rate Hardness
center low low
surface high high

Chapter 11 - 26

Precipitation Hardening
Particles impede ___________ motion.
Ex: Al-Cu system 700
T(C) L CuAl2
Procedure: 600
--Pt A: _______________
+L
+L
A
(get solid solution) 500
--Pt B: _______ to room temp. +
400 C
(retain solid solution)
--Pt C: ________ to nucleate 300
small __________ within (Al) 0 B 10 20 30 40 50 wt% Cu
phase. composition range
available for precipitation hardening
Other alloys that precipitation
Adapted from Fig. 11.24, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
harden: Temp. (Fig. 11.24 adapted from J.L. Murray, International
Pt A (soln heat treat) Metals Review 30, p.5, 1985.)
Cu-Be
Cu-Sn
Mg-Al Pt C (precipitate )

Adapted from Fig.


11.22, Callister & Time
Rethwisch 8e.
Pt B
Chapter 11 - 27

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Influence of Precipitation Heat


Treatment on TS, %EL
2014 Al Alloy:
________ on TS curves. ________ on %EL curves.
__________ T accelerates
process.
ita ll
cip ma
ag tes

ed
ion

pre ny s
so .

era ita ge
lid uil
lut

ov recip r lar
ge tes
so n-eq

30
ma
tensile strength (MPa)

%EL (2 in sample)
d
e
no

400
few

20
p

300
149C 10
200 204C 149 C
204C
100 0
1min 1h 1day 1mo 1yr 1min 1h 1day 1mo 1yr
precipitation heat treat time precipitation heat treat time
Adapted from Fig. 11.27, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 11.27 adapted from Metals Handbook:
Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Pure Metals, Vol. 2, 9th ed., H. Baker (Managing Chapter 11 - 28
Ed.), American Society for Metals, 1979. p. 41.)

Summary

Ferrous alloys: steels and cast irons


Non-ferrous alloys:
-- Cu, Al, Ti, and Mg alloys; refractory alloys; and noble metals.
Metal fabrication techniques:
-- forming, casting, miscellaneous.
Hardenability of metals
-- measure of ability of a steel to be heat treated.
-- increases with alloy content.
Precipitation hardening
--hardening, strengthening due to formation of
precipitate particles.
--Al, Mg alloys precipitation hardenable.

Chapter 11 - 29

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