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The MIDREX Process - The worlds most reliable

and productive Direct Reduction Technology

Designed for Today,


Engineered for Tomorrow
CONTENTS

2 THE MIDREX PROCESS


3 MIDREX DIRECT REDUCTION FLEXIBILITY
5 MIDREX SHAFT FURNACE
7 SOURCES OF REDUCING GAS
8 RANGE OF FEED MATERIALS
9 FORMS OF DRI PRODUCTS
10 INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSURANCE
Midrex Technologies, Inc. along with its parent company Kobe Steel, Ltd., recognizes the importance of protecting the
environment and conserving natural resources. Through the years we have been proactive in increasing efficiency,
productivity, reliability and safety while reducing the environmental impact of our processes.

MIDREX Plants are designed to minimize water, noise and air pollution.

MIDREX Plants meet applicable World Bank standards and more importantly, Midrex can and will provide DRI Plants
designed to meet any local emissions or environmental standards regardless of location.

The MIDREX Process - The worlds most reliable


and productive Direct Reduction Technology

Building DRI Plants DRI Products


Optimizing DRI production
using natural gas
Using Syngas to make DRI
in the MIDREX Process
& Applications

Designed for Today,


Engineered for Tomorrow Designed for Today, Designed for Today, Designed for Today, Designed for Today,
Engineered for Tomorrow Engineered for Tomorrow Engineered for Tomorrow Engineered for Tomorrow

MIDREX Process MIDREX NG MXCOL Building DRI Plants DRI Products &
Applications

1 The MIDREX Process CONTENTS


The MIDREX Process
THE GROWTH AND INCREASING SOPHISTICATION OF THE WORLD STEEL INDUSTRY HAS CREATED AN
ESCALATING DEMAND FOR HIGHER QUALITY VIRGIN IRON PRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS
TO BEST UTILIZE THE RAW MATERIALS AVAILABLE.

Over the past four decades Midrex Technologies, Inc. has Adjustable product quality and the flexibility to produce
risen to meet the industrys need by supplying and contin- various forms of iron together with some of the best produc-
ually innovating the worlds most reliable and productive tion records industry-wide make MIDREX Plants the most
Direct Reduction Technology: The MIDREX Process. profitable DRI plants in the world to own and operate.

The MIDREX Process is unsurpassed in the Direct Reduction Midrexs primary business is direct reduction ironmaking.
industry in terms of production and process flexibility to We build DRI plants that work day in and day out, year after
meet the constantly evolving nature of steelmakers and year to provide value for our clients so that they can make
ore-based metallics providers. the most of their investment and maximize their profits for
years to come.

The MIDREX Process 2


MIDREX DIRECT REDUCTION FLEXIBILITY
MIDREX PLANTS ARE DESIGNED TO THE SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS OF EACH CLIENT BECAUSE THE
MIDREX PROCESS ALLOWS FOR THE BROADEST SELECTION OF PROVEN PROCESS OPTIONS.

MIDREX Direct Reduction Plants are the industrys


most productive and reliable direct reduction plants GROWTH OF MIDREX CAPACITY
with a proven history using the broadest range of
reductant sources and raw materials. The MIDREX
Process provides the most complete product dis- 3.0 Prototype
charge options commercially available with the Series 400
2.5
flexibility to process iron oxide pellets and lump ores Series 600

Million Tons/Year
of varying quality. 2.0 MEGAMOD

1.5 SUPER MEGAMOD


It is the attributes of the MIDREX Process that give
1.0
investors and plant owners confidence in the technol-
ogy and its operation. MIDREX Plants may be sized 0.5
to support the Clients needs whether that need is to
0
provide a partial or total charge for EAF(s), for Blast
Plant Size
Furnace(s), for Basic Oxygen Furnace(s) or for
merchant purposes (sales to other steelworks). Only
MIDREX Plants have proven performance in this
regard.
Flexibility of MIDREX Plants
Whether the requirement is for 500,000 tons per
year or 2.5 million tons per year and higher, owners The MIDREX Process can:
know they will receive the same high performance and
reliability from the MIDREX Process and outstanding derive reducing gas from the energy source most readily
investment value due to the operational flexibility of available and competitively priced
the plant.
efficiently reduce local iron oxide pellets and ores of
varying quality either separately or in differing combinations

discharge DRI either cold or hot and in any combination


simultaneously to produce cold DRI (CDRI), hot briquetted
iron (HBI) and hot DRI (HDRI)

3 The MIDREX Process MIDREX DIRECT REDUCTION FLEXIBILITY


The shaft furnace-based MIDREX
Process provides an efficient way
to reduce iron oxide with the
greatest operational flexibility.

MIDREX DIRECT REDUCTION PROCESS FLEXIBILTY

FEED MATERIALS Pellets Lump Ore

ENERGY SOURCES REDUCING GAS

MIDREX
Reformer
Natural Gas
Plant
Steam Reformer

Coal
Pet Coke Gasifier MIDREX
Refinery Bottoms Shaft Furnace

Coke Oven Thermal Reactor Plant


Gas (COG) System

Coal COREX COREX /


Pet Coke Plant

PRODUCT CDRI HDRI HDRI


CDRI HBI
OPTIONS & HBI & CDRI & HBI

MIDREX DIRECT REDUCTION FLEXIBILITY The MIDREX Process 4


MIDREX SHAFT FURNACE
THE HEART OF THE MIDREX PROCESS IS THE MIDREX SHAFT FURNACE. AS A KEY COMPONENT OF
THE MIDREX DIRECT REDUCTION PROCESS, THE MIDREX SHAFT FURNACE IS THE MOST FLEXIBLE
AND VERSATILE REDUCTION VESSEL FOR DRI PRODUCERS.

The MIDREX Shaft Furnace can use natural gas or a syngas into the top of a cylindrical, refractory-lined vessel, where it
from coal or coke oven gas as its reductant. MIDREX descends by gravity flow and is contacted by upward flowing
Plants commonly operate in excess of 8000 hrs per year. In reducing gas. The reducing gas, which is primarily hydrogen
addition, the MIDREX Shaft Furnace has been proven in and carbon monoxide, reacts with the iron oxide to reduce
using the widest variety of oxide pellets or lump ores to (remove the oxygen content) and carburize the material prior
produce CDRI, HDRI and/or HBI. to discharge. From there the product can be discharged as
CDRI, HDRI, HBI or any combination simultaneously.
Operation of the MIDREX Shaft Furnace is uncomplicated
and straight-forward. Iron-bearing material is introduced

MIDREX SHAFT FURNACE

Iron Oxide pellets and/or lump are fed to top


of furnace and flow downward Iron Oxide Charging

Iron Oxide is heated and converted to DRI


by a high temperature reducing gas

Products can be discharged hot or cold in


combinations that include CDRI, HBI or HDRI

REACTIONS WITHIN THE MIDREX SHAFT FURNACE


Pre-heat
REACTION HEAT DESCRIPTION

3Fe2O3 + CO 2Fe3O4 + CO2 Exothermic Reduction by CO Reduction


3Fe2O3 + H2 2Fe3O4 + H2O Exothermic Reduction by H2

Fe3O4 + CO 3FeO + CO2 Endothermic Reduction by CO

Fe3O4 + H2 3FeO + H2O Endothermic Reduction by H2


Transition
FeO + CO Fe + CO2 Exothermic Reduction by CO

FeO + H2 Fe + H2O Endothermic Reduction by H2

3Fe + CH4 Fe3C + 2H2 Endothermic Carburizing Reaction

3Fe + 2CO Fe3C + CO2 Exothermic Carburizing Reaction


Product Discharge
3Fe + CO + H2 Fe3C + H2O Exothermic Carburizing Reaction

5 The MIDREX Process MIDREX SHAFT FURNACE


The MIDREX Shaft Furnace
is designed to:
Capitalize on the principle of counterflowing
gas and solids to maximize reduction
efficiency

Assure uniform solids flow by effectively


Oxide Pellets
distributing the furnace burden and avoiding
material bridging
THE OVERALL REDUCTION REACTIONS ARE:

Control the flow of gases between the Fe2O3 + 3H2 2Fe + 3H2O
various furnace zones Fe2O3 + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO2

Prevent the reducing gas from coming


into contact with air H2 CO2

Prohibit gas flows from fluidizing the


furnace burden FeO Fe

Maintain a uniform temperature profile


CO H2O
across the cross-section of the furnace
Carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) are byproducts of
Avoid stoppages of furnace burden flow the iron oxide reduction reactions.

Eliminate the need for water-cooled


discharge cone

Midrex has carefully and responsibly scaled up the production


capacity of the MIDREX Shaft Furnace over the last four decades
from an inside diameter of 3.7 meters in the prototype
commercial plant in Portland, Oregon to the 7.15 meter furnace
diameter of the newest operating MIDREX Plants.

Even though increasing scales of production drive DRI innovation,


sometimes the cyclic nature of the steel industry can reduce
the requirement for a direct reduction plants full production
capacity. The MIDREX Shaft Furnace has demonstrated the
ability to operate cost-effectively even when operating as low as
30% of design capacity.

MIDREX SHAFT FURNACE The MIDREX Process 6


SOURCES OF REDUCING GAS
VARIOUS FUEL SOURCES CAN BE USED TO CREATE A SUITABLE REDUCING GAS FOR THE MIDREX
PROCESS. THESE INCLUDE NATURAL GAS, COAL, COKE OVEN GAS OR PROCESS SYNGAS.

MIDREX Process Energy Source Flexibility


Energy Source MIDREX Plant Reference Reducing Gas Train Reducing Gas H2 /CO Start-up

Natural Gas More than 60 modules MIDREX Reformer 1.5 to 1.7 Since 1969
in operation

Natural Gas FMO (formerly OPCO) Steam Reformer, Heater + 3.2 to 3.9 1990
MIDREX Reformer

COREX Offgas ArcelorMittal South Africa CO2 Removal + Heater 0.3 to 0.4 1999

COREX Offgas JSW Projects Limited CO2 Removal + Heater 0.5 to 0.6 2014

Coal Gasifier JSPL Angul I CO2 Removal + Heater 2.0 2014

Reducing gas, containing mainly hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO), can be generated from a wide variety of energy
sources. Natural gas can be reformed in the unique, highly efficient MIDREX Reformer or in a traditional steam reformer.
Coal of any type or ash content can be gasified. Coke oven gas can be reformed using the MIDREX Thermal Reactor System
(TRS). And, the export syngas from a COREX Hot Metal Plant also makes a high quality reducing gas that can be used in a
closely linked MIDREX Shaft Furnace to produce DRI.

Comsigua MIDREX Plant, Venezuela Hadeed Module E MIDREX Plant, Saudi Arabia
MIDREX NG MIDREX NG

ArcelorMittal South Africa Plant FMO Planta de Briquetas (formerly OPCO) JSPL Angul I, India
COREX/MXCOL Venezuela, Using Steam Reformers MXCOL Coal Gasifier

7 The MIDREX Process SOURCES OF REDUCING GAS


RANGE OF FEED MATERIALS
THE MIDREX PROCESS HAS OPERATED WITH VIRTUALLY ANY BLEND OF PELLETS AND LUMP ORES.
MIDREX PLANTS HAVE PROCESSED IRON BEARING MATERIALS OF VARYING QUALITY FROM MORE
THAN 50 SOURCES AROUND THE WORLD.

In the early days of direct reduction, there was a clearly discernible difference between iron oxide pellets intended for blast
furnace use (BF-grade pellets) and those used to make DRI to feed an EAF. A DR-grade pellet typically has higher iron
content and less silica, alumina and other gangue constituents than BF-grade pellets. DRI products made from DR-grade
pellets are more appealing for the EAF user because the meltshop does not have to worry about excessive gangue materials.

Cost, availability and meltshop productivity


TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DR-GRADE PELLETS
dictate the type of feed materials used within the
AND LUMP USED IN EAF STEELMAKING
DRI plant. MIDREX Plants can be designed to
operate successfully using a wide variety of iron CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

oxide pellets and lump ores including pellets used Pellets Lump
in blast furnaces. In fact, some companies have
Fe (%) 67.0 67.0
used the MIDREX Process to reduce BF-grade SiO2 + Al2O3 (%) 3.0 3.0
pellets when they were unable to obtain DR- S (%) 0.008 0.008
grade materials in order to maintain steelmaking P (%) 0.03 0.03
operations. TiO2 (%) 0.15 0.15


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Midrex has a comprehensive testing program at
its Research and Technology Development Center Pellets Lump
that evaluates existing feed materials and Nominal Size 6 x 16 mm 10 x 35 mm
investigates potential new sources. Midrex also 10 x 35 mm (%) 85 min.
works with the operators of MIDREX Plants to 9 x 16 mm (%) 95 min.

determine the characteristics and composition Minus 5 mm (%) 3 max. 5 max.

of iron oxide sources most suitable for their Compression Strength (kg) 250 min.

operating conditions. Midrex interfaces with iron Less than 50 kg (%) 2 max.

oxide suppliers to improve existing products and
REDUCTION CHARACTERISTICS
develop new ones.
Pellets Lump
FEEDSTOCK OPTIONS MIDREX LINDER TEST (760 C)
Metallization (%) 93 min. 93 min.
Minus 3.36 mm (%) 2 max. 5 max.

PELLETS HOT LOAD TEST (815 C)
Tumble Strength (% plus 6.73 mm) 90 min. 85 min.
Compression Strength (kg) 100 min.
Clustering (% plus 25 mm after 10 rev.) 0 0

LUMP

Lower quality iron ores are often used in MIDREX Plants depending on the cost of the raw materials
and the impact of downstream steelmaking operations. The Midrex Materials Testing Lab can evaluate
all types of iron oxide pellets and lump ore to determine suitability for direct reduction ironmaking.

RANGE OF FEED MATERIALS The MIDREX Process 8


FORMS OF DRI PRODUCTS
DRI IS THE STEEL INDUSTRYS MOST FLEXIBLE METALLIC CHARGE MATERIALAND THE MIDREX PROCESS
CAN PRODUCE, DISCHARGE AND TRANSPORT DRI IN THE FORM BEST SUITED TO THE APPLICATION.

PRODUCT FORMS
The first MIDREX Plants produced DRI that was cooled prior to discharge: cold DRI (CDRI). As the benefits of DRI use became
more widely known, a product form that was considered safe for ocean shipping by the International Maritime Organization
(IMO) was needed. The result was hot briquetted iron (HBI), a DRI product hot discharged from the MIDREX Shaft Furnace
into a roller-type press that molds the reduced material into dense pillow-shaped briquettes. Discharging hot DRI (HDRI) as
a product from a DRI furnace was the next progressive step for Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) steelmakers to increase efficiency
and productivity.

The combination of hot and cold discharge in a single reduction furnace was a logical advancement for the MIDREX Process.
Today MIDREX Plants can be switched from one DRI form to another with no disruption of product flow - CDRI to HBI, CDRI
to hot DRI (HDRI), or HDRI to HBI. Product can be produced simultaneously in any combination.

DRI PRODUCTS
CDRI HBI HDRI

HOT TRANSPORT & CHARGING METHODS


In EAF steelmaking, hot transport/hot charging is an effective means of lowering the cost per ton of liquid steel by
reducing power and electrode consumption, as well as increasing EAF productivity making it possible to downsize the
electrical system for a greenfield EAF meltshop.

MIDREX Shaft Furnaces can be equipped with one of three systems to transfer HDRI to a steelworks meltshop:
HOTLINK, Hot Transport Conveyor (HTC) and Hot Transport Vessel (HTV).

HOTLINK HOT TRANSPORT CONVEYOR HOT TRANSPORT VESSELS


(Distances < 40m) (Distances < 200m) (Distances > 100m)

Reference: Jindal Shadeed (Oman) Reference: Hadeed Mod E (Saudi Arabia) Reference: Lion DRI (Malaysia)

9 The MIDREX Process FORMS OF DRI PRODUCTS


INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS
DESIGNED FOR TODAY, ENGINEERED FOR TOMORROW...

WHATEVER THE TECHNICAL, COMMERCIAL OR GEOGRAPHICAL CHALLENGE, THE MIDREX PROCESS


CAN BE CONFIGURED TO DELIVER MAXIMUM VALUE, RECORD-SETTING PRODUCTIVITY, SUSTAINABLE
COST STRUCTURE AND UNMATCHED RELIABILITY.

The increasing sophistication and intensely competitive nature of the global steel industry has created the demand for high
quality, cost effective metallic inputs - iron products as dynamic as the industry they support.

Midrex has been designing and engineering direct reduction technology for more than four decades. MIDREX Technology
has helped launch national steel industries, contributed to EAF expansion into high end products and continues to close the
iron-to-steel production gap.

The MIDREX Process has become synonymous with performance, reliability and flexibilitythe basis of investment value and
operating profits for years to come.

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS The MIDREX Process 10


www.midrex.com

USA / CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS:


Midrex Technologies, Inc.
2725 Water Ridge Parkway
Suite 100
Charlotte, NC 28217 USA
Tel: +1 (704) 373 1600
Email: sales@midrex.com

UK:
Midrex UK Ltd.
Two London Bridge
London, SE1 9RA
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(0)207 0891520
Email: info@midrex.com

CHINA:
Midrex Metallurgy Technology Services
(Shanghai) Ltd.
1505 Park Place
1601 Nan Jing West Road
Shanghai 200040 PRC
Tel: +86 21 61573700
Email: sales@midrex.cn

INDIA:
Midrex Technologies India Private, Ltd.
Global Foyer, Golf Course Road
Gurgaon-122002, Haryana | India
Tel: 0124-4908712
Email: sales@midrex.in

Aug 2014