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Using Artificial Intelligence and Smart Material Morphing Structures for In-Flight Re-

Optimization

Evan N. Allen

Independent Research

Mrs. Allison Graves


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Introduction

Ever since I was a little boy, Ive dreamt about flying amongst the clouds. I loved

airplanes. My life goal was to become a fighter pilot and soar through the sky, weaving through

the beautiful blue beyond. There was something captivating about the aerial world that would

never fail to fascinate me, something that still enthralls me to this day. While I was developing

this passion for airplanes, I was also first learning how to program computers. My father first

taught me how to write simple websites, and showed me where to continue my learning from

there. I instantly loved it. I would spend hours reading more and more about computers,

wondering what I could make next. Over the years, my love for programming has only grown. In

the summer before the 10th grade, I discovered the field of deep learning and artificial

intelligence. This was where some of the most groundbreaking research was (and still is) being

done. With these advancements, computers can now be trained to complete tasks previously

thought to be impossible for them. They can predict stock market trends, recognize images,

understand human handwriting, and more1. Their key lies in the fact that they are trained to

complete tasks, not instructed how to. This gives them the ability to adapt to many different

situations, which is extremely powerful2. Once I started working with these concepts, I had to

learn more.

I decided on my topic for this iSearch project while at the orthodontist when I received an

email from my Academy Advisor suggesting that I contact a professor at Old Donation

University (ODU) named Onur Bilgen. Professor Bilgen specializes in researching smart

materials that have unique abilities to change in response to external stimuli. He uses these

smart materials to find new applications for them in aircraft and automobiles3. I began exploring

his research and the surrounding field. One of his main research focuses was on morphing
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structures, which are mechanisms that can change the form of a plane mid-flight to better adapt

to changing circumstances. These could be amazing. Airplanes are only optimized for a certain

set of conditions, and do not perform as well in other circumstances. If researchers can create

systems to re-optimize the plane as needed for efficient flight, then the cost of flying would be

much cheaper. While there have been many attempts at creating variants of forming structures in

the past, nearly all of them have been using hydraulic or mechanical systems that are very heavy.

The extra weight that they add to the plane is too much of a penalty to account for the benefits

they provide, and thus are not very useful. However, smart materials might be able to accomplish

the same tasks without adding as much extra weight.4 This topic excited me because it provided

a rare opportunity for me to combine my interests in both aircraft and computer science into a

single project. I could learn more about the machines that I would always dream about, and at the

same time find another way to apply the power of deep learning. With people like Professor

Bilgen and many others doing research on the subject, I knew that there was a way to combine

the power of artificial intelligence, deep learning, and smart materials to engineer more efficient

flight. The main question that drove my research was how.

What I Knew, Assumed, and Imagined

Before I began researching this topic, I already had a strong foundation in programming.

I had a true passion for it, and would work on endless side projects for fun. I would write

modifications to my favorite video games, scripts to download my homework from the internet,

and more. By 10th grade, I had become proficient in the Java language.

Every year, students in the Math and Science Academy that I attend must complete a

Symposium project. Each project involves researching a topic of interest and conducting an
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experiment to learn more about it. For my 10th grade symposium, a friend and I chose to work

together to investigate the use of artificial intelligence and deep learning in the field of music

composition. We had read about its applications in other areas and were excited to see what we

could create with it. Over the course of the year, we heavily researched a special type of

computing structure called a neural network that is very commonly used in deep learning. A

neural network consists of a series of interlinked nodes that pass data along with special

mathematical rules that can dynamically change to better fit patterns in a set of data. A neural

network generally functions by taking in a set of input data, passing it through the nodes, and

outputting a set of data. An example would be an image classifier that reads image files and

outputs one of multiple possible categories that the image could fit in, like cow or dog.

Using a complex algorithm called backpropagation, the network can be told to compare what it

outputted and what its programmers wanted it to output. This allows it to be trained over time.

We worked on that project for dozens of hours, making many mistakes. Each time we

fixed one, we learned something new. I researched different types of neural networks to find the

best one for our purposes, and then spent days tampering with the code to understand its nuances.

At the end, the product was mediocre. However, the knowledge I gained was tremendous.

That strong background in programming and experience in working with neural networks

is what gave me the idea to use them in tandem with the aerospace engineering that Professor

Bilgen was doing. Because of how long I had worked with them, I knew about their immense

potential. They have so many possible applications in aircraft I felt like I could use my

knowledge to make a serious contribution.


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As for aerospace engineering and aerodynamics, I knew very little. I had found

programming easier to learn throughout my life because all I needed to set up a laboratory was a

computer and an internet connection. For aeronautical ventures, however, I would have needed

to buy parts to make my own aircraft and run my own tests. I knew some basics about how air

flowed around the wings of an airplane and how it could be controlled, but not much more. I had

enrolled in certain NASA (National Aeronautical and Space Administration)-affiliated

educational programs like BLAST or Virginia Space Coast Scholars (VSCS), but none of them

were primarily focused on aerospace engineering.

To guide myself, I created five main research sub-questions. I set them up so that the

most general ones would come first to give me the ability to learn about their applications in the

later ones. The first sub-question dealt with the different types of smart materials and the science

behind them. I knew that there were certain materials that could change shape or bend if certain

stimuli were applied to them, but I didnt know what they were called or why. The goal of this

sub-question was to pick a type of smart material or two that I could focus on and use in later

questions to discover ways to use them.

The second sub-question was all about aircraft and the forces that act upon them.

Specifically, I wanted to learn about what challenges they face when dealing with a variety of

different surroundings and conditions. Why do they face these challenges? This sub-question

was crucial because it would allow me to understand not only how airplanes fly but how to

optimize them for certain aerial conditions. If I could do that, then I would be able to better use

smart materials to make these in-flight re-optimizations.


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My third sub-question was the shortest, focusing on how computers can interface with

smart materials and control them. I also wanted to know about previous applications of smart

materials, especially in aerospace engineering. This would provide insight into how to connect

the computational aspects of the aircraft such as the neural networks to the physical, smart

materials.

I also needed to figure out ways to test the effectiveness of any smart material solutions

against aircraft without them. For this fourth sub-question, I planned on looking at past

experiments to see how they went about testing as well as exploring more recent innovations in

research techniques. I knew that wind tunnels were widely used to simulate flight conditions, so I

made that a focus.

The final sub-question dealt with neural networks and artificial intelligence. Since I

already knew a lot about how they work and their basic operation, I sought out examples of

researchers using them in other ways on aircraft. By finding examples of other scientists work

on applying them, my goal was to gain some insight into how to use them here.

The Search

My first order of business was to create a letter of request to send to Professor Bilgen. In

it, I explained my passion for the field and asked him for an interview. I wanted to learn about

his research on smart materials and how he used them in his own research to control aircraft (this

would contribute to all the sub-questions, especially the second and third ones). However, I did

not send it immediately. I was afraid that he would respond to the interview request too quickly,

and that I would not be prepared with enough background knowledge to properly learn from the

experience. I began searching the internet for the first research question.
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Sub-question one. The first source that I came to was a GCSE Bitesize article on the

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)s website. The BBCs GCSE Bitesize program is a

series of review pages for students in the United Kingdom taking the GCSE exam, which is an

exam taken by teenagers in high school to progress in their education5. It had many topics to

choose from, and gave comprehensive overviews of each. I liked their article on smart materials

a lot because they listed them in a clear and concise format without seeming to dumb anything

down. Even though this source wasnt peer-reviewed, it was still reliable as the BBCs Bitesize

program is an extensive educational resource that is well known and does not attempt to

convince readers of any sort of bias. It told me a lot about the different types of smart materials,

which was a perfect starting point for my research. I started looking through the list, and I

quickly realized that a type of material called piezoelectrics would have the most potential.

I decided to look for another source that listed various types of smart materials. I wanted

to learn about as many as possible so that I would have a good idea of the different possibilities

for use on an aircraft. Going back to my original query, I found another GCSE Bitesize article

from a different section of the site. This page contained much of the same information as the first

article, but also included information on more obscure topics like nanomaterials.

At this point, I wanted to find some information that was from an academic website. I

figured that it might contain more detail as well as some rarer and more experimental types of

smart materials that could be useful to me in my search. I soon found one that categorized the

different materials per their stimuli (what causes them to move or change) and types of

responses. This was extremely useful to me, as it helped me find the best ones for controlling

aircraft. Once again, I found that piezoelectric materials were a top candidate.
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I decided to focus my research in on piezoelectrics, since they seemed most promising.

What about their structure allows them to have the properties that they do? I went to Google and

searched it. The first result I found was an article written on a commercial website, which struck

me as a red flag. After further examination, however, I decided that the source was reliable. It

had a clear author, did not seem to be selling or advertising a product, and gave an explanation

agreeing with the information that I had previously found. This was one of my most valuable

sources, as it provided a very in-depth description of what piezoelectric materials are composed

of as well as why that setup gives them their traits. This would be helpful in sub-question three.

Sub-question two. In researching my second question about airplanes and how they fly, I

decided to start out with some simpler websites meant to be understood by the average reader.

This was because I knew very little about aerodynamics and needed a simple place to start. After

a few searches, I found a seemingly reliable article on NASAs website about the dynamics of

flight. The page was a part of NASAs educational student site, and did not actively push one

opinion or another. Therefore, I could trust it. This information was exactly what I was looking

for. It helped me understand what the wings do in the air to keep the plane aloft, as well as the

basic principles behind aircraft design. However, I wanted to learn some of the more nuanced

details.

The second source I found was another article meant to be read by a general audience on

the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museums website. Because this was such a widely

respected institute, the source was most likely reliable. It taught me about how air flows around

the wings in special scenarios, as well as how that affects the airplane. One thing that I did take

especially important note of was the different types of air-induced drag that the plane could

encounter in other words, the different forces slowing it down. This was important because
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each of these forces of drag are detrimental to the plane and thus need to be minimized for the

most efficient flight.

For my last source of this sub-question, I decided to look at a truly academic source to

see what solutions are being researched for these problems. I found a comprehensive review on

Google Scholar of morphing aircraft, or airplanes that can change shape as explained earlier.

However, I soon realized that it would cost money to view the full text of the paper. I decided to

look at the abstract anyway. It was still very helpful as it contained information on the purpose of

morphing aircraft and the overarching principles behind their design.

Sub-question three. This sub-question was perhaps the hardest one for me to answer. It

was difficult to find information on the specifics of using computers to interface with smart

materials. The first source that I found was a paper published in a journal about controlling

vibrations in buildings. Although it did not talk about aircraft specifically, it did give good

insight into ways of controlling structures with piezoelectric materials. This source was very

helpful, and was published in a journal so it was very likely to be reliable.

The second source I sought out for this sub-question was one that pertained more to the

general use of piezoelectrics to move objects things. It was on a website that sold piezoelectric

materials and systems, so that may mean that the information in the source about how useful

piezoelectric materials are may be slightly exaggerated. Nevertheless, it described in detail the

various types of actuators that can be made from piezo materials and how they work. This gave

me insight into possible mechanisms for using them to move a wing.

At this point, I felt that I was ready to send my letter to Professor Bilgen. Copying in my

research advisor, I anxiously pressed the Send button. I was extremely surprised when I got a
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reply from the professor that same day! I was ecstatic. He had accepted my request and allowed

me to come to his laboratory. Unfortunately, I had forgotten to send my resume. I did not realize

my mistake until weeks later when I had to find it again for an unrelated reason. I quickly

followed up with the Professor asking if there was anything else he needed from me, but to my

surprise he replied that nothing else was required. The date that was set for the interview was

after the due date of this iSearch paper, so I cannot include information about it here. Next time I

will be sure to more carefully consider scheduling issues before requesting an interview.

Sub-question four. This question was hard to start researching at first, but became easier

as I went on. I needed to know what methods researchers used to test new aircraft designs and

airfoils before flying them through the air. I started off by looking at Professor Bilgens past

work. I noticed that one of his papers was on a new wing called a fishbone design. He had to

have tested it somehow, so I opened the document to see how. As I had thought, he used a wind

tunnel. It was very interesting to look at a real example of a researcher using one to test out a

new design. However, I realized after looking at Professor Bilgens paper that I needed a more

basic source of information to start out with. His paper was extremely good, but also very

specialized.

I went back to the NASA site that I had visited in sub-question two, because I knew that

it had comprehensive diagrams and explanations of fundamental concepts. Luckily, I found that

there were many pages on the website that gave a detailed description of the testing process and

the instruments needed. I spent much of my research time here, documenting the various ways to

measure the forces and moments on aircraft in the tunnel for analysis of its performance. This

was very helpful because it allowed me to understand how I could theoretically go about testing

a smart-material-equipped aircraft against a conventional one.


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Sub-question five. I didnt spend much time on the last sub-question about neural

networks and artificial intelligence, as I had already researched the basic concepts extensively

during the school year and wanted to spend more time on the other sub-questions that I wasnt as

familiar with. My first goal with this sub-question was to find an example of artificial

intelligence used in planes. Within a single search, I found an article listing many of them. This

source may be slightly unreliable as it comes from a blog post however, it does link its

information to other, more reliable sites.

Lastly, I chose to look at a source that would talk about neural networks themselves. I

wanted to learn about how neural networks could handle and process data over time, which is a

vital aspect of making decisions in flight. I found another blog post, but this one is almost

definitely reliable as it was written about an open-source program and has material results to

back it up. It gave very good information on certain types of neural networks that could be up to

this task, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each. It explained their inner workings

and provided examples. This helped strengthen my knowledge of this topic and assisted me in

deciding what the best option to use would be.

What I Discovered

Smart materials. Smart materials are defined as ones that can change through

environmental conditions like temperature, light, pressure, or electricity. Each change can

happen multiple times, and can be controlled. For example, one common type of smart material

is a shape-memory alloy (SMA). SMAs have the unique property that they will always return to

an original, manufactured shape once they are heated above a certain critical temperature. The

fact that they undergo a change once they reach that temperature is what makes them smart,
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per se. Their ability makes them very useful for objects like prescription glasses that are

commonly bent. They can also be used as triggers for fire alarm sprinklers or anywhere else that

a drastic increase in temperature must be detected.

Piezoelectrics are another family of smart material. These are special because they can

change shape slightly if there is voltage potential across them. This means that if I took a strip of

piezoelectric material, attached wires from a battery to two ends and closed the circuit, the strip

would become distorted! The property works the other way around, too; if the material is bent,

then a voltage potential is created instead. This is very important because it means that

piezoelectric materials can be used as both a sensor and an actuator (a part of a machine that is

responsible for moving or controlling a mechanism or system6), making them extremely useful

and versatile. There are many other types of smart materials like quantum tunneling composite

(QTC), electroluminescent materials, or color changing ones as well. The problem with these

types of materials is that they can primarily only function as sensors, meaning that there is not

much that they can do to actively control a planes flight. They have many practical applications,

but none of them have the ability to change shape like the SMAs or piezoelectric materials7.

The SMAs and piezoelectrics both looked promising, but I quickly noticed an important

difference. While both are able to move in response to an external stimulus, piezoelectrics are

much more agile than SMAs. This means that they are able to change their shape much faster

and in a much more precise fashion than the SMAs, which can only return to a single state. In

addition, piezoelectrics rely on electricity to be controlled while SMAs use temperature. It would

be very impractical to have to raise the temperature of a wing in-flight to cause it to change

shape, especially considering that the change is one-way. With piezoelectrics, however, a

computer can be used to control exactly how far it bends or distorts. If aerial conditions cause the
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piezoelectric wing to bend, the material would also be able to send an electrical signal which a

computer could then take steps to respond to.

When I decided to concentrate my research on piezoelectrics more, I found out how they

work. Piezoelectric materials obtain their properties from their molecular structure. They

generally are crystals, meaning that their molecules are arranged in a sort of repeating lattice

pattern. This is similar to a grid like one would see on a map, except it is in three dimensions. All

crystals have a structure called a unit cell which is what is repeated throughout the lattice. For

example, take the following numerical pattern:

01230123012301230123

In this pattern, the sequence 0 1 2 3 is repeated over and over again. This is similar to

how a unit cell works in a crystal lattice. In most crystals, the unit cell is symmetrical. In

piezoelectric materials, however, the unit cell is not. It is still electrically balanced. This means

that the lattice structure of piezoelectrics is easier to disturb than other crystals, and with a slight

movement the delicately balanced electrical charges will come near each other and disrupt the

balance. This is the reason why piezoelectrics show the ability to produce electrical voltage upon

movement, and vice-versa. Quartz is an example of a common piezo-electric material,

commonly used in watches and clocks8. Piezoelectrics show a lot of potential for use in flight,

but to understand how I first had to learn about aerodynamics and aircraft.

Basic science of flight. Airplanes fly through the air. This seemingly obvious fact is

actually extremely important because air is a fluid and thus can be manipulated in special ways.

When planes fly through it they can create upward forces called lift by manipulating the air flow.

To do this, airplanes have special wings that use a concept called the Bernoulli Principle. The
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Bernoulli Principle states that as a fluids speed increases, its pressure decreases9. This can be

thought of like water in a pipe. Think of a faucet. Have you ever noticed that the stream of water

narrows as it falls? This is because it is gaining speed! The pressure of the stream decreases and

thus it is narrowed10. The Bernoulli principle means that if a wing can increase the speed of the

air above the wing, then there will be lower pressure there. The resulting pressure difference

would in turn cause the air to push up on the wing, causing lift.

There are four main forces of flight, each of which are based on Newtons Three Laws of

Motion. Lift is the force pushing upwards on the plane via the airflow manipulation techniques

described above, and gravity is the force pulling the plane to the ground. Thrust is the reactionary

force that pushes the plane forward when the planes engines run, and drag is the force that

pushes the plane back as it collides with air particles9.

Drag is bad for the plane. It slows it down, and requires it to use extra energy to fly. A

main goal of an aerospace engineer is to design planes that encounter as little drag as possible. In

addition to the drag that occurs when the plane hits air particles head on, there are other types

too. Friction drag occurs when the air flowing past the airplane catches on the side and slows

down air flow in a boundary layer surrounding the craft. This has a net effect of slowing the

plane. Vortex drag is another type, occurring when air on the edge of a wing tries to flow around

it to get to the lower pressure zone on top. This causes a low-pressure zone at the back edge of

the wings, slowing the plane down. This can be combatted by bending the wings up at the ends

with winglets.10

Interestingly, birds do not have as much of a problem with these phenomena as airplanes

do. Because of their internal anatomy, they are able to dynamically change the shape of their
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wings in mid-air. This allows them to minimize drag and fly more efficiently. Meanwhile, most

conventional planes are relatively rigid and cannot change the overall form of their wings10. If

there were a way to modify the wing shape in mid-air like a bird, then airplanes would become

much more reliable and economical. Airplanes with this ability are said to have morphing

structures, as explained before.

Using piezoelectric materials. Piezoelectric materials can be controlled and

electronically interfaced with in many ways, some of which might provide the ability to give an

aircrafts wings the ability to dynamically change and minimize drag. A common case in which

piezoelectrics are used for active control of the shape of a large object is in structural

engineering. To combat harmful vibrations, two piezoelectric strips are commonly placed on

opposite sides of metal beams. Electrical potentials can then be applied across each to move

them. In a fashion similar to that of human muscles in the human body, the strips can bend the

beam by extending and contracting in tandem. This setups is called a bimorph structure11. For

more general use, piezoelectric actuators are available. There are two main types of piezoelectric

actuators: stack actuators and stripe actuators. Stack actuators look like large cylinders, and

move only slightly but with a large amount of force. Stripe actuators are very much like the

bimorph construction described above and consist of two piezoelectric strips stacked upon each

other in a way such that when a current is passed through they will bend one way or another.

They are very advantageous to other forms of bending because they take little energy to operate

and do not deteriorate much over time, making them very reliable and durable12. Theoretically,

the stripe actuators might be able to bend the wings on a plane.

Methods for testing aircraft. I have shown that it should be possible to use piezoelectric

smart materials to create morphing structures for aircraft, but there is no way to truly know
Using Artificial Intelligence and Smart Material Morphing Structures In-Flight 16

without creating real prototypes and testing them. A common method for testing aircraft is

through a wind tunnel. Wind tunnels operate by using a fan to blow air at high speeds towards a

model or prototype, simulating in-flight conditions. There are many types of wind tunnel tests.

Some measure net forces and moments on the wing to determine its performance, while others

use techniques like stream smoke to visualize air flow. I was particularly interested in the

measurement of forces and moments on the wing, as that could be used in contrasting wings with

and without smart material technology. For this, a force balance is used. A force balance is

essentially a lever where one side is connected to the wing and the other side is connected to a

counterweight. The wing is set upside-down. Weights would be added for calibration purposes

such that the lever was balanced before the wind tunnel starts. When the air flow starts, the wing

produces a lift force in the downwards direction (because it is upside-down), pulling the other

side of the lever up. The amount of weight required to counteract this change is the magnitude of

the lift force. Through this mechanism a researcher can study how much lift different prototypes

of wind create.

However, force balances are slow and not always precise. In industrial and professional

settings, instruments called strain gauges are more commonly used. Strain gauges are

essentially lengths of wire twisted back in forth and embedded in a substrate material. When

the substrate material bends in response to an external force, the wire will stretch. This has the

net effect of decreasing the current. This change can be measured in such a way that the original

force can be determined. Strain gauges are much more accurate than force balances, and provide

a good way of measuring many different forces9.

Researchers often take shortcuts when testing their prototypes, however. In Professor

Bilgens paper on the fishbone wing, his team changed certain aspects of the wing to make
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testing more convenient. It is important to note that none sacrificed the integrity of the test,

however. For example, the original airfoil was supposed to contain an agonist/antagonist pair

of tendons that would work with each other. The test only contained a single agonist tendon,

which meant that constant power supply had to be given to maintain a position. However, this

was fine for testing purposes because it could bend in any direction needed and the constant

power demand was still small10.

Applying artificial intelligence and deep learning. Artificial intelligence has been in

use for many years on aircraft. Nearly all modern airliners are equipped with an autopilot

function, which is in itself a form of artificial intelligence. In past years, autopilots were

generally very primitive. All they could do was follow pre-programmed routes and follow basic

instructions. If a problem arose, they would be unable to dynamically handle it like a human pilot

could. In recent years, however, researchers have been experimenting with the idea of adding

more powerful artificial intelligence systems to airplanes. These systems are usually powered by

structures like neural networks that have been trained using the process of deep learning. For

example, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has invented a product

called the Aircrew Labor In-cockpit Automation System (ALIAS) that was capable of fully

replacing a copilot. It even could operate the controls mechanically, with its own arms! Another

instance in which artificial intelligence was used was in Savvy Aircraft Maintenance

Managements Failed Exhaust Valve Analytics program. This system could not only detect valve

failures but predict them based off engine data. With the advent of autonomous drones, it is

extremely important that computers can make these sorts of decisions by themselves13.

For flying airplanes, it is especially important to predict events in the future based off of

the immediate past. A pilot may feel that an engine failure is imminent, but may not know
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why. This cryptic sense of intuition is the brains way of consolidating information into a single

conclusion subconsciously maybe something sounded different, the plane handles slightly

slower, or an instrument displays an abnormal value. Without consciously analyzing the

situation, the pilot has used information that occurred in the seconds before to predict a critical

event occurring. Because neural networks are based off of the true structure of the brain, they too

are able to intuit these sorts of connections with enough training and experience. One of the most

common types of neural network is a feedforward neural network, which simply runs with a

single input set and creates a single output set. This is not good enough for situations like flying

where information over time must be considered; for this, a type called recurrent neural

networks are needed. These are able to process ordered sequences of data and even produce

them, meaning that they have the ability to predict. They operate by running multiple times in

successive steps, passing the result of each calculation to the next so that data at each point in

time can be related to one another. I remember learning about them for my Symposium project

earlier in the year they were an integral part of creating music. There is a special version of

recurrent neural network called a Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) neural network that uses

a special memory cell and a few extra operations to keep track of data for longer periods of

time14. For use on an aircraft, LSTM networks would most likely be best as they would be able

to make decisions that account for events that occurred in or around the plane seconds to hours

before.

Conclusion. Through their extensive use in the past and consistent improvements, I am

confident that artificial intelligence such as neural networks trained through deep learning would

be extremely effective in tandem with piezoelectric smart material wings. The piezoelectric

materials are very powerful in their flexibility, but they must be constantly adapting to the
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conditions around the craft. Just as the bird can change the shape of its wing as it needs, the bird

also has a brain to control the movements. The biggest problems to be solved in the design of

aircraft are fundamentally a result of their interactions with the air around them, and it is only

natural that they should be able to change with the air instead of force it around them. Using the

various forms of piezoelectric actuators (especially the stripe-form), it should be possible to

create wings that are able to change as required. Once a prototype is designed and created, they

can be tested through the use of wind tunnels and force-measuring instruments like strain gauges.

These ideas hold the possibility of a new era of aircraft. Imagine a world where air travel is

cheaper, transportation costs less, and crashes are even less common. This is what the future

holds.
Using Artificial Intelligence and Smart Material Morphing Structures In-Flight 20

Works Cited

[1]: Intermediate 2 Bitesize Computing - Applications and Uses of Artificial Intelligence :

Revision. (n.d.). Retrieved June 08, 2017, from

http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/intermediate2/computing/artificial_intelligence/application

s_and_uses_of_artificial_intelligence/revision/1/

[2]: Priyo, S. N. (2017, February 27). Deep Learning For Beginners Towards Data Science

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