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OBJECTIVES

Identify the importance of Communication

Understand thethe three components of Communication

Non Verbal Communication


Oral Communication
Written Communication

Understand the barriers to Communication

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V- FORMATION

When geese fly together, each goose provides additional lift and reduces air resistance for the
goose flying behind it.

Consequently, by flying together in a v-formation, scientists estimate that the whole flock can fly
about 70% farther with the same amount of energy than if each goose flew alone. Geese have
discovered that they can reach their destination more quickly and with less energy expended
when they fly together in formation. When people work together harmoniously on teams,
sharing common values and a common destination, they all arrive at the destination quicker
and easier, because they are lifted up by the energy and enthusiasm of one another.

When a goose drops out of the v-formation it quickly discovers that it requires a great deal
more effort and energy to fly.

Consequently, that goose will quickly return to the formation to take advantage of the lifting
power that comes from flying together. Sometimes people playing on teams will drop out of the
group and try to accomplish goals on their own. However, like the geese, they usually discover
that they miss the synergy and energy that comes when they are an active part of a cohesive
team moving toward their destination, and want to return to the group.

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Geese rotate leadership.

When the goose flying in the front of the formation has to expend the most energy because it is
the first to break up the flow of air that provides the additional lift for all of the geese who
follow behind the leader. Consequently, when the lead goose gets tired, it drops out of the
front position and moves to the rear of the formation, where the resistance is lightest, and
another goose moves to the leadership position. This rotation of position happens many times
in the course of the long journey to warmer climates. When a team is functioning well, various
members of the team may take the leadership role for a while because of a particular expertise
or experience. Consequently, on good teams, everyone has the opportunity to serve as a leader
as well as a follower.

Geese honk at each other.

They also frequently make loud honking sounds as they fly together. Scientists speculate that
this honking is their way of communicating with each other during their long flight. Similarly,
when working on teams, it is exceedingly important for each team member to communicate
regularly with all the other team members. Teams frequently fall apart because of the lack of
adequate communication among the various members of the team. Perhaps human teams can
learn from flying flocks of geese that constant communication among members is exceedingly
important in moving effectively towards a common destination.

Geese help each other.

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Scientists also discovered that when one goose becomes ill, is shot or injured, and drops out of
the formation, two other geese will fall out of formation and remain with the weakened goose.
They will stay with and protect the injured goose from predators until it is able to fly again or
dies. Likewise, human teams work best when they do more than just work together, but care for
the well-being of each other.

WHAT IS COMMUNICATION?

It's nearly impossible to go through a day without the use of communication. Communication is sending
and receiving information between two or more people. The person sending the message is referred to
as the sender, while the person receiving the information is called the receiver. The information
conveyed can include facts, ideas, concepts, opinions, beliefs, attitudes, instructions and even emotions.

A message or communication is sent by the sender through a communication channel to a


receiver, or to multiple receivers.

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An effective communicator understands their audience, chooses an appropriate
communication channel, hones their message to this channel and encodes the message
to reduce misunderstanding by the receiver(s).
They will also seek out feedback from the receiver(s) as to how the message is
understood and attempt to correct any misunderstanding or confusion as soon as
possible.
Receivers can use techniques such as Clarification and Reflection as effective ways to
ensure that the message sent has been understood correctly.

ACTIVITY

Lets try to understand the importance of communication with the help of an activity.

Name: Communication Origami

Instructions :

Take the A4 size sheet provided to you.


Start following the instructions of the facilitator to create an origami shape.
But before you proceed with it, you need to blind fold yourself. The blindfolds will be provided
by the instructor.
You are not allowed to ask any questions during the activity.
So lets get started.

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EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

Effective communication is a building block of successful organizations. In other words,


communication acts as organizational blood.

1. Communication is a skill. Everyone uses interpersonal communication skills. We use them at


home with our families, in the workplace with our bosses and coworkers, on our computers.
Interpersonal communication applies to all of our relationships, personal and business. Others
respect or reject us based on our interpersonal communication skills. People send us messages
in every interpersonal communication encounter. Those messages can be explicit (verbal
comments) or implicit (nonverbal facial expressions, other body language, and physical space).

2. The next step in communication is using the appropriate method. In the work place there is
likely to be a variety of tools available and you will need to decide whether a situation calls for
an email, a phone call or a face to face conversation.

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3. Ascertaining the appropriate tone to use in any given situation is the second step to success.
This applies when either written or verbal communication is called upon. To be able to do this,
you need to understand who your audience is. A formal tone is more appropriate when
addressing a new or recently acquired customer than if you were to address your colleagues in a
team meeting.

4. Next step is recognizing when you need to adapt the way you present information based on
the experience of your audience. It would be reasonable to assume, when

presenting information to a group of colleagues who have been working on a project with you,
that they would have a similar level of background knowledge and understanding as you do.
Therefore you could use common abbreviations and acronyms without the need for
explanation. Conversely if you are communicating the results of your project to a new audience,
you need to ensure that any abbreviations or acronyms are clearly explained.

5. Communication should never be a one-way process. When we talk about actively listening, it
means ensuring you are engaged with others in order to understand what they are saying.
Asking questions and summarizing the main points of the conversation is a good way of
checking your understanding of what has been discussed and demonstrates that you have been
listening to what the other person has been saying.

MEHRABIAN MODEL

It is not what you say that matters, but how you say it. Here are 3 lessons that help you say
what you mean with more than your words.

Findings showed that only 7% of the message people received was dependent on the words you
use. 38% reflected tone of voice and 55% facial expression or body language. Its important
that you know how your tone and appearance affect how people perceive your message. Their
perception is reality.

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1. WORDS

Two types:

1. VERBAL COMMUNICATION

2. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION

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VERBAL COMMUNICATION

A speech is a public speaking delivered by a speaker on some occasions. It is a


formal talking before a large number of people but is can be informal also.

COMPONENTS OF SPEECH

1. DICTION
Words are the building blocks of language, and thus the process of selecting words is integral to
effective communication. Diction is this selection process, the choosing of what to say and
when.

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Selecting the right word - or the word that best expresses the author's intent - is a key. Like
choosing the perfect engagement ring from among hundreds of sparkly treasures, a writer must
approach the process of choosing the right word with care. Take two seemingly similar
words: smart versus wise, or pretty versus gorgeous. Intuitively, we know that a smart person
will ace an exam, but a wise person's intelligence runs much deeper. A wise person knows more
than just math formulas or grammar rules; a wise person knows about life. Similarly, a pretty girl
might live next door or be pleasing to the eye, but a gorgeous woman will take your breath
away.
The selection of words - or diction - then is instrumental to a writer's ability to create and
communicate.

2. CLARITY
Clarity is critical in business communication, where messages are continuously conveyed over
different media to many audiences. Technology and globalization makes business
communication more complex, even for a small business that might be challenged to control
internal and external messaging. A small business might view communication as a problem only
for large corporations with many employees, but effective communication is vital for success in
businesses of every size and scope. Clarity in business communication requires an intentional
approach to communication in its many forms.

3. VOLUME
Volume refers to the loudness or softness of the speaker's voice.
1. Know what volume your voice should be in your classroom. If you speak too softly, your
speech serves little purpose. At the same time, don't mistake shouting for speaking loudly.
2. Vary the volume to get attention. Whether to choose to speak louder or more quietly,
you draw attention to your speech through contrast. For example, you can speak softly when
you narrate a sad story. In this case, a quieter approach is usually a more effective attention-
grabber.

4. PITCH

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It means the highness or lowness of the speaker's voice. Changes in the pitch are known as
inflections.
1. When you speak in a monotone, you tell your listeners you have nothing to
emphasize. When you vary the pitch of your voice, you let them know that what you are
saying is important.
2. As with volume, vary pitch to achieve the best effect. For example, you can speak in a
low tone when you quote someone. The change in pitch suggests that you are citing evidence
rather than expressing your own view.

5. RATE
It refers to the speed at which a person speaks. Follow these suggestions to adjust your rate of
speech to your best advantage:
1. Choose a rate appropriate for the ideas being expressed and for a speech setting. For
example, it makes sense for a sportscaster announcing a basketball game to speak faster than
a sportscaster at a golf match.
2. Vary your rate of speech to express different thoughts and feelings. You may want to
speak slowly to emphasize an important point or to communicate a serious or somber mood.
A faster pace is appropriate when you are telling your audience something it already knows
(many speeches include background information that sets the scene) or to express surprise,
happiness, or fear. Use pauses to change the pace and add verbal variety.
3. Use a tape recorder to monitor your rate of speech while you read aloud a magazine
article. Pay special attention to grouping words into phrases and to slowing down and
speeding up at appropriate points. Play back your speech, then adjust your phrasing for a
more effective delivery.

ACTIVITY

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WHATS YOUR NAME SHES HERE.
A: Whats your name? A: Shes here.
B: James Alex . B: Already?
A: Where are you A: Yes. What do
from? you want me to
B: Russia. do?
A: What do you do? B: Tell her to come
B: Im a lawyer. in.

NAME: Dramatics

INSTRUCTIONS:

Sit in pairs and follow the instructions of the facilitator


One by one each pair would be given a dialogue and a context to it. You are required to
enact the particular dialogue in front of the entire class
The audience has to guess the context

7 CS OF COMMUNIATION

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CLEAR
When writing or speaking to someone, be clear about your goal or message. What is your
purpose in communicating with this person? If you're not sure, then your audience won't be
sure either.

To be clear, try to minimize the number of ideas in each sentence. Make sure that it's easy for
your reader to understand your meaning. People shouldn't have to "read between the lines"
and make assumptions on their own to understand what you're trying to say.

Instructions: Read the email and answer the questions that follow. Use the space below to
capture key points about CLEARLY communicating the goal of the message.

Email:

Hi Derrick,

I wanted to write you a quick note about Daniel, whos working in your department. Hes a great
asset, and Id like to talk to you more about him when you have time.

Best,
John

Questions:

1. What is this email about?


2. What is Daniel doing in particular that is great?
3. What is the purpose of this email?

NOTES:

CONCISE

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When you're concise in your communication, you stick to the point and keep it brief. Your
audience doesn't want to read six sentences when you could communicate your message in
three.

Are there any adjectives or "filler words" that you can delete? You can often eliminate
words like "for instance," "you see," "definitely," "kind of," "literally," "basically," or "I
mean."
Are there any unnecessary sentences?
Have you repeated the point several times, in different ways?

Instructions: Read the email and answer the questions that follow. Use the space below to
capture key points about BRIEFLY communicating your messages.

Email:

Hi Matt,

I wanted to touch base with you about the email marketing campaign we kind of sketched out
last Thursday. I really think that our target market is definitely going to want to see the
companys CSR efforts. I think that could make a big impact, and it would stay in their minds
longer than a sales pitch.

For instance, if we talk about the companys efforts to become sustainable, as well as the
charity work were doing in local schools, then the people that we want to attract are going to
remember our message longer. The impact will just be greater.

What do you think?

Jessica

Questions:

1. Is the length of the email ideal? Or could it be shorter?


2. Are there repetitions and fillers?
3. Could it be written in a better manner?

NOTES:

CONCRETE

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When your message is concrete, then your audience has a clear picture of what you're telling
them. There are details (but not too many!) and vivid facts, and there's laser-like focus. Your
message is solid.

Instructions: Read the email and answer the questions that follow. Use the space below to
capture key points about concrete communications.

Email:

Hi Rosa,

I'm not sure if Joey has been discussing this project with you, but I'm very concerned about this
and the lack of progress that has been made till now here. On top of that, I'm still having to
spend a lot more time than I believe warranted in creating the plan, exercises, main content of
slides, etc. (I'm doing that even right now). This wasn't the type of support I was expecting. I will
discuss this with you tomorrow with a view to ensure we are able to deliver on the content here
by Monday, which is when the workshop is. I hope we will be able to handle this sensitively and
in the right way to get the project successfully completed.

Thanks,
Sam

Questions:

1. As per the 3 Cs we discussed Clear, Concise and Concrete, does this email apply any
rules?
2. Are the concerns regarding the project highlighted?
3. What information in the email could help Rosa prepare for the meeting scheduled on
Monday?

NOTES:

CORRECT

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When your communication is correct, it fits your audience. And correct communication is also
error-free communication.

Do the technical terms you use fit your audience's level of education or knowledge?
Have you checked your writing for grammatical errors? Remember, running spell-check
won't catch everything.
Are all names and titles spelt correctly?

Instructions: Read the email and answer the questions that follow. Use the space below to
capture key points about the importance of formatting correct communications.

Email:

Hi Daniel,

Thanks so much for meeting me at lunch today! I enjoyed our conservation, and I'm looking
forward to moving ahead on our project. I'm sure that the two-weak deadline won't be an issue.

Thanks again, and I'll speak to you soon!

Jack

Questions:

1. Could you identify the errors in this email?


2. What should you do to ensure your email communications are correct?

NOTES:

COHERENT
When your communication is coherent, it's logical. All points are connected and relevant to the
main topic, and the tone and flow of the text is consistent.

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Instructions: Read the email and answer the questions that follow. Use the space below to
capture key points about the importance of formatting correct communications.

Email:

Traci,

I wanted to write you a quick note about the report you finished last week. I have reviewed it
and have some feedback, and I also wanted to make sure you knew about the department
meeting were having this Friday. Well be creating an outline for the new employee handbook.

Thanks,

Michelle

Questions:

1. Does the email communicate the points clearly?


2. Is Michelles feedback on Tracis report?
3. Was mentioning Fridays meeting and its agenda required in this email?

NOTES:

COMPLETE
In a complete message, the audience has everything they need to be informed and, if
applicable, take action.

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Does your message include a "call to action," so that your audience clearly knows what
you want them to do?
Have you included all relevant information contact names, dates, times, locations, and
so on?

Instructions: Read the email and answer the questions that follow. Use the space below to
capture key points about the importance of formatting a complete communication.

Email:

Hi everyone,

I just wanted to send you all a reminder about the meeting were having tomorrow!

See you then,

Chris

Questions:

1. Is this email complete?


2. What all should the mail include?

NOTES:

COURTEOUS
Courteous communication is friendly, open, and honest. There are no hidden insults or passive-
aggressive tones. You keep your reader's viewpoint in mind, and you're empathetic to their
needs.

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Instructions: Read the email and answer the questions that follow. Use the space below to
capture key points about the importance of formatting polite communications.

Email:

Jeff,

I wanted to let you know that I dont appreciate how your team always monopolizes the
discussion at our weekly meetings. I have a lot of projects, and I really need time to get my
teams progress discussed as well. So far, thanks to your department, I havent been able to do
that. Can you make sure they make time for me and my team next week?

Thanks,

Phil

Questions:

1. Could you identify the problem with this mail?


2. What should you do to ensure your email communications are courteous?

NOTES:

EMAIL WRITING

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STAGE 1 : PLAN

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STAGE 2 : DRAFT

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COMPONENTS:

Subject :

The more specific, the better. According to Jupiter Research, 35% of email subscribers will open
messages based on the subject line.

Salutation:

A word or phrase of greeting used to begin a message . A salutation can be interpreted as a form of a
signal in which the receiver of the salutation is being acknowledged or respected. It can be formal and
informal.

Content

When responding to a cc: message, should you include the other recipient in the cc: field as well? This
will depend on the situation. In general, do not include the person in the cc: field unless you have a
particular reason for wanting this person to see your response. Again, make sure that this person will
know why they are receiving a copy.

It would be good if we share some examples of using CC and BCC.

Bcc : Is considered as Breach of trust. It is acceptable if you are sending bulk emails for
professional reasons like mails from SHR and HR.
Put addresses in the To, Copies (CC), and Blind Copies (BCC)* lines in alphabetic order by
the recipients last name. Doing so keeps us from accidentally offending people- such as
our supervisor or manager - because we listed them in the wrong place.

Use CC: field sparingly


Try not to use the CC: field unless the recipient in the CC: field knows why they are
receiving a copy of the message. Using the CC: field can be confusing since the recipients
might not know who is supposed to act on the message.
Bcc* This is useful as a tool to protect the privacy of those on your lists when sending
group emails or mailshots.
Please refrain from using BCC (unless its bulk mail from HR) as it is considered rude and
is breach of trust in the professional world.

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Sign Off

ACTIVITY

INSTRUCTION:

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Identify the errors in the emails showcased on the screen.

MANAGE YOUR MAIL BOX

Find a system that is easy to maintain and that works for you:

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Use folders
Delete
Eliminate/Archive outdated

Written and spoken languages differ in many ways. However, some forms of writing are closer
to speech than others, and vice versa. Below are some of the ways in which these two forms
of language differ:

Writing is usually permanent and written texts cannot usually be changed once they
have been printed / written out.

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Speech is usually transient, unless recorded, and speakers can correct themselves and
change their utterances as they go along.
A written text can communicate across time and space for as long as the particular
language and writing system is still understood.
Speech is usually used for immediate interactions.
Written language tends to be more complex and intricate than speech with longer
sentences and many subordinate clauses. The punctuation and layout of written texts
also have no spoken equivalent. However some forms of written language, such as
instant messages and email, are closer to spoken language.
Spoken language tends to be full of repetitions, incomplete sentences, corrections and
interruptions, with the exception of formal speeches and other scripted forms of speech,
such as news reports and scripts for plays and films.
Writers receive no immediate feedback from their readers, except in computer-based
communication. Therefore they cannot rely on context to clarify things so there is more
need to explain things clearly and unambiguously than in speech, except in written
correspondence between people who know one another well.
Speech is usually a dynamic interaction between two or more people. Context and
shared knowledge play a major role, so it is possible to leave much unsaid or indirectly
implied.
Writers can make use of punctuation, headings, layout, colors and other graphical effects
in their written texts. Such things are not available in speech
Speech can use timing, tone, volume, and timbre to add emotional context.
Written material can be read repeatedly and closely analyzed, and notes can be made on
the writing surface. Only recorded speech can be used in this way.
Some grammatical constructions are only used in writing, as are some kinds of
vocabulary, such as some complex chemical and legal terms.
Some types of vocabulary are used only or mainly in speech. These include slang
expressions, and tags like know, like, etc.

BODY LANGUAGE

Your body posture, hand gestures and eye contact all express a meaning, often saying much
more than the words you speak. For instance, standing or sitting with your arms and legs
relaxed and open will convey a friendly impression that will invite others to interact with you. If

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you look a person in the eye it indicates that you are focused on what they have to say (though
you should be careful not to confuse this with staring!). Similarly, a particular look with the eyes
can articulate far more than any words can.

The people with the most conscious awareness of, and capabilities to read, body language tend
to have an advantage over those whose appreciation is limited largely to the unconscious. Body
language is constantly being exchanged and interpreted between people, even though much of
the time this is happening on an unconscious level. Remember - while you are interpreting
(consciously or unconsciously) the body language of other people, so other people are
constantly interpreting yours.

Instructions: Describe how you interpret the following gestures:

S.No. GESTURE INTERPRETATION

1 Crossed arms

2 Hands inside the pockets

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3 Hands behind the back of the head

4 Removing glasses

5 Head tilted to the side

Leaning back or slouching while


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seated

7 Hand covering mouth while talking

8 Clenched fists

9 Avoiding / No eye contact

10 Pacing

11 Jingling keys or money in pocket

12 Strong handshake

13 Hands on waist

14 Eyes up and to the right

15 Eyes down and to the left

My advice pay attention to how you stand, sit, hold your arms, during various forms of
communication. Watch peoples reactions. Note how you were holding yourself when people
respond positively to you, and continue that. When in doubt, watch for subtle changes in the
other persons body language and mirror them. For example, if they lean back, perhaps youre
leaning too aggressively forward. Lean back yourself. Different people will respond differently,
so be prepared to flex your body language accordingly.

Eye Contact - Make it and keep it!

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Eye contact is the most obvious way you communicate. Looking someone in the eye as you
meet and talk with him/her also shows you are paying attention. Listening is the most important
human relations skill, and good eye contact plays a large part in conveying our interest in others.

Make it and keep it! Not only does focused eye contact display confidence on your part, it also
helps you understand what the other person is really saying verbally.

HOW LONG TO LOOK

When eyes meet less than 1/3rd of the time:

discomfort, person being dishonest, evasiveness, lack of confidence or boredom.

More than two thirds of the time:

He/she finds you very interesting or appealing & the gaze will be associated with
dilated pupils.

He/she may be hostile towards you & may be issuing a non- verbal challenge &
the pupils will get constricted.

When you stare longer:

can be construed as being too direct, dominant or forceful and make the other
person uncomfortable.

BUSINESS GAZE

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While having discussions on a business level imagine there is a triangle on the other persons
forehead with the base of it just above your eyes. This helps create a serious atmosphere & the
other person senses that you mean business.

HAND SHAKES
A Must In Todays Corporate World
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Another vital component you need to bring to any interpersonal encounter is a firm handshake.
Again, those few seconds you "shake" can empower or weaken a relationship. Men's
handshakes are typically strong and firm because they naturally have a stronger grip.

Women, get a grip and be noticed! I once got a client because the man I shook hands with
remarked about my strong handshake and asked what I did. He decided it was time to hire me
to teach his people how to shake hands, too!

Being familiar with the following handshakes will help you immensely in your relationship-
building activities:

Controller
Limp Fingers
Dead Fish
Sandwich/ Politician or Glove Handshake

Submissive Palm position

The palm facing up is used as a submissive, non-threatening gesture, reminiscent of the


pleading gesture of a street beggar. The reverse of the dominant hand shake is to offer your

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hand with your palm facing upwards. This is particularly effective when you want to give
personal control or allow him to feel that he in command of the situation.

Controller palm position: Your palm need not to be facing the floor directly, but should
be facing downwards in relation to the other persons palm and this tells him that you
want to take control in the encounter that follows. Dominance is transmitted by turning

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your hand so that your palm faces down in the handshake. When the palm is turned to
the face downwards, you will have immediate authority. The person to whom you have
directed the request feels that he has been given an order. A person extends his hand to
you, web-to-web, and as soon as your hands are linked, he purposely maneuvers his
hand onto the top. He's telling you he wants to be in charge. Keep that in mind as the
interaction continues.

Limp Fingers/ Palm Pinch

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Women, far more than men, extend their fingers rather than their entire hand. It can be painful
for the extender, when she is greeted by a man who shakes with his forceful grip. Men tell me
this frequently leads to their giving women a lighter handshake. Professional women respond
that they want to be treated equally. This person just offers you two or three fingers. It is
usually given by a woman who hasn't learned how to shake hands properly or who has a fear
of intimacy. This person will tend not to be very good at interpersonal skills.

Dead Fish

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Imagine rubbing a scaly, dead fish in your hands ... and you got the picture. Your hands
typically are wet for two reasons: You are nervous or you have been holding a cold beverage
in your right hand and move it to your left just before you shake hands. In either case, it is
extremely unpleasant for the receiver. If you experience anxiety, wipe your hands on a
napkin, the tablecloth or even lightly on your clothes. What you spend at the dry cleaners
will be paid for quickly by the better impression you make. As for the beverage, use common
sense.

Sandwich/ Politician or Glove Handshake

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Use this one only with people you know. When you envelop another person's hands, you are
invading their private space ... where you are to be only when invited. Society promotes the
standard handshake but is not as tolerant of using both hands. By the way, this handshake is
also known as the politician's handshake ... which may be cause enough for most people to
avoid it!

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Elbow grasp and shoulder hold

The intention of a double handed shake is to show sincerity, trust or depth of feeling towards
the receiver.Two significant elements should be noticed :

The left hand is used to communicate the extra feeling.

Its extent is related to the distance that the initiators left hand is moved up the
receivers right arm.

Unless the extra feeling is mutual or the initiator does not have a good reason for using a double
handed handshake, the receiver will become suspicious and mistrust the initiators intentions.
The shoulder hold and the upper arm grip enter the receivers close intimate zone and may
involve actual body contact.

The knuckle Grinder

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He/she will tend to turn other people off. Unfortunately there are no effective ways to counter
it, apart from the verbal abuse or physical actions such as a punch on the nose.

The Perfect handshake

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When two dominant people shake hands, a symbolic struggle takes place as each person tries to
turn the others palm into the submissive position.

This is the hand shake that a father teaches his son when he shows him how to shake hands
like a man

Ingredients of a Good Handshake

Hold the person's hand firmly.

Shake web-to-web, three times maximum.

Maintain constant eye contact.

Radiate positive aura.

POSTURE
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Posture is very important. Sit or stand erect if you want to be seen as alert and enthusiastic.

How you use your arms can help or hurt your image as well. Waving them about may show
enthusiasm to some, but others see this gesture as one of uncertainty and immaturity. The best
place for your arms is by your side. You will look confident and relaxed. If this is hard for you, do
what you always do when you want to get better at something - practice. After a while, it will
feel natural. One of the first key things people notice is how you carry and present yourself. Do
you walk and stand with confidence like your mother taught you?

Stomach in

Chest out

Shoulders back

Head up

Command respect by standing tall and claiming the space to which you are entitled. Plant
your feet about six to eight inches apart with one slightly in front of the others. My workshop
attendees always remark about how this positioning makes them feel "grounded," "rooted" and
"balanced" ... great ways to start any encounter!

TONE
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Tone:

Tone' means the quality of sound produced by the voice in uttering words

In a general sense, Tone' demonstrates the attitude of the speaker as revealed in the
choice of vocabulary or the intonation of speech

A better definition of tone would be The emotion it evokes in the listener

We normally react more on the emotion we hear rather than the words

Tone (Pitch):

The tone should reinforce the spoken words.

Examples of different tones are:

Assertive, friendly, pleading, questioning, etc. You can use different pitches as
follows:

High Excitement, Assertive, Fear.

Normal Deeper voices and conversation style are easier to listen to.

Low Tiredness, Slow action, Boredom.

LISTENING

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The most important part of effective communication is listening:

The process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and/or
nonverbal messages; to hear something with thoughtful attention

THE CONCEPT:

PDP Framework Pre, During, Post Listening

Pre-listening aims to generate interests, build confidence, and to facilitate comprehension.


While-listening is to develop the skill of eliciting messages from spoken language.
In Post-listening, learners check answers, discuss difficulties found
LEVELS OF LISTENING:

WHAT IS ACTIVE LISTENING?


The practice of paying close attention to a speaker and asking questions to ensure full
comprehension. It also includes the ability to read the speakers non verbal cues

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LISTENING FOR MEANING:

THE BODY LANGUAGE OF LISTENING:


Give Facial Feedback

Eye Contact

Nod Your Head

Turn Off Technology

Lean Forward

Expose Your Heart

Remove Barriers

THE ART OF ACTIVE LISTENING:


Restating

Summarizing

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Reflecting

Emotion

Validation

Effective Pause

Listener Orientation:
In order to listen actively, we should:
Demonstrate a willingness to listen
Demonstrate an interest in others
Be able to focus on the other person and his / her life
Respect the other person

ACTIVITY

Ferret them Out:

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The purpose of this exercise is to give you an insight on your own listening ability.

Instructions:

Listen carefully to the story narrated by the facilitator


Listen to the map directions given by the facilitator
Find a way out in the map provided to you

BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION

Distort or destroy your message.

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There are numerous barriers to communication that can be classified:

- Organizational: Every organization has its own values and beliefs. Its important to
identify these ethos and set of acceptable behavior in addition to your role within the
structure and of the working relationships and interactions to be able to hold effective
communication dialogues.

- Cultural: Organizations, with their global markets and operations, need to be conscious
of what they say and of the interpretations different nationals working for them may
give to their messages. This is especially significant if your message needs to be
translated into other languages.

- Physical: This relates to the physical attributes of the environment the communication
takes place in. this means such things as the layout of the room and access to privacy.

- Linguistic: with the increase in specialist language and jargons within the workplace,
ensuring that what you are saying is interpreted as you want and expect is an essential
aspect of communication. This is especially important when communicating with people
across backgrounds and cultures. In your communication should never assume your
meaning is the same for all those you are interacting with. You need to be actively
listening to and observe your audience to ensure that your message is being received
the way you intended.

- Interpersonal: some barriers to communication result from the interpersonal skills of the
individuals involved. Each persons level of comfort will be communicated to the other
by the signals they display body language, gestures, eye movement, etc. An
aggressive / passive attitude may be interpreted as arrogance/ stress or I dont care
attitude. You must also be aware of your own bias, which can influence how you respond
in an exchange. Not listening is the biggest barrier. Listen to understand NOT to
respond. If you dont open your mind to listen carefully to what is being said and
objectively assess what you hear, your bias will persist and will act as a major deterrent
to the communication process.

ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNICATION

Communication Essentials:

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Hit the Headline First- Make the most important point at the beginning
Make it About Them- Pay attention to your listener and her concerns
Be Crisp, Clear and Concise- Edit your communication, include specifics and keep your
speech short
Develop Trust- Dont trash talk colleagues behind their backs. It identifies you as a
gossiper and as someone who cant be trusted
Ask Open Ended Questions- Draw out the other person with questions like Could you
clarify your point?
Deliver Bad News in Person- If you have a negative message to impart, deliver that in
person and dont beat around the bush, be direct
Dont be a Naysayer- If you disagree with your colleagues or boss message, dont say
so. Try to frame your disagreements as a question instead
Attitude is Important- Stand up straight, look the other person in the eye and put away
all gadgets

3 TAKE AWAYS FROM THE WORKSHOP

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NON VERBAL
a) Facial Expression: People from all over the world even if they speak different language and
belong to different cultures use a common pattern of facial expressions to show emotions.
Universal facial expressions are used to show the following emotion: happiness, surprise, fear,
sorrow etc. Non-verbal communication using eye movements is called oculesics.
b) Gestures: They are movements of the hands, the head or the body to indicate an idea or a
feeling. Gestures are culturally based. In other words, certain gesture may be acceptable in one
culture, while it may be deplored in another culture. Gestures are indicative of the behavioral
patterns that are unique to specific culture. Hence they should be seen or perceived in proper
manner and context. This calls for developing an awareness of how to interpret gestures.
c) Body Movement and Postures: Posture is an important element in body language as if often
gives a key to the personality of a person as well as tells us about the person. Body movements
and posture appropriate for one person may not be suitable to another. kinesic behavior which
includes all body movements and gestures mean different things in different cultures.
Sometimes that are meaningless in one culture have distinct meanings in another culture.
d) Silence: Paradoxical as it may sound we do communicate with the helps of silence. Something
we are overwhelmed by emotions that we are speechless-our silence speaks of our strong
feeling. There are certainly many occasions when silence is more eloquent than words. Writer
Joseph De Vito mentions the following functions of silence:
I) To allow the speaker time to think.
II) To isolate ones self.
III) To hurt someone.
IV) To prevent further communication.
V) To communicate emotional response.
VI) To say nothing.
e) Space and Proximity: Space and proximity play an important part in a communication process.
The influence that space and proximity have on communication is known as proxemics. For
instance when we enter the office of a senior executive we keep a certain distance. The more
senior the executive the more the distance or proximity we maintain.

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I) Intimate Space or Zone is what we could identify as that space where all our body
movements occur. This is the zone that belongs to each one of us and in which we move
throughout the day.
II) Personal Space or Zone extends from 18 inches to about 4 feet, in which conversation with
close friends takes place. This is the space where normal talking is frequent.
III) Social Space or Zone extends from 4 feet to about 12 feet. This is an important zone for
business, because exchange occurs in the zone.
IV) Public Space or Zone extends from 12 feet and beyond. This is the most formal zone, and
the least significant interactions occur here.
f) Dress & Grooming: The manner and style of dressing also plays an important role in non-verbal
communication. Dress and grooming informs the people about us. We wish to make a good
impression upon the people, because people judge you by the way you dress-the color of your
dress, how will it is unwrinkled the looks of your shoes etc. your appearance is also judged by
the tidiness of your hair, body odour etc. Dress code any grooming has become an important
element of corporate culture.
g) Colour: Colour plays such as important role in our lives that as far as English is concerned: colour
symbolism has become a part of the language. Colours are used to convey message not only at
the individual level but also at the level of communication and nation. Besides all these use of
colour they also have significant psychological effect. Colours not only inform us about people
but also affect the behavior of human beings. Henry Dreyfuss after considerable research offers
the following table to show the positive and negative messages of certain colours.

Colour Positive Message Negative Message


Red Warmth Death
Passion War
Life Revolution
Liberty Devil
Patriotism Danger
Blue Religious Doubt
Feeling Discouragement
Devotion
Truth
Justice
Yellow Intuition Cowardice
Wisdom Malevolence
Divinity Impure love
Green Nature Envy
Hope Jealousy
Freshness Opposition
Prosperity Disgrace
Purple Power Mourning
Royalty Regret
Love of Truth Penitence
Nostalgia Resignation

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