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095301070000G3204

ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING RESEARCH

INSTITUTE MINISTRY OF THE INTERIOR

RESEARCH PROJECT REPORT

Specifications and illustrations of


ecological engineering methods for
drainage facilities in hillside communities

BY

JIANG -CHUNG CHEN


CHU-HUI CHEN

SHIN-WAN YO

MENG -JU LU

SE -CHANG CHOU

December 25, 2006




I

III

I V

V I

V III

1.1 1

1.2 4

1.3 9

1.4 12

15

2.1 15

2.2 21

24

3.1 24

3.2 26

3.3 36

3.4 48

3.5 61

3.6 71

3.7 80

I
3.8 90

106

114

117

122

129

135

139

145

150

151

II

1.2.1 5
2.1.1 15
3.1.1 25
3.2.1 20% 32
3.2.2 32
3.3.1 39
3.3.2 40

3.4.1 52
3.4.2 52
3.4.3 52
3.4.4 56
3.4.5 59
3.5.1 65
3.5.2 66
3.5.3 68
3.6.1 77
3.7.1 84
3.8.1 99
3.8.2 105

III

1.3.1 11

1.4.1 13
2.1.1 16
2.1.2 19
2.1.3 RC 19
2.1.4 RC + 19
2.1.5 19
2.1.6 19
2.1.7 19
2.1.8 20
2.1.9 20
2.1.10 20
2.1.11 20
3.2.1 29
3.3.1 39
3.3.2 45
3.3.3 46
3.4.1 51
3.4.2 54
3.4.3 56
3.4.4 58
3.5.1 64
3.5.2 67
3.6.1 75

IV
3.7.1 ( ) 82
3.7.2 ( ) 83
3.8.1 97

(1).

a.

b.

(2).

a.

b.

c.

d.

VI

1.
2.
3.

VII
ABSTRACT

Keyword: Hillside community Ecological engineering method

Drainage facilities
This research has tent to establish the ecological engineering methods
manual for drainage facilities in hillside community through the examples
analysis and expert discussion. The main research contents are as follows:

1, Construction of the relevant documentmanual and laws of drainage

(1). Regulations of drainage facilities


a. Regulation of drainage management
b. Regulation of inspection and safety evaluation for drainage
facilities
(2)The analysis of technical manual and standards for drainage
facilities
a. Public Construction Commission, Executive Yuan- ecological
engineering methods base map
b. Water Resources Agency ,Ministry of Economic Affairs-
ecological engineering methods for river renovation
c. Soil and Water Conservation Bureau - soil and water
conservation technology standards
d. Best Management Practice, BMP technology handbook
2, The Case Study of the exist hillsides community at Taiwan
3, Drainage facilities design criteria classification of hillside community
in Taiwan
(1). Surface drainage design criteria
(2). Underground drainage design criteria

VIII
(3) Drainage of prevention design criteria
4, The construction of Drainage facilities design profiles and
reference maps of drainage facilities on ecological engineering

methods including:

(1) Pervious Pave


(2) Dry Swales
(3) Wet Swales
(4)Heapstone Trenches
(5) Infiltration Trenches

(6) Sediment TrapsFore bays

(7) Wet PondsRetention Ponds

IX

1.1
360 75%

80

- 11- -

1.

2500

2000

10001500 200

2.

200

- 21- -

3.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

- 31- -
1.2
1.2.1

4,027

11%41%

2002

1.2.1

1.

2. 100 500

3.

4.

- 41- -
1.2.1.


1 1973.12.24
1938.12.26

1945.02.26

2 1973.12.24 30
1977.04.29
1973.12.24

3 1977.04.29
1981.04.22 1977.04.29

1977.09.09
4 1981.04.22
1982.07.06 1981.04.22



5 1983.07.07
1988.06.27
72.07.07 1.2.
3.

6 1988.6.27
1994.5.27 1988.06.27



1990.02.14 25
12




79.10.30
1998

- 51- -
1.2.1.()

7 1994.5.27
1994.12.30 1994.05.27

8 1994.12.30
1995.3.27 1994.12.30

9 1997.03.27 25
1997.06.30
1997.03.27
55
1997.05.09 40 160 120

1 1997.07.01
0

86.11.07




87.07.01


3040
87.09.25
1998

- 61- -
1.2.2

A B C D

1.:

(1):

(2):

2.:

(1):

30%

1.5m/sec 30m

(2):

(3):

(4):

- 71- -
(5):

(6):

B:

1.A ():

2.B ():

3.C ():

4.D ():

5.E ():

1.: 60cm 20120cm

H-10

2.:

H-20 20

120cm 2.5m 135300cm

2.43m 780kg/m2

11,730kg/m2

3.:

1m1m3m3m 50cm

HS-20 07m

- 81- -

(Retention Pond)

1.

2.

3.

- 91- -
1.3
1.3.1

2002

1.

2.

3.

()

4.(

)()

5.

6.

1-
- 10 -

7.

1.

2.

3.

1.3.2

1.3.1

1-
- 11 -



1.1-1

() ()
1.1-2

1.3.1

1-
- 12 -
1.4

1.4.1

1-
- 13 -

1.4.1

1-
- 14 -


2.1
2.1.1

94 100

2.1.1

2.1.1

2.1.1

1 79 0037 628

2 86 0482 800

3 74 0954 323

4 86 0269 255

5 81 1144 520

6 82 0127 101

7 71 1154 412

8 88 311

9 85 0937 547

10 80 1473 376

1-
- 15 -
2.1.1

1-
- 16 -
4

1-
- 17 -
8

10

1.

2.

3.

1-
- 18 -
2.1.2

2.1.2 2.1.3 RC

2.1.4 RC + 2.1.5

83 6


1-
- 19 -

2.1.6 2.1.7

2.1.8 2.1.9

2.1.10 2.1.11

1-
- 20 -
2.2

Maryland, BMP

1.
1



2

3

;


2.
1

2;

1-
- 21 -

3.
1

2


3

4.
1

2


3


5.
1

;


2

3

6.

1-
- 22 -
1


2
;

3

7.
1

2

3


8.
1
2

1-
- 23 -

3.1
1.2

A B C D

3.1.1

1-
- 24 -
3.1.1










Pervious Pave


Dry Swales



Wet Swales



Infiltration Trenches



Sediment TrapsFore bays


Wet PondsRetention Ponds

1-
- 25 -
3.2
3.2.1

( )

3.2.2

( )

3.2.3

20

3.2.4
1.

20%

1-
- 26 -

100 kg f / cm 2

3 ( )

2.

1.25cm 5cm

3.

1 (

1-
- 27 -
2.5~5.0cm)

(3) = -

- - -

4.

5.

( )

1-
- 28 -
5

3.2.1

3.2.5
1.

2.

3.
1-
- 29 -

4.

3.2.6
1.

130 )

2 72

24 36

3 0.43cm/hr 30

0.8

1.5

1-
- 30 -
9

10

(a)

(b) 60-100cm

30cm

10cm

(c)

(d)

20%

(D20) 3.2.1

3.2.2

k v1 , k v 2 , k vn

1-
- 31 -
H
kv =
H1 H 2 H
+ + + n
kv1 kv 2 kvn

H 1 , H 2 , H n

11

2.0

3.2.1 20%
D20 (mm) K(cm/s) D20 (mm) K(cm/s)
0.005 3.00 10-6 0.18 6.85 10-3
0.01 1.05 10-5 0.20 8.90 10-3
0.02 4.00 10-5 0.25 1.40 10-2
0.03 8.50 10-5 0.30 2.20 10-2
0.04 1.75 10-4 0.35 3.20 10-2

0.05 2.80 10-4 0.40 4.50 10-2

0.06 4.60 10-4 0.45 5.80 10-2


0.07 6.50 10-4 0.50 7.50 10-2
0.08 9.00 10-4 0.60 1.10 10-1
0.09 1.40 10-3 0.70 1.60 10-1
0.10 1.75 10-3 0.80 2.15 10-1

0.12 2.60 10-3 0.90 2.80 10-1


0.14 3.80 10-3 1.00 3.60 10-1

0.16 5.10 10-3 2.00 1.80
[]

3.2.2

(mm) 0-0.01 0.01-0.05 0.05-0.10 0.10-0.25 0.25-0.50 0.50-1.00 1.00-5.00

k(cm/s) 3.0010-6 4.5010-4 3.5010-3 0.015 0.085 0.350 3.000


[]

1-
- 32 -
2

Georgia Stormwater Management Manual(2003)


VWQ
APAV =
n S hS + kT ' + n L hL

CASQA (2003)
VWQ + RFVS + RFVL
APAV =
hS + h L

RFVS = (1 n S ) hS APAV

R FVL = (1 n L ) hL APAV

APAV m 2

n S ( n S = 0.3 ~ 0.35 )

hS

k m / hr

T ' ( T ' = 2hr )

n L ( n = 0.15 ~ 0.2 )

hL (0.05~0.1 m )

RFVS m 3

RFVL m 3

2 (Water Quality Volume)

(a)

90%

VWQ

VWQ = PDep RV Ai

AIm A
RV = 0.05 + 0.9 Im 0.15
Ai Ai

1-
- 33 -

PDep

PDep = 25mm (0.025 )

AIm ( )

Ai ( )

(b)

VWQ = 12.5mm Ai

VWQ = 125m 3

0.5 0.2

1.5m

2cm / hr

n S = 0.32 n L = 0.18

hL = 8cm

2.5cm

hS ,Max

hS ,Max = - -

- -

=1.5-0.8-0.08-0.052

=0.52 m hS = 0.4m

n hs 0.35 0.4
T = = = 7 <24 hr ok!
k 0.02

AIm A
RV = 0.05 + 0.9 Im 0.15
Ai Ai

0.2
=0.05+0.9 =0.41
0.5

1-
- 34 -
VWQ = PDep RV Ai

= 0.0250.415000

= 51.25m 3

Georgia Stormwater Management Manual(2003)


VWQ
APAV =
n S hS + kT ' + n L hL

51.25
=
0.32 0.4 + 0.02 2 + 0.18 0.08

=281 m 2

CASQA (2003)
VWQ + RFVS + RFVL
APAV =
hS + h L

51.25 + ((1 0.32 ) 0.4 + (1 0.18) 0.08) APAV


=
0.4 + 0.08

APAV =360 m 2

3.2.7
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

1-
- 35 -
3.3
3.3.1

3.3.2

3.3.3

0.6 m

3.3.4

1-
- 36 -

3.3.5

3.3.6
1.

1 25

2 WQ V 24

[Colorado Department

of Transportation, 1992][Georgia Stormwater

Management Manual, 2003]

0.25cm

[Georgia Stormwater Management Manual, 2003] [2000

Maryland Stormwater Design Manual, Maryland Department

of the Environment ]
1-
- 37 -

5 75

15

31( )

2.5 [2000 Maryland Stormwater Design

Manual, Maryland Department of the Environment ]

0.6m

24

9 6

( WQ V ) [Georgia Stormwater

Management Manual, 2003]

(10)

WQV
0.6m

(a)
1-
- 38 -
1
WQV

b 2.5m

(b) a-a

3.3.1

2.

1 R V

3.3.1

C


5 0.50 0.10
10 0.60 0.20
20 0.80 0.34
30 0.85 0.40
45 0.90 0.45
60 0.94 0.50
1. 0.85
2.

bGeorgia Stormwater Management Manual


AIm A
RV = 0.05 + 0.9 Im 0.15
Ai Ai

AIm ( )

1-
- 39 -
Ai ( )

2 (Water Quality Volume)

(a)

90%

VWQ

VWQ = PDep RV Ai

PDep

PDep = 25mm (0.025 )

(b)

VWQ = 12.5mm Ai

VWQ = 125m 3

3 ReV

ReV = S RV Ai

A,B,C,D

3.3.2


( cm )

A 1.00

B 0.66
C 0.33

D 0.18

1-
- 40 -
4 (Check Dam)

h 0.6m

24


L ch = h / S


h ' k TS

k ( cm / hr )

TS (hr )

5 (Overflow Weir)

25

h2

q weur = 1.767 Bh2 h2 [ - ,2006]

= 0.4 Bh2 gh2 [Georgia Stormwater Management

Manual,EPA]

q weir ( m 3 / sec )

g 9.8 m / sec 2

[ - ,2006]

1-
- 41 -
C weir (2 Bu + 3B0 )h2 2 gh2
2
q weir =
15

Bu (m)

B0 (m)

C weir 0.6

6 (Orifice Pipe)

(draw-down time) ( WQ V )

[Georgia Stormwater Management Manual,

Appendix D-5, 2003]


VWQ
q ori = CAori 2 gh =
T


A ori (= 2
d ori )
4

d ori

7 (Pretreatment) ( V pre )

2.5 mm

3.

1.5

0.6 3

2126.2mm 0.01

t = 5 min k = 3.0 cm / hr

1-
- 42 -
L B = L/3

L B = 15000m 2

L =212 m

L 212 m

t = 5 min 25
2
2126.2
I 25
= = 89.18
25.29 + 0.094 2126.2
60

2
2126.2
A= = 20.538
189.98 + 0.31 2126.2

B = 55
2
2126.2
C = = 0.620
381.71 + 1.45 2126.2
2
2126.2
G= = 0.549
42.89 + 1.33 2126.2

2126.2
H = = 0.307
65.33 + 1.836 2126.2

T = 25

I 725 = 89.18 (0.549 + 0.307 log 25) 20.538 / (5 + 55)


0.620

= 141.7

C = (0.94 0.6 + 0.5 (1.5 0.6)) / 1.5

=0.676 (control)
1-
- 43 -
Georgia Stormwater Management Manual(2003)
AIm
C(= RV ) = 0.05 + 0.9
Ai

0.6
=0.05+0.9 =0.40
1.5

C = 0.676 25
1
Q inp = 0.676 141.7 1.5 = 0.40 m 3 / sec
360

(Water Quality Volume)


VWQ = PDep RV Ai

= 0.025 0.676 15000

= 254m 3

ReV = S RV Ai
-2
=0.6610 0.67615000

=66.9 m 3

V = max(VWQ , ReV ) =254 m 3

h =0.5 m

0.6 m 0.1 m

h =0.35 m

L ch = h1 / S =0.5/0.01=50 m

N ch = [ L / Lch ]=[212/50]=4

1-
- 44 -
Lch = 5m

h = 0.5m

1
100

3.3.2

4 1 ( )

A WQV = VWQ / L =254/212=1.2 m 2

b = AWQV / h = 1.2/0.35=3.43 m

( b +( b +24.0 h ))/2=3.43

b = 2.0 m 2.5 m ok!

( )

b = b + 2 4.0 h = 2.0+24.00.35=4.8 m

( )

b ' = b + 2 4.0 h1 = 2.0+24.00.6=6.8 m

24
2
h ' = k TS =3.024 =42 cm h ok!
3.43

25

Q = 0.4 m 3 / sec

1-
- 45 -
B=1.6 m h2 =0.35 m

q weur = 1.767 Bh2


3/ 2

q weir = 1.7671.6 0.35 3 / 2

=0.59 m 3 / sec Q = 0.4 m 3 / sec ok!

24

6
VWQ 245
q ori = = = 0.01134 m 2 / sec
T 6 3600

C = 0.6 [Georgia Stormwater Management Manual, Appendix

D-5, 2003]
d ori
2
0.6 2 9.8 0.5 =0.01134
4

d ori = 0.088 m 9 cm

b ' = 6.8m
WQV
B = 1.6m

h2 = 0.35m
hL = 0.6m
0.75m

b = 2.0m

3.3.3

V PRE = 2.5 10 -3 6000 =15 m 3

1-
- 46 -
3

(pretreatment) 15/3=5 m 3

3.3.7
1.

2.

3.

4.

1-
- 47 -
3.4
3.4.1

3.4.2

7.5cm

0.5cm 3cm

( )

3.4.3

1-
- 48 -

1. 30%

2.

3.4.4
1.

2.

3.

4.

3.4.5

3.4.6

1-
- 49 -

1.

1 1.5m/sec

[ 78 ]

[ 78

1-
- 50 -

2.

2 3 1(

0.6~2.5

ds = 1+ (dy / dx ) dx
H 2

X
x
dx

3.4.1


4H 2
y= x
B2

(H / B )


dy 8H
tan = = x
dx B 2

1-
- 51 -
8H
= tan 1 x B
B2 x=
2

4H
= tan 1
B

(H / B )

3.4.1

3.4.1
H/B 0.09 0.14 0.21 0.25 0.3 0.43
(o) 20 30 40 45 50 60

85 ]

3.4.2


() ()
0.23~0.30 1.23~1.52
0.30~0.46 1.50~2.50
0.46~0.61 1.52~1.83

0.61~0.76 1.83~2.44

0.76~0.84 3.05~4.57
0.96~1.14 4.57~6.10


1-
- 52 -

6 0 5


2 1
1 3 2
V = R S
n

V ( )

R = ( A / P ) ( )

A ( )

P ( )

(9) n 0.067 0.055

0.05

3.

1-
- 53 -

1.5 m/sec

2.5m/sec

a.

A2 A2
H 2 A1 2
Z

b = 0.6 ~ 2.5m
3.4.2

H A P

A = A1 + A2

= bH + ZH 2

P = 2 1+ Z 2 H + b
A
R =
P

bH + ZH 2
=
2 1+ Z 2 H + b

1-
- 54 -
3.4.3
R(m) V(m/s) Q(cms) R(m) V(m/s) Q(cms)
S0
n=0.065 b=1m Z=2
%
H=0.3m H=0.5m
0.005 0.205 0.378 0.182 0.309 0.497 0.497
0.006 0.205 0.414 0.199 0.309 0.545 0.545
0.007 0.205 0.447 0.215 0.309 0.588 0.588
0.008 0.205 0.478 0.230 0.309 0.629 0.629
0.009 0.205 0.507 0.244 0.309 0.667 0.667
0.010 0.205 0.535 0.257 0.309 0.703 0.703
0.015 0.205 0.655 0.314 0.309 0.861 0.861
0.020 0.205 0.756 0.363 0.309 0.994 0.994
0.025 0.205 0.846 0.406 0.309 1.112 1.112
0.030 0.205 0.926 0.445 0.309 1.218 1.218
0.035 0.205 1.001 0.480 0.309 1.316 1.316
0.040 0.205 1.070 0.513 0.309 1.406 1.406
0.045 0.205 1.135 0.545 0.309 1.492 1.492
0.050 0.205 1.196 0.574 0.309 1.572 1.572
0.060 0.205 1.310 0.629 0.309 1.722 1.722
0.070 0.205 1.415 0.679 0.309 1.860 1.860
0.080 0.205 1.513 0.726 0.309 1.989 1.989
0.090 0.205 1.605 0.770 0.309 2.110 2.110
0.100 0.205 1.691 0.812 0.309 2.224 2.224
0.150 0.205 2.071 0.994 0.309 2.723 2.723
0.200 0.205 2.392 1.148 0.309 3.145 3.145
0.250 0.205 2.674 1.284 0.309 3.516 3.516
0.300 0.205 2.930 1.406 0.309 3.852 3.852
1.5~2.5m/s

a n = 0.065

b = 1m

Z 2

b h = 0.3m

S 0 = 8%

1.5m / sec S 0 = 25%

1-
- 55 -
2.75m / sec 2.5m / sec

c h = 0.5m S 0 = 4.5%

1.5m / sec

S 0 = 15% 2.83m / sec

b.

ds = 1+ (dy / dx ) dx
H 2

X
x
dx

3.4.3

H A

2
A = BH
3
B
2
dy
2
P = 2 1 + dx
0 dx

4H 2
y= x
B2
dy 8 H
tan = = x
dx B 2
B
2 2
B 2
a=
8H
P=
a0 x 2 + a 2 dx

x 2 a2
x 2 + a 2 dx = x + a2 + ln x + x 2 + a 2 + c
2 2

1-
- 56 -
A
R =
P
2 1
1
V = R3S 2
n

3.4.4


R(m) V(m/s) Q(cms) R(m) V(m/s) Q(cms)
S0 n=0.067 B=1.5m
H/B=0.15 H/B=0.25
0.005 0.14 0.29 0.065 0.22 0.38 0.143
0.006 0.14 0.31 0.071 0.22 0.42 0.157
0.007 0.14 0.34 0.076 0.22 0.45 0.170
0.008 0.14 0.36 0.082 0.22 0.48 0.181
0.009 0.14 0.39 0.087 0.22 0.51 0.192
0.010 0.14 0.41 0.091 0.22 0.54 0.203
0.015 0.14 0.50 0.112 0.22 0.66 0.248
0.020 0.14 0.57 0.129 0.22 0.76 0.287
0.025 0.14 0.64 0.144 0.22 0.85 0.320
0.030 0.14 0.70 0.158 0.22 0.94 0.351
0.035 0.14 0.76 0.171 0.22 1.01 0.379
0.040 0.14 0.81 0.183 0.22 1.08 0.405
0.045 0.14 0.86 0.194 0.22 1.15 0.430
0.050 0.14 0.91 0.204 0.22 1.21 0.453
0.055 0.14 0.95 0.214 0.22 1.27 0.475
0.060 0.14 0.99 0.224 0.22 1.32 0.496
0.065 0.14 1.04 0.233 0.22 1.38 0.517
0.070 0.14 1.07 0.242 0.22 1.43 0.536
0.075 0.14 1.11 0.250 0.22 1.48 0.555
0.080 0.14 1.15 0.258 0.22 1.53 0.573
0.085 0.14 1.18 0.266 0.22 1.58 0.591
0.090 0.14 1.22 0.274 0.22 1.62 0.608
0.095 0.14 1.25 0.282 0.22 1.67 0.625
0.100 0.14 1.28 0.289 0.22 1.71 0.641
0.150 0.14 1.57 0.354 0.22 2.09 0.785
0.200 0.14 1.82 0.409 0.22 2.42 0.906
+
0.250 0.14 2.03 0.457 0.22 2.70 1.013
+
0.300 0.14 2.22 0.500 0.22 2.96 1.110
1.5~2.5m/s
2
1-
- 57 -

a B1 60~100cm t

10~20cm

B
A2 A2
2 A1 2
H
h
X

B1
3.4.4

B1
2
2
dy
P1 = 2 1 + dx
0 dx

A1
R1 =
P1

( ) H A

1-
- 58 -
2
A = BH
3
4H 2
y= x
B2
B
2
dy
2
P = 2 1 + dx
0 dx

A1 = B1 (H h ) +
2
B1 h
3

A2 = A A1

P2 = P P1

A A1
R2 =
P2
2 1
1 3 2
V1 = R1 S
n1
2 1
1 3 2
V2 = R2 S
n2

Q = A1V1 + A2V2

1-
- 59 -
3.4.5
2 2
A1(m ) R1(m) V1(m/s) Q1(cms) A2(m ) R2(m) V2(m/s) Q2(cms)
S0 n1=0.035
n2=0.065 B=1.5m H/B=0.15 Q(cms)
% y/B=0.05 =Q1+Q2

0.005 0.17 0.196 0.68 0.118 0.05 0.074 0.19 0.010 0.128
0.006 0.17 0.196 0.75 0.129 0.05 0.074 0.21 0.011 0.140
0.007 0.17 0.196 0.81 0.140 0.05 0.074 0.23 0.012 0.151
0.008 0.17 0.196 0.86 0.149 0.05 0.074 0.24 0.013 0.162
0.009 0.17 0.196 0.92 0.158 0.05 0.074 0.26 0.013 0.172
0.010 0.17 0.196 0.96 0.167 0.05 0.074 0.27 0.014 0.181
0.015 0.17 0.196 1.18 0.205 0.05 0.074 0.33 0.017 0.222
0.020 0.17 0.196 1.36 0.236 0.05 0.074 0.38 0.020 0.256
0.025 0.17 0.196 1.53 0.264 0.05 0.074 0.43 0.022 0.286
0.030 0.17 0.196 1.67 0.289 0.05 0.074 0.47 0.024 0.314
0.035 0.17 0.196 1.80 0.313 0.05 0.074 0.51 0.026 0.339
0.040 0.17 0.196 1.93 0.334 0.05 0.074 0.54 0.028 0.362
0.045 0.17 0.196 2.05 0.354 0.05 0.074 0.57 0.030 0.384
0.050 0.17 0.196 2.16 0.374 0.05 0.074 0.60 0.031 0.405
0.055 0.17 0.196 2.26 0.392 0.05 0.074 0.63 0.033 0.425
0.060 0.17 0.196 2.36 0.409 0.05 0.074 0.66 0.034 0.444
0.065 0.17 0.196 2.46 0.426 0.05 0.074 0.69 0.036 0.462
+
0.070 0.17 0.196 2.55 0.442 0.05 0.074 0.72 0.037 0.479
+
0.075 0.17 0.196 2.64 0.458 0.05 0.074 0.74 0.038 0.496
+
0.080 0.17 0.196 2.73 0.473 0.05 0.074 0.77 0.040 0.512
+
0.085 0.17 0.196 2.81 0.487 0.05 0.074 0.79 0.041 0.528
+
0.090 0.17 0.196 2.89 0.501 0.05 0.074 0.81 0.042 0.543
+
0.095 0.17 0.196 2.97 0.515 0.05 0.074 0.83 0.043 0.558
+
0.100 0.17 0.196 3.05 0.528 0.05 0.074 0.86 0.044 0.573
+
0.150 0.17 0.196 3.74 0.647 0.05 0.074 1.05 0.054 0.701
+
0.200 0.17 0.196 4.31 0.747 0.05 0.074 1.21 0.063 0.810
+
0.250 0.17 0.196 4.82 0.835 0.05 0.074 1.35 0.070 0.905
0.300 0.17 0.196 5.28+ 0.915 0.05 0.074 1.48 0.077 0.992
1.5~2.5m/s

3.4.7

1.

1-
- 60 -
2.

3.

1-
- 61 -
3.5
3.5.1

3.5.2

( )

3.5.3

3.5.4

3.5.5

1-
- 62 -
3.5.6
1.

2.

1 3 1( ) 1

2 175 kg f / cm 2

3 13


1-
- 63 -
6

20cm

50cm

10

10

11 1.5 m / sec

4.5 m / sec

1.8 m / sec

6.1 m / sec [ 85 ]

12

1-
- 64 -

13

H 1
Z 1

3.5.1

3.

4.

1
2 1
1 3 2
V = R S
n

V ( )

1-
- 65 -
R = ( A / P ) ( )

A ( )

P ( )

2 [ 1992]

3.5.1

n = (n0 + n1 + n 2 + n3 + n 4 )m

0.020
0.025
n0
0.024
0.028
0.00
0.005
n1
0.010
0.020
0.00
n 2 0.005
0.0100.015
0.00
0.0100.015
n3
0.0200.030
0.0400.060
0.0050.010
0.0100.025
n4
0.0250.050
0.0500.100
1.00
m 1.15
1.30

3 H

A P

A = A1 + A2

= bH + ZH 2

P = 2 1+ Z 2 H + b

1-
- 66 -
A
R=
P

bH + ZH 2
=
2 1+ Z 2 H + b

(1999)

D Min

V2
D Min =
S W
2 I D2 g ( )
W

I D 1.2 0.86

I D =1.0

g (=9.81 m / sec 2 )

S (1.7~2.9 t / m 3 )

( 2002) (

2004)
D = KDMin


1
K=
tan 2
cos 1
tan 2

38 o 41o

1-
- 67 -
3.5.2

0.6~1.8 m / sec 10~30 cm
1.8~2.4 m / sec 15~45 cm
2.4~3.0 m / sec 30~60 cm
3.0~3.6 m / sec 45~75 cm
(Ohio Department of Transportation, Construction & Material Specification, 1997)
5. b = 1m

11( Z = 1 )

0.3m 0.5m

H 1
1

1m

3.5.2


n0 = 0.028 n1 = 0.005 n2 = 0 n3 = 0 n4 = 0.005

m = 1 .0

n = (n0 + n1 + n2 + n3 + n4 )m =0.038

H = 0.3m

1 0.3 + 1 0.3 2
RH =0.3m = =0.211 m
2 1 + 12 0.3 + 1

H = 0.5m

1-
- 68 -
1 0.5 + 1 0.5 2
R H =0.5 m = = 0.311 m
2 1 + 12 0.5 + 1
2 1
1
V = R3S 2
n

Q = AV

3.5.3
R(m)
V(m/s) Q(cms) R(m) V(m/s) Q(cms)
S0 n=0.038 b=1m Z=1
H=0.3m H=0.5m
0.005 0.211 0.659 0.257 0.311 0.854 0.640
0.006 0.211 0.722 0.282 0.311 0.935 0.701
0.007 0.211 0.780 0.304 0.311 1.010 0.757
0.008 0.211 0.834 0.325 0.311 1.080 0.810
0.009 0.211 0.885 0.345 0.311 1.145 0.859
0.010 0.211 0.933 0.364 0.311 1.207 0.905
0.015 0.211 1.142 0.445 0.311 1.478 1.109
0.020 0.211 1.319 0.514 0.311 1.707 1.280
0.025 0.211 1.475 0.575 0.311 1.909 1.431
0.030 0.211 1.615 0.630 0.311 2.091 1.568
0.035 0.211 1.745 0.680 0.311 2.258 1.694
0.040 0.211 1.865 0.727 0.311 2.414 1.811
0.045 0.211 1.978 0.772 0.311 2.561 1.920
0.050 0.211 2.085 0.813 0.311 2.699 2.024
0.060 0.211 2.284 0.891 0.311 2.957 2.218
0.070 0.211 2.468 0.962 0.311 3.194 2.395
0.080 0.211 2.638 1.029 0.311 3.414 2.561
0.090 0.211 2.798 1.091 0.311 3.621 2.716
0.100 0.211 2.949 1.150 0.311 3.817 2.863
0.150 0.211 3.612 1.409 0.311 4.675 3.506
0.200 0.211 4.171 1.627 0.311 5.398 4.049
0.250 0.211 4.663 1.819 0.311 6.035 4.527
0.300 0.211 5.108 1.992 0.311 6.612 4.959
: 1.8m/s 6.1m/s

1 H = 0.3m S 0 = 4%

1-
- 69 -
1.8m / sec

2 H = 0.5m S 0 = 0.1

3.817 m / sec

1.8m / sec

V2
D Min =
S W
2 I D2 g ( )
W

3.817 2
= = 0.787 m
2.2 - 1
2 1 9.8
2

= tan 1 (0.1) = 5.71o


1
K= =1.01
tan 2 5.71o
cos 5.71o 1
tan 2 38 o

D = KDMin = 0.795m

3 Q = 1.0m 3 / sec

S 0 = 2% 3.5.3

H = 0 .5 m

3.5.7

1.

2.

3.

1-
- 70 -

4.

1-
- 71 -
3.6
3.6.1

3.6.2

1.5

3.6.3
1.

2.

3.
1-
- 72 -
1.25cm / hr ( )

6cm / hr

4. 0.8

1.5

5. 30

30 5

6. S 25 %

7. S 5

3.6.4
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

( )

1-
- 73 -

7.

3.6.5
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

3.6.6

1.

1 2

2 10 15cm

( )

3 1 3 7.5

1-
- 74 -
5 30cm

15~30cm

6 72

24

3.8~7.5cm

6m

1-
- 75 -
1
1

3.6.1

2.

V IT = V /n

1-
- 76 -
3
VIT m
3
V m ( V = WQV )

n ( n = 0.3 ~ 0.35 )

[Standards and Specification

for Infiltration Practices 1984]


hmax = kT / n

k m / hr

T ( T = 24 ~ 48hr )
Georgia Stormwater Management (2003)
VWQ
AIT =
nh + kT '

CASQA (2003)
VWQ + RFV
AIT =
h

RFV = (1 n ) AIT h

AIT m 2

k m / hr

h m

T ' ( T ' = 2hr )

RFV m 3

1-
- 77 -
3 (Water Quality Volume)

(a)

90% WQV


VWQ = PDep RV Ai

AIm A
RV = 0.05 + 0.9 Im 0.15
Ai Ai

PDep PDep = 25mm (0.025 )

AIm ( )

Ai ( )

(b)

VWQ = 12.5mm Ai

VWQ = 125m 3

3.6.1


k (cm / sec )
-1 -4
10 10
-4 -6
10 10
-6
10
-4
1.610
()
-12
() 10

3. 1.6

2cm / hr

n = 0.35 T = 40hr

1-
- 78 -
B = 7.5 m

VWQ = 12.5 10 3 1.6 10 4 =200 m 3

k = 2cm / hr = 0.02m / hr

hmax = 0.02 40 / 0.35 = 2.28m

h = 2 m < hmax

RFV = (1 n ) AIT h

Georgia Storm Water Management (2003)


VWQ
AIT =
nh + kT '

200
= =270.3 m 2
0.35 2 + 0.02 2

B = 7.5m L = 270.3 / 7.5 =36 m

CASQA (2003)

VWQ + RFV
AIT =
h

200 + (1 0.35) AIT 2


=
2

AIT =285.7 m 2

B = 7.5m L = 285.7 / 7.5 =38.3 m

3.6.7

1-
- 79 -
1.

2.

3. BMP

4.

5. 24

6.

1-
- 80 -
3.7
3.7.1

3.7.2
( )

3.7.3

1.

2.

3.

4.

3.7.4
(sediments forebay)

( ) (BMP)

3.7.5
1.

1-
- 81 -
2.

3.

3.7.6

1.

1 1.5 3.5 [

93 ] 1.0

1.8 0.3

2 1 2(

3 1( )

[ 162 ]

1-
- 82 -
H :V = 3 :1

H :V = 3 :1

HV

3.7.1 ()

8 ( ) Wout

Dmin

Wout

w hc
Wout
s

DMin

V = 2 ghc

DMin

1-
- 83 -
V2
D Min =
S W
2 I D2 g ( )
W

= tan(30 o )

I D 1.2 0.86

I D I D =1.0

g (=9.81 m / sec 2 )

S (1.7~2.9 t / m 3 )

W (1.0 t / m 3 )

1-
- 84 -
a a

b
b

aa

bb

3.7.2 ( )

1-
- 85 -
121 ]

3.7.1
( (

) )
0.2
2~3 0.2~0.3
3~5 0.3~0.5

>0.3
( 30 )
( )

V2
he =
2g

10

2.

1 [

92 ]

1-
- 86 -
a 1.5

(Universal Soil Loss Equation USLE)

35 ]

Am = RmKmLSCP

, Am : (//); 1.4,
Rm : ( / ),
Km : ( / ),
L : ,
S : ,
C : ,
P : o

0.05 0.5

1.5

1.4 /

VSand = 1.5 0.5 WSoil / 1.4 ( / )

0.1~0.25 /

1-
- 87 -
25~62.5

[Storm Water Management, DCR

minimum standard 3.04]

b WQV

90%

0.1 WQV [2004 Connecticut

Stormwater Quality Manual]

WQV

VWQ = PDep RV Ai

AIm A
RV = 0.05 + 0.9 Im 0.15
Ai Ai

PDep PDep = 25mm

AIm ( )

Ai ( )

3. 5.0

3.0

1.5

VSand = 1.5 5 * 30 = 225 (1)

1-
- 88 -
2 [Storm Water Management, DCR minimum

standard 3.04]

25

VSand = 3 25 = 75 ( )

3 2004 Connecticut Stormwater Quality Manual

VWQ

AIm 3
= = 0.6 0.15 ok!
Ai 5

RV = 0.05 + 0.9 0.6 = 0.59

VWQ = 0.025 0.59 50000

= 737.5

VSand = 0.1 VWQ =73.8 ( )

3.7.7

1.

2.

[ 165 ]

3.

1-
- 89 -
3.8
3.8.1

1.

2.

3.

3.8.2

3.8.3

1. 4

1-
- 90 -
259

2.

3.

4.

5.

6. 7.5

15

7.

3.8.4

1-
- 91 -

liner

1. 15

2.

3.

3.8.5
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

3.8.6

1.

1-
- 92 -
[ 95 ]

3 0.8

2.5

0.9~2.4

3 30~50

5 1000

1-
- 93 -

3 1

12

3 1

10

0.5

11

12


1-
- 94 -

13 .

2.

96 ]

Vs1 =
Tb
(Q2,inp Q1,out )
2

Vs 2 =
Tb
(Q3,inp Q1,out )
2

Vs1 = ( )

Vs 2 = ( )

Q1,out = 25 (

/ )

Q 2 ,inp = 50 (

/ )

Q3,inp = 50 (

/ )

T b = ( )

Tb 1

1 1

1-
- 95 -
2 Vsd ( )

[ 96 ]

Vsd = 1.1Vs 2

Vsd = 1.2Vs1

Vsd = ( )

(Water Quality

Volume VWQ )

(a)

90% WQV

VWQ = PDep RV Ai

AIm A
RV = 0.05 + 0.9 Im 0.15
Ai Ai

PDep PDep = 25mm (0.025

RV

AIm ()

Ai ( )

(b)

VWQ = 12.5mm Ai

VWQ = 125m 3

VWQ

1-
- 96 -
Urbonas(1992) VWQ = 0.75 VWQ

CASQA(2003) VWQ = 2VWQ

VWQ

Vsd ,Wet = 1.1VS 2 + VWQ


()

(100)






1 1
2 ()VWQ
RC

3.8.1

3.

1 [ 16 ]

1-
- 97 -
I tT A
= ( G + H log T )
25
I 60 ( t + B )C

P
I 6025 = ( )2
25.29 + 0.094 P

P
A=( )2
189 .96 + 0.31P
B = 55
P
C=( )2
381 .71 + 1.45 P
P
G=( )2
42 .89 + 1.33 P
P
H =( )2
65 .33 + 1.836 P


T()
t ()
I TtT t (/)
25
25 60 (/)
I 60
P( )
ABCGH

(Rational Formula)
1
Qp = CIA
360

1-
- 98 -

Q
p ( / ) o
C ( ) o
I( / ) o
A( ) o

1.0 [ 18 ]

3.8.1




0.75~0.90 0.70~0.80 0.50~0.75 0.45~0.60 0.75~0.95

0.95 0.90 0.90 0.85 0.95~1.00


4[ 19 ]( t c )



t c = t1 + t 2
t1 = l / V1

t
c

t
1

t
2

l
(
)
V1( 0.3 ~ 0.6 /)

(Rziha)[
1-
- 99 -
96 ]

(Rziha)

t 2 = L / V2
V2 = 20(H / L )
0.6


t 2 ( )
2 ( /)
V
H( )
L()

4. 5.0

100

30

3 2126.2mm

0.5m/sec

L B = L/3

L B = 50000m 2

L =387.3 m

1-
- 100 -
100

l = 100m

l = 100 / 2 = 50m )

t1 = l / V1 = 100 / 0.5 = 200 sec = 3.33 min

V2 = 20 ( H / L )0.6 = 20 ( 30 / 387.3 ) 0.6 = 4.31m / sec

t 2 = L / V2 = 387.3 / 4.31 = 89.86 sec = 1.5 min

t = t1 + t 2 = 3.33 + 1.5 = 4.83 min

t = 4 min 25 50

2
2126.2
I 6025 = = 89.18
25.29 + 0.094 2126.2

2
2126.2
A= = 20.538
189.98 + 0.31 2126.2

B = 55

2
2126.2
C = = 0.620
381.71 + 1.45 2126.2

2
2126.2
G= = 0.549
42.89 + 1.33 2126.2

1-
- 101 -
2126.2
H = = 0.307
65.33 + 1.836 2126.2

T = 25

I 425 = 89.18 (0.549 + 0.307 log 25) 20.538 / (4 + 55)


0.620

= 143.2

T = 50

I 450 = 89.174 (0.549 + 0.307 log 50 ) 20.538 / (4 + 55)


0.620

= 156.7

C = 0.75

C = 1.0 C = 0.9

25

1
Q1,out = 0.75 143.2 5.0 = 1.492 m 3 / sec
360

50

1
Q2,inp = 1.0 156.7 5.0 = 2.176 m 3 / sec
360

50

1
Q3 ,inp = 0.90 156.7 5.0 = 1.959 m 3 / sec
360

0.8 Q3,inp = 0.8 1.959 = 1.567m 3 / sec

1-
- 102 -
Q1,out < 0.8Q3 ,inp OK

Tb = 2t c = 2 4.83 = 9.66 min < 1hr Tb = 1hr = 3600 sec

Vs1 =
Tb
(Q2,inp Q1,out )= 3600 (2.176 1.492) = 1231.9m 3
2 2

Vs 2 =
Tb
(Q3,inp Q1,out ) = 3600 (1.959 1.492) = 840.6m 3
2 2

Vsd = 1.1Vs 2 =924.66 m3

Vsd = 1.2Vs1 =1478.3 m3

Vsd ,Wet =1.1 VS 2 + 0.75VWQ [Urbonas,1992]

=924.66+0.75(0.012550000)

=1393.4

Vsd ,Wet =1.1 VS 2 + 2VWQ [CASQA,2003]

=924.66+2(0.012550000)

=2174.7 m3

3.8.7

1-
- 103 -
1.

2.

1-
- 104 -
3.8.2

:

120.5 173.5 192.2 178.3 219.5 230.6 147.6 215.1 223.5 185.5 131.7 101.6 2119.6 1971-2000
319.3 315.2 288.2 242.5 319.7 322.6 261.5 435 617.3 823.4 578.5 369.2 4892.4 1971-2000
86.5 165.7 180 183.1 258.9 319.4 247.9 305.3 274.6 138.8 86.2 78.8 2325.2 1971-2000
269.3 277.3 240.3 207.8 275.3 294.7 248.3 446 588.1 837.3 521.9 320.1 4526.4 1971-2000
335.8 399 332.3 240.9 296.1 286.7 150.4 212.8 360.8 413.4 394.7 332.1 3755 1971-2000
134 168.6 179.9 166.6 203.1 200.5 106.2 188.1 186.7 131.9 144 114.8 1924.4 1971-2000
71.9 99.9 86.6 96.1 195 219.6 177.3 260.6 344.3 367.4 170.6 67.7 2157 1971-2000
371.6 351.5 224.6 207.9 264.1 252.3 169.3 285.7 520.6 757.1 747.2 457.6 4609.5 1971-2000
155.3 175.2 132.2 134.2 222.7 186.7 145.5 243.8 441.2 442.3 360.2 188.4 2827.7 1971-2000
19.2 31.9 41.3 67.2 136.7 202 158.7 177.7 77.7 28.4 21 13.1 974.9 1971-2000
21.9 50.2 52.9 92.4 123.2 164.1 131.6 170.8 74.2 26.1 20.1 23.5 951 1971-2000
19.9 28.8 35.4 84.9 175.5 370.6 345.9 417.4 138.4 29.6 14.7 11.3 1672.4 1971-2000
20 23.6 39.2 72.8 177.3 397.9 370.6 426.3 186.6 45.7 13.4 11.5 1784.9 1971-2000
27.6 57.7 62.2 107.6 189.2 350.7 304.3 422.1 148.9 22.7 12.2 20.9 1726.1 1971-2000
36.3 87.8 94 134.5 225.3 342.7 245.8 317.1 98.1 16.2 18.6 25.7 1642.1 1971-2000
87.8 144 161.4 256.8 530.9 711.1 590.7 838.9 344.7 136.1 46.6 61.1 3910.1 1971-2000
54.9 54 48.9 82.3 198.2 367.4 366.5 428.3 338.1 223.7 80.8 46.1 2289.2 1971-2000
116 148.9 138.9 248.9 454.2 513.3 361.5 499.4 257.2 152.7 77.8 85.6 3054.4 1971-2000
74.8 152.5 196.5 191.3 282.4 279.2 140 206.8 114.9 44.5 44.8 55 1782.7 1991-2000
25.7 27.7 19.9 43.5 163.9 371.3 396.3 475.2 288.3 141.9 43.2 20.6 2017.5 1971-2000
77.2 73.4 75.3 96.4 189.8 204.7 251.1 325.9 351.6 336.8 136.6 79.6 2198.4 1971-2000
273.9 219.8 163 164.8 263 262.9 225 275 394.2 331 273.7 235 3081.3 1971-2000
52.4 103.3 119.3 192.1 354.3 483.8 349.6 431.8 199.9 54.9 25 38.2 2404.6 1971-2000
43.2 47.5 43.1 73.8 156.9 247.8 280.5 308.2 299.4 236 78 41.7 1856.1 1971-2000
28.5 84.5 106.1 131 222.5 217.7 165.9 213.2 68.7 9.9 14.9 20.1 1283 1971-2000

1-
- 105 -

Ecological Drainage Facility

EDF-01

EDF-02

EDF-03

EDF-04

EDF-05

EDF-06

EDF-07

1-
- 106 -

( )

1-
- 114 -

1-
- 115 -

1.
2.
3.

1-
- 116 -

1-
- 117 -

()

1-
- 118 -





BODSS

1




2

100
5%
30%





1




2



1-
- 119 -
3





1

2


1
8

2







3 4




4

5



1

1-
- 120 -
2

3


4



5






1

2

3

4

5

1




2


1-
- 121 -

1-
- 122 -

()

401

1-
- 123 -







()


















LID



H/B

0.14~0.2
N

1-
- 124 -





?























1-
- 125 -


1-
- 126 -











LID

















1-
- 127 -






















LID

1-
- 128 -

1-
- 129 -

()

1-
- 130 -


1


2




3



1



2




3


4




1




2

1-
- 131 -









3



1


2


3 P3 ..
..

4 P4


5
Ex.P7 A 1
P14. A
.
6 P26~27

7


8 P30 86


1

1-
- 132 -



2



1 40%


2


3




4

1




2
3






1

2

1-
- 133 -

3


4

1-
- 134 -

1-
- 135 -

()

401

1-
- 136 -


1
(
)
2P.19
3

4

5

6
1


2



3

4

1

p.07

2

3


1

2


1-
- 137 -
3
(
)
1


2


3

4

1

2

3
?

4

1-
- 138 -

1-
- 139 -

()

1-
- 140 -


1
Indication for
design


2

3Buffer
zone
Retrofitting
1
2.1.1

2


3

4 1.2.1




5


6 3.1.1

7 3.2.1
3.2.2

8 3.2.1


9

10 P.96
1-
- 141 -




1

2

100 500





3


1
10



2 7




7

3


7



1

1-
- 142 -


2 10





3PP.11-12







4







6


1




2 2.1.1

1
8 86

2 3.2.1 3.2.2

1-
- 143 -
EDF-01

3
4 EDF-06 EDF-07 83
93



5 EDF-05 72

1 P.19 20 5
6

2

7





3



1-
- 144 -

1-
- 145 -


()

401

1-
- 146 -


1

2


3
3.2.4


4
3.3.1
3.4.1

5

3.4.6-2-(9)



6




1EDF-01 1


2EDF-01
Ns

3EDF-01 3.2.4-2

4EDF-02
EDF-03

EDF-03
1-
- 147 -

5

6


7


1EDF-01

2EDF-02


1

2
WQV
3 VWQ

4


1


2


3

4 N
5
3.4.6-2-(9)
6

1-
- 148 -
16.2.3

26.2.5

3



46.2.8

1-
- 149 -

1-
- 150 -

_____________
________________________________________
_______________________ _____________
________________________________________
( ) ( )
RC
2
(ha)



1
2
3
4
5
6

7
8 U
9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16 SAF
17
18
19
19
20

21


22

1-
- 151 -

1. Connecticut Storm water Quality Manual, 2004, Storm water Treatment Practice
Design Guidance.
2. CASQA, 2003, Storm water Best Management Practice Handbook: New
Development and Redevelopment.
3. US EPA, 2000, Guiding Principles for Constructed Wetlands: Providing for
Water Quality and Wildlife Habitat.
4. Maryland Department of the Environment, 2000, Maryland Storm water Design
Manual Water Management Administration.
5. Virginia Storm water Management Handbook, Volumes 1 and 2, 1st Edition, 1999,
DCR minimum standard 3.04, Sediment Fore bay for further information.
6. Water Environment Federation and ASCE. 1998. Urban Runoff Quality
Management, WEF Manual of Practice No. 23 and ASCE Manual and Report on
Engineering Practice No. 87.
7. Ohio Department of Transportation, 1997, Construction & Material Specification.
8. King County, 1996, Surface Water Design Manual, King County Surface Water
Management Division, Washington.
9. US EPA, 1993, Natural Wetlands and Urban Storm water: Potential Impacts and
Management
10. http://www.epa.gov/owow/wetlands/stormwat.pdf.
11. US EPA, 1993, Office of Water. Guidance to Specify Management Measures for
Sources of Non point Pollution in Coastal Waters. EPA-840-B-92-002.
Washington, DC
12. Urbonas, B.R., et al., 1992, Urban Storm Drainage Criteria Manual, Volume 3
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13. Colorado Department of Transportation, 1992, Erosion Control and Storm water
Quality Guide.
14. Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission (SWRPC). 1991, Costs
of Urban Non point Source Water Pollution Control Measures, Waukesha, WI.

- 150 -
15. Schueler, T. R., 1987, Controlling Urban Runoff: A Practical Manual for
Planning and Designing Urban BMPs, Department of Environmental Programs,
Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, Washington, DC.
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Specifications for Storm water Management Infiltration Practices Standards and
Specification for Infiltration Practices.
17. 2006

18. 2006
19. 2004

20. 2003
21. 2002

22. 2002

23. 1999

24. 1997
25. 1998
26. 1999
27. 1999

28. 1999

29. 2000
30. 2000

- 151 -
31. 2002

32. 2002
33. 2003
34. 2004
35. 2003
36. 2004
37. 2004 Ecological engineering methods
manual
38. 2002 50
3
39. 2003

- 152 -