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a review of tensor analysis

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You are on page 1of 13

by Thomas Gervais

tgervais@mit.edu

References:

Long, RR, Mechanics of Solids and Fluids, Prentice-Hall, 1960, pp 1-32

Deen, WD, Analysis of transport phenomena, Oxford, 1998, p. 551-563

Goodbody, AM, Cartesian tensors: With applications to Mechanics, Fluid

Mechanics and Elasticity, John Wiley & Sons, 1982

16h30 -Muddy Charles

Scalars, Vectors & Tensors

Scalar: Quantity that is invariant in itself (does not depend on any referential) Also known

as a zeroth order tensor.

Vector: Quantity that possess both a direction and a magnitude located somewhere in

space. It is a first order tensor.

v

v = a1e1 + a2 e2 + a3e3 = a '1 e'1 + a ' 2 e'2 +a '3 e'3

Note: A vector possesses two invariants with respect to coordinate space:

v , and its direction.

Its magnitude, v

Higher order tensors

2nd order tensor: An ordered set of nine numbers, each of which possessing 2

directions. An helpful analogy would be to imagine a vector whose three components

each would be a vector. A tensor of order n can be reprensented by 3n numbers in

tridimensional space. It is a matrix of dimension n. A 2nd possesses 3 invariants which

are the coefficients of its characteristic polynomial arising from det T I = 0 . The

trace and the determinant of the tensor are two of its 3 invariants. In general, a tensor

of order n will have n+1 invariants.

Discipline Phenomenon Quantity Example

Physics: E-M Light transmission in Refraction index n Optically active

anisotropic media polarizers

Dynamics Angular momentum Moment of Inertia I Gyroscope

Fluid mechanics Hindered transport in Effective Ca++ diffusion in

porous media permeability K muscles

Solid mechanics Tensile properties of Youngs modulus E Duct Tape,

anisotropic solids Muscles

Dyadic Product (Tensor Product)

This the general form of a tensor product:

A Scalar

(0th order tensor)

v v v v

A = A1e1 + A2e2 + A3e3 Vector

(1st order tensor)

v v v v v v v v

A1 = A11e1 + A21e2 + A31e3 A3 = A13e1 + A23e2 + A33e3 2nd order

v v v v tensor

A2 = A12 e1 + A22 e2 + A32 e3

etc.

By dividing the Aij in three vector components, 3 3

i= 1 j =1

z z

Notation v

v 3 3

A

A= Ai ei = A'i e'i

i =1 i= 1

y

The projection of the vector on the axis, x, y, z can each

be decomposed in the basis (x, y, z). The relation y

between each of the components is then given by: x x

3

Ax = a11 A' x + a21 A' y + a31 A' z Ai = aij A' j

j =1

Ay = a12 A' x + a22 A' y + a32 A' z

Az = a13 A' x + a23 A' y + a33 A' z Ai = aij A' j (Einsteins notation)

3 3

a11 a12 a13

a= aijei e j = a21 a22 a23

i =1 j =1

a31 a32 a33

Dot and Cross products

Definition of dot product:

v v 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

A B = Ai ei B j e j = Ai B j ei e j = Ai B j ij = Ai Bi

i= 1 j =1 i= 1 j =1 i =1 j = 1 i= 1

Where ij is the Kronecker delta, a 2nd

order tensor.

Does it hold in tensor notation? 3

Lets test it using a change of coordinate: Ai = aij A' j

j =1

v v 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

A B = aki A'k ek alj B'l el = akialj A'k B'l kl

i=1 k =1 j= 1 l =1 i =1 j =1 k =1 l =1

v v 3 3

one cartesian referential to another, then A B = Ai Bi = A'k B'k

i =1 k =1

(Einstein notation)

Dot and Cross product (cont.)

ij = aki alj kl expanded yields:

a112 + a122 + a132 = 1 a21a31 + a22 a32 + a23a33 = 0

a212 + a22

2 2

+ a23 = 1 a31a11 + a32 a12 + a33a13 = 0

a312 + a322 + a332 = 1 a11a21 + a12 a22 + a13 a23 = 0

These are the normalization and the orthogonality conditions that any

orthonormal base respects.

Definition of cross product:

v v 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

A B = Ai ei B j e j = Ai B j ei e j = Ai B j ijk ek

i= 1 j=1 i =1 j = 1 i = 1 j= 1 k =1

Where ijk is called the Levi-Civita density and is the cross product

equivalent of the Kroneker delta, ij , for the dot product. It is a third order

tensor. 0, i=j, j=k, or i=k

ijk This is the famous

1, ijk= 123, 231, 312

right hand rule

-1, ijk= 132, 321, 213

Gradients and Divergence

v 3

f v 3

We know: f = x e j and A = Aiei

=

j 1 j i= 1

vv

Q: What about the gradient of a vector A ?

v

vv 3

A

3 3

Ai

A = x e j = x eie j A second order tensor!

j =1 j =

i 1 j 1 j =

Q: What about the divergence of a 2nd order tensor?

v 3 3

Tij 3

Tii

T = x ij ei e j = x ei A vector!

= =

i 1 j 1 j =

i 1 i

Practical problem: How to set up a tensor

from physical reasoning?

Consider the following problem: We want to stretch a piece of anisotropic tissue

and find the components of the Youngs Moduli

E2

v v

F F

E1

angle (assuming constant strain and a Poisson coefficient of 0)

2

v y' v 2 2 2

u= ui ei E x' F= Fie'i = Eijuie j

=

i 1 2 i =1 i= 1 j =1

E1

y

F1 E11 E12 u1

=

x

F2 E21 E22 u2

Practical problem: How to set up a tensor

from physical reasoning? (cont.)

We need to compute the 4 matrix elements:

F1 u1 : E11 = E x cos

F1 u2 : E12 = E x sin F1 E x cos E x sin u1

F2 u1 : E 21 = E y sin = E sin E y cos u2

F2 y

F2 u2 : E 22 = E y cos

displacement in the x direction. 2

Effective modulus

Fx ' v

[Eij ]

1.8

1

= F = Fx2' + Fy2' 1.6

F

y' 0

1.4

1.2

v 1

0 0.5 1 1.5

F angle (rad)

u

function of the angle for E2 double of E1

Same problem: other approach using tensors

v 2

y' v 2 2 2

=

i 1 2 x' i =1 i= 1 j= 1

E1 E1 0

y E 'ij =

0 E2

x

2

u'i e'i = aiju j e j

j =1 v 2 2

cos sin

F= E 'ij aiju je j

i =1 j =1

aij =

sin cos

E1 0 cos sin E1 cos E1 sin

E 'ij aij = =

A: Yes!

0 E2 sin cos E2 sin E2 cos

Fluid mechanics:

The stress and rate of strain tensors

z' v 3

A) Stress tensor v

n

y' S= Si ei

i =1

z v

S x' 3

v

y Si = n (Si ei )e j

j= 1

x Stress vector

v

B) Rate of strain tensor Sij = ij = n (S i ei )ei e j

v v v v v

v (r , t) v (r + r , t ) By Taylor expansion to the first order:

v v v v v vv v vv v t v

= v ( r , t ) + v v = r v ( r , t ) = ( v ( r , t ) ) r

vv v

v ( r , t ) is a tensor (gradient of a vector)!

vv t

[

1 vv t vv

e& = ( v ) + ( v ) ]

( v ) = e& + 2

&

=

2

[

1 vv t vv

( v ) ( v ) ] V orticity tensor

Conclusion

2nd order tensors establish relation between two sets of vectors.

Ex: Vectors in one cartesian space vs vectors in another, but ALSO

vectors from the displacement vector space to the force vector space

(as we just saw).

Higher order tensors fulfill the same role but with tensors instead

of vectors

The divergence of a tensor reduces its order by one. The gradient

of a tensor increases it order by one. The Curl of a tensor yields a

tensor of the same order.

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