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Loss Reduction of 220 kV Substation with Optimum

Reactive Power Management at 33 kV Voltage Level:


A Case Study
Ashish Dandotia Hemant Kaushik Dr. M.P.Sharma Bhavesh Vyas
Student, M. Tech Assistant Engineer Asst. Professor, EE Dept.
Jaipur, Rajasthan
Rajasthan Inst. of Engg. & Tech. RRVPNL Arya College of Engineering & I.T
India
Jaipur, India Jaipur, India Jaipur, India
ashishdandotia@yahoo.co.in hemantkkaushik@gmail.com mahavir_sh@rediffmail.com tonu567@gmail.com

Abstract At present scenario, in Indian Power System shunt has been presented. Rajasthan State Power system has been
capacitor banks have been installed at 33 kV voltage level at considered for research studies [4]. The optimal utilization of
EHV substations to compensate load reactive power demand. shunt capacitors of the system has been concentrated to
Capacity of installed shunt capacitors are not matching with load provide loss reduction as well as creating redundancy in the
reactive power demand which results excessive reactive power system by fulfilling majority of reactive compensation from
flow on lines and transformers. Poor power factor of lines and capacitor banks instead of providing excessive force on swing
transformers, results higher transmission losses, increased generator or Sub-Station. As observed from the past literature
loading and poor voltage profile of the network. In this research works shunt capacitor banks deployment can effectively
paper case study of Rajasthan power system has been presented
reduce the power loss and provide additional benefits for
and studied to evaluate the impact of optimum reactive power
system operation. Practice laid by, Yan Xu Zhao in 2013 [5]
management at 33 kV voltage level on transmission losses and
other system parameters. 220 kV GSS Sri Dungargarh located in the power loss on transformers can account for a considerable
Churu district has been selected to carry out the detail studies. portion of the overall loss. This work had proposed a method
Actual system condition of 220 kV GSS Sri Dungargarh on 10th for optimal placement of capacitor banks to the transformers
September 2016 at 1.00 PM has been simulated in MiPower to reduce power loss. The capacitor bank locations are
Software. Then additional shunt capacitor banks have been considered at the low-side of transformers. In 2013 by Young
installed to reduce the reactive power flow on EHV lines and Jin Kim et al. [6] researched techniques to control steady-state
transformers and system is simulated again. Impact of optimal voltage of test network by using reactive power ancillary
reactive management at 33 kV voltage level has been analyzed on service. The reactive power was managed in coordination with
transmission losses, lines and transformers loading and network on-load tap changer (OLTC) and shunt capacitors (SCs) to
voltage profile. From simulation studies it is found out that there reduce distribution line power losses. Mixed-integer nonlinear
is a significant saving in transmission losses with optimum optimization problem was formulated & solved by using a
reactive power management at 33 kV voltage level and cost of particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Simulation case
additional shunt capacitor banks is recovered in one year. studies were performed to exhibit the coordinated reactive
power support of the OLTC, and SCs which resulted in
KeywordsShunt Capacitor Bank; Reactive Power
Management, Transformer Tap Setting; Load flow studies; improved voltage quality.
transmission loss reduction; voltage profile improvement.. The importance of OLTC operation was also discussed by
Z. Hu in 2003 [7] where by determining the optimum dispatch
I. INTRODUCTION
schedules for on-load tap changer (OLTC) at substations
Power system is an endless energy dissipating system in operations were decided. The shunt capacitor switching
the form of electrical resistance [1]. India has one of the depends on day-ahead load forecast. Switching operations
highest levels of electricity losses in the world. These losses modified for OLTC at substations, and time-interval based
imply electricity that is generated but does not reaching to control strategy was adopted with genetic algorithm to ensure
customers. India's T&D losses are almost 25% of generation, less switching operations than maximum allowed once to
i.e more than twice the world average [2]. obtain a better voltage profile was continued. The proposed
Utilities are unaware of skillful ways to handle the strategy minimized the power loss and improved the voltage
profile by maintaining proper volt/var control of the system.
operating of grids. The nave behavior towards reactive power
Load carrying capability of the line also enhanced by
management is aging the system equipments by making them
controlling the reactive power flow of capacitor banks. Shunt
to work under capability. Thus promoting unskilled operation
and laying way to increase in power losses of the system. capacitors compensation power loss reduction by maintain
system voltage profile and reducing the lines and transformer
In this research work the ideology of maintaining balance loading were briefed by A.A. Sallam et al. in 2002 [8].
between reactive power demand and capacitors reactive power Similarly a better smart grid technology work was showed by
output of 220 kV and its subsidiary 132 kV grid sub-stations, G. Vamsi Krishna Kartheek [9] by suggesting options for
with addition of shunt capacitor banks at 33 kV voltage level reactive power management with coordinated voltage control

978-1-4673-8962-4/16/$31.00 2016 IEEE


at generators tap changers and switched shunt capacitors for 220 kV S/C line. A generator has been connected to 220 kV
enhanced voltage stability was put forwarded as a possible bus of 220 kV GSS Sri Dungargarh and treated as a swing
recommendation for coordinated operation of grid with bus. Rajasthan Discoms 33 kV feeders are emanating from 33
pronounced skillful operation of utilities. kV bus of 220 kV and 132 kV substations and aggregated load
of these 33 kV feeders has been represented at respective
The location of generation and load pockets is large, the substations at 33 kV voltage level. Single line diagram of test
centralized monitoring and control of Thermal Power Stations system is placed at Fig-2 and details are abstracted here under.
from substations, becomes difficult. Also limited functionality
is available for transmission infrastructures that are outside of
substations. It has been observed that in Rajasthan Power
System work is not carried towards optimum reactive power
management [10]. As a result underutilization of power
system equipments causes unnecessary burden over the
power generating assemblies of the system. Consequently
increasing system losses, operation and maintenance cost of
the grid therefore system requirements of reactive power must
be fulfilled timely [ 11].
II. OBJECTIVES OF CASE STUDY OF REAL TIME 220 KV GSS
Rajasthan Power System is a vast system the test network
considered is directly obtaining its power from 400 kV
substations. Thus objectives fulfilled will directly improvise
the whole grid. The purposes intended are briefed below. Fig. 2 Single Line Diagram of Test System
1. To simulate the actual load flow siting of 220 KV GSS Sri
Dungargarh as per actual data collection. TABLE I TRANSFORMERS DATA

2. To acquire losses of 220 KV and subsidiary connected 132 Name of Transformers Details
Voltage MVA % X/R
KV GSS with identification of out of service capacitor GSS Ratio Capacity Impedance Ratio
banks. 220/132 kV 100 12.39 67.7
220 kV Sri 220/132 kV 100 12.39 67.7
3. Loss reduction of Test System with additional shunt
Dungargarh 132/33 kV 40/50 11.93 37.74
capacitor banks placement and revival of damaged 132/33 kV 20/25 10.09 28.98
capacitor bank. 132 kV Sri 132/33 kV 20/25 10.43 28.02
Dungargarh 132/33 kV 20/25 9.80 29.86
III. TEST SYSTEM DATA 132 kV 132/33 kV 40/50 11.93 37.74
Rajasthan State Power System has an area of 1,32,147 Dulchasar 132/33 kV 20/25 10.09 28.98
132/33 kV 20/25 9.80 29.86
Square miles and had a population of 6.86 Crores [6]. The 132 kV Riri
132/33 kV 20/25 9.91 29.86
highest transmission voltage in Rajasthan is 765 kV. There are
132 kV 132/33 kV 20/25 9.66 29.44
two 765 kV GSS, twenty one 400 kV GSS, one hundred eleven Upani 132/33 kV 20/25 10.05 30.63
220 KV GSS, three hundred ninety three 132 kV GSS as on
31st march 2016. Power map of Rajasthan power system is TABLE II TRANSMISSION LINES DATA
placed at Fig. 1.
Line
Type of Length Type of
From GSS To GSS Voltage
Circuit (km) Conductor
(kV)
220 kV Sri 132 kV Sri
132 S/C 2.6 Panther
Dungargarh Dungargarh
220 kV Sri 132 kV
132 S/C 35 Panther
Dungargarh Dulchasar
220 kV Sri 132 kV
132 S/C 16.5 Panther
Dungargarh Riri
132 kV 132 kV
132 S/C 12.5 Panther
Riri Upani

Fig. 1 Rajasthan Power Map TABLE III PANTHER CONDUCTOR POSITIVE SEQUENCE
PARAMETERS
220 kV GSS Sri Dungargarh is located in the Churu district
and feed load of 132 kV GSS at Dulchasar, Sri Dungargarh, System Resistance(R) Reactance Susceptance
Particulars (Ohm/kM) (X) (Ohm/kM) (B/2) (mho/km)
Riri and Upani through 132 kV lines. It is connected from 400
kV GSS Bikaner through 59 kM long 220 kV S/C line and also Values 0.1622174 0.3861158 1.46349e-006
connected from 400 kV GSS Ratangarh through 62 kM long
IV. ACTUAL SYSTEM DATA 132 kV Riri
20/25 1/138 17/112 5/132 9
20/25 1/138 17/112 5/132 9
To simulate the actual system condition, bus voltage, 132 kV 20/25 1/138 17/112 5/132 8
power flow on lines and transformers, actual tap setting of Upani 20/25 1/138 17/112 5/132 8
transformers, load, and status of capacitor banks of 220 kV
GSS Sri Dungargarh and connected 132 kV substations have Table VI also denotes the actual transformer tap setting.
been gathered on 10 Sep 2016 at 1.0 PM and discussed in the
following paragraphs:
d) Bus Voltage
a) Load Data
220 kV GSS and 132 kV GSS bus voltages were obtained and
As per information gathered on 10-9-2016 at 1 PM the provided in Table VII.
recorded load of 33 kV feeders at the substations is provided in
TABLE VII BUS VOLTAGE
Table IV.
Bus Voltage (kV)
TABLE IV LOAD DATA Name of GSS
220 kV Bus 132 kV Bus 33 kV Bus
Recorded Load 220 kV Sri Dungargarh 224 131 35
S.No. Name of GSS
MW Power Factor 132 kV Sri Dungargarh 133 34
1 220 kV GSS Sri Dungargarh 29 0.85
132 kV Dulchasar 128 33
2 132 kV GSS Sri Dungargarh 36 0.85 Nil
3 132 kV GSS Dulchasar 30 0.85 132 kV Riri 131 34
4 132 kV GSS Riri 26 0.85 132 kV Upani 130 34
5 132 kV GSS Upani 28 0.85
Total 149 0.85
e) Line Power flow
b) Shunt Capacitor Bank Data
Transmission Line power flows details to model the system
Shunt Capacitor Banks are connected to 33 kV buses of as per actual recorded data is provided in Table VIII.
substations. Net capacity capacitors connected at various
TABLE VIII TRANSMISSION LINE POWER FLOWS
substations on 10.9.2016 at 1 PM are provided in Table V.
Power flow
TABLE V SHUNT CAPACITOR BANKS DATA Name of Line
MW MVAR
Capacity of Shunt Capacitors 132 kV S/C Sridungargarh-Riri-Upani Line 55.69 16.11
(MVAR) 132 kV S/C Sridungargarh-Dulchasar Line 30.1 7.97
Name of GSS 132 kV S/C Sridungargarh (132 kV GSS)-
Installed ON 37.09 8.31
(MVAR) capacitors Sridungargarh (220 kV GSS) Line
220 kV GSS Sri Dungargarh 2x5.43 1x5.43 132 kV S/C Riri-Upani Line 28.3 4.029
132 kV GSS Sri Dungargarh 3x5.43 3x5.43
132 kV GSS Dulchasar 2x5.43 2x5.43 Due to some errors in the measurement and also some time
132 kV GSS Riri 2x5.43 2x5.43 difference of measurement, some deviations may be observed
132 kV GSS Upani 2x5.43 2x5.43 in measured values.
Total 59.73 54.30
f) Substation Power flow
One 5.43 MVAR capacity shunt capacitor bank is out of
Substation power flows of MW and Mvar as per database
service at 220 kV GSS Sri Dungargarh due to damage of
recorded by system engineer is provided in Table IX.
circuit breaker and RVT.
TABLE IX SUB-STATION POWER FLOWS
c) Transformer Tap Position
Power flow
Substation operators vary the tap position of transformers Name of GSS Particulars
MW MVAR
to control the LV bus voltage. Tap position of transformers at 132 kV side 144.08 44.22
220 kV Sri Dungargarh
various substations on 10.9.2016 at 1 PM is abstracted in the 33 kV side 28.81 14.12
following table:- 132 kV Sri Dungargarh 33 kV side 36.06 5.537
132 kV Dulchasar 33 kV side 29.67 8.65
TABLE VI TRANSFORMERS TAP POSITION DETAILS 132 kV Riri 33 kV side 25.9 3.86
132 kV Upani 33 kV side 28.27 5.7
Transformers Tap Details
Name of Min.Tap / Max.Tap /
Nomi.Tap / Actual g) Swing Bus Data
GSS MVA Min.Tap Max.Tap
Nomi.Tap Tap
Capacity Voltage Voltage
(kV) (kV)
Voltage (kV) Position 220 kV bus of 220 kV GSS Sridungargarh is represented as
100 1/187 21/242 9/220 11 swing bus. Actual bus voltage and power drawal from
100 1/187 21/242 9/220 11 Rajasthan grid by 220 kV GSS Sridungargarh on 10.9.2016 at
220 kV Sri
Dungargarh
40/50 1/138 17/112 5/132 9 1 PM is tabulated here under
20/25 1/138 17/112 5/132 9
40/50 1/138 17/112 5/132 8 TABLE X SWING BUS DATA
132 kV Sri
Dungargarh 20/25 1/138 17/112 5/132 8 Swing Bus Voltage (kV) MW flow MVAR flow
132 kV 20/25 1/138 17/112 5/132 9 Particulars
224 145 57
Dulchasar 20/25 1/138 17/112 5/132 9
V. SIMULATION OF ACTUAL SYSTEM CONDITION VI. LOAD FLOW STUDY OF TEST SYSTEM WITH ADDITIONAL
Test system has been modeled in the MiPower software SHUNT CAPACITORS.
and system condition of 10.9.2016 at 1.0 PM has been Additional capacitor banks have been connected at various
simulated. This case is identified as Case-I. IEEE data format Sub-stations as per Table XI and again load flow studies have
of test system is placed at Appendix-1. Load flow study has been carried. This case is identified as Case-II. Results of load
been carried out using Newton Raphson method. Results of flow study of Case-II are placed at Fig. 4.
load flow study of Case-I are plotted at Fig-3. Results of load
flow study are near to actual values.

Fig. 4 Load Flow Study of Case II


As per load flow study, 33 kV voltage of all substations
Fig. 3 Load Flow Study of Case I have been exceeds from 5 % limit. Therefore, tap position of
transformers installed at these substations have been decreased
In Case-I, reactive power loading on swing bus is 54.68 as per following Table XII.
MVAR. Therefore, new shunt capacitor banks have been
identified at EHV substations to reduce the reactive flow and TABLE XII MODIFIED TAP POSITION OF TRANSFORMERS
losses in the network. Additional shunt capacitor banks have Name of GSS MVA Capacity
Tap position Tap position in
been identified considering following factors : in Case-II Case-III
100 11 11
Load MVAR requirement 220 kV Sri 100 11 11
Installed Shunt Capacitors Dungargarh 40/50 9 6
Improvement of power factor 20/25 9 6
132 kV Sri 40/50 8 3
Available capacity of shunt capacitors Dungargarh 20/25 8 3
Shunt capacitors are available of capacity 5.43 MVAR & can 132 kV 20/25 9 6
be operated either full capacity or half capacity i.e. 2.715 Dulchasar 20/25 9 6
20/25 9 6
MVAr. Transmission system is capacitive and generators are 132 kV Riri
20/25 9 6
stable in lagging power factor mode, therefore, substation 20/25 8 5
power factor is maintained lagging. Considering above 132 kV Upani
20/25 8 5
factors, additional capacitor banks are identified as per Table
XI. Tap position of transformers has been changed as per table
XII and again load flow study has been carried out. This case
TABLE XI ASSESMENT OF ADDITIONAL SHUNT CAPACITORS is identified as Case-III. Results of load flow study of Case-III
Shunt Capacitor Banks are placed at Fig. 5.
MVAR Additional Additional
Installed
Name of GSS Requirement capacity of
Load Capacity
for unity P.F SCBs
(MVAR)
(MVAR)
220 kV GSS
Sri Dungargarh 17.97 10.86 7.11 5.43
132 kV GSS
Sri Dungargarh 22.31 16.29 6.02 5.43
Dulchasar 18.59 10.86 7.73 5.43
Riri 16.11 10.86 5.25 5.43
Upani 17.35 10.86 6.49 5.43
Total 92.33 59.73 32.66 27.15

5.43 MVAR capacitor would be installed at 132 kV GSS Riri


but would be operated with half capacity. It is assumed that
damaged capacitor bank at 220 kV GSS Sri Dungargarh
would be taken in service after rectifying necessary decencies Fig. 5 Load Flow Study of Case III
and considered in the installed capacity.
As per load flow study, 33 kV voltages of all substations are TABLE XV EFFECT ON VOLTAGE
within limits. Results of load flow study of Case-I and Case- Bus Voltage (kV)
III are compared in section VII. Name of GSS Case-I Case-III
220 220
132 kV 33 kV 132 kV 33 kV
kV KV
VII. RESULT ANALYSIS 220 kV Sri
224 133.91 34.72 224 136.39 34.59
Dungargarh
I. Effect on MVARs flow on Lines and Transformers 132 kV Sri
- 133.74 34.41 - 136.26 33.18
Dungargarh
MVAR flow on lines and transformers of Test System in
132 kV Dulchasar - 131.85 34.42 - 134.95 34.16
Case-I and Case-III have been tabulated at Table XIII. 132 kV Riri - 132.20 34.55 - 135.12 34.14
TABLE XIII MVAR FLOW ON LINES AND TRANSFORMERS 132 kV Upani - 131.50 33.79 - 134.64 33.65
MVAR flow
Particulars It is observed that network voltage profile in Case-III is better
Case-I Case-III
220/132 kV Transformers at 220 kV Sri Dungargarh 40.13 9.69 than Case-I.
132/33 KV Transformers
Sri Dungargarh (220 kV GSS) 11.96 0.08
IV. Effect on losses
Sri Dungargarh (132 kV GSS) 4.60 0.35
Dulchasar (132 kV GSS) 6.78 1.13 Total losses of 220 kV GSS Sri Dungargarh which
Riri (132 kV GSS) 4.21 0.8 includes transformers losses at all five EHV substations and
Upani (132 kV GSS ) 5.97 0.41
line losses of all four 132 kV lines for Case-I and Case-III are
132 kV S/C Transmission Lines
Sri Dungargarh (220 kV GSS)-
tabulated in table XVI.
6.99 2.94
Sri Dungargarh(132 kV GSS) Line TABLE XVI TRANSMISSION LOSS IN CASE-I AND CASE-III
Sri Dungargarh-Dulchasar Line 7.02 1.18
Sri Dungargarh-Riri Line 12.56 4.27 Particulars Case I Case III
Riri -Upani Line 7.11 1.44 MW loss 1.3842 1.2780

From the simulation study it is observed that reactive


power loading on all four transmission lines and substation The MW losses are reduced from 1.3842 MW to 1.2780
transformers have been reduced in Case-III as compared to MW in Case III as compare to Case I. Transmission loss are
Case-I. reduced by 0.1062 MW. As per studies carried out in the
complete Rajasthan network, total network saving is 2.5 times
that of saving in 132 kV network. Therefore, total saving is
II. Effect on loading on Lines and Transformers approx. 0.2655 MW. Considering 80 percent load factor,
Loading of substation transformers and lines in Case-I and Annual Energy Saving (AES) is determined.
Case-III have been tabulated at Table XIV. Loss load factor (LLF) = 0.3 (LF) + 0.7 (LF) 2 = 0.688 (1)
TABLE XIV LOADING OF TRANSFORMERS AND LINES AES = [0.2655 x8760xLLF/102 LUs/Annum] (2)
MVA Loading AES = 16 LUs/Annum (3)
Particulars
Case-I Case-III
220/132 kV Transformers at 220 kV Sri Dungargarh 155.44 150.40 The annual savings obtained by the installation of
132/33 kV Transformers at 220 kV Sri Dungargarh 31.37 29.00 additional shunt capacitor banks in terms of money is
132/33 kV Transformers at 132 kV Sri Dungargarh 36.77 36.21 presented as lakhs per annum.
132/33 kV Transformers at 132 kV Dulchasar 30.76 30.02
132/33 kV Transformers at 132 kV Riri 26.34 26.05 Annual cost saving = Units Saved X tariff rate (4)
132/33 kV Transformers at 132 kV Upani 28.63 28.00 ACS = (16)X(5) (5)
132 kV S/C Sri Dungargarh(220 kV GSS)- Sri
36.77 36.21 ACS = Rs. 80.00 Lakhs/Annum (6)
Dungargarh(132 kV GSS) Line
132 kV S/C Sri Dungargarh-Dulchasar Line 31.11 30.13
132 kV S/C Sri Dungargarh-Riri Line 55.63 54.35 Cost for installation of one 5.43 MVAR shunt capacitor
132 kV S/C Riri -Upani Line 29.04 28.11 bank is approx. 20 lacs and accordingly, total cost for
From Table XIV it is observed loading on transmission lines installation of four 5.43 MVAR shunt capacitor banks is
and transformers have been decreased in Case-III as compared approx. 80.00 lacs. Therefore, cost of additional shunt
to Case-I which is due to reduction of MVAR flow. This spare capacitor banks will be recovered in the first deployment year.
capacity can be used to meet the increasing demand of VIII. CONCLUSION
respective areas and avoid the augmentation of system.
In this paper, case study of Rajasthan power system has
III. Effect on Voltage been presented and studied to evaluate the impact of optimum
reactive power management at 33 kV voltage level on
Bus voltage in Test System for Case I and III are tabulated transmission losses and other system parameters.
at table XV.
Studies have been carried for existing reactive power
management (Case-I) versus proposed optimal reactive power
management (Case-III). Following are the conclusions of APPENDIX
studies :
16/09/16 MiPower 100.00 2016 S Case : 1 Cont :0 Sch No : 0
BUS DATA FOLLOWS

1. Reactive power loading on transmission lines and 1 SRIDUNG2


2 SRIDUN21
3 DULCHSR1
4 RIRI_1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
0
0
0
1.0182
1.0144
0.9988
1.0015
0.00
-5.02
-6.20
-6.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
150.38
0.00
0.00
0.00
54.68
0.00
0.00
0.00
220.000
132.000
132.000
132.000
1.018 180.278
1.000
1.000
1.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0
0
0
0
5 UPANI1 1 1 0 0.9962 -6.43 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 132.000 1.000 0.000 0.000 0.00 0.00 0
transformers have been reduced in Case-III as compared 6 SRIDUNGR
7 DULCHSR3
8 SRIDUN3
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1.0132
1.0429
1.0522
-5.12
-8.53
-7.20
0.00
-30.00
-29.00
0.00
-18.59
-17.97
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
132.000
33.000
33.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.11
0.11
0
0
0
9 RIRI_3 1 1 0 1.0469 -8.67 -26.00 -16.11 0.00 0.00 33.000 1.000 0.000 0.000 0.00 0.11 0
to Case-I. 10 UPANI_3
11 SRIGUNR3
-999
1
1
1
1
0
0
1.0239
1.0426
-9.38
-8.89
-28.00
-36.00
-17.35
-22.31
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
33.000
33.000
1.000
1.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.00
0.00
0.11
0.16
0
0

BRANCH DATA FOLLOWS


1 2 1 1 1 1 0.00183 0.12389 0.0000100 100 100 1 0 0.975 0.00 0.850 1.100 0.0125 242.00 187.00
2. The loading on transmission lines and transformers have 1
3
3
2 1 1 1 1
7 1 1 1 1
7 1 1 1 1
0.00183
0.00632
0.01392
0.12389
0.23852
0.40336
0.0000100
0.000050
0.000025
100
50
25
100
50
25
1
3
3
0
0
0
0.975
0.947
0.947
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.850
0.848
0.848
1.100
1.045
1.045
0.0125
0.0123
0.0123
242.00
138.00
138.00
187.00
112.00
112.00
2 8 1 1 1 1 0.00632 0.23852 0.000050 50 50 2 0 0.947 0.00 0.848 1.045 0.0123 138.00 112.00
been decreased in Case-III as compared to Case-I which 2
4
4
8 1 1 1 1
9 1 1 1 1
9 1 1 1 1
0.01392
0.01312
0.01327
0.40336
0.39178
0.39618
0.000025
0.000025
0.000025
25
25
25
25
25
25
2
4
8
0
0
0
0.947
0.947
0.947
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.848
0.848
0.848
1.045
1.045
1.045
0.0123
0.0123
0.0123
138.00
138.00
138.00
112.00
112.00
112.00
5 10 1 1 1 1 0.01312 0.38618 0.000025 25 25 5 0 0.959 0.00 0.848 1.045 0.0123 138.00 112.00
is due to reduction MVAR flow on lines and 5
6
6
3
10 1 1 1 1
11 1 1 1 1
11 1 1 1 1
2 1 1 1 0
0.01312
0.01488
0.01312
0.03258
0.40179
0.41693
0.39178
0.07756
0.000025
0.000025
0.000025
0.017871
25
25
25
90
25
25
25
90
5
6
6
0
0
0
0
0
0.959
0.959
0.959
0.000
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.848
0.848
0.848
0.000
1.045
1.045
1.045
0.000
0.0123
0.0123
0.0123
0.0000
138.00
138.00
138.00
0.00
112.00
112.00
112.00
0.00

transformers. This spare capacity can be used to meet the 2


4
2
-999
4 1 1 1 0
5 1 1 1 0
6 1 1 1 0
0.01536
0.01164
0.00242
0.03656
0.02770
0.00576
0.008471
0.006471
0.001371
90
90
90
90
90
90
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

increasing demand of respective areas and avoid the LOSS ZONES FOLLOWS
1 Zone1
-99

augmentation of system. INTERCHANGE DATA FOLLOWS


0
-9
1 SwingName 0.0 1.0 AreaCo AreaName

TIE LINES FOLLOW

3. It is seen that network voltage profile in Case-III is better 0


-999
0

END OF DATA
0 0 0

than Case-I.
4. MW losses are significantly reduced in Case III as
compare to Case I.
5. Cost of additional shunt capacitor banks have been
recovered in one year due to energy saving.

REFERENCES
[1] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, Tata McGraw Hill
publications, New Delhi, 2007.
[2] http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.ELC.LOSS.ZS
[3] MI-Power simulation software Developed by PRDC Pvt. Ltd.,
Bangalore, [Online] http://www.prdcinfotech.com/products.html.
[4] [Online]: http://energy.rajasthan.gov.in, Energy Portal Government of
Rajasthan,
[5] Yan Xu, Zhao Yang Dong, Kit Po Wong, Evan Liu, Benjamin Yue,
Optimal Capacitor Placement to Distribution Transformers for Power
Loss Reduction in Radial Distribution Systems, Published in IEEE
Transactions on Power Systems, Volume:28, Issue:4, Nov.2013
[6] Young Jin Kim, James L. Kirtley, Leslie K. Norford, Reactive Power
Ancillary Service of Synchronous DGs in Coordination With Voltage
Control Devices, Published in IEEE Transactions on Smart
Grid,Sept.2015, Issue 99.
[7] Z.Hu, X. Wamg, H. Chen, G.A. Taylor, Volt/VAr control in
distribution systems using a time-interval based approach, Published in
IEE Proceedings- Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Vol: 150,
Issue:5, 15 Sept. 2003, Pages 548-554.
[8] A.A. Sallam, M. Desouky, Shunt capacitor effect on electrical
distribution system reliability, published in IEEE Transactions on
Reliability, Vol. 43, Aug.,2002, P.No. 170-176.
[9] G.Vamsi Krishna Kartheek, An improved system operation for better
voltage stability and reduced losses, Published in Innovative Smart
Grid Technologies-India, 2011 IEEE PES, 1-3 Dec. 2011.
[10] Rajasthan Electricity Regulatory Commission Grid Code, Jaipur, (As
per Electricity Act, 2003),
[Online]: http://www.rvpn.co.in/aboutus/GridCode-01.pdf.
[11] B.R.Gupta, Power System Analysis and Design.