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digitized by www.sreyas.in
digitized by www.sreyas.in
1

{InkvXp-aX
- t- O-Z\w

N-n-kzm-an-I

digitized by www.sreyas.in
2 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

digitized by www.sreyas.in
3

Cu {K-s-n

{ioaZv hnZym-\--Xo-]m-Z
{_no-jp-Im-cpsS `cWw h-tmgpw ]mXn-cn-{]-m\w
({InkvXy) ]qm-[nIw in-s-Sp-I-Xs sNbvXp. t{Xm-
cm-[-\bvp t]mIp `-m-cmb lnp-sf XS-p-\nn
]nim-Nns\ sXmgm t]mI-cp-sXpw kXy-ssZ-h-amb ssZhs
hniz-knv X-fpsS aX-n tNc-W-sapw ]mXn-cn-am ss[cy-
ambn {]kvXm-hn-p-am-bn-cp-p. Ah-cpsS {]Jym-]-\s FXnp-
-Xnt\m \ncp-m-l-s-Sp-p--Xnt\m Av lnp--fn Bcpw-
Xs aptm-p-h-n-. B Npp-]m-Sn-emWv ]c-a-`-mc {io N-n-
kzm-an-I jp-J-Zm-k F t]cp-shv {InkvXp-a-X-t-Z-\-sa
]pkv X Iw FgpXn A- S n- nv {]kn- - s - S p- n- b - X v . CXv
1070mamn\n-Sbvv Bbn-cpp Fm-W-dn-hv. Gp-am-\q D-h-
n\p IqSp lnp-sf kphn-ti-j{- ]-kwKw tIn-m Av
tIm-b - p-\np {InkvXy anj-\d - n-am Gp-am-\q t{X-ns
apn hcnI ]Xn-hm-bn-cp-p. A-s\-bp L-n Imfn-bm-
\oe-I-WvT-]n F am\ys\ {InkvXp-a-X-t-Z\w FgpXn
sImSpp ]Tn-nv Gp-am-\q t{X-]-cn-k-c-nshv BZy-
ambn kzman Xncp-h-Sn-I {]kw-Kn-n-p. XpSv Sn. \oe-I-WvT-n-
bpw Icphm Irjv W - \ m- i m\pw tIc- f - s am- pp k- c nv
{InkvXp-a-X-t-Z-\-nse Bi-b- {]N-cn-nv ]mXn-cn-{]-m-
\s Ipsd-sbmw kvXw`n-n-p.
am\-kn-I-]-cn-h-\w-sIm--, euIn-I-{]-tem-`-\-sIm-
mWv lnp-h-ns lcn-P-\-fpw apw {InkvXp-a-X-n-
tep amdm \ncm-b-sXv Cu {]kvXm-h-\-sImv a\-n-
em-m-hp--Xm-W-tm. aX-{]-Nm-c-t-m kzk-ap-Zmb hnIm-k-
amWv {InkvXp-a-X-{]-Nm-c-I-m-cpsS ey-sa-p-IqSn \ymb-ambn
Duln-m-hp--Xm-Wv. Cs\ lnp- A\y-a-X-ns t]cn

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4 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

A\y-k-ap-Zm-b--fn ebn-p--Xn\v As kh-ln-p-


fpw Ipsd-sbmw Imc-W-m-cm-bn-cpp Fp--Xn\v Nne kqN-
\-I.... ]q-]o-Tn-I-bn kzman-Xn-cp-h-Sn-I Dt-J\w sNbvXn-
pv.
..........-{In-kvXp-a-Xs JWvUn--W-sap am{X-a B aX-
nse Xz- lnp-fpw a\-n-em-p-I-bpw, AXpw lnp-a-
Xhpw Xn Xmc-X-ay-]-T\w sN-W-sa-pw-IqSn ]c-a-`-mc {io
N-n-kzm-an-Xn-cp-h-Sn-I B {K-{]-kn-o-I-c-Ww-sIm-p-t-in-n-
cp-p. AXn-\m B {K-ns Hmw-`mKw {InkvXp-a-X-km-c-
am-bnpw cmw `mKw {InkvXp-a-X-\n-cq-]-W-am-bn-p-amWv At-l-
sa-gp-Xn-b-Xv. ss__n-fn AS-n-bn-cn-p {InkvXp-a-X-X-z--
fpsS Npcpw `wKn-bmw-hw {InkvXp-a-X-km-c-n Atlw AS-
n-bn-p-v.
`mc-Xob Zmi-\nI ZrjvSn-bnIqSn B Xz-sf \ncq-]Ww
sNbvI-bmWv cmw-`m-K-n sNbvXn-cn-p--Xv. As
{InkvXym-\n-I-fn `qcn-]--n\pw {InkvXp-a-X-X-z--sf-p-dnv
icn-bmb t_m[-an-m-bn-cp-p. ss__n-fnse Iptd IY-Ifpw D]-
tZ-i-fpw ImWmsX ]Tn-pI am{Xta Aq- Ap sNbvXn-
cp-p-q. AXp-sImv {InkvXp-a-X-nse knm--fpw BNm-
cm-\p-jvTm-\-{I-a-fpw Ahp a\-n-em-m km[n-n-cp-n-.
AXn-\m {InkvXp-a-X-kmcw Ahp-IqSn hfsc {]tbm-P-\-sp
FmWv ]d-b-s-Sp--Xv. AXp-t]mse As tIc-f-nse
lnp--fn hf-sc-b-[nIw t]pw lnp-a-X-X-z-fpw Adn-
bp-hm ]mSn-m-bn-cp-p.... anj-\-dn-am lnp-a-X-X-z-sf \ncq-
]-Ww-sNbvXp \nn-p-tm AXn\p kam-[m\w ]d-bp-hm
As lnp-k-ap-Zm-b-n\v Aev]w-t]mepw Ign-hn-m-bn-cp-p....
AXn-\m lnp-a-X-t_m-[-ap-m-p-hm-\pw, ]mXn-cn-am-cpsS hmZ-
p kap-Nn-X-amb adp-]Sn ]dv Ah-cpsS aXw am{Xta
kXyhpw ]cn-ip--hp-am-bn-pq F hmZs XIm-\p-amWv
{io N-n-kzman Xncp-h-Sn-I {ian--Xv.
AXn-\p-thn Ahn-Spp Xnc-s-Sp-Xv Imfn-bm- \oe-
I-WvT-n--tbbpw Icphm IrjvW-\m-im-t\-bp-am-Wv..... Xncp-hn-Xmw-
Iq-dn tIm-b- p-\nv hS-tmv \oe-IW
- vT
- n-bpw tIm-b - p-
\nv sXtmv IrjvW-\m-im\pw aX-{]-kw-K-n\p \ntbm-Kn--

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{InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w 5

s-p. lnp-a-X-s-p-dnp {]kw-Kn-p-Ibpw B Xz--fnepw


ssl-h-]p-cm-W-I-Y-I-fnepw {InkvXy ]mXn-cn-am ]pd-s-Sp-hn-
m-dp Bt-] - p kap-Nn-Xa - mb kam[m\w ]cv lnp-
a-X-ssh-injvSyw m]n-p-I-bm-bn-cpp B {]kw-K--fnse ]cn-
]m-Sn.....
[{ioaZv Xo-]m-Z]- c
- a
- l - zm-an-I Hmw `mKw {InkvXy
- w-kk
]mXn-cn-am-cpsS aX-]-cn-h-\-kw-cw`w F Aym-bw.]

ap ]-\m-`
D]-tZ-in-am-cpsS lnp-a-X-hn-tZz-j-{]-kwKw tIv Zp-l-\m-
bn, bpn-hm-Zn-I-fn A{K-K-Wy-\mb N-n-kzm-an-I {InkvXp-
a-X-t-Z\w Fsmcp hninjvS {K-sa-gpXn {]kn-o-I-cn-t-n-
h-n-p-v. AXns\ ASn-m-\-amn Icphm IrjvW-\m-im
Fsmcp Cugh- { ]- a m- W nbpw Imfn- b m- \oe- I - W v T - n
Fsmcp \mb{]-am-Wnbpw ]e {]kw-K- sNbvXn-p-v. Ah-
cpsS {]kw-K- D]-tZ-in-amsc HmSn----Xm-bn-cp-p.
(Fs Pohn-X-kva-c-W-I, 213, 214 t]Pp-I)

t_mt[-iz-c
Cu cmPys {InkvXp-a-X-{]-Nm-cWw kzman-bn-ep-m-n-bn-
p {]Xym-Lm-X--sf-m-sWv Adn-b-W-sa-p--h {InkvXp-
a-X-t-Z\w Hp hmbn-n-cn-t--Xm-Wv. `mc-X-ns kwkvIm-
c-tbpw XZzmcm `mc-X-tbpw kwc-n--W-sa-p--hv Cu
cmPyv hntZ-io-ba - X
-
- sf ASn-t-ev]n-p-hm sNp {]h-
\--fn ka-Nn--X-tbmsS Ign-p-t]m-Ip-hm Hp--X--tm.
kzman-bpsS Adn-b-s-n-cp Imev cNn--s Cu IrXn ({In-
kvXp-a-X-t-Z-\w) `mc-Xob Zmi-\n-I-m-cpsS ho-W-tIm-Sn-
bnqSn Hcp aX-{]-am-Ws kao-]n-p k{-Zm-b-ns--
Xm-Wv. Fm Icphm IrjvW-\m-im Imfn-bm- XpS-nb
injy-k - a-
- m B hgn-p aX-JW - vU\ - {- ]-h-\
- Gs-
Spv D{K-X-c-am-n-s-bvXn-cpp Fv F\nv a\-n-em-p-hm
kwK-Xn-bm-bn-p-v. shfn-bn\n-p bmsXmcp t_m[-\-fpw
e`n-m-\n-m-Xn-cp Hcp Ime-L--n lnp-p-th-Xv

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6 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

Fm-sW--dn-bp-hm kzmanv (N--n-kzm-an-Iv) Dm-bn-cp


Ign-hp-Isf th-h th-X-c-n I-dn-nm Fp-Xv
hninjym {]kvXm-hn--W-sa-n--tm.
({io N-n-kzman iXm-_vZ-kvam-cI {Kw:
hymk\pw i-c-\pw)

{io. sI. `mkvI-c-]n


Cu {K-\nn-Xn-bn tZzj-_pn Zin Hcp kwi-bm-
ep-hn\v Ahn-Spp (N--n-kzm-an-I) \Inb adp-]Sn CXmWv:
{InkvXp-a-X-Zi\w A\p-k-cnp am{X-amWv Rm AXns\
tOZn-n-p--Xv. Fm-n-s\bpw ]cn-tim-[n--W-sapw \-Xns\
apdp-sI-n-Sn--W-sapw DXv Ah-cpsS {]am-W-am-Wv. AXp-
t]mse Rm\pw ]cn-tim-[n-p. Hcp hkvXp-hns A`m-Kv
InS- p- - h sb ]cn- t im- [ n- - W - s a- n tOZn- msX Fm
\nhrn? _oPw Is--W-sa-n ^ew s]mnv sXmp-amn
t\m-Ww. AXp-sImv Rm As\ sNbvXp. Fs tOZ\w
A[nIw D]-Im-c-ambn `hn-Xv Ahm-Wv. X-ms\ Adn-bm
AXp ]epw D]-Im-c-sp Fv Nne {InkvXy kvt\ln-X-
m FtmSv ]d-n-p-v.
................................-{In-kvXp-aX
- X
-
- z-sf {]m[m-\y-a\
- p-kc
- nv hc-
nv Xncnv tIhew 21 ]pd--fn HXpn \ndp-n-bn-cn-p
{InkvXp-a-X-kmcw B aX-ns cXv\-p-cp--am-Wv. B `mKs
{InkvXob ]ptcm-ln-X-mcpw ap-IWvTw {]iw-kn-n-p-v.
(N--n-kzm-an-I t]Pv 47, 48

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7

]q]o-TnI
Atbm alm-P-\-sf! Fs Cu D]-{Iaw {InkvXp-a-X-
ns Xzs Gg-I-fm-bn-cn-p P\--fpsS lrZ-b-n
[cn-n-p--Xn-\m-Ip-p. {InkvXp-a-X--cmb ]mXn-cn-am apX-emb
Hmtcmtcm Ipnw-`-cn-I \psS lnp-a-X-tbpw Cuiz-c-t\bpw
{ipXn, kvarXn apX-emb B]vX-hm-Iy--tfbpw \ymbw IqSmsX
Zpjnpw Am-\-Ip-Tm-cw, {Xnaqn-e--Ww, Ipcp-p-h-gn, adp-
P-w, kKp-cp-em-`w, kXy-m-t\m-Z-bw, ka-b-]-co-, imkv{Xw,
]pten IpwNp apX-emb Zqj-W-]p-kvX-I-sf A-Sn-nv
{]knw sNbvXp-sImv km[p-fpw A-mcp-amb ]pe-b
Nmm ]d-b apX-emb lnp--fpsS a\-ns\ sXmn, Ipmbw
apX-em-b-Xp-Isf sImSpp abn t`Zn-nv kza-X-am-n
Gs-Spn \c-I-n\p ]m{Xo-`-hn-n-p--Xns\ \mw Ipw
tIp-an-cp-p-sImv Cu alm-]m-X-I-ns\ XSbm bmsXmcp
Ignhpw km-Zn-msX AS-n-bn-cn-p-Xv Aev]hpw DNn-X-a-
sp am{X-a-, Cu DZm-ko-\-X-bn shv lnp--fn CXp-hsc
An-semcp `mK-tmfw P\- Cu A]-I-S-n-e-I-s-p-t]m-
Ip--Xn\pw, taepw Cu IjvSX {]Nm-c-s-Sp-p--Xn\pw AXp-\n-
anw \appw \psS k-Xn-Ipw sFln-Im-ap-{Xn-I--fmb
At\-I-^-e-v XSw kw`-hn-p--Xn\pw kwK-Xn-bmbn
Xon-cn-p-p. Cu nXnv \psS lnp--fn-ep ]WvUn-
X-m Fm-t]cpw kzIm-cy-ns hy{Knv Ime-t]w
sNmsX A\nhm-Ny-a-ln-bp-sSbpw AXy--]p-Wy-n-sbpw
irwKm-S-I-am-bn-cn-p Cu ]tcm-]-Im-c-nqSn kz]w ZrjvSn-
h-n-cp-p-sh-n Cu Pt\m-]-{Zhw F{Xtbm Ffp--n Zqco-`-
hn-p--Xn\pw AXp-\n-anw At\-I-Po-h-m CutemI-]-c-tem-
I--fn kpJn-p--Xn\pw kwK-Xn-bm-Ip-sa-p-Xv Rm ]d-
b-W-sa-n--sm, t`m! t`m! alm-m-sc, CXn-t\-m al--c-
ambn thsd bmsXmcp ]pWy-hp-an-s-mWv Fs D-a-hn-izm-kw.
Fs-m {hXw, Zm\w, P]w, bP-\w, Ay-b\w apX-emb ]pWy-

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8 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

Xmm--fpsS kpJ-n-\p-am-{X-sa--msX A\y-mv


A{X-Xs ^e-{]-Za - m-sWv hnNm-cn-p-ptm? A-s\-bm
Cu ]pWyw X\npw Xs km-\-pw A\y-mpw
hninjym {InkvXp-a-X-sm-Spw-Ip-gn-bnsv IjvS-s-Sp s]cp-
m-]n-Ip-t]mepw kw_-n-p--Xm-Ip-p. hnti-jnv ae-bm-
fn-I-fmb lnp- Cu kwK-Xnsb Atijw Btem-Nn-m-sX,
Ah-cpsS ]mSv Ahv, \psS Imcyw \ap-v, Fn-s\ hnNm-
cnv Poh-Im-cpWyw IqSmsX AS-n-bn-cn-p-Xv Cuiz-c-tIm-]-
n\v apJy-amb Imc-W-a-tbm? lnp--fmb alm-msc! \n
C\nsb-nepw AS-n-bn-cn-msX Ah-ch - c
- psS in-p-X
- h
- w
hnZy-sImtm [\w-sImtm Ign-bp-Xpw Dm-lnv Cu {InkvXp-
a-X-Zp-cm-Nm-c-sf \nhr-n-n-p-hm Xp\n-bp-sav Rm hniz-
kn-p-p. Atijw [\-]p-jvSnbpw ap-ap-m-bn- Fs Cu D]-
{I-aw. ]ns-tbm, Am-d--\pw Xm-em-bXv F ]g-sam-gn-
tbbpw Dm-ln\w ]pcp-j-knw-l-ap-ss]Xn evaox F k-
\-hN- \- s
- bpw A\p-kc - nv Cu Imcy-n Fm Ign-bp-Xpw
Dm-ln-m Xm-dm-b-Xm-Wv. B Dm-l-ns ]q-]o-Tn-I-
bm-bn-mWv Rm {InkvXp-aX - t- -Z\
- s
- a Cu ]pkvXI- s FgpXn
C{]-Imcw {]knw sNp-am-dmnbXv. Cu D]-\ym-k - n bpn-
\ym-b-tm atm h `wKhpw hn-p-s-n AXns\ ]cn-
jvI-cn-p-Xp Xs alm-m-cmb \n-fpsS A\p-{K-l-sap
hniz-knv Cu ]pkvX-Is \n-fpsS Znhy-k-n-[n-bn kan-
p-sIm-p-p.
j-p-J-Zm-k

digitized by www.sreyas.in
9

inh-abw

{InkvXp-a-X-kmcw
]Xn-{]-I-cWw

ssZh-ns cq]w
A\mZy\-\n-Xy-\mbn, hym]-I-\mbn, kzX-{-\mbn, Acq-]-
\mbn, Ahn-Im-cn-bm-bn, kXyw, m\w, AS-w, \ymbw, Ir],
\, ta, \ndhv apX-emb Znhy-Kp-W - t- fm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bh
- \
- mbn ]nXmhv,
]p{X, ]hn-{Xm-mhv Fp aqp-t]-cmb Hcp-h-\m-Ipp ssZhw.
Ah-cn ]nXm-hn\p btlmhm Fpw ]p{X\p {InkvXp Fpw
tbip Fpw ]hn-{Xm-m-hn\p ]cn-ip--Bhn Fpw IqSn \ma-
Dv. (k-o\w 90A, 2-hm. bdan 23--A, 24--hm.
atmkv 10 A. 27 hm. 1 Xnsam-sY-bpkv 6-A. 15--hm. ko\w
102--A. 27--hm. shfn-]mSv 1-A. 8-hm. 1-\m-fm-Kaw 28--A. 9-hm.
BZn. 17--A. 1-hm. ]pdmSv 15--A. 12--hm. ko\w 145A. 17-
-hm. ]pd-mSv 34--A. 6-hm. ambn 28--A. 19--hm. Bh-\-]p-
kvXIw 32--A. 4-hm. Sn. 33--A. 27--hm.) krjvSn, nXn, kwlm-
cw, \n{K-lw, A\p-{Klw Ch-I-fm-Ipp ssZh-Ir-Xy-. A\m-
Zy-\mb ssZhw BZyw-Xs IrXyw sNp-hm Cn-p. ]c-a-WvU-
e-n- ssZh-Zq-X - msc krjvSn-pIbpw Ah-cn X\nv hntcm-
[n-I-fmb Nnesc ]nim-Np--fmn \c-I-n Ccn----hw
\nb-an-bpw sNbvXp. (b-lq-Zm. 6-sh-fn-]mSv 12--A. 9-hm.) ]noSv
`qan-sbbpw BIm-i-sbpw Hmw-Zn-hkw Hfn-sbbpw cmw-Zn-
hkw shfn-sbbpw Pe-cq-]--fmb taL--sfbpw aqmw-Zn-hkw
an\npw mh-c-Po-h-m-scbpw \memw-Zn-hkw alm-{]-Im-i-
I--fmb \-{X--sfbpw Amw-Zn-hkw Pe-n Pe-N-c--
sfbpw Bdmw-Zn-hkw \m\m-hn[ arK--sfbpw krjvSn-p. A\-
cw B Znh-kw-Xs Xs kzcq-]-am-bnv a\p-jys\ krjvSn--

digitized by www.sreyas.in
10 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

W-sap k-ev]n-p-sImv a\p-jys\ Dmn aqns Zzmcw-


h-gn-bm-bnp Poh-izm-ks DuXn--bn Ahs\ Pohm-m-thm-Sp-
Iq-Sn-b-h-\m-n. ]noSv B a\p-jys ico-c-q-dn\nv Hcp
kv{Xosb-qSn Dm-p-Ibpw B BZn-a-a-\p-jysc Gjym-J-WvU-
nse Xpepv tZi-p GZ-s\ ep \nn--s
tXm-n Ccp-n. krjvSn-Im-e-p-Xs a\p-jy-tcmSv \n
kXntbmSp-IqSn ]e hwi-m-cmbn `qan-bn \ndv AXn-ep
kI-e-h-kvXp--sfbpw ]cn-]m-en-n Fv Bioh-Zn-p-Ibpw
a\p-jyp mh-c-Po-h-msc t`mP-\-am-bnv \nb-an-p-Ibpw GZ-
\n-ep tXm-n Imp-\np the sNp--Xn\pw tXm-n-
ep kI-e-hn[ hr--fpsS ]g-sf `n-p-sIm-p-hm\pw
Bm-]n-p-I-bpw, tXm-ns \Sp-p KpW-tZm-j-sf
Adn-hn-p hr-ns I\nsb `n-c - p-sXp hne-pIbpw,
`n-pp Fn B Znh-k-ns acn-p-sa in
]d-Ibpw sNbvXp. ssZhs D]-N-cn, i\n-hm-c-\n-b-aw, krjvSn-
Ip-]-N-cn-, hn[n--Xns\ sNp-I, hne-nb I\nsb XyPn:
C{X-bp-am-Ipp BZn-a-\p-jyp \nb-an--s aXw. Ah
AhnsS A{]-Im-c-an-cn-p-tm ]nim-Nm-[n-]-Xn-bmb kw hv
hne--s hr-ns I\nsb `n-m acn Cm Fpw
\b- \ - { ]- I m- i hpw KpW- t Zm- j - m- \ hpw Dm- I p- s apw B
kv{XotbmSp ]d-p. A\-cw B ]gw Xonp ckhpw ImgvN
bvv `wKn-bp-Xpw _pnsb sXfn-bn-p-X - p-am-Ip-p Fp I
B kv{Xobpw, Ah sImSp-nv B a\p-jy\pw `n-p. AXp-
sImv Ahv \b-\-tim` Dm-Ip-Ibpw Atms Ah
\-cm-bnv Ccn-p-I-bm-sW--dnv An Ce-Isf Xbvv Ac-
bn sIn-sm-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. A\-cw ]I Ah-km-\n--
tm tXm-n k-cn-p-hc - p btlm-hb - psS i_vZs tIv
Ah tZh-k-n-[m-\-n\np amdn ac--fp-sS-bn-S-bn Hfnn-
cn-p-Ibpw Atm btlmh a\p-jys\ hnfnv \o FhnsS
Fp tNmZn-bpw AXn-\-h Rm \-\m-I-sImv `b-sv
Hfn-n-cn-pp F adp-]Sn ]d-Ibpw Atm btlmh \ns
\-s\v Bc-dn-bnp? \o hnenb I\nsb Xntm Fp tNmZn-
bpw Ftm-Sp-IqSn Ccp-nb kv{Xo Xp Rm AXns\
`np. Fv ]d-bp-Ibpw btlmh kv{XotbmSv \o FmWv
Cs\ sNbvXXv? Fp tNmZn-bpw Ah k-ns
h\ tlXp-hm-bnp Rm Xnp-t]m-b-XmWv Fp-]-d-Ibpw,

digitized by www.sreyas.in
{InkvXp-a-X-kmcw 11

btlmh ks t\mn, \o C{]-Imcw sNbvX-Xp-sImv Fm


arK-P-p--sf-mfpw Ghpw i]n--sv Poh-]-cyw hb-dp-sIm-
n-gv ap-Xnp t]mIpw. AXp-Iq-Sm-sXbpw \n\pw Cu
kv{Xopw \ns k-Xnpw Xn i{Xp-X-bp-m-Ipw. AXp-
sImv \ns Xesb NX-bvpw. \o AXns IpXn-Im-ens\
NXbvpw Fpw, ]noSv kv{Xosb t\mn \o A[n-I-th-Z-\-
tbm-Sp-IqSn Ipn-Isf {]k-hn-p-Ibpw \ns `m-hns Iogn
Ccn-p-Ibpw Ah \ns ]cn-]m-en-p-I-bpw, sNp-sapw
]noSv a\p-jys\ t\mn \o \nanw `qan i]n--s-p. AXp
\n\v C\n app-sN-Sn-I-sfbpw app-a-c--sfbpw apf-n-p-sa-
pw, \o Poh-]-cyw ti-sp `qan-bn-ep kky-sf hnbp-
ap-J-tm-Sp-IqSn Xnp amb \o ans tNcp-sap ]d-
bp-Ibpw sNbvXp. (B-Zy-]p-kvXIw 2w 3w A.)
btlmhm ]nsbpw B BZn-a-\p-jy-cpsS km-\-cq-]-ambnp
Xs Bm-sf krjvSn-p-p. AXp-sImv hne--sXns\
sNbvX B BZn-a-\p-jycpw Ah-cpsS ip-tim-Wn-X-n \npw
P\n-p kI-e-a-\p-jycpw ]m]n-I-fm-bn-op. ]m]w tlXp-
hm-bnp ZpxJ-ap-m-bn. (tdm-am. 5-A. 12-19 hm. ko.51 A.5--hm)
btlmhm C{]-Imcw Bm-sf krjvSnv Xm\m-{K-ln
Imew-h-scbpw ico-c-tm-Sp-IqSn Pohn-n-cn----hw nXn
sNbvXv nXn-bpsS Ah-km-\v kwl-cn-p-p. Ah-cn
X\np hntcm-[n-If
- mb Aip- - msc \n{K-ln-p-Ibpw Xs hniz-
knp hgn-s-Sp `-m-cmb ip-msc A\p-{K-ln-p-Ibpw
sNpw.
(k-o. 103--A. 19--hm. ]t{Xmkv 3--A. 10--hm. ambn 25--A.
46--hm.)

Poh-e-Ww
D-n-m-ev btlm-h-bm ip-kz-cq-]-am-bnp krjvSn-
-s--h-cmbn BZy\--\n-Xy-m-cmbn Ahym-]-I-m-cmbn kzmh-
[n-]-cyw kzX-{-m-cmbn Acq-]-m-cmbn a\-m-Ip kw_--
km-[-\-tmSp IqSn-b-h-cmbn Nn, Adn-hv, kvt\lw, tZzjw,
bXv\w, kpJw, ZpxJw F KpW- D-h-cm-bn-cn-p tNX-
\-m-ct{X Poh-m-cm-Ip--Xv. B Poh-m-cn krjvSn- ap-X ]m]w

digitized by www.sreyas.in
12 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

sNm-Xn-cn-p--h-cmb tZh-Zq-X-mcpw ]m]-n\np ths]--


h-cmb ap-mcpw ip-Po-h-m-scpw X-fmepw X-fpsS
]qn-I-m-cmepw km-Zn--s ]m]-tm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-h Aip--
Po-h-m-scpw, ]d-bsSpw. (B-Zy-]p-kvXIw 27. tbm_v. 33 A. 4
hm. 32 A. 8 hm. ambn 10 A. 28--hm., eqtmkv 24--A. 39--hm.
tbm_v. 35--A. 10--hm., {]kw-K-m-c 12--A. 7-hm.)
Poh-m X-fpsS ]m]-Iw tlXp-hm-bnp \n{K-l-^-
es {]m]n--sImv kzX-{-m-cm-Ipp Fnepw kzIo-b-]p-
Wy-Iw-sImv A\p-{K-l-^-es {]m]n-m--Xn-\m ]c-X-
{-m-cp-am-Ip-p.

]mi-\n-cq-]Ww
BZy-a - p-X- mbpw A\n-Xy-ambpw tZh-\n-baw D-tm A\-
-\n-Xy-am-Ip--Xmbpw Ahym-]-I-ambpw ]c-X-{-ambpw C{n-b-hn-
j-b-ambpw hnIm-cn-bmbpw AtN-X-\-ambpw Ccn-p PU-h-kvXp-
hm-Ipp ]miw. AXv Imcy-]m-is - apw ZpjvI-]m-is - apw cp
hn[-am-bn-cn-pw. Ah-bn ssZh-n-\m D]m-Zm-\I - m-cW- w-Iq-SmsX
krjvSn-s - PU-]Z- mw Imcy-]m-iw. AXm-Is ]rYn-hn, Pew,
hmbp, tXP-v Fv `qX-hm-Ny--fm-Ip {Zhy-fpw KpW-fpw
I--fp-am-Ipp. B Imcy-]m-iw-Xs ip-sapw Aip--
sapw cv hn[-am-bn-cn-pw. Ah-bn ip-]m-i-sa-Xv krjvSn-
-s--am-Xn-cn-bns Ccn-p kz-a-WvUew apX-em-b-h-
bpw, Aip-] - m-is- a-Xv krjvSn-X
- ns tijw Poh-m-cpsS ]m]w
tlXp-hm-bnv tZmj-s `qan apX-em-b-hbpw BIp-p. C\n
ZpjvI-]m-i-sa-Xv Poh-mv hn[n--s Is sNm-
bvI-sImpw hne--s--Xns\ sNbvI-sImpw Dmb hmk-\m-
cq-]hpw ip-tim-Wn-X-h-gn-bpsS k-Xn-bn sNp-Xpw ]cn-ip-
nsb sISp-p-Xpw ab-s sNp-Xpw `bw, tiw, hym[n,
aqv, acWw Fn-h-Isf Dm-p-Xpw ZpxJ-km-[-\hpw _en-Zm-
\-m ]cn-l-cn--s-Sp-Xpw ]cn-l-cn--s-Sm nXnv
\nXy-\-c-I-th-Z-\bvv Imc-Whpw PU-Kp-Whpw Bbn-cn-p ]m]-
I-am-Ip-p. AXpw P-]m-]-sapw, I-]m-]-sa-pw cp-
hn[w. C\n ]m]-am-Ip-Xv tZh-hm-Iys hniz-kn-m--Xm-
sWpw tZh-hn-[nsb ewLn-p-X - m-sWpw {]tXyIw {]tXyIw
A`n-{]m-b-s-Sp ]-mcpw Dv. ss__nim-kv{X-n

digitized by www.sreyas.in
{InkvXp-a-X-kmcw 13

kv]jvS-ambn ]d-b-s-Sm hnj-b-pw hymJym-Xm--m


Hmtcmtcm k-ev-{]-Imcw Ah-\-hs t]mn\p X-hw A`n-
{]m-b-sv At\ym\yw ae-bvp-Ibpw sNp-p-v.

Poh-IrXyw
ico-cn-I-fmbn P\n Bm- P-]m-]-hm-k-\m-tl-Xp-hm-
bnp Zpcn--tbm-Sp-IqSn tap-ta ]m]-sf sNpw. Nne Nne
]pWy-sbpw sNbvsXv ht-mw. Fnepw Cuiz-tc-m-{]-Im-
i-\-amb ss__nt_m-[-ap-mbn _-a--h am{Xta apn-km-
[-\m-k---m-cmbpw ]pWy-Ir-p--fmbpw `hn-q.

Poh-t`mKw
Bm- Ctm {]b-Xv\nv tZh-Nn--{]-Imcw kpJ--Zpx-
J-sf A\p-`-hn-pw. Cl-n ]m]w-sN-bvX-hcpw apn-km-[-
t\m-]m-b-k-mZyw IqSmsX ]pWyw sNbvX-hcpw ]c-n \nXy-
\-c-Is {]m]nv Ah-km-\-an-m ZpxJs A\p-`-hn-pw.
krjvSn-p-]n]v 4005 h-c-ti-jw, ]nXm-hv, ]p{X, ]hn-
{Xm-mhv F-h-cn, ]p{X-\mb {InkvXp `qan-bn Gjym-J-WvU-
n Xpep--tZ-iv Im\m-s\ \mn tbmtkv F-h\p
`mcy-bm-bnp \nb-an--s acym F-h-fpsS hb-n ]hn-{Xm-
m-hn-\m Dm--s K`-]n-WvU-n h-I-sv, a\p-jy-
Xzhpw ssZh-Xzhpw D-h-\mbn P\np hfv ]WvUn-X-m-tcmSv
{]kw-Kn-p-\-Sv 30 hb-n tbmhmt\mSv (tbm-l-m-t\m-Sv)
kv\m\-tav ]hn-{Xm-m-hns Bth-ihpw knnv 40 Znh-kw-h-
scbpw Imn `Ww IqSmsX Ccpv ]nim-Nn-\m ]co-n--
sv a\p-jysc hn ]nim-Nns\ Xm Pbnv Ap-X-sf
sNbvXv a\p-jy ewLn I]-\-Isf Xm A\p-jvTn-p- Im-Wnv
aX-t_m-[I-
- m-cmb Atm-kvXe -
- mtc Bm-]nv, Gs-Spn
m\-m-]I - k
- w-kvIm-c
- sf \nb-anv a\p-jy-cpsS kIe ]m]-
-sfbpw Xm Gp-sImv Ah-c-\p-`-hn-t--Xmb thZ-\-Isf
XmXs A\p-`-hnpsImv Ipcn-in Xd-bv-sv k-]m-]-
_-en-bmbn acnp aqmw Znhkw Dbns-gp-tv kz-a-WvU-
e-n Ibdn ]nXm-hmb btlm-h-bpsS hep hi-n-cn-pp.

digitized by www.sreyas.in
14 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

{InkvXp-hn-\m sN-s _en-Zm-\-amb tZh-]pWyw am{Xta


apn-km-[-\-ambpw {InkvXp-hn-s\-p-dn-p ]cn-]q-hn-izmkw
Hp-am-{Xta Poh-mv tZh-]p-Wy-^ew knn-p-X - n-tev D]m-
b-ambpw `hn-q. apn-km-[-t\m-]m-b-ambn hnizm-k-ap-n-Sp
kXyw, \oXn, Zb apX-emb Poh-]p-Wy- \nb-X-Imcyw am{X-am-
bn-cn-pw. Ah-I IS-a-bm-I-sImv _en-bm-I-bn--Xm-\pw.
tZh-]p-Wy-{]-km-Z, ^e, m]-I-n-te-p-thn {InkvXp-
hn-\m cp-hI kwkvIm-c- \nb-an--s-p. Ah kv\m\hpw
\I- c p- W bpw BIp- p. kv \ m\- s a- Xv a\- ns\ Xncn-
pXntepw ]m]-ip-npw tlXp-hmb {InkvXp-hns Ir]-
sb-p-dn-p Hmbvv AS-bm-f-anv {XntZ-h-\m-a-tm-Sp-Iq-Snb
Pew-sIm-p kv\m\-am-Ip-p. CXns\ Aev]w t`Z-s-Spn
kzoI-cn-p A`n-{]m-b-m-cp-ap-v. \I-cp-W-sb-Xv ]m]-_-
en-bmb {InkvXp-hns amwk-csf-p-dn-p Hm-bvp-
thn AS-bm-f-anp `n-p Ahpw {Zmm-c-khpw BIp-p.
kv\m\w enwKm-{K-N-t-Z-\-n\p ]I-chpw \I-cpW \nkvIm-
tcm--h-n\p ]I-c-hp-am-bn-t{X hn-cn-p--Xv. C{]-Imcw ]d-
b-s aX-amWv bqZ-a-X-ns m]y-h-kvXp-hmb ip-{In-kvXp-
a-Xw. CXp-m-b-tm m]-I--fmb bqZ-a-X-{In-b-I X-
sp.

apn-km-[\w
Cs\ \ymb-{]-Imcw btlmhm i]n--Xp-sImv Bm-
v Fm-hpw ]m]-Iw Dm-n-b-Xns\ Iv Ah-cpsS
ta tXmnb Zb tlXp-hm-bnv A\p-{Klw sNbvhm Cnp
apn-km-[-t\m-]mbw Dm-Ip--Xn-tev \n-bn-p.

apn-km-[-\-am-Ip-Xv
]m]-]-cn-lm-c-ambn ]cn-ip--m-\s Dm-p km[-\-
am-Ipp apn-km-[\ - a
- m-Ip-X
- v. ]m]-\o-
- n-\\
- p-Iq-ea
- mb Iw
_en-Zm-\-am-Ip-p. _en FXv D]-lm-c-]-Zm-am-Ip-p. tZmj-
\n-hr-n-m-bn-smv Poh-m-cm sImSp--s BSv, amSv, apX-
emb D]-lm-c-]-Zm- tZhs DS-a-Ifpw Ah-cm sN-s-
Sp ]pWy-I--sfmw tZh\p sNp-hm-\p IS-a-Ifpw

digitized by www.sreyas.in
{InkvXp-a-X-kmcw 15

BIpp. AXp-sImv Poh-m _en-Zm-\-n\p kzX-{-Im-


-m-c-m. BSv, amSv apX-em-bh kzX-{-_-en-I-fp-a-m. Poh-]p-
Wy- kzX-{-]p-Wy-I--fp-a-. AXp-sImv ]c-X-{--
fmb Ch-I-sfmw tZhm-\p-{K-l-\n-b-a-m-e-msX ^en-p--h-
bm. _en-Zm-\-n\p kzX-{-Imhp tZhX-s-bm-Ip-p.
tZh-\mb {InkvXp-hs{X Ah-Xm-c-Zzmcm kzX-{-_-en-bm-Ip--Xn-
tev k-Xn--h. {InkvXp-hns ico-c-\n-th-Z-\w, acWw apX-
emb tZh-]p-Wy-{In-b-I am{Xta kzX-{-]p-Wy-I--fm-bnp
`hn-q. AXp-sImv btlmh Xs ]p{X-\mb {InkvXp-hns\ B
a\p-jy-cpsS k-Xn-bn Hcp a\p-jy-\m-bnv Ah-Xc- nv ]nim-Nns\
Pbnv ]c-amtm-]-tZiw sNbvXv, Xs ]m]-_-en-bm-bn-p-sIm-
Spv Poh-msc A\p-{K-ln----hw Gs-Sp-p-I-bpw,
{InkvXp AXn-tev k-Xnp ay--\m-Ip-Ibpw sNbvXp.
CXns\ kqNn-n-mWv kv{XobpsS kXn k-ns Xesb
Adp-p-sav tZh im]-Im-e - ns AS-bm-fa - mbn ]d-n-
p--Xv. AXmWv Ir]m-\n-b-aw. AXp-sImv {InkvXp-hns _en-
Zm-\-ns m]-I-Nn--am-bn-m-Ipp BnIp-nsb _en-Zm-
\-n-tep \nb-an--Xv. ]qn-I-mcpw A{]-Im-cw-Xs {InkvXp-
hns _en-Zm-\-amb m]y-s-p-dnv hniz-knv taj-_-en-Zm-
\-amb m]-Is sNbvXp-h-p.
B k-ev]hpw hnizm-khpw \S-]-Sn-bpw-Xs BZn {InkvXp-
a-Xw. krjvSn-p-]n]v 1657 kwh-cw Ign--Xns tijw Pe-
{]-f-bmh-km-\-Im-ev amwk-t`m-P-\-sbpw krjvSn-bpsS 2106mw
kwh--c-n A{_-lm-an enwKm-{K-N-t-Z-\-sbpw \nb-
an-p. krjvSn-bpsS 2513mw kwh-c
-
- ns tijw btlmhm tami
F-h\p {]Xy--\m-bnp ]q-\n-b-a-ns hnkvXm-c-amb aqp-
hI hn[n-Isf D]-tZ-in-p. Ah k-m-hn-[n, {Inbm-hn-[n, \oXn-
hn[n Fp ]d-b-s-Sp-p.
1. Htc ssZh-s-s hW--Ww.
2. A\y-ssZ-hs hW--cp-Xv.
3. ssZh-\m-as hrYm D-cn--cp-Xv.
4. i\n-]p-Wy-hm-c-\n-baw (F Cu tZhm-Im-cy-
\mepw)
5. A-\--amsc D]-N-cn-.
6. sImmbvI

digitized by www.sreyas.in
16 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

7. hy`n-N-cn-mbvI
8. tamjvSn-m-bvI.
9. I-kmn ]d-bm-bvI.
10. A\y-ap-Xens\ B{K-ln-m-bvI.
(F a\p-jym-Imcyw Bdpw-Iq-Sn) Cs\ ]p-hn-[a- mb
\nb-aw ]p-Wy-sf hn[n-p 10 Iev]-\-I-fm-Ipp km-hn-
[n-I. AXnp tZh-\ym-b-{]-amWw Fpw t]cp-v.
ico-c-ip-n, {Zhy-ip-n, Biu-Nw, D]-hm-kw, ]pWy--ew,
]pWy-Im-ew, ]pWy-{Z-hyw, Kpcp-Xzw, Be-b-tk-h, ]qP, \nkvm-
tcm-hw apX-emb \nb-a-]p-Wy-sf Adn-hn-p-Xv {Inbm-hn[n.

C\n \oXn-hn[n FXv


bpw, kam-[m-\w, amXm-hv, Ipn-I, DS-b-h, ASn-b-h,
Aw, hkv{Xw, hoSv, \new, [m\yw, {]`p-Xzw, ]Ww, BSv, amSv,
]n, arKw, ISn-q, tehym-Po-h-\w, a\p-jy-i-co-cw, Poh
Fn-h-I-sf-p-dn-p Hgp--h-g---sfbpw ZWvU-sbpw Adn-
bn-p--Xm-Ip-p.
Ch-I-fn {Inbm-hn[n FXv CjvS-kn-npw `npw Imc-
W-ambpw `-msc ths]-Sp-p ap{Z-bmbpw {InkvXp IrXy-
m-]-I-Nn--ambpw Ccn-p-p. CXv BZn {InkvXp-a-X-ns
]ncn-hmb bqZ-{In-kvXp-aXw Fp ]d-b-s-Sp-p.

]hn-{Xm-I IrXyw
aqp-t]-cn Hcp-h-\mb ]hn-{Xm-mhv krjvSn apX-emb Ir-
Xy--fn klm-bn-p-p. (k-o\w 104--A. 30--hm) ]cn-ip
`-msc DWn Ah-sc-smp ss__n-fns\ Dm-n-p.
(Xo-sam-sY-bqkv 3-A. 16--hm. ]t{Xmkv 1-A. 12--hm) {InkvXp-hns\
tZmj-c-ln-X-a-\p-jy-\m-bnp P\n-nv At-l-n\p ]q-m-
\-sbpw Ir]-sbbpw sImSp-p-]-I-cnv GXp-Im-epw {InkvXp-
hns\ `Pn-p `-mv ss__n Adn-bp--Xn-\m-bnv Ah-
cpsS a\-ns\ {]Im-in-nv {]mn---h-amn. {InkvXp
tZh-]p-{X-\m-Ipp Fp--Xns\ Ah-cn ImWn ZpxJ-n
\npw cnp _mlym--c--fmbn kIe ]m]--sfbpw \on

digitized by www.sreyas.in
{InkvXp-a-X-kmcw 17

ipo-I-cnv tZhs\ ]cn-]q-am-bnp tkhn-p--Xn-tep X-


Xmb B{Z-X-sbbpw sImSpv ]ns th-h-bmb kI-e-kKp-
W-]-c-a-]p-Wy--sf-smp Ahsc Ae--cn-p-h-cp-p.
]hn-{Xm-m-hns knnv {]m-\-bm-Ipp apJy-km-[-\w.
Cs\ ]d-b-s {InkvXp-a-X-ns\ Adnv kI-e-a-\p-jycpw
Xs ]m]-s-p-dnv DWv ]m-m-]-sv ss__nhn-[n-
{]-Imcw tbip-{In-kvXp-hn hnizm-k-ap-m-bn {InkvXp-`--k-aq-
l-amb {iok-`-bn tNv kv\m\w, \I-cpW Fo kwkvIm-
c-sf sNbvXv tZhs\ {]mnv ZrV-hn-izm-kt- m-Sp-IqSn ssZh-
]pWyw km-Zn-p-sImv ss__n-fns\ HmXn DWv Fm-h-
tcmSpw {]kw-Kn-p-sImv \ne-bn\npw sXmsX Ccn-t--
Xm-Ip-p.

\n{K-lm-\p-{Klw
{InkvXp-\m-Y temIm-h-km-\-Im-ev hnNm-cW As-n
\ymb-Xop sNp--Xn-tep aln-a-tbm-Sp-IqSn hv Atm
Pohn-n-cn-p-h
- sc am{X-a
- , acn-h
- s
- cbpw ico-ct- m-Sp-IqSn Fgp-
tnv Fm-h-tcbpw Xs kn-[n-bn hcpn kmn-
Isf he-Xp-h-ipw Zpmn-Isf CS-Xp-h-ipw Bbnp
\nn Ah-cpsS ]pWy-]m-]-sf hnNm-c-W-sNbvXv Ah-cn
Xs hnizknm Zpamn-Isf K-Ihpw Anbpw IqSn
Fcn-bp \nXy-\-c-I-n Xn \n{Klnp-Ibpw Xs hniz-
kn kmnIsf am{Xw ]m]hpw, ZpJhpw, ac-Whpw AW-bm
ip--e-amb kz-a-WvU-e-n Ccpn A\p-{K-ln-p-Ibpw
sNpw.

apn
]m]w \on ]cn-ip- - m-\
- n {]th-inv apn-m-\v
ip-ic - o-cn-If
- m-bn-cpv tZhs\ kvXpXn-p-]mSn tZh-al
- n-asb hn-
nv tZh-k-n-[m-\-kp-Js \nXyhpw A\p-`-hn-p-sIm-n-cn-pw.
Cs\ {InkvXp-a-X-kmcw
kam-]vXw.

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18 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

{InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w
IrXy-\n-anw
Atbm {InkvXo-b-{]-kw-Kn-Isf!
btlm-hm, NnZ-Nn-{Zq-]-amb Cu temIs krjvSn-p-h-tm.
Imcyw Imc-W-tm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bXv F-tbm \ymbw. B nXnv
Cu temIw Imcy-am-I-bm CXn\pw \nan--Im-c-W-amb {]tbm-
P\w At]-y-am-Ip-p. Fs-m Bsc-nepw Fs-nepw
Hcp Imcys Hcp \nan-hpw IqSmsX sNbvI-bn-. {]tbm-P-\-
a-\p-niy \ atmf]n {]h-tX{]tbm-P-\s At]-n-
msX a-\m-bp--ht]mepw Hpw-Xs {]hn-p-I-bn-m.
Fm B {]tbm-P\w kzmtam ]c-mtam Fp t\mp-
tm (b-imbm 43 A. 7-hm) Rm Ahs\ Fs al-Xz-n-\m-
bnp krjvSnp Fp \n-fpsS ss__n {]am-W-n ]d-
n-cn--sImv btlm-hm-bpsS Cu temI-krjvSn kzm-am-bn-
p-X-s-sbv Xo-bm-Ip-p. A{X-bp-a-. krjvSnp apt Poh-
m-cn-m-bn-cpp Fp-Xv \n-fpsS aX-ns ]c-a-kn-m--
am-Ib- m A\y-m \nan-s - av ImWn-p-X
- n\p hgnbpw ImWp-
n-. 1]mcn-ti-jy-bp-n-bm btlmhm Xs \nan-a - m-bn-p-Xs
temIs krjvSnp Fp kv]jvS-am-Ip-p.
btlmhm BZyw ip-m-\-an-msX Am-\-_--ap--
h-cm-bn-p-Xs cp a\p-jysc krjvSn-p-Ibpw Ah-cpsS kao-
]-n D]-tbm-K-an-m Hcp hrs hp-m-p-Ibpw
AXns I\nsb Xnp-t]m-I-cp-sX \ymbw IqSmsX Hcp Iev]\
Ahp sImSp-p-Ibpw ]nim-Nns\ \in-n-p-I-f-bp-Itbm
hnen \ndp-p-Itbm sNmsX `qan-bn Poh-msc ]co-n-p-
-Xn-\mbn GsSpn hnSp-Ibpw B BZn-a-\p-jy _pn-tam-
l-mepw hnj-tb--bmepw ]nim-Nns Zptm-[-\-bmepw Iev]-
\sb ewLnp ]m]n-I-fm-bn-tm-Ibpw sNbvXp.

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{InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w IrXy-\n-anw 19

A\-cw thsd bmsXmcp amhpw t\mmsX B ]m]n-I-


fpsS km-\-cq-]-am-bn-p-Xs ]nsbpw krjvSn--s--Xp-sImv
Fm Poh-mcpw ]m]n-I-fm-bn-op. ]m]n-I-fp-m-b-Xp-sImv
A\p-{K-lhpw At]-n-X-am-bn. As\ ]m]n-I-fp-m-b-Xn\p
tlXp-hm-I-bm Cu krjvSn A\p-{K-l-n\p \nan--ambpw
`hnp. ]m]n-Ip ]co-m-cq-]-am-bnv apyp-]m-b- Adn-bn-
-s-p. B D]m-b--tfmSp tN-hsc tZhs\ A\p-k-cn-p-I-
sb KpW-ap ip-m-scpw Am--hsc ssZh-hn-tcm-[-Kp-
W-ap Aip--m-scpw Adn-bp--Xn\pw ip-mv ]c-tem-
I-Im-cy-sf DWp--Xn-\p-amWv 2Agn-thm-Sp-Iq-Snb `qan-bn
]m]n-Iv A[n-hmkw \nb-an--s--Xv. AXp-sImv Cu hn[-
ap nXn (c-bpw nXn-bpsS A\-cw kwlm-chpw A\p-
{K-l-\n-an---fm-Ipw.) apn-bn Ccn-p ip-msc tZthm-
]-Nm-ch
- r-n-bn\npw amdn-f - b
- m-Xn-cn-
-
- h
- w ZWvU` - bw
sImSp-p--Xn-\mWv Aip--msc Agn-p-hn-SmsX ZWvUn-n-p-
-Xmb \n{K-lw. AXp-sImv \n{Klw, A\p-{Klw \ne-\np-
-Xn-tep \nan-a - m-Ipw. C{]-Imcw krjvSn-n-Xn-kw-lm-cw. \n{K-
l- sImv \nd-th--s A\p-{K-l-amWv {][m-\-Ir-Xyw. B
A\p-{K-lta tZthm-]-Nm-c-n\p \nan--am-Iq. AXp-sImp tZh-
a-lna {]Im-in-pw. BI-msS Fm Imcy-sImpw kw`-hn-
p ]c-a-{]-tbm-P\w btlm-h-bpsS B\-m-\p-`-hw-X-s. C{]-
Imcw A\p-`-h-s-sm-p-t\m-p-tm krjvSn-bpsS kzm-
IXzw kv]jvS-X-sb-s {]m]n-p-p.
Poh-m Xs aln-asb Adnp `b-sv Xs kvXpXnp
hW-p--Xn\pw Xn-anw Xs alna kw{]-Im-in-p--Xn\pw
thn-bmWv btlmhm temIs krjvSn--Xv. BI-bm krjvSn-
Im-e-n-\p-apv Xs alna {]Im-in-m-sXbpw AXp X\nv Hcp
Ipd-hm-bn-pw-X-s-bn-cpp Fpw, B Ipd-hns\ \op--Xn-tev
Imwn-mWv krjvSn-m XpS-n-b-sXpw \n-b-am-Ip-p.
AX-, Xs alna apt-Xs Ipd-hp-Iq-SmsX kzbw-{]-Im-
in- n- c pp Fn B aln- a sb hopw {]Im- i n- n- p- -
Xn\pthn sNp {]hrn \njv^-e-am-Ip-p. B aln-asb
Poh-m-cn {]Im-in-n-p--Xn-tev {]th-in-n-cpp Fn
AXpw Xs \nan--am-I-bm ap]-d-b-s tZmjw ]pw.

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20 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

Poh-m\n-anw Xs Poh-m-cn {]Im-in-nm XpSn


Fn krjvSn-p-apt Poh-m-cn-m-Xn-cp-X
- psImv AXpw hncp-
w-X-s.
Xm krjvSn--s-Sp-hmt]m-Ip Poh-m-cn Xs aln-
asb {]Im-in-n--W-sa-m-bn-cpp Fn krjvSn-v {]Im-in-n-
pw, {]Im-inp krjvSn-n-pw, \nan-s - m 3At\ym-
- ap hcn-Ib
\ym-{i-b-sa tZmj-n\p kwK-Xn-bm-Ipw.
apn-\mse {]Im-in-p-X-s-bn-cpp Fnepw, Xs-b-\p-`-
hn-p-X - n-tev Bcp-an-m-sX-bn-cp-X - p-sImv D]-tbm-Ks - -SmsX
hrYm InS B aln-asb A\p-`h - n-n-p-X- n-\p-th-n-bmWv Poh-
msc krjvSn--sX-n Xs aln-a-bp XmXs t`mm-hm-
bn-cns ta{]-Imcw hrYm InSp Fp-Xv bp-am-Ip-n-.
Poh-m-cn-m-Xn-cp--Xp-sImv Xm Xs aln-asb Ahsc A\p-
`-hn-n-p-Ibpw th. thW-sa-n A\p-`-hn-n--W-sa-p-Xv
krjvSn-W - s- a-p-X - npw \nanw Fp-hc - n-Ib
- m Chn-sSbpw
A-t\ym-\ym-{i-bsa tZmjw A\p-hn-pw. BI-bm GXp-
{]-Imcw ]d-mepw alna {]Im-in-msX Ccp-Xv F-s\bpw
btlm-hbvv Hcp Ipd-n Xs-bm-bn-cp-p. As-n {]Im-in-
n-p--Xn-te-p-thn {]b-Xv\n--W-sa-n-m-bn-cp-p. B Ipd-
n apn- m- X n- c p Poh- msc Am apt Dm- b n- c p
btlmhsbs kw_-n-pw. BI-bm btlmh Xs
alna {]Im-in-m-Xn-cp-X - n-s\-n Ipd-hp-h - \
- m-bn-op Fp
hp-t]m-b-Xn-\m Ipd-thm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-h-s\pw Atm AXn\v
FXn-cmbn \nd-hn-m--h-s\pw B Ipd-nsImpw AXns\
\nhn-n--W-sapw {]b-Xv\n--sImpw, hymIp-e-s-n-cp--
h-\m-I-bm ]c-am-\w Cm--h-s\pw X\nv B\--{]m-]vXn-
p- t hn krjv S n- mXp- S n Fp ImWp- - X p- s Imv
kpJs sNp--h-sb-p-dnv Imahpw ZpxJs sNp--
hsbpdnv t{Im[hpw B cn-sbpw aqe-amb tamlhpw D-
h-s\pw A\m-Zn-bm-bnv Cu Ipd-hns\ \op--Xn-tev D]mbw
Adn-bm-Xn-cp--Xp-sImv A\m-Zn-m\w Cm--h-s\pw A\m-
Zn-bm-bnp IrXyw sNm--Xp-sImv 4A\m-Zn-IXrXzw Cm--
h-s\pw A\m-Zntb IXrXzw CmXncpv Nne Ime-p
aps IXr-Xzs {]m]nv IrXyw XpS-n-b-Xp-sImv btlmh
{]m]n IXrXzw apt Cm-Xn-cp-p. ]no-Sp-m-b-Xmb Imcy-
e-W - t- m-Sp-Iq-Sn-bX
- m-Is- Impw AXn\p thsd-sbmcp Imhv

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{InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w IrXy-\n-anw 21

At]n-s-Sp-I-bmepw AXp \nanw btlmhm AXns\


thsdmcp Im-hn-\np km-Zn--Xm-sWpw sXfn-hm-I-
sImpw kzX-{Xzw Cm--h-s\pw A\m-Zn-bm-bn--msX CS-
bn Ipd-thmSp IqSnb 5In-n IXr-Xzs {]m]np kz`mhw
ths]-Sp-I-bm Ahn-Im-cnXzw6 Cm--h-s\pw hnIm-c-tm-Sp-
Iq-Sn-b-Xp-sImpw Ipd-hp--Xp-sImpw A\m-Zn-\n-Xy-hym-]-I-Xz-
an-mhs\pw Xs kpJ-n-\m-bnp XmXs ]m]w hnf-
bp--Xn-tev tlXp Dmn ]e Poh-m-scbpw \nXy-Ime
ZWvUn-m-dm-n-b-Xp-sImv \ymb-hpw, Ir]-bpw, \bpw Cm--
h-s\pw Poh-m-cnXs \nXyhpw D]-N-cn----h Cm-
sc-m-am-Ip-p-sh-p--Xns\ m\w-sImv Adn-bmsX Ahsc
]m]n-I-fmn `qan-bn-en-cpn hn[n-Isf sImSpv ]co-n-np
am{Xw Adn-bp--Xp-sImv k-Xzw Cm--h-s\pw Poh-
mp ]m]hpw ZpxJhpw hcp-msX Ah-sc-sm-p-Xs D]-
N-cn-n-bpw X\np kpJs Dm-p-Ibpw sNp-hm Ign-
bm-Xn-cp--Xp-sImv k-i-n-bn-m--h-s\pw sXfn-hm-Ip-p.
]nsbpw ]m]w Dm-Ip-sa-p--Xns\ apt]-Iq-n-b-dn-bm--Xp-
sImv ]q-m\w Cm--h-s\pw Adn-npw AXns\
XSp-m Ign-bmsX Hgnp Fp-h-cp-In ]q-i-n-bn-m--
h-s\-pw-IqSn kv]jvS-am-Ipw. Poh-m-cpsS kpJm-\p-`-h-n\p
]pWyhpw ZpxJm-\p-`-h-n\p ]m]hpw \nb-X-Im-c-W-sa--dn--
Xp-sImp kpJs P\n-n-p--Xn-te-mWv ]m]-s-bp-m-
n-bs - X-p-hc- n-In ]m]w Cm tZh-Zq-X
- mpw kpJw Dm-
n-bncn--bm AhnsS kpJm-\p-`-h-n\v ]m]w Imc-W-am-Im--
Xp-sImv BbXp Xosc tbmPn-p-n-. C{]-Imcw Ipd-hv, hymIp-
e-X, Imaw, t{Im[w, BZn-m-\w, tamlw, BZn-Ir-Xyw, ]c-X-{-
Xzw, hnIm-c-Xzw, Ahym-]I-Xzw, A\ym-bw, AXn-I-Tn-\-X, ZpjvS-X,
Inn--Xzw, Inn-n apX-emb tZmj- D-h-\m-I-bm
btlmh Cuiz-cXzw D-h-\-. ]m]n-jvT Fp-Xs \ymbw-
sImp knn-pp. Cu tZmj--sfmw Al, Iw, amb
F ]mi--fm-ep-m-Ip--h-bm-Ipp Fp ssZh-imkv{Xw
tLmjn-p--Xp-sImv btlm-h-bm-Is ]mi-_-X-s-bm-Wv.
BI-bm A\m-Zn-bm-bnv Al-m-]m-i - m _n-s - v Xs
]cn-]m-I-bn-m-i-np hyn- Cm--Xp-sImv ]c-X-{-\m-bn-
cp btlmh A\m-Zn-\n-Xy-hym-]I - k
- z-X{ k-\ - mbpw A\m-
Zn-kn_-m--\n-anw A\m-Zn-Ir-Xy-Im-hmbpw cn-Xm-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
22 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

hmbpw Ccn-p ]c-a-in-hs Znhy-{]-km-Z-cq-]-k-Xy-k--ev]-Im-c-


W-m Xs ]q-Im-eo\ Im-\p-k-c-W-am-bnp \nn--
s ambm-Im-cy-amb ico-chpw Imc-Whpw FSpv Inn-Xzw
Aev]-IrXyw apX-emb \nb-X-`p-h-\n-en-cpv \nb-X-t`m-K-sf
A\p-`h
- n-p X
- s A[n-Im-cm-hk
- m-\
- n acn-p-t]m-Ip Hcp ]ip-
hm-Ipp Fp ssih-kn-m-w.
C\n Nne {InkvXy-m C Ime-n C--ev C-
{]-Imcw Hcp \nan-hpw IqSmsX krjvSn-IrXyw sN-W-sa
Hcp kev]w btlm-hm-bpsS lrZ-b-n A\m-Zn-bm-bnv AS-
n-n-S-pp Fpw B A\m-Zn-kn--k--ev]-{]-Imcw \nb-X-
Im-e-n thsd Hcp \nan-hpw IqSmsX btlmhm krjvSnp
Fpw ]d-bp-p. B hN\w ss__n-fn Cm-XpsImpw
X\n-p-thn krjvSnp F-dn-bn-p taSn {]am-W--sf-
smv XSp--s-Sp-I-bmepw A{]-am-W-am-Ip-p.
taepw C-Im-e-n C e-n C-{]-Imcw krjvSn-
sN--W-sa kev]w btlm-hm-bpsS lrZ-b-n A\m-Zn-bm-
bnv AS-n-n-Sp Fp-h-cn-In A{]-Im-cw-Xs C-Im-ev
C-bn{]Imcw nXn-kw-lm-c, \n{K-l- F IrXy--
sfbpw sNt--Xm-sW-p k-ev]hpw IqSn k--\mb
btlm-hm-bpsS lrZ-b-n A\m-Zn-bm-bnv AS-n-n-Sp Fp
]d-tb-n-h-cpw. BI-bm krjvSn-Ir-Xy-n\p thsd Hcp \nan-
hpw At]- n- - s - S m- - X p- t ]mse Xs, ap IrXy-
pw thsd bmsXmcp \nan-hpw At]-n--s-Sp-I-bn-.
Bb-Xp-sImv btlmhm Poh-m-cpsS ]m]-]p-Wy--fmb \nan--
Im-c-W-sf Bh-iy-s-Sp-I-bn-spw 7A\m-Zn-kn--k--ev]-{]-
Imcw Ah-ch - p \c-Ia
- p-n-Isf sImSp-p-sapw B nXnp
Poh-m tam-kn-n-m-bnv bmsXm-cp-Im-cy-sbpw \ncq-]n-
bpw sNbvIbpw thspw As\ ths-n-cn-p-tm
Poh-m tam-n-te-p-thn hnizm-k-sbpw {]b-Xv\-
sbpw ssIsmp sN-Ws - ap \nb-an-p ss__n shdp-
sX-bp--Xm-sWpw B ss__n-fns\ I]n btlmhm Adn-
hn-m--h-s\pw hp-t]m-Ipw. AXn-\m A\m-Zn-kn--k--ev]-
\n-an--kzo-Imcw km[p-hm-Ip--X-.
C\n tZhs IrXy-\n-anw Fm-Ipp Fp hnNm-cn-p-
Xv Poh-mp X-X Fpw tZh Xs Cm-{]-Imcw sNp-

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{InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w IrXy-\n-anw 23

-X-msX Poh-m-cpsS bpnv tNc---hw sNp--h-\


Fpw Nnecp ]d-bp--p-v. B hmp-sImv 8A\njvS{]kwKw
Dm-Ipw. Fs-m kI-ea - X
- h
- m-Zn-Ifpw Ah-\h
- s aX-im-kv{X-
s-s ssZh-hmIyw Fp tLmjn-p-am-sdbpq. Ah-bn
Ak-p--fmb aX-im-kv{X-sf tZh-hm-Iy--f-m-sbp tim[-
\-sN-bvXp Xp--Xn-tev AXmXp imkv{X--fn-ep sXp-I
ImWnv Bt]w sNp-tm tZh-\nn-X-im-kv{X-am-sWpw
BbXp Inn--m-cm-bn-cn-p Poh-m-cpsS bpnv A\p-
km-cn-bm-bn-cn--bn-spw tZh tkz-{]-Imcw sNp-sapw Ah-
I-sf-p-dnv Poh-m hnNm-cn-p-Iq-Sm-sbpw AXmXv aX-m-cm
kam-[m-\w-]-d-b-sSpw. B nXnv kIe aX-fpw kXy-am-bn-
p--h-Xs Fv hp-t]m-Ibpw Atm {InkvXp-aXw Hp-am-
{Xta kXy-am-bn-pp F hmZw Zqsc sXdn-p-t]m-Ibpw sNp-
atm.
Am-sX-bpw, X\n-p-thn krjvSnp Fp btlm-h-bm
ss__n-fn ]d-b-s--Xp-sImpw Adn-hnp hnj-b-am-Im-Xp
{]am-W-n ]d-b-s-Sp-I-bn-m--Xp-sImpw, krjvSn-bpsS
\nanw 9Ah-t-b-am-bn-p--Xm-I-bm (A-dn-bm Ign-bp--
Xm-I-bm) AXns t_m[w Poh-mv A\l-sap ]d-bp-
Xv ss__n-fn\p hncp--am-Ip-p. C\nbpw ssZh-Ir-Xy-\n-anw
Ahm-Ny-am-bn-p--sXp ]d-bp-p-sh-n `h-_--tm-Sp- (kw-
km-c-_-w) Iq-Snb Poh-mv A{Km-lyhpw AXn-\m {ipXn-
bn (th-Z-n) ]d-b-s-Sm-Xpw Bb ]c-a-c-l-ky-a-tm
Ahm-Nyw. ChnsS An-s\-b--tm. IrXy-\n-anw tZh-a-lna
{]Im-i-sav btlmhm ]d-n-cn-p--tm. Fnpw AXns\
Ahm-Ny-sap ]d-bp-Xv A an Fp ]p{X-m ]d-bp--
Xp-t]m-se-Xs hnNm-cn-mw.
Cs\ ssZh-Ir-Xy-\n-an--s-p-dnp hnNm-cn--Xnepw
ssZh-e--W-an-sp km[n-n-cn-p-p.

Ipdn-p-I
1. btlm-hm-bmWv temIs krjvSn-Xv Fpw, krjvSn-p-th Fm-
Im-cy-fpw btlm-h-X-s-bmWv sNbvX-sXpw, btlm-h-bvp-apv A\y-
m-cmcpw krjvSn-\-S-n-bn-n Fpw ss__n ]d-bp-p. BI-bm B
krjvSn-Pm-e--fnh-cp KpW-tZm-j--fpsS D-c-hm-Zn-Xzhpw btlm-h-

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24 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

bvp-X-s-bm-Wv. ]m]-hr-n-I-fpsS Imc-W-m-c btlm-h-bm-sW-p-h-


cp-p. Fmw btlm-h-X-s-bmWv sNbvX-sXpw, amcpw Hpw-Xs
sNbvXn-n Fpw sXfn-bp--XmWv ]mcn-ti-jy-bp-n.
2. Agnhv = {]fbw AYhm kq-amb amw
3. At\ym-\ym-{i-b-sa tZmjw. IpS-ap-m-p--Xn\p Ifn-a-mWv B{i-bw.
AXn-\m IpSw Ifn-a-ns\ B{i-bn-p-p. Ifn-a-n-m-bn-cp-p-sh-n
IpSw Dm-Ip-am-bn-cp-n-. ChnsS IpS-n\p In-a-n-t\m-Sp-am-{Xta B{i-
b-ap-q. AmsX adn--. ss__n {]Imcw BZna a\p-jys krjvSnp
Imc-Ww, B{ibw btlm-h-bm-Wv. Atm btlmh Xs aln-a-bvp-
thn Xs krjvSn-bmb a\p-jys\ B{i-bn-pI FXv At\ym-\ym-
{i-b-tZm-j-am-Wv. Cs\ B{i-bn-p-Xp bpnp \nc-m--Xm-Wv.
4. kXyw-m-\-a-\w {_, FmWv B]vX-hm-Iyw. {_w k-{X, k-
Zm-]-cn-]q-amWv F D]-\n-jv k-ev]n-p-p. Fp-h-m {]m]-
n-I-amb \yq\-X-I-sfmpw {_-n-\n-s-w. N-n-kzm-an-I
ChnsS Dt-in-p-Xv ss__n-fnse krjvSn-k--ev]-a-\p-k-cnv btlm-
hbvp {]m]-n-I-amb \yq\-X-I-sfmw Ds-m-Wv. Imaw, t{Im[w,
tamlw, I-tZmjw XpS-nb At\Iw tZmj-p Atlw hnt[-b-
\m-sWp Cu hmIy-n-eqsS kzmanPn \nco-n-p-p. Imc-Ww, km[m-
cW a\p-jys\tmse btlmh tIm]n-p-Ibpw ZpxJn-p-Ibpw a\p-jys\
inn-p-Ibpw Hs sNp-p. CXv ssZhw kvt\l-am-sWpw kXy-am-
sW-p-ap s]mXp-k--ev]-n\p hncp--am-Wv. btlmh Xs aln-asb
{]N-cn-n--W-sap tXmn-b-tm-gmWv AXn-\p-thn a\p-jys\ krjvSn-
-Xv. krjvSn-bpsS Bcw-`-nXs `mhn-Im-cy--sfmw Adnv th-
sXmw sNm Ign-n-cp-n-. krjvSn-p-tijw Nne Ipg-- I-
tm a\p-jys\ i]n-p. CXv A\m-Zn-IXrXzw Cm--Xp-sIm-m-Wv.
5. Inn IXrXzw = A]q-amb IXrXzw
6. Ahn-Im-cnXzw Cmbva = btlm-hbvp At\Iw \yq\-X-I-fp-sp Is-
nb tijw kzman-I Hmtcm \yq\-Xbpw FSpp hni-Zo-I-cn-p-p. Ah-
bn-sem-mWv Ahn-Im-cnXzw Cm-bva. hnIm-c-ap Ah--bm-Wn-Xv. hnImcw
am-am-Wv. amdp hkvXp A\--ambn amdn-sm-t-bn-cn-pw. CXns
Aw btlmh amdn-amdn btlm-h-b-m-Xm-bn-o-cp-sa-m-Wv.
7. A\m-Zn-Im-e-v, AXm-bXv krjvSn-Iw XpS-p--Xn-\p-ap-p-Xs
krjvSn F{]-Im-c-am-bn-cn--W-sa-pw, `mhn-bn Imcy- F{]-Im-c-am-
bn-cn--W-sa-p-ap kev]w btlm-h-bpsS a\-n Dm-bn-cpp Fv
Nne {InkvXy-m {]N-cn-n-p-p-v. CXn-s\-bmWv A\m-Zn-kn--k-ev]w
Fp ]d-bp--Xv. CXp-m-bn-cp-s-n krjvSn-p-tijw a\p-jyp
]pXnb hnizm-k-hy-h--I Dm-t-n-h-cp-am-bn-cp-n. AXn-\m A\m-
Zn-kn--k-ev]w Cm-bn-cpp Fp hcp-p.
8. A\n-jvS-{]-kwKw = Dt-in--Xn-\v, AYhm t\cs {]kvXm-hn--Xn\v hn]-
co-X-amb {]kvXm-h-\.
9. Ah-tbw = Adn-tb--Xv.

digitized by www.sreyas.in
25

D]m-Zm\w
Atbm {InkvXob {]kw-Kn-Isf!
btlmhm 1D]m-Zm-\-Im-cWw IqSmsX iq\y-n\n-mWv
temIs krjvSn-s - Xp \n ]d-bp-t- m. Fm kXvm-
c-Wn\np kXvm-cyta P\n-q. Imc-W-n in cq]-
am-bn-cp--Xp-Xs ]ns Imc-I--fm (Im-c-I---Im-hv,
Iw XpS-n-b-h) hyn-cq-]-am-bnp Imcy-am-Ipw. hnn\nv
acw F-s\tbm AXp-t]mse ImcWw IqSmsX Imtcym]n
Hcn- S - p- a n- . Ak- X v I m- c - W - n Ak- X v mcyw AmsX
kXvImcyw P\n-p-I-bp-an-. aW-en\nv F Dm-I-bn-.
s]mn\nv Ccp-p-m-Ip-n-. A{]-Im-cw-Xs Fm-h-
n\npw Fmw DmIp-n-. IpSs At]-np an-s\bpw
ssXcns\ At]-np ]men-s\bpw kzoI-cn-p--Xp-t]mse
AXmXp Imcy-sf At]-nv Imc-W-sf kzoI-cn Fp-
Xpw, Imcy-n Imc-WXzw Ccn-pp Fp-Xpw \ymb-kn-
-am-I-bm kXvIm-cy-hmZw km[n--s-p. BI-bm LSw apX-
emb Imcy-v Ipeme apX-emb Ir-Im-cW - hpw av apX-
emb D]m-Zm-\-Im-c-Whpw am-an-msX \nb-X-am-bn-cn--bm Imcy-
amb temI-n\v Imhpw D]m-Zm-\-Im-c-W-hpw Bh-iy-am-bn-p-
-sXv A\p-an--s-Spw. temI-amb Hcp ]-n (]-w--
kmyw Dtm Ctbm Fv kwi-bap e-amWv ]w)
Imcy-Xz-amb Hcp A\p-am-\-m (Hcp ]-n tlXp-hns\
B{i-bnv kmy-ap-sv m]n-p {]am-W-amWv A\p-am-\w)
A\p-an--s-Sp Imhpw D]m-Zm-\-Im-c-Whpw Bb cp
kmy--fn Hp (Im-hv) kn-amIpw Fpw atXv Akn-
-am-Ip-sapw Iev]n-p-Xv Hcphn[-nepw bp-am-Ip-n-t- m.
AX, A{]-Imcw k-Xn Fp hm A\p-am-\-{]-am-
W--sfmw (A\p-am-\-{]-am-W-ns {]mamWyw \jvS-s-Sp-sa-
w) Agn-p-t]m-Ip--Xm-Wv.

digitized by www.sreyas.in
26 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

A-s\-sb-n 2Imcy-Xz-tl-Xp-hn-\m 3ZrjvSm--kn--L-


Sm-Zn-Im--fn F-t]mse ZmjvSm-nI kn-tem-I-Im-
hnepw Aev]-m\w Aev]-in ]c-h-iX apXemb KpW-
Dm-bn-cn-p-sa-p-h
- p-t]m-Ip-at- m. Fm ZrjvSm-- n LS-
I-m-hmb Pohm-m-hm-Is LSs \nhr-n-p-X - mb Xs
Imcy-s-p-dnv apgp-h\pw Adn-bp--h\pw apgp-h\pw sNp--
h\pw kzX-{\pw Xs Imcy-\n-hr-n-p-X--Xmb ico-cm-h[n-
\n-eb - p-h
- \pw Bbn-cn-pw. A{]-Im-cw-Xs Cui\pw Xs Imcy-
n ]q-m\w apX-em-b-h-tbmSpw IqSn-b-h-\m-bn-cn-p-sav
Xo-bm-Ipw.
As\ Fn LS--Imhv (L-Sw--Ip-Sw, ]Sw--h-kv{Xw)
Xs Imcy- a - m ]Sw apX- e m- b - h sb sNm- - X p- t ]mse
Cui\pw Xs Imcy-a-m thsdm-ns\ sNm--h-\m-Ip-a-tm.
Fm,
Cuis Imcy-a-msX A\y-Im-cy-an-m--Xp-sImv Cu
kwi-b - n-tev Ah-kc- ta C, AXn-\m Imcy-Xz-tl-Xphn\m
D]m-Zm-\-Im-cWw km[n--s-Sp-p.
Fm ssZhw k kmayw-sImv ImcWw IqSmsX
Imcys P\n-npw Fp-h-cn-In,
AXp tNcp-I-bn-, k-km-ay-sa-Xv icn-bmbn Fm-h-
sbpw XS-w-Iq-SmsX \S-p in-bm-Ipp. B in Ds-
pw-hv icn-bm-b-Xns\ AmsX icn-b-m--Xns\ sNbvI Fp-
Xv Hcp hn[-nepw k-km-ays Xmp--X-. Iri-
Xbpw qe-Xbpw amdmsX Ccn-th ISp-In-\-Iv aesb IS-
p-Xv X-X-. As\ sNm--Xp-sImv k-km-ay-
`wKw Hcn-epw Dm-Ib - n-. DmIp-sa-p-hc
- n-In ssZhw X\np
Xpey-\mb thsd Hcp A\m-Zn-ssZ-hs Dm-p--Xn-\pw, Xs
Cm-Xm-n--f-bp--Xn\pw Ign-bm--h-\m-I-bm Ak-a-
s\p htc--Xm-Wv. AXp \n-p k-X-a-m--Xp-sImv
D]m-Zm-\ImcWs At]-n-bm 4k-km-ay-`wKw Hcn-
epw Dm-Ip--X-.
C\nbpw ssZhw XmXs D]m-Zm-\-Im-c-Whpw \nan--Im-c-
W-hp-am-bn-p-\nv temIs P\n-np Fv \n-bn-m-a-tm.
Fn,

digitized by www.sreyas.in
D]m-Zm\w 27

AXpw tNcp-I-bn-, Imcyw Imc-Wm-Iw FmWv \ymbw.


BI-bm shfp hkv{X-ns D]m-Zm-\-Im-c-W-amb Xphpw
shfp \nd-tm-Sp-IqSn Ccn-p--Xp-t]mse tNX-\hpw AtN-
X-\h
- p-amb temI-n\v D]m-Zm-\I - m-cW
- a
- m-bn-cn-s
- Imv ssZhhpw
tNX- \ - X zhpw AtN- X - \ - X zhpw D- h - s \p ]d- t b- n- h - c pw.
Atm At\ym\yw hncp---fmb tNX-\-Xzm-tN-X-\-Xz--sf
cp [-fpw IqSn Hcp [n-bn Ccn-p-I-bp-an--tm.
Hcw-iw-sImp tNX-\-Xzhpw Hcw-iw-sImv AtN-X-\-Xzhpw
D-h-s\p hcn-In, 5kmh-b-hXzw Dmbn 6LS-]-Sm-Zn-Iv
F-t]mse 7ImcyXzw hv 8]c-a-Im-c-W-Xz-`wKw `hn-pw. bZyZv
kmh-bhw XXv Imcyw bYm LS-]-SmZn GsXmw Ah-b-h-
tmSp IqSn-btXm AsXmw Imcy-am-Ip-p. LSw ]Sw apX-em-
bh F-s\tbm A{]-Imcw CX-tbm \ymbw.
C\nbpw ssZhw kzX-{-Xz-ap--h-\m-I-bm thsdm-ns\
At]-n-msX tkzm-{]-Imcw temIs \nn-p-shv A\p-
h-Zn-m-sa-n, AXpw tNcp-I-bn-m. kzX-{Xzw DXpsImv
\ymbs t\mm-sXtbm t\mntbm IrXys sNp-Xv?
t\mmsX sNp-sa-n, Poh-m-cpsS ]pWy-]m-]--fm-Ip
Imc-W- thspw tXmn-b-t]mse \nb-aw-Iq-SmsX kpJ-
Zpx-J-sf sImSp-p-sapw, Imcy-n\p X-Xmb Imew, tZiw
apX-emb kmam-\y-Im-c-W--sfbpw t\mmsX btYjvSw IrXyw
sNp-sapw 9[n-[-`m-hk - w-_- \
- ymbw (`q-anv ImTn-\yhpw
K-hpw, Pe-n\v {Zh-zhpw ck-hpw, Anv cq]w, hmbp-hn\v
kv]iw Fn-s - \-bmWv [n-[-`m-hk
- w-_
- w) t\mmsX
ImTn-\y-ap--Xmb `qansb {Zh-Xz-ap--Xm-p-Ibpw {Zh-Xz-ap
Pes ImTn-\yhpw Khpw D-Xm-p-Ibpw Ansb ck-ap-
-Xm-p-Ibpw hmbp-hns\ cq]-ap--Xm-p-Ibpw C\nbpw tXmn-
b-{]-Im-c-samw sNp-sapw, \ymbw t\mn--s-bm-sW-n
Imcy-Im-c-W-kz-`m-h-kw-_--\ym-b-sbpw 10km-cy-hm-Z-\ym-
b-sbpw A\p-k-cnv D]m-Zm-\-Im-c-Ws At]-nv IrXyw
sNpw F-tbm k-Xn-t-Xv?
A-s\-bm-sW-n D]m-Zm-\-Im-cWw apX-em-b-hsb At]-
nv IrXyw sNp--Xp-sImv ssZhw kzX-{Xzw Cm--h-
\m-Ip-a-tm. Fm As\ A. ssZh-ns kzmX-{y-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
28 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

saXv kzX-{-amb thsd Hn-\m t{]cy-am-W-a-msXbncpv


km[\w apX-em-b-hsb \nb-anp \S-p in-bm-Ip-p.
AmsX Poh-Iw apX-em-b-hsb At]-n-msX Ccn-p--
X-. `WvUmKmcw apX-em-bh
- sb At]-nv Zm\w apX-emb IrXy-
sf sNp cmPm-hn\p kzmh[n kzX-{Xzw Ipd-bm--Xp-
t]mse, \nanw, D]m-Zm-\-Im-cWw, Poh-Iw apX-em-b-hsb
At]-np IrXyw sNp ssZh-n\pw kzmX-{y-n\p
bmsXmcp Ipdhpw C.
Cs\ D]m-Zm-\-Im-c-W-s-p-dnp hnNm-cn--Xnepw ssZh-
e--W-an-sp In-cn-p-p.

Ipdn-p-I
1. D]m-Zm-\I - m-cWw: GsX-nepw krjvSn-s - -Sp-X
- n\p B[m-ca
- mbn \np
hkvXp D]m-Zm-\-Im-c-Ww. \qen\v ]n D]m-Zm-\-Im-c-W-am-Wv. apn\p \qev
D]m-Zm-\-Im-c-W-am-Wv. app-m-p B IXr-Im-c-W-am-Wv. krjvSnp
C{]-Imcw D]m-Zm-\-Im-c-W-an-msX btlmhm iq\y-n\np krjvSn-\-
Sn FmWv ss__n ]d-bp--Xv.
2. Imcy-Xz-tlXp = krjvSn-bpsS Imc-Ww.
3. ZrjvSm--kn--L-Sm-Zn-Im- Cuiz-c temIs krjvSn-p-tm
Fm-Wp-kr-jvSn-t-Xv Fs\ krjvSn-sW Fsmw Adn-hp-m-
bn-cn-pw. IpS-ap-m-p Ipem-e\v (L-Sm-Zn-Im-hv) av F-s\-bp--
Xm-bn-cn--Ww, IpSw Fs\ Dm-Ww Fn-h-sb-p-dnv \ Adn-hp-
v. AXp-t]mse temIs krjvSn ssZh-n\p (Zm-jvSm-nI kn-
tem-I-Imhv = kzw B-sImv temIs krjvSn-m Ign-bp
B) temI-kr-jvSn-bpsS \m\m-h-i-s-p-dnv \ Adn-hp-v. Fm
btlmh krjvSn-Xp-S-n-b-tm `mhn-bn hcmt]m-Ip ]e-Im-cy--sf-
p-dnpw Adn-hn-m--h-\m-bn-cpp FmWv ss__nh-N-\w-sImp
ImWp--Xv.
4. k-km-ay-`wKw = Fmw sNm Ign-hpv F Ah--bpsS `wKw.
5. kmh-b-hXzw = Ah-b-h--tfm-Sp-Iq-Snb Ah
6. LS-]-Sm-Zn-I = IpSw, hkv{Xw apX-em-bh
7. ImcyXzw = Ah-b-hw AYhm cq]w D Ah
8. ]c-a-Im-c-W-Xz-`wKw = ]c-a-{]-[m-\-amb AYhm Ghpw ASn-m-\-]-c-amb
ImcWw F Xz-ns `wKw
9. [n-[m-`m-h-kw-_--\ymbw = hkvXp-hn-s\bpw AXns [-sbpw
t\mn _n-n-p \ymbw. `qan-bpsS [w ImTn-\yhpw K-hp-am-Wv,
Pe-ns [w {Zh-Xz-hpw.
10. km-cyhm-Z-\ymbw = ImcyImc-W-_--n-eq-sS-bp XXzm-t\z-jWw

digitized by www.sreyas.in
29

BZn-krjvSn
Atbm {InkvXob {]kw-Kn-Isf!
btlmh BZn-a-\p-jysc hnth-I-an-m--h-cm-bnp krjvSn-Xv
Fn\v? As\ A Ah hnth-I-ap--hXs Bbncpp
Fn hne- - s - S p- - X ns\ sNp- - X mWv No, sNm-
Xncnp-XmWv \Xv Fp Xncn--dn-bmsX hne-nb I\nsb
`n-Xv Fp-sImv?
B I\nsb `n--Xns tijw Dmb KpW-tZm-j-m\w
aps Cm-Xn-cp-Xpw Fp-sImv?
A{]-Imcw krjvSn btlmhm Ahsc Ccp-nb tXm-n
D]-tbm-K-an-m Hcp hr-s-bpw-IqSn Dm-n-h-Xv Fn\v?
Hcp ]nXm-hm-Is ImgvNbvp \-Xmb Hcp hnj--\nsb sImp-
sNp hnth-I-an-m Ipn-I Ccn-p Xs honsh-v,
CXns\ `n--cp-sXp hne-n-tbv t]mb-Xns tijw Ah
AXns\ `nv A]-N-b-s-p-sh-n B Ipw B ]nXm-hns
t]cn-e-msX Ipn-I-fpsS t]cn-em-Ip-tam? AXp-t]mse BZn-a-\p-
jy ]m]n-I-fmbIpw, B btlmhm F ssZh-n-e-msX Ah-
cn Ccn-ptam?
C\nbpw B ssZhw, Xm ]d--{]-Imcw hnenb ]gs
`n Bfns\ Ap-Xs ac-W-in sImSp-msX hnp-I-f-
Xv \oXntbm? AXv Ir]-sIm-sp-h-cn-In k--\mb
Xm ]noSv hcp-hmt]m-Ip Fm-h-sbpw Adn-bp--h-\m-bn-
cns AXns\ apnqn \ncq-]n-msX hnp-t]m-bXv Fp-
sImv?
taepw, B I\nsb Xnm KpW-tZm-j-m\w Dm-Ip-sa-
p-Xp hmkvX-h-am-W-tm. B nXnv AXns\ hne-n-b-Xp-
Xs h-I-a-tbm? Fm As\ A, B hr-n\p
kzbta KpW-tZm-j
- m\w Adn-bn-p Hcp in C. btlmh

digitized by www.sreyas.in
30 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

hn[n--{]-Imcw sNp-Xp \-sXpw hne-n-b-Xns\ sNp--


XmWv No Fpw Adn-bp--Xn-tev Hcp Adn-Ip-dn-bmbn \n-
sImv AXns\ KpW-tZm-js DWp hr-sap ]d-
p, Fphcn-In, Cu As k-Xn-p--Xn-tep {]am-
W-sam-pan-m-sXbpw B I\nsb `n--s Ah-cpsS Ip-
I Xpd--sp Fp ]dpw Ccn--sImv BbXv Xosc
tNcp-I-bn-.
C\nbpw Fs-n-ep-am-I-s, hrs AhnsS hbvIp-Ibpw
CXns ]gs `n--cp-sXp hne-p-Ibpw sNbvXXv Fn-
\m-bnv? Xs hn[nv AS-p-Xv KpWw, AS-m-Xv tZmjw
Fp-X - ns\ B acw hgn-bmbn Ahv Adn-hp-sIm-Sp-W
- s
- ap
\ncq-]n-n-m-Ipp Fn X\npw ]c-mpw D]-Im-c-s-S--
-Xmb thsd h I]-\-I-sfbpw I]n-m-am-bn-cp--tm. Hcp
^ehpw Cm--Xmb Cu hrYm-I]-\sb I]n-Xv Fn\v?
AXpw Bm-v hnth-Is sImSp--XmWv Fn
ssZh-am-Ipp k-Im-c-W-s\pw AXp-sImv Ahs hn[nsb
A\p-k-cn-p--XmWp KpW-am-bn-p--sXpw Am--Xv tZmj-
am-sWpw Ah \-Xnhw Adn-bp-am-bn-cp-p. Atm AXn-
te-m-bnv Cu hnj-hrw thW-sa-n-tm? thW-sa-n ap-
m-cm-b-hpw C-s\-bp I]-\-sIm-Sp-t--Xm-bncp--tm.
Am-sX-bpw, Xs B-bn Ds-Sptam Ctbm Fp
]co-n-p--Xn\p hnj-hr--s-hv hne-n-t\mn Fp-h-cp-
tm apnIqn Adn-bm--Xp-sImv k--\-sp hp-
t]m-Ip-a-tm.
ssZhw a\p-jyv kzm[o-\s sImSp-n-cp-p. AXp-
sImv Ah-cpsS t]cn AmsX ssZh-ns t]cn Ip-an-.
Fn,
Hcp ]nXmhv hnth-Ia
- n-m Ipn-Ip kzm[o-\X
- sb sImSp-
p-Ibpw AXp-tl-Xp-hm-bnv Ah henb tZmj-sf sNp-Ibpw
sNbvXm B tZmj- BcpsS t]cn Ccnpw? hnth-I-an-m-
-hv kzm[o-\-Xsb sImSp-Xp \oXntbm? AXpw Ccn--
s, ssZhw Xs cq]-am-bnp krjvSn a\p-jysc hnp sISp-
XsN-p--Xn\v Hcp ]nimNv i-\m-Iptam? A{]-Imcw ]nimNp
hp tZmj-s-Sp-n-b-tm ssZhw AhnsS Cm-bn-cpp Fn

digitized by www.sreyas.in
BZn-krjvSn 31

k-hym-]-I-\-s-pw, AXns\ Adn-n-s-n k--\-


s-pw, Adn-npw B ]nim-Nns\ JWvUn-m Ign-bmsX Ccp-
p-t]mbn Fn- A-\in-bp--h-\-spw AXn-tev k-
Xn-n-cpp Fn Icp-W-bn-m--h-s\pw Xo-bm-mw.
Hcp ZpjvS-arKw hp Xs Ipnsb sImp--Xn-\p-Xp-S-p-
tm AXns\ hne-p-hm Ign-bp-Xpw {]bm-ks - -Sm-sX, hrYm
t\mn-sm-n-cn-p--hs\ ]nXmhv Fp ]d-bmtam? Hcn-epw
]d-p-Iq-Sm. B nXnp \n-fpsS ssZhs k-tem-I-]n-
Xm-hm-sWv \ncq-]n-p-Xpw ]d-bp-Xpw icn-bmtWm?
]nim-Nns\ inn-p-Ibpw a\p-jysc apn-bn tNp-
sIm-p-Ibpw sNmw Fp A`n-{]m-b-tm-Sp-IqSn Bbn-cpp
Fn hym[n-tbbpw Huj-[-tbpw km-Zn-p-Xv _pn-tI-
Sm-I-bm AXv Hcp {`m-Ir-Xy-am-bn-m-bn-cnpw Fp-am{Xw ]d-
tb-n-h-cpw.
C\nbpw a\p-jy-cpsS ipnsb \in-n-Xv ]nim-Nm-sWp
]d-bp--tm. B nXnv apt-Xs tZh-Zq-X-m-cpsS ipnsb
\in-nv Cu ]nim-Nm-I---hw Bn-oXv thsd Hcp
]nimNv Fp \n-bn-t-X - m-Wv. AXn-tev Av AhnsS A{]-
Imcw Hcp ]nimNv Cm-bn-cp--Xp-sImv btlm-hm-Xs Fm-h-
tcbpw sISp ]nimNv Fp ]d-b-s-S-Ww.
AXp-Iq-Sm-sXbpw ]nimNv k-thjw sIn-hp a\p-jysc
tZmj-s-Sp-n-bX
- p-sImv B ]nim-Nns\ i]n-msX k-sf
Fmw i]n-Xv Fn\v?
]m]w Dm-Ip--Xn\v Hcp hn[-nepw Imc-W--fm-Im
k- Fmw im]-ta nXnv B ]mt]m-Xv - np t\sc
Imc- W - a m- b n- c p ]nimNpw hrhpw AXp- I sf krjv S n
ssZhhpw im]-ta-evmsX Hgn-Xp \oXn-bm-bn- - X- p-Xs
- tbm?
C\nbpw BZn-a-\p-jy tZmjw sNbvX-Xp-sImv Ahp-
sIm-Sp im]w Ah-cpsS k-Xn-bn P\n-p Fm a\p-
jypw ]---hw \n-bn--Xns Imc-W-sa-mWv?
BZn-]p-kXv Iw 6 A. 67 hm. Xm `qan-bn a\p-jysc krjvSn--
Xn-s\-p-dnv ]cn-X]
- n-p. AXv btlm-hm-bpsS lrZ-b- n thZ-\b - m-
bn-cp-p. \mw a\p-jysc krjvSn-Xv \app ]cn-Xm-]a - m-bn-cn-p-p.

digitized by www.sreyas.in
32 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

btlm-hm, C{]-Imcw C-tbm-Sp-IqSn a\p-jysc krjvSn-nv


]ns ]cn-X-]n-Xv Fn\v?
Xm krjvSn a\p-jy ip-m-cm-bn-cn-m-sX, ]m]n-I-fmbn
t]mb-Xp-sImv ]cn-X-]np Fn,
AXp \ymbw-X-s, B a\p-jy ]m]n-I-fm-sb-p-am-{X-at
Dq. thsd A\ym-b-sampw sNbvXn--tm. Ahsc krjvSn
Xns\-p-dnv ]cn-X-]nv btlmhm Xm krjvSn ssZh-Zq-X
]m]n-bmbpw ]nim-Nmbpw Xop Fp-am-{X-a-, Xs ASn-a-I-
fmb a\p-jy-scbpw tZmj-s-Sp-n, Xs t]cn A]-Ionbpw
Dm-n-op, Xs Iev]-\-sbbpw ewLnv Xm P\nv
IjvS-sp acn-p--Xn-tev CS-bm-n. P\-\-a-c-W-an-m--h-s\-
p t]cn-s\bpw A\-h-m-n. Cs\ Fmw X\np
alm-\m-i-sf sNbvXp-sImv B Ahsc krjvSn--Xns\ hnNm-
cnv AXyw ]cn-X-]n-m-\p--Xm-bn-cns Aev]w-t]mepw AXn-
s\-n ]cn-X-]n-msX Ccp-Xv Fp-sImtm? krjvSnp XpS-
n-bm C{]-Im-c-ap tZmj--sfmw kw`-hn-p-sa-p--Xns\
apnqn Adn-n-cp-n-s-n k--\ Fpw Adn-
p-sIm-p-Xs Bbn-cp-p-sh-n Ir] Cm--h-s\pw
]noSp ]cn-X-]n-Xp I-sapw \n-bn-t--Xm-Wv.
Am-sXbpw temIv CXv C-t]mse BIp-sav Adn-
n-cp-m CXv C-hw \S-t--Xm-sW-p \nb-X-\n-
-b-hpw-IqSn Atm sNbvXp-sIm-p-I-bn-tbm? B nXnp
btlmhm \n-bn--{]-Im-cw-Xs Fmw \Spw F-msX
CSbvp sXn-tm-Iptam? sXn-tm-Ip-sa-n k--Xzhpw
kh-Ir-Xzhpw Cm-Xm-Ip-a-tm. As\ Hpw sXn-tm-bn-
s-n ka-kvXhpw btlm-hm-bpsS \nb-a-{]-Imcw Xs kw`-hn-
n-p--sXp ]d-tb--Xm-Wv. AXp-sImv kI-e-]m-]-fpw
hogvN-Ifpw btlm-hm-bpsS t]cn AmsX a\p-jy-cpsS ta
Ccn-p--Xn-tep Xosc \ymbw C.
BZy-ta-Xs kI-e-sbpw \n-bn-n-cpp Fp--Xn\p
{]amWw (]p-Xnb \nb-a-n-ep Cu teJ\w ]utemkv Atm-
kvX-esXmIp-p. Fs^-tkm-kp-Im FmWv ss__n-fns
]pXnb X-a-I-fn {]tbm-Kn-p-Im-Wp--Xv) Fs^-kn-b-m 1-
A. 4-hm. \mw ipn-bp--h-cmbpw kvt\l-n Xs apmsI

digitized by www.sreyas.in
BZn-krjvSn 33

Ip-an-m--h-cmbpw Ccn-t-p--Xn\v Ah temI-ns ASn-


m-\-n\p apt \s Ch- Xnc-s-Sp-n-cn-p {]Im-
cw-Xs Sn (11--hm). Xs a\-ns Btem-N-\-t]m-se-Xs kI-
e-sbpw {]hn-p--Xns \n-b-{]-Imcw \mw ap \nb-
an--s-nv Ch- \apv Hc-h-Imiw e`n-n-cn-p-p. tdmam-m
8-A. 28--hm. hnti-jnpw ssZhs kvt\ln-p--hcpw Ahs
ap\n--b-{]-Imcw hnfn--s--hcpw Bbp--hv Fm Imcy-
fpw \-bvm-bnv Hcp-anp hym]m-cn-pp Fp \mw Adn-bp-
p. tdmam. 8A. 29--hm. Fp-sIm-s-m Ah ap Adn-
-hsc Xs ]p{X At\-I-k-tlm-Z-c-m-cn BZy-Pm-X-\m-bn-
cn-t-p--Xn\v Ahs kzcq-]-tmSv A\p-cq-]-s-Sp-hm-\m-bnp
ap\n--bn-p. Sn. 30. Ah Ghsc ap \n-bn-pthm Ah-sc-
s Ah \oXo-Ic - n-p. Ghsc Ah \oXo-Ic
- n-pthm Ahsc
Ah al-Xz-s-Sp-n. (A-tmkvtXm: \S-p-I 2 A. 22 hm.).
ssZh-ns \nb Btem-N-\-bmepw ap Adn-hn-\mepw Gevn-
-s-Sp-I-sImv \n Ah-s\-n-Snv ZpjvS-ssI-IsImv
Ahs\ Ipcn-in Xd-p-sIm-p. (tdm-am-m 9-A. 22-33 hm)
]ns ssZhw Xs t{Im[s ImWn-m\pw Xs insb
Adn-bn-m\pw CjvSs - v \mi-n\p tbmKy-amb t{Im[-]m-{X-sf
hfsc ZoL-im--X-tbmSp klnp Fn Fv? Xm al-Xz-
n-\p-ap-n Hcp-nb Imcp-Wy-]m-{X--fn Xs al-Xz-ns
sFiz-cys Adn-bn-m\pw CjvS-s-p-sh-n Fv? 2. sX-
tem-\n-b-m 2.A. 13.-hm. Fm Im-hn-\m tkhn--s
ktlm-Z-c-m-sc, \nsf ssZhw BZn XpSn Bm-hn-\m-ep
ipo-Ic - W
- - mepw kXy-n-ep hnizm-k - mepw cbvv Xnc-
s-Sp-n-cn--sIm-v,
Cu hmIy--fn CXv C-hw \S--W-sap krjvSn-
Im-ev BZyw-Xs btlmhm \n-bn-n-cpp Fp tXmp-
p. AXp-sImv btlm-hm-bpsS \nb-a-{]-Im-cw-X-s-bmWv kIe
tZmj-fpw kw`-hnXv Fp sXfn-hm-bn-cn-p-p. BI-bm B
ssZhw Xm sNbvX ]m]-n-te-p-thn Bm-sf ZWvUn-
n-p-Xv alm A\ym-b-am-Ip-p. Cs\ BZn-krjvSn\n-cq-
]WwsImv ssZh-e--W-an-sv km[n--s-Sp-p

digitized by www.sreyas.in
34 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

ZppWw
Atbm {InkvXob {]kw-Kn-Isf!
\n-fpsS btlmhm F ssZh-n, Cm--h-bmb k-
-Xzm-Zn-Kp-W- B ssZh-n D-Xm-bnv henb Iw
]dp Fp-X-s-bp-a At-l-n-\p--h-I-fmb sshcm-Kyw
(ssh-c-`m-hw), tIm]w, Akqb, Poh-t{Zm-lw, kvXpXn-{]o-Xn, hymIp-
e-Xzw, ZpjvS-Xzw, Ak-Xyw apX-emb henb Zpp-W-sf Hn-
t\bpw shfnp ]d-bmsX ad-p-sh-p-I-f-bp-Ibpw sNbvXtm?
Fm R ap]-d Zpp-W- Fmw btlm-
hbvv Ds- p- - X ns\, \n- kXy- s ap
ssIsmncnp, ss__n{]-am-WwsImpXs km[n-
mw. ]pd-m-Sp-]p-kvXIw (20A. 5hm) Rm sshcm-Ky-ap ssZhw;
(Sn. 34 A. 14hm.) sshcm-Kysa \ma-ap btlmhm sshcm-Ky-
ap ssZhw; tbmiphm (24A. 19hm.) Ah sshcm-Ky-ap
ssZhw Fn-s\ ]d-n-cn--sImv sshcm-Ky-ap--h-s\-pw,
kwJym-]p-kvXI - w. (16-A
- . 46-h
- m) AXn-tIm]w btlm-hm-bpsS
kn-[n-bn\nv ]pd-sv _m[-Xp-S-n-bn-cn-p-p. (]p-d-m-Sv, 32-
-A. 10--hm). Fs tIm]w Ahp hntcm-[-ambn In Rm
Ahsc \in-n-t-p--Xn\v Fs hnSp-I. Cs\ ]d-n-cn-
-sImv tIm]-ap--h-s\-pw. BZy-]p-kvXIw (3--A. 22-23--hm.)
A\-cw ssZhw ]d-p: CXm a\p-jy KpW-tZm-j-sf Adn-
b---h-\mbn \n Hcp-h-s\-tmse Bbn. Ctm Ah
Xs Ip \on Poh-hr--ns I\ntbbpw ]dnp `n-p -
kZmIm-ehpw Pohn-n-cn-m-h - w \nb-an-W - s
- ap ]dp (I-
cp-Xn) GZ F tXm-n\npw Ahs\ Cd-n-hn-p. (B-Zy-
]p-kvXIw 11--A.) P\- Hcp henb D-X-amb tImhn sIp-
hm XpS-n-b-Xns\ Iv AXn-\m Ah alm-Ion AS-
bm t]mIpp Fp IcpXn btlmhm Ahsc `nn-n-p-I-f-
-Xn-\m Akqb D-h-s\-pw,

digitized by www.sreyas.in
ZppWw 35

(]p-d-m-Sp-]p-kvXIw 12--A.) an{kbnw tZi-p Fm ISn-


qIp-n-I-sfbpw ]mXn-cm-{Xn-bn sImp. ]d-thm-hns lrZ-
bs ITn-\-s-Spn Xs Iev]-\sb ssIsm-msX hne-
n-smv Ah-s\bpw Ahs tk\-I-sfbpw Xs alna {]Im-
in- p- - X n- \ p- t hn kap- { Z- n apn- s m- p. (se- h nbm
]pkvXIw 16-A - . 1-hm.) Xs kn-[n-bn h Al-tcms ]p{X-
msc cp-t]sc sImp (i-ap-sb 1-]p-kvX-Iw. 25 A. 38--hm.)
\m_m F-hs\ ASn-p-sIm-p. ]nsbpw C{k-tb P\--
fp-sSbpw ap ]e-cp-sSbpw CS-bn At\I Ie-l-sf Dmn
hfsc sIme-sNbvXp Fp ]d-n-cn--sIm-v, Poh-t{Zmln
Fpw,
Xs alna {]Im-in-p--Xn-\p-th-n {]b-Xv\np Xncn-bp-
-h-s\pw ss__n-fn ]e epw ]d-n-cn--sImv
kvXpXn-{]n-b-s\-pw,
krjvSn--tm ktm-jn-p-Ibpw ]noSv ]cn-X-]n-p-Ibpw
sNbvX-Xp-sImv hymIp-e-Xz-ap--h-s\pw (]p-d-mSv 1-A.) hb-
m-n-I-fmb kn{]mbpw ]qbmbpw (in-^m-dm-]q-hm) Iw ]d--Xp-
sImv Ahsc A\p-{K-ln-p. (1--cm-Pm--m 22--A.) Hcp Bm-
hns\ Abp Iw ]d-bn Blm_v F-h-s\bpw Ahs
tk\-I-sfbpw sImp Fp ]d-n-cn--sImv Ak-Xy-hm-
s\pw, (]p-d-mSv 11.-A.)
C{k-tb-ey-msc Abm-tcmSv B`-c-W-sf Cc-h
hmn-smp Hfnv HmSn-tm-I - - h
- w sImfp-n-hn-p. (2 iap-
th 12-A
- .) ZmhoZv F-h Ddn-bm-hns `mcysb ]nSn-X
- p-sImv
Zmho-Zns kv{XoIsf Ahs Abm-ct- \mSp ibn-m I]n-
p. (B-Zy-]p-kvXIw 20--A. A{_m-lmhpw 26--A.) Ck-lmpw
Iw ]d--Xns tijw Ahsc inn-msX A\p-{K-ln-p.
(slm-ibm 1 A. 2 hm.) \o sNv \n\p thiym-hr-n-bp Hcp
`mcy-tbbpw thiym-hr-n-If- nse ss]X-s - fbpw FSp-p-sImI
Fn--s\-sbmw ]d-n-cn--sImv alm-Zp-jvS-X-bp--h
Fpw ImWp-p.
C\nbpw ss__n ]pkvX-I-n ImWp btlm-hm-bpsS
Zpp-W--sfbpw Zpcm-Nm-c--sfbpw Zphm-p-I-sfbpw Fmw

digitized by www.sreyas.in
36 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

]dI Fp-h-m A[n-I-hn-kvXm-c-ambn t]mIp-sapw C{Xbpw


sImv aXn-bm-Ip-sapw IcpXn ChnsS Ah-km-\n-n-pp.
C\n (B-Zn-]p-kvXIw 1 A. 26-27 hm.) ssZhw Xs cq]-am-
bnp a\p-jys\ krjvSnp Fp ImWp-p. Atm btlmhm
Acq- ] ntbm kzcq- ] ntbm? Hcn- epw kzcq- ] n- b - m. Acq- ] n-
XsbmWv. Fn Acq-]a - mb kzcq-]
- n-e
- tbm krjvSn-n-cnq.
Ctm a\p-jy-scp ]d-b-s-p-h-cp a\p-jy-sc--s-bmWp
krjvSn-n-cp-Xv Fp-h-cp-In krjvSn ssZhw Acq-]n-bm
kzcq]n At{X.
sl! As\ A Xs kzcq-]-sap ]d--Xn-\w ico-
c-sa-m Bmhv FmWv Fn btlmhm krjvSn-Xp ico-
c-stbm Bm-hn-s\-tbm, cn-t\-bpw-Iq-Sntbm? BZn-]p-kvXIw
2 A. 7 hm. btlmhm a\p-jys\ ap-sImv krjvSnp Poh-izm-
ks aqnqSn DuXn a\p-jys\ Pohm-m-hmn Fp
ImWp-I-bm krjvSn-Xv Xs cq]-n-se-n-cn--sImpw
Bmhv ssZh-ns Poh-izm-k-am-I-bm AXp krjvSn--s--
X-sv Ccn--bmepw Bm-hn-s\-b ico-c-s-bmWv krjvSn-
-Xv. m\-ns hSn-hn krjvSnp Fp ]d-bp--Xn-\m
C\nbpw henb tZmjw Ccn-p-p. AXm-bXv BZn-a-\p-jys\
m\-ns cq]-am-bn-mWp krjvSn--sX-n Ah\p kzm`m-
hn-I-am-bnp m\w {]Im-in-msX Ccn-ptam? {]Im-in-n-cpp
Fn KpW-tZm-j-sf Xncn--dn-bmsX Ccn-ptam? Adn-n-
cpp Fn Xs kv{Xo, ]nim-Nmb k-ns ssIh-i-s-
p-t]m-Iptam? Ah hi-sp t]mbmepw Ah-fpsS hmns\
Ch tIp-am-bn-cptm? C-tm. AXp-sImv kzcq-]-sa-Xv
Adn-h-, ico-cw-X-s-bm-Wv.
C\nbpw kzcq-]-sa-p--Xn\v Aw Adnhv FmWv
Fn a\p-jy\p I\n Xnp-X- n\v apn-ep-m-bn-cp m\ta
ssZh-n-\p-ffp Fpw Atm I\n Xn-Xns tijw a\p-jy-
\p-mb KpW-tZm-j-m-\w-t]mepw ssZh-n-\n-spw Hcp-thf
Dsp ]d-bp--]w btlm-hmbpw Cu I\nsb Ftmtgm
Hcn- Xnn-mWv KpW-tZm-j-m\w hn-p-Xv Fpw,
kzm`m-hn-I-am-bnv Cu m\w Cspw Xo-bmIpw Fm-
Ipp.

digitized by www.sreyas.in
ZppWw 37

]nsbpw ap-sIm-p-mn Fpw aqn DuXn Fpw


Iev]\ sImSpp Fpw ImWp--tm. CXn-tev Iv, hmbv,
aqv Ch-Ifpw, ssZhwhcp i_vZs tIp Fp ImWp-I-
bm i_vZw tIp-amdp \S-p--Xn-tev Imep-Ifpw Imb,
t\mhm apX-em-b-hp ImW-sp Fn-cn--bm cq]hpw
IqSmsX Fs\ BWv? C\nbpw BZw \-\m-I-sImv env
Hfn-n-cpp F ImWp-p. Atm Acq-]nsb ImWp--Xnt\m
ImWmsX en-p--Xnt\m Bs-nepw CS-h-cptam? C-tm.
CsX-mw-sImpw t\mp-tm btlmhm kzcq-]n-sb-p-Xs
\n-bn--s-Sp-p.
BZn-]p-kvXIw 3 A. 8 hm. ]I XWp- ka-bp tXm-
n k-cn-p btlmhm Fn-cn--bm btlmhm D-m-
es shbn-ens\ `b-sv Ff-sh-bn-en kpJ-n\pthn
emp-p-shpw AXp-sImp iotXm-jvWk - p-JZ- px-Jm-Zn-I D-
h-s\pw Dd-m-Ip-p.
C\nbpw ]e-Xp-ap-v. Ah-I-sfmw Ccn--s.
Cs\ Fmw-s Impw btlm-h bv p ssZh- e - - W - a n-
spw Bb-Xn-\m hW----h-s\pw al-Xz-ap--h-s\pw
A-ap--Xmbn ]d-b-s-Sp Ftemlnw k-h--`-s\v
A-ap--Xmbn ]d-b-s-Sp Gen-tbm Xmm\mbn
Poh-\p--h, \nXy, bYm-hm, BZy--an-m--h, am-an-m-
-h Cu A--fp--Xmbn ]d-b-s-Sp btlmhm Fm-
h-cp-sSbpw taepw ssZh-amb-h kI-e-Xn\pw \ymbm-[n-]Xn F
A--fp--Xmbn ]d-b-s-Sp iZmbn F{_m-b-`m-j-bn-ep
Cu \ma-fpw ssZh-sa--ap sXsbmn Im-sh-
-ap Iqdn-tbmn {Kop-`m-j-bn-ep Cu \ma-fpw Cu
btlmhmssZh-n\p tNcm-h - b
- m-Ipp Fpw kv]jvSa- m-Ipp.

digitized by www.sreyas.in
38 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

{InkvXp-N-cnXw
tbip-{In-kvXphpw Aev]w-t]mepw ssZh-Xz-an-m Bfm-
sWp ImWn-mw.
bqtdm-p-J-WvU-n-ep ]q-N-cn-{X--fn tbip-hns
Imep kw`-hn-n-p kwK-Xn-Isf D-{]-Imcw ImetZi-sf
\n-bnv Fgp-Xn-h-Xv sbmkn-tamkv F Bfm-Ip-p. tbip-
hm-Is bYm-am-bnv Am-e - p-m-bn-cn-bpw acn-h
- sc Pohn-
n- apX-emb Ap-X-sImv P\-sf {`an-n-p-Ibpw
sNbvXn-cpp Fn sbmkn-tamkv Fgp-Xnb Ncn-{X-n ]d-
bmsX hnp-I-f-bp-am-bn-cptm? Hcp-thf Ah-I At-l-ns
sNhn-bn IS-m-sX-bn-cp--Xm-bn-cn-mw. Fnepw tbip Ipcn-
in--s--tm ]Ik-abw cm{Xn-k-abw t]mse A-Im-c-am-
bn-cpp Fp hnti-j-kw-`-h-s-qSn Atlw Adn-bm-Xn-cp-
p-t]mtbm? Hcp-k-abw A-s\-bp-an-cn--s. Ap-m-b-Xmbn
]d-b-s `qI--s-p-dn-p Hmbpw At-l-ns a\-
n\npw Xosc \on-tmtbm? A{X-bp-a - , tbip P\n Bv,
amkw, XobXn Ch-Isf ss__n-fn ]d-bmsX hnp-I-f--sX-
p-sImv? P\n Znh-k-s-mfpw acn Znhkw Ahiyw KWn-
-s-tS--Xm-bn-cp-npw Bb-Xn-s\bpw ]d-n-n--tm. \qX-\-
am-bnv Hcp \{Xw DZnv AXn-s\-smp P\-\-\m-fns\ KWn-
m-a-tm. Fm 11890 kwh--c-p-apt A{]-Imcw Hcp
\{Xw DZn-n-p--Xmbn CUym, No\, t]jy, bqtdmv Cu
e--fn-ep BIm-i-K-Wn-X-im-kv{Xn-am Bsc-nepw k-Xn-
p-ptm? AXp-an-. BI-bm tbip Fsm-cm-fp-m-bn-cpp
Fp--Xp-Xs kt-l-n-em-bn-cn-p-p.
AXn-cn--s, hmkvX-hambnp-m-bn-cp-s-p-Xs hnNm-cn-
mw. Fmepw tbip-hns P\\w apXevt ap--h-sc-tmse
AmsX thsd Fs-nepw hnti-j-ap-m-bn-cptm? K`-n-e-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
{InkvXp-N-cnXw 39

I-s-Sm-sX-tbm, tbm\o-kw-_w IqSm-sXtbm P\ntm? P\n--


tms temI-{]-kn---fmb Ap-X- Fs-n-ep-ap-
mtbm? km[m-cW {]kn---fmb Ap-X- Fs-nepw
Dmtbm? km[mW a\p-jy-cq-]-s-tm-se-b-msX \mep Xe
Fp ssI Cs\ h-hn-[-ap-am-bn-cptm? P\n--tmXs
FWo-p-\-Sv D]-Z-in-m XpS-ntbm? hni-v, Zmlw, \n{Z, Pew,
aew CuhI D]m-[n-I-tfmSp IqSmsX hftm? C-tm. ]ns
Atlw P\n aplq-hn-ti-jw-sImv BZyw-Xs amXm-hn-
]mXn-{h-Xy-tZm-j-i Btcm-]n--sp. cm-aXv B Znn
At-Zn-hkw cp-h-b-n-\Iw {]mb-ap aqhm-bncw Ipn-I
sIm-s-Sp-Ibpw Xn-anw P\-p-mb hyk-\m-[nIyw
tlXp-hm-bnv B Znp apgp-h\pw iq\y-a-S-p-t]m-Ibpw sNbvXp.
ssZh-]p-{X-\mWv P\n--sX-n AXp-\n-anw ktm-j-s-Sp-hm-
\p Znp apgp-h\pw Cs\ hyk\w sImm-Sptam? Hcn--ep-
an-. Bb-Xp-sImp {InkvXp-Xs A\m-Zn-bm-bnp _n aqe-
Im-c-W-m ]q-Im-eo\ Im-\p-km-c-am-bnv ambm-Imcyamb
Nw, cw, amwkw, taZ-v, An, a, ipIvfw F k]vX-
[m-Xp-s - f-sm-p-mb ico-cs FSpp Kt`m]n Bb-
tm amXm-hns aqem-n-sImp X]n K`-k-n-bn \nd
\ocn apgpIn hmbp-hn-\m s\cpn X-fnv amXm-hn-\p-mb
hni-v, Zmlw apX-emb thZ-\-I-fm IjvS-sp tbm\o-Zzm-c-n
sRcpn P\-\-th-Z\ apgp-h\pw A\p-`-hnp P\n-p-h-fv aX-
t{Zmlw, ssZh-Zq-jWw apX-emb ITn-\-]m-X-I-sf sNbvXv Ae-
p- X n- c nv 33- mw hb- n Xm sNbv X alm- t Zm- j -
\nanw Ipcn-in Xd-bv-sp \ne-hn-fnv ]d--h-km-\n-
n-m Ign-bm thZ-\-I-tfm-Sp-IqSn acn--Xp-sImpw ap Imc-
W--fmepw Atlw km[m-c-W-Po-h-m-sc-mfpw ZpjvS-Po-h-\m-
sW-p-Xp sXfn-hm-bn-cn-p-p.
(atmkv 13--A. 32 hm.) Fm B \mfn-s\bpw \mgn-I-
sbbpw Ipdnp ]nXm-h-msX Hcp-\pw Adn-bp-n-. kz-n-
ep ZqX-m-cm-Is ]p{X (tb-ip) BIs Adn-bp-n-. Cu
hmIyw-sImv k--\mb (F-m-a-dn-) ssZhw (]n-Xm-hv)
Hcp--\n-cn-p-spw tbip-hn\v A{]-Im-c-ap in Cspw
sXfn-hm-I-bm {InkvXp k--\-.

digitized by www.sreyas.in
40 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

tbip Xs ssZh-kz-`m-h-tm-Sp-IqSn \s-tmse ]in-Zm-


l-fpw _e-lo-\-X-I-fpw D--Xmb Hcp a\p-jy-kz-`m-h-tbpw
[cn-n-cpp Fpw {InkvXp-hns\ ss__n-fn ssZh-]p-{X-s\pw
a\p-jy-]p-{X-s\pw ]d-bp-X
- mbpw kz-p ZqXcpw ]p{X\pw
IqsS Adn-bp-n-s--msX ssZh-]p-{X\pw IqsS Fp ]d-n-
-tm. AXp-sImv a\p-jy-]p-{X-s\-mWv AXn\v Aw
tNt-s - Xpw ]d-bpp Fn CXnp {]am-Wta C. AXp
IqSm-sXbpw \n tbip-hn\v Adn-p-Iq-sSpw s]mXp-th-bp
\ymb- a mb A- s - b - msX C{]- I mcw Akw- _ - - sf
hymJym-\n-p-sIm-p-h-cp-Xp Xosc A_--am-bnp `hn-pw.
Fs\ Fm,
ChnsS ssZh-]p-{X-s\p ]d-n-n-m--Xp-sImv Adn-I-
bn-s-p hmns\ ssZh-kz-`m-htmSp tNp-IqSm Fn
a\p-jy-]p-{X-s\p ]d-n-n-m--Xp-sImv a\p-jy-kz-`m-h-
tmSpw tNq-IqSm Fpw, ssZhw Fpw a\p-jy Fpw
IqSmsX shdpw ]p{X-s\-p-am{Xw ]d-n-cn--sImp shdpw
kz`m-ht- m-Sp-IqsS Xs tNmhq Fpw Atm tbip-hns\
ssZh-Xzw, a\p-jXzw CXp-I cpw Am Hcp shdpw--Xzw--
C-s\ aqv Xz Dspw BbXp ss__n-fn\p hntcm-[-
sapw hp-t]m-Ipw.
ta]-d \mfn-t\bpw \mgn-It- bbpw a\p-jy-\mWv Adn-bm
]mSn-m--Xv. AXp-sImv Adn-I-bn F hmns\ a\p-jy-Xz-
tm-Sp-Xs tNt--Xm-Wv Fn a\p-jy-cn tPymXn-m-
kv{X-]-WvUn-X-m temIm-h-km-\-Imew apX-emb Ime-sf \-
t]mse Adn-p-sIm-p--tm. ssZh-Xz-n-\m am{Xta Adn-
b-s-n-pp Fp \n-fm ]d-b-s temIm-h-km-\-k-a-b-s-
p-dn-p m\w tPymXn-mkv{X ]WvUn-X-m-cnepw Ccn--
sImv Ah-cnepw {]tXyIw {]tXyIw ssZhXzw Dsp ]d-
tb--Xm-bnp t\cn-Spw. ]ns aqV-m CXns\ Adn-I-bn-sv
Bt]w IqSmsX ]d-bmw. AXp-sImv Adn-I-bn- Fp
hmns\ a\p-jy-Xz-tmSpw tNm ]mSn aqV-Xz-tmSpw
tNt--Xm-bnt Ccn-q. B nXnv Cu hmns\ tbip-
hns aqV-Xz-tmSp tNt--Xm-bnpw Atm tbip-hn\p
aqVXzw Fsmcp Xzw IqsS tN-W-sapw \n-bn-t-n-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
{InkvXp-N-cnXw 41

h-cpw. Hcp-thf tbip hcpw-Im-cy--sf-p-dnv hXpw ]d-n-p-


-Xmbn \n-bn-p-sIm-m-epw-C
- t- m km[m-cW IWn-bm-mcpw
Nne I-b-n-tk-h-I-mcpw Nne tImS-n-Ifpw AXp-t]mse
Xs hcpw-Im-cy--sf-p-dnv ]d-p-h-cp-Xv {]Xy--am-bn-cn-
-sImv BbXv Hcp hnti-j-ambn Icp-Xn-q-Sm.
tPymXn-mkv{Xw Ak-Xyhpw tPymy-m apX-em-bh- I-
mcpw BIpp Fn, {KlWw apX-em-b-hsb C-tm Fm-
sav apIqn Ip-]n-Sn--sImpw a\p-jyv hcm t]mIp
kIe A\p-`-h--sfbpw Ipdnv PmXIw \nn- XpS-n-bp-
h {]Xy--am-bn-cn--sImpw B hmv A]w-t]mepw km[p-
hm-I-bn-.
tPymy-m-cm C-tm Fv Adn-bs - -n-p ka-b- p-
X-s-bmWv temIw Ah-km-\n-mt]m-Ip--sX-p-Xp {]Xy-
m-\p-`hw Am-X - p-sImv Bb-Xns\ hniz-kn-b - nm Fn
{Kl-n-g-k-a-b-, ac-W-\m, ma-Im-ew, {Kl-W- apX-em-
bh tPymy-m C-tm-sg-m-sap ]d-m AXnhw
Hp-h-cp--Xp-sImv temIm-h-km-\-k-a-bhpw Ah-cpsS IW-p-
{]-Imcw Hp-X - m-sWp hniz-kn-m am-an-cn-s, Bb-Xns\
hniz-kn--bn-spw ss__n-fn ]d-bp temIm-h-km-\-Im-e-
tbpw \ymb-hn-Nm-c-W-tbbpw Ipdnp ]e-hn-[-amb X-fpw
XI-cm-dp-Ifpw t\cnpw hniz-kn----Xmb bmsXmcp Imc-Whpw
{]Xy-m-\p-`-hhpw Cm-sXbpw Ccp-npw Bb-Xns\ hniz-kn-
pp Fp ]d-bp-Xv Fv A\ym-b-amWv? Am-sXbpw tZh-
Zq-X-mcpw ]p{X-\pw-IqsS Adn-I-bn-s-p Xpey-am-bnp ]d-n-
cns \n ]p{Xs\ am{Xw hnti-j-s-Spn FSpp ]d-bp-
Xv B hmIy-n-\pwIqSn hncp--am-Ip-p. C\nbpw Adn-I-bn-s-
p-Xv Adn-bn Cs-pw-IqSn A-an-cnpw Fp ]d-p-
sIm-mepw AXpw \n-b-am-bnp tZh-Zq-X-mpw IqSn ]pw.
]nsbpw Ipg-m-bn-p-Xo-cpw. F-s\-sbmw D]mbw t\mn-
bmepw k-Xzw Cs-p--Xn\v Dd--msX Cfw A]w-
t]mepw hcp--Xm. CXn-tev CXm Hp-IqSn ImWn-p-t]m-Ip-
p. (atmkv 11 A. 13 hm.) (Ce-I-fp Hcp An-a-cs Zqc-
p-\nv Iv AXn hXpw Inptam Fp hv sNv AXn-\-
cnsI Fn-b-tm Ce-I AmsX Hpw In-m, An--g-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
42 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

-fpsS kabw Atm-g-m-p.) Cu hmIyw-sImpw km[m-cW


a\p-jy-sc-tm-se-Xs tbip-hn\pw ASp-p-sNp t\mp-X
- n\p
apv AdnpsImp--Xn-\p k-m\w Csp \n-
b-am-Ip-p.
tl A-s\-bm; tbip CsXm-cp-]-a-bm-bnp ]d--Xm-Wv.
F-s\-sb-m Ce-I-fp Hcp An-a-cs Zqc-p-\npw
IXv Zqc-am-Ip kz-n\npw ]pjvSn-bm-bn-cn-p Pdp-
k-e-ans\ I-Xn\pw AXn hXpw Ip-Inpw Fp-hv AXn-
\-cnsI sNXp Pdp-k-e-ay-cn \ymbw, I\n-hv, hnizmkw apX-
emb \ ^e- Dm-bn-cn-ptam Fv ASp--t\z-jn--Xn\pw
Ce-I AmsX Hpw ImWm-Xv C{km-tb-ey-cn am-
ns ]pd-sa-bp BNm-c--fmb shdpw thj-a-msX hnizm-
k-ns ^e- bmsXmpw Cm--Xn\pw An--g--fpsS
Imew Atm-f-mp FXv Pdp-k-tew, Xs ki-\-Im-
es Adn-bm-Xn-cp--Xn\pw C\n \n\nv Ftpw Bcpw
^ew Xn-cp-sXv tbip i]n-Xp \nn In-t Ip-ti-
jn-m-Xn-cn-pw-\m-fp-I hcp-sa--Xn-\pw, DSs\ An DW-n-
tm-bXp Pdp-k-te-ans \mi-n\pw AS-bm-f-am-Ipp Fp ]d-
mepw k-m-\-an-s-p--Xn\v A[n-I-n-c-X-b-msX
Ipdhv Aev]w-t]mepw ImWp-n-. Fs\ Fm shdpw thj-
a-msX I\n-hv, hnizmkw apX-em-bh Cm Pdp-kt- e-aysc kz-
p-\npw ImWp--Xn\p apns Ah-cpsS hmkvX-hs
Adn-bp--XmWv k-m-\-ns e-Ww. AXp-t]m-bnv
kz-p-\npw I-tm-sg-n-ep-a-dntm? AXpw C. ASp-p-
sNv At\z-jn--Xns tij-at Adn-p-q. Bb-Xp-sImv
CXv k-m-\e -
- W
- a- m-sW-n Fm-ht- cbpw k- - m-
scpXs ]d-bmw. Am-sXbpw Pdp-kt- e-ans\ i]n-Xv henb
A\ym-ba -
- tbm? hnizmkw apX-em-bh - sb Dm-p-Xv ]cn-ip-m-
m-hns Npa-Xe - b
- mb sXmgn-em-bn-cns A{]-Imcw sNbvXp \m-
m-Xn-cp-X - n\v At-ls Atbm i]n-m-\p-Xv? A{X-bp-a-
, An-ac - s i]n-X - mWv AXnepw hnti-ja - m-bn-p-X
- v. CsX-
smcp {`mv! IjvSw! IjvSw! kmm kz-n-en-cp--tm
Cm k-m-\hpw hI-Xn-cn-hp-amtWm tbip-hn\p `qan-bn
hn-cp--tm Dmbn-cpp Fp ]d-bp-Xv? C\n-bpw,

digitized by www.sreyas.in
{InkvXp-N-cnXw 43

(eq-tmkv 22. A. 43 hm.) BIm-i-p-\nv Hcp tZh-Zq-X


hv Ahs\ _e-s-Spn (tbm-l-m 11--A. 58--hm) tbip
blq-Z-msc `b-sv Hfn-p-\-Sp Fp ImWp-I-sImv k-
IXr-Xzhpw kzmX-{y-hpw D-h-\m (`-b--h-\m-Ip-p).
ambn 26--A. 37, 38 hm. tbip-\m-Y ZpxJ-sv AXn-hy-k-
\-sp XpS-n. Fs Bmhp ac-Ww-h-scbpw alm-Zpx-J-s-n-
cn-pp Fp ImWp-I-bm tbip ka-_p-n-bp--h-\-spw
ZpxJ-s-p-dnp t]Snbpw kpJ-s-p-dnp Imahpw D-h-\m-
sWpw hp-t]m-I-bm \nXym-\--\. (a-mbn 12 A. 17--hm.)
Im- e pw, Rm Xnc- s - S p- n- p Fs `rXy, Fs
kvt\ln-X, Fs Bmhv Ah- CjvSs - -Spp Fp tbip-
hn-s\-p-dnv btlmhm ]d--Xm-bnpw (eq-tmkv 13--A. 35--hm.)
Im-hns \ma-n hcp--h A\p-{K-ln--s--h Fpw
ImWp-Ib- m tbip ssZh-ns CjvShpw A\p-{K-lhpw knn
Hcp `rXy-s\-p-am{Xw sXfn-hm-Ip-p.
(a-mbn 23--A. 46--hm) hnti-jnpw tbip- ]n-Xmth! \ns
ssII-fn Rm Fs Bm-hns\ G]n-p-p. (a-mbn 26-
-A. 39--hm.) Fs ]nXmth! Rm\n-n-pw-t]m-se-b \o Cn-
pw-t]m-se-b-t{X, Fp tbip ]d--Xmbn ImWp-I sImp
Xs Bm-hn\v DS-b-h\pw cn-Xm-hp-am-bnv ]nXmhv (ssZ-hw)
Hcp--\p-spw Xm ssZh-a-spw Xs C t]mse Hpw
^en--bn-spw ^en--W-sa-n ssZh-tm-S-t]-n--W-
sapw knn-p-p. A-tlw X\nv P]-[ym\w sNbvhm Hcp
ae-bpsS apI-fn Ibdn Fpw tbip-hns\ Ipcn-in Xd-nv P\-
]cn-l-kn--tm (a-mbn 27--A. 46--hm) Gen, Gen, emam
i_-m\n (Aw: Fs ssZhta! Fs ssZhta! Fp-
sImp \o Fs ssIhn-Xv?) Fp tbip D-n \ne-hn-
fnp ]d--Xmbpw ImWp-p. CXn-\m tbip km[m-c-W-a-\p-
jy-s\-tm-se-Xs ac-Ws - -p-dnp `bhpw {`ahpw D-h\- mbpw
\ne-hn-fn--Xp-sImv thZ-\sb kln-m ss[cyhpw inbpw
Cm--h-\mbpw k-i--\-m A]-tZ-h-Xsb tkhn--Xp-
sImv Ah-km-\I - m-ev \ncm-[m-c\
- mbpw Xs hnizm-khpw B{K-
lhpw hn^-e--fmbpw `hnp Fp kv]jvS-am-Ip-p.

digitized by www.sreyas.in
44 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

(a-mbn 20--A. 20-23-hm.) sk_-Xn-]p-{X-m-cpsS A Ah-


fpsS ]p{X-msc A\p-{K-ln-W - s - av tbip-hn-t\mSp bmNn-X
- ns
tijw AXv Fs ]nXm-hn-\m Bv Hcp--s-Sp-pthm
Ah-msX Xcp-hm F\n-p--X Fp ]d--Xm-bnp
ImWp-p. CXn-\m Bpw Hpw sImSp-p--Xn-tev tbip-
hn\p Ign-I-bn-sv X-m k-Xn-n-cn-p-p. Cu kwK-Xn-
I-sf-smp t\mp-tm tbip-hm-Is A]hpw kzmX{yw
IqSmsX asmcp ssZhs tkhnv Ahs \mawsImp alna
knnv Ah-\m-bnv Xs {]m-W-sf sImSpv Ah-\m t{]cn-
-sv Ahs C-t]mse Fmw sNbvXp {]mnv Ahs
I]-\-{]-Imcw \np ASn-a-bm-Ipp Fp \n-bw.
tbip a\p-jy-Xzhpw ssZh-Xzhpw D-h-\m-I-sImv, ta-
d kwK-Xn-I-sfmw At-l-ns a\p-jy-Xz-n\p tN-h-
bm-Ipp Fn, BbXp Xosc tN-bm-Ip-n-. Fp-sIm-s-
m, tbip-hn shdpw a\p-jyXzw am{X-a-msX ssZh-Xz-hpw-Iq-
Sn-bp-m-bn-cpp Fn Atlw kv\m\w-sNbvXtm ]hn-{Xm-
mhv BIm-i - n\np {]mhns cq]-am-bnv At-l - n-s-ta
{]th-in-p-Ibpw Atlw hymIpe-\mbn `hn-p-I-bpw, tZh-Zq-X-
\m _e-s-Sp-s-SpIbpw, acn-p-tm ssZhta Fs Fp-
sImv ssIhnp Fp ]dp \ne-hn-fn-p-Ib - pw, ssZh-n-\m
tkh-I-s\p ]d-b-s-Sp-Ibpw sN-W-sa-n-m-bn-cp-p. Am-
sXbpw km[m-c-W-P-\n-p-h-fv Fsms A]w {]kw-Kn-p-
sIm-p-\-S--Xmb Hcp a\p-jy-\n ssZh-Xzw-IqSn Dm-bn-cp-p-
shv A]w-t]mepw aXn-bmb ImcWw IqSmsX ]dp km[n-
m Dm-ln-p-t\m-p-Xp tNcp-n; tNcp-I-bp-an-.
aXn-bmb Imc-W- Dv. F-s\-sb-m ssZhw tbip-
hns\ Xs ]p{X-s\pw Xm At-l-ns ]nXm-shpw ]d-
n-cn--sImv tbip-hn\v ssZh-Xz-ap-sv km[n-m-a-tm-sb-
n,
(tbm-l-m 10 A. 33 apX 36 hsc hm.) blq-Z-mcv tbip-
hn-t\mSv a\p-jy-\m-bn-cn-p \o Ft \ns-s tZh Fv
]d-bp-Ibpw tZhs\ Zpjn-p-Ibpw sNpp Fp ISp tNmZn-
-tm Ah-tcmSv D-c-am-bnv \n ssZh--fm-Ipp Fp
Rm ]dp Fv \n-fpsS thZ-n Fgp-Xn-bn-cn-p-n-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
{InkvXp-N-cnXw 45

tbm? ssZh-ns hN\w Bp-mtbm Ah ssZh-


Fv Ah sNmpp Fn (thZ-hm-Iytam ewLn--s-Sp-hm
Ign-bp-I-bn--tm). ]nXmhv ip-amn temI-n Ab-n-p--
Fs-p-dnv Rm ssZh-ns ]p{X-\m-Ip-p. Fv \n-
tfmSp ]d--Xp-sImv \o ssZh-Zq-jWw ]d-bpp Fv \n
]d-bp-pthm? (tbm-l-m 20 A. 17 hm.) Fs sXmS-cp-Xv. Fp-
sIm-s-m Rm Fs ]nXm-hns ASp-t- ev CXp-hs - cbpw
Itc-dn-tm-bn-. Fm \o Fs ktlm-Z-c-m-cpsS ASp-
t]mbnp Rm Fs ]nXm-hn-sbpw \n-fpsS ]nXm-hn-sbpw
Fs ssZh-n-sbpw \n-fpsS ssZh-nsbpw ASp- Itc-
dn-tm-Ip-p Fp ]d-I. CXm tbip-hns Cu Hcp hmIyhpw
t]msctbm? CXn kwibw Adp ]d-p-I-f--tm (tbip
ssZh-a-s-v). CXp-sImv ap--hv GXmtWm ssZhw AXp-
Xs tbip-hn\pw ssZh-sapw tbip-hn\v BcmtWm ]nXmhv
AhXs ap--hpw ]nXmhv Fpw \n-b-am-Ip-p. (b-d-
anb 31 A. 9 hm.) Rm C{k-tben\v ]nXmhpw F{_mlnw Fs
ISn-qepw BIpp Fv btlmhm ]d--Xmbnpw Dv.
C\nbpw ss__n-fn ]e-bn-Spw CXp-t]mse ImWmw. AXp-
sImv av ]e-tc-bpw, ]p{X-m-scv ]d-X - p-t]m-se-Xs tbip-
hn-t\bpw ]p{X-s\v Hcp D]-Nm-c-am-bnp ]d-p-sh--msX CXn-
tev At-l-n-\p-am{Xw {]tXy-Inv bmsXmcp hnti-j-Xbpw
ImWp-n-. Cu nXnp ssZh-]p-{X Fp ]d--Xns\ Imc-
W-amnsmp ssZhw-Xs Fp \n-bn-n-cn-p-p. Fn
ta- d - b - s ssZh- ] p- { X- mcpw IqSn ssZh- - f m- s Wpw
F{_mlnw aq-]p-{X-\m-I-bm aq ssZh-sapw B apdbvv
IS-in-bn-ep--h-\m-I-sImv tbip Fm-t]-cnepw Cf-b-]p-{X\pw
Cf-b-ssZ-h-hp-am-Ip-p Fpw Atm- At\-I-ssZ-h-fpw
Dsv hp-t]m-Ipw. BbXv ]cn-lm-k-n-\n-S-bmbnp `hn-pw.
C\nbpw adn-b-sa I\y-I-bn `r-kw-tbmKw IqSmsX
P\n--Xp-sImv tbip-hn\p tZhXzw Dsphcmw. Fn,
B kv{Xosb tbmk-n\p `mcy-bm-bnp \nb-an--s--Xn\p
tijw K`w [cn--Xp-sImv Ah-\m BIs thsd BIs
tNc-s-p-Xs K`w [cn-W
- s
- a-
- msX tNcm-sX-bm-sWp ]d-
bp--sX-s\?

digitized by www.sreyas.in
46 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

tbmtkpw adn-bhpw euInI Bisb Xosc XyPnp ac-


Ww-hsc tNcm-sX-Xs a\x-]q-am-bnp Xt]m-hr-n-bn-en-cpp
Fn Ah hnhm-l-\n-b-a-n Ds-S-W-sa-n-m-bn-cp--tm,
Am-sXbpw (a-mbn 1 A. 25 hm.) Ah Ah-fpsS {]Y-a-]p-
{Xs\ {]k-hn-p-thm-fw Ah Ahsf Adn-bm-tX-bn-cpp F-
Xp-sImv aq-a-Is\ s]-Xns tijw tNp-shpw (tbm-l-
m 2 A. 12 hm.) AXn-s-tijw Ah\pw Ahs ktlm-Z-c-
mcpw F-Xp-sImv Ah cp-t]cpw B{K-l-ap--h-cm-bn-cpp
F-msX B{K-ls XyPn-h - c
- s
- pw sXfn-hm-bn-cn-s
- Imv
]ns tNXp t]mse-Xs apnepw tNn-cn-pw, Fp-X-
s-bp-a hnhmlw \nb-an-s
- Znhkw apX Ah cp-t]cpw
Hcp e-p-X-s-bmWv Xma-kn-n-cp--Xpw. A-s\-bm-bn-cp-
npw Ah tNn- n- s v \nv F- s \- b - d nbmw?
AhXs A{]-Imcw ]dp Fn AXv Ah-cpsS A`n-am-
\s cn-p--Xnt\m thsd Fs-nepw Imcy-n-t\m-thn
A{]-Imcw ]d-n-cn-mw. AXp-sImv \n C{]-Imcw knm-
np ]d-bp-Xv icn-b-.
tbip-hns injy-m, X-fpsS Kpcp-hns\ kvXpXn-p--
Xn-\m-bnv tbip acnv F{Xtbm kwh--c- Ign--Xn-\p-
tijw Fgp-Xnb I--Y-Isf F-s\-bmWv hniz-kn-p-Xv?
BI-bm adnbw ]pcp-j-t\mSp tNcmsX ]p{Xs\ {]k-hnp
Fp-Xv ipta I-am-Is - Imv AXp-tl-Xp-hm-bnv tbip-hn\p
ssZhXzw km[n-p-Iq-Sm. AsXm-cp-thf kXy-sap IcpXnsm
mepw a\p-jy-cn hv Hcp hnti-j-a-\p-jy F-msX P\n-
n--s--hs\ alm-ssZ-h-sap ]d-bp-Xv tNcm--Xm-Ip-p.
C\n tbip-\m-Y P-]m-]-kw-_w IqSmsX P\np Fp
\n- ]d-bp--tm. BZn-a-\p-jy sNbvX ]m]w hnp-t]mIm-X-
sImv Ahs k-Xn-I-fn tNcp-sav ssZh-\n-baw Ccn--
sImpw tbip F Bfpw B BZn-a-\p-jys k-Xn-bn\n-
pmb adn-b-ns DZ-c-n Ah-fpsS timWn-X-Im-cy-i-co-cn-
bmbn P\n--h-\m-I-sImv P-]m]w kw_-n-p-sa-p--Xn-
tep kt-l-an-. Atlw ]cn-ip--\m-I-bm ]m]w kw_-n-
-bn-m-sb-n P\n-p--Xn-\p-apt ]cn-ip--m-cm-bn-cn-p
Poh-msc Fm-h-scbpw P\n-p-tm P-]m]w ]nSn-Iq-Sp-sa--

digitized by www.sreyas.in
{InkvXp-N-cnXw 47

Xp-sIm-pw, ssZhw ]-]mXn Am-h - \


- m-Is
- Impw P-]m]w
kw_-n--bnm Fp ]d-bp-Xp Xosc bp-am-Ip-n-.
ssZhta Fs ssIhntm Fp \ne-hn-fnpw Fs Pohs\
\ns ssII-fn Gev]n-pp Fp ]dp acn--Xp-sIm-v,
Atlw ssZh-ns Ir]sb At]-n-n-p Hcp-h-\m-Ip-p.
Xm ssZh-am-Ipp Fv tbip Xs-ms\ ]d-n-ptm
F-dn-bp-X- n\p ss__n-fns\ Bbncw {]mhiyw adnpw Xncnpw
t\mn-bmepw Hcn-Spw Hcp acp-n-s\-nepw Aev]w ImWp-I-
bn. A-s\-bn-cns F-s\-bmWv GXv {]am-Ws A\p-k-
cn-mWv tbip-hns\ ssZh-sap \n ]d-bp-Xv?
Xm ssZh-am-sWp X-ms\ ]d-bp--Xn-tev tbip-
hn\p {]nb-an-m--Xp-sImv A{]-Imcw ]d-bm-Xn-cpp Fn
tbip-hn\p {]nb-an-m-Xpw hntcm-[hpw Xm ]d-n-n-m
Xpamb Cu hnUvVnw Fn-\mWv ap--h Dmn ]d-p-
sImp \S-p-Xv?
tbip X-ms\ a\p-jy-]p-{X-s\v ]d-p-sImv k-
cn-tm AXv FmWv? a\p-jy-\m-b-h Xm a\p-jy-\m-sWp
]d-p-sImp \S-m-dn--tm. AXp-sImp tbip Cs\ ]d-
Xp-Xs Hcp hnti-j-ap-m-bn-mWv Fv \n-fn Nne ]d-
bp-p-v.
icn-X-s. AXn hnti-j-an-cn-pp Fsm X-\mb
tbip km[m-cW A]-sXm-gn-em-fn-Ifpw ]Tn-n-m-h - c
- p-amb P\-
-fn Nnesc ssIh-i-s-Spn, Ah-tcmSp Xm ssZh-]p-{X-\m-
sWpw ssZh-m Ab-bv-s--h-\m-sWpw ]d-p-sImv
\S--Xn\v hntcm-[n-I-fmb blq-Z-m Fhn-sS-h-mWv Ip-]n-Snp
sXm-chp sNp--sX--dn-nm Fn-s\ `b-s-p. AXn-
te-p-]m-b-am-bn-t{X a\p-jy-]p-{X-s\p ]d-n-p--Xv. CXp-X-
s-bmWv AXn Ccn-p hnti-jw. tbip Nne ka-b--fn
blq-Z-msc Iv Hfnp If--Xp-X-s-bmWv CXn-tep ZrjvSm-
-hpw.
(a-mbn 16--A. 27, 28 hm.) a\p-jy-]p-{X Xs ]nXm-hns
al-Xz-n Xs ZqX-m-cpambn hcpw Atm Ah Gh\pw
Ah-\h- s {]hr-np X ]Icw \Ipw. a\p-jy-]p-{X Xs

digitized by www.sreyas.in
48 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

cmPy-n hcp-Xp ImWp-thmfw ac-Ws Bkz-Zn-m--h


Nne Cu \np--h-cn Dv Fv tbip ]d-n-cn-p-p.
CsX-s-m ss__n-fn{]-Imcw 21890 kwh--c-n\p
apn tbip-{InkvXp Cu temI-n Ccp-n-cp--tm AhnsS
Dm-bn-cp P\--tfmSv \n-fn Nne Poh-t\msS Ccn-p-
tmXs temI-ns Ah-km-\-Imew hcp-sapw Atm
\ymb-hn-Nm-cWw sN-s-Sp-sapw AXns\ Ah ImWp-sapw
Aam-Ip-p.
tbip A{]-Imcw ]d nXnv Am-e-n-cp--h-cn
Nne Ctm-gn-cn-p-ptm? Ds-n Bb-hp Ipd
]w 1890 hbv ImWpw. A{X-tmfw htbm-[n-I-m Ctm-gn-
m--Xp-sImpw Ah acnv GI-tZiw 1790 kwh--c-am-bn-cn-
p-sa-p-X
- p-sImpw temIm-hk
- m-\hpw \ymb-hn-Nm-cW
- I
- m-ehpw
C\nbpw Bbn-n-m--Xp-sImpw tbip shdpw \pW-bmWv ]d-
-sX-p-IqSn \n-bn-mw.
bqtdm-p-J-WvU-n Cu hmIys kXy-sap hniz-knv
{InkvXy-m-cn At\Iw t] {InkvXp P\nv 1000-mw kwh--c-
n temIm-hk - m-\I
- mew hp-t]m-sbv `b-sv ]{X-s- f-gpXn
Fpw {]kn--s-Sp-n-h--Xn Gsd-psd Sn. JWvUw apgp-
h\pw Am-ev CXp-Xs Hcp henb tLmj-am-bn-cp-p.
CXns\ tI-h-scmw _-s ]mXn-cn-am-cpsS ASp-sNv
A`-bw-hoWv ip{iqj sNbvXp-h-p. Am-ev ssk\y-tm-Sp-
IqSn t]mbn-sm-n-cp Hcm kqcy-{K-l-W-ap-m-b-Xn-s\-v
Hmtlm temIm-h-km\w Bcw-`n-p-t]m-bn. AXp-sIm-p-X-s-
bmWv kqcy ad-bp--Xv. C\n sNdp-Xp-sN-dp-Xm-bnv ka-kvXhpw
ad-p-t]m-Ipw Fp \n-bnv Ghpw `b-sv B a\p-jy\pw
ssk\yhpw Atm-p-an-tmpw I I Znp-I-fn-tev HmSn.
B ka-bv At\I P\- Ah-c-h-cpsS _p--sfbpw
kzp--tf-bp-ap-t]-n-nv ]me-kvXo-\n {InkvXp hp cn-
p-sap hniz-kn-p-sImv Ahn-tSv HmSn-tm-bn. Bbn-S-bn
kqcy-{K-l-Wtam N{-{K-l-Wtam Dm-bm temImhkm\w hp-
t]m-sbpw sNmn Znp-hn-tmSn Kpl-I-fnepw apw Hfn-n-cn
hg--am-bn-cp-p. `qtKm-f-J-tKm-f-im-kv{X--sf-p-dn-p Adn-hn-
m- X n- c p- - X p- s Impw {Inkv X p- h ns\ ssZh- s ap hnNm- c nv

digitized by www.sreyas.in
{InkvXp-N-cnXw 49

Atlw ]d samgn-Isf kXy-sap hniz-kn--Xp-sImpw


BIpp Cu A\w h-Xv. AsXmw Fn\p ]d-bpp!
\mK-cn-I-ap Cm-e--fnepw Nne {InkvXy-m 1881-mw hjw
B hmIys hniz-knv `b-s--Xns\ Fm-hcpw Adn-n-cn-m-
\n-S-bp--tm. Ctmgpw Nne sNdnb ]{Xn-I-I-fn {InkvXp CXm
hcpp! taL-n \Spth hcpp! I-t\-tmse hcpp! CXm
hp-t]mbn! Fn-s\ FgpXn `b-s-Sp-p-p-v. hniz-kn-m
Bcp-an-s-nepw Ah Aev]hpw e-Iq-SmsX Fgp-Xp--Xn
\npw ]nm-dp-n-. AXp-an-cn--s, tam-Wn \ymb--sf-
smv tbip-{InkvXp ssZh-a-spw Atlw apJm-ncw a\p-
jyv Cl-]-c-kp-J- bmsXmpw knn-m CS-bn Fpw
\n-b-am-bn-cn-pp.
C\n Cu hnj-b-s-n tbip-hns A`n-{]mbw F-s\-
bm-sW-p-IqSn Hp t\mn--f-bmw.
(a-mbn 7-A. 21--hm) FtmSp Imth Imth Fp
]d-bp--h Fmw kz-cm-Py-n IS--bn-. kz--\mb
Fs ]nXm-hns CjvSw sNp--h-\-t{X. CXn-\m Xm ssZh-
a-spw Imhv Fp ]d-bp Hcp-h\pw kzp Fp-I-
bn-sp tbip Xs-ms\ k-Xn-p-sIm--Xmbn sXfn-bp-p.
Hcp-h tbip-hns\ \-h-s\p ]d--tm tbip Ah-
t\mSv (a-mbn 19-A
- . 17-h
- m.) Fs \-hs - \p ]d-bp-Xv Fv?
ssZhw Hcp-h-s\m-gnsI \-h Hcp-\pw C. CXm, C\n Fp-
thWw? CXn-tev C{Xbpw t]msc-n ss{X-I-Xz-s-p-dnp
]d-bp {]I-c-W- Ip-sIm-I. sl! A-s\-b-, tbip-
hns\ \-h-s\p hnfn--h tbip-hns\ kmm ssZh-sa-
p hnizmkw IqSmsX Ccp-X - p-sImpw tbip Fm-hc - p-sSbpw
Dn-en-cp-n-t\bpw hcp-hmt]m-IpXnt\bpw Fmw Adn-bp--
h-\m-Is - Impw Ahs Ahn-izm-kh - n-fnsb Xm ssIsm-msX
\ntj-[n--Xm-Ipp Fn, Cu kam-[m-\-n\p hmIy-{]-am-Wta
C. Hcp-thf Dsp \ncq-]n-p-sIm-mepw tbip-hn\v A\y-lr-
Z-b-hn-Nm-c-s-p-dnv Adn-p-Iq-sS-p-Xv \n-b-am-Wv. Fs-
m ]Whpw hmn-p-sImv tbip-hns\ sImp--Xn-tev
ImWn-p-sIm-Sp--h-\mb bqZm-hns Ahn-izm-ks Adn-p-
sIm-msX Ahs\ Iq-n Hcp-h-\mn hp-sIm-p-Ibpw

digitized by www.sreyas.in
50 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

Ahs NXn- h ns\ Adn X- W w- X s a\- s - c nv


s]sv Ahs\ i]n-bpw sNbvX-Xp-sIm--s{X. C\nbpw At\-
I-ap-v. Ahn-S-hnsS Ip-sIm-mw.
C\nbpw tbip- \ m- Y ]e- { ]- I m- c - nepw Ap- X - sf
sNbvXn-p--Xp-sImv ssZhw Fp hnNm-cn-m-a-tm. Fn
tbip-hn-\m sN-s Ap-X- Fs-m-am-sWpw AXp-
Isf tbip sNbvXp Fp ]d-bp-Xp kXyw-X-s-tbm, Fpw
Btem-Nn-p-t\m-mw.
tbip ]nim- N ns\ Pbnp HmSn- p. ]nimNv Fp- Xv
FmWv? AXv Bcm krjvSn--s-Xv? F-dn-bp--Xn-tev
ss__n-fn-t\mSv At\z-jn-m BbXv Cu hnj-b-s-n Hpw
]d- b msX au\- { hXw A\p- j v T n- p- s Imncn- p- p. ]ns
ss__n hymJym-Xmmcpw ap {InkvXy-mcpw temI-kr-
jvSn-k-a-bv ssZhw At\-Im-bncw tZh-Zq-X-m-tcbpw krjvSnp
Fpw Ah ssZh-n\v Iog-S-m-bvI-bm ssZhw i]np
Fpw As\ i]n--s--h-\m-Ipp ]nim-sNpw ]d-bp-p.
ss__n-fn Acn-s-Sp-mepw ISp-I-fhpw AI-s-Sm Sn.
hnjbw hymJym-Xm--mpw ap {InkvXy-mpw Fs\
Adn-hp-In-ntbm? Bthm! tlm! tlm! tZh-Zq-X tbmk-^n\p
kz]v\-n hv ]d--Xp-t]mse Ch-tcmSpw hv ]d--Xm-
bn-cn-mw. Hcp-thf B ]nim-Nns IY kXy-sa-php-sIm-mepw
tbip ssZh-am-hp-I-bn \n-bw.
Fs\ Fm ]nimNv D-X-m-\-n\npw XmW-
n-Xn-bn hXv Bcm? ssZh-n-\m-e-tbm? tbip ssZh-
am-sWp hcn-In ASp- ]nimNv hcptam? I DSs\ Hmw
]nSn-p-Itbm Im hv \a-kv-cn-tbm sNp-am-bn-cp-
tm? amS, Imfn, A-\m, in-en-`q-X-m apX-emb sNdnb
tZh-X-I-fpsS kn-[n-ap-m-sI-Xs ]nimNv D]-{Z-h-ap--h
sNm Atm! Rm s]mbvsm-mta! CXm t]mIpt! Fv
\ne-hn-fn-p-sImv _m[n--s--hs\ hnpw Ifv ]mbp AS-
bm-fhpw ImWnv s\Spw-I-n-\o-p--tm. AXp-t]m-bnv Cu tbip-
\m-Ys\ hp-]n-Sn-p--Xn-tev ]nimNv A]w kwi-bn--
t]mepw sNbvXn-s--Xn-tev {]amWw CXm t\mp-hn.
(ambn 4-A. 14 hm. eqtmkv 4-A. 1 apX 13 hsc hm.)
{InkvXp-hns\ ]nim-Np-]n-Sn-spw Ipw sNbvhm \n-bn-spw

digitized by www.sreyas.in
{InkvXp-N-cnXw 51

]nWn Cspw ImSv \mSv apX-emb ]te e--fnepw sImp-


\-Sp Fpw Db ]-X-n Itcn Fpw, Xs hn-
m ]dp Fpw ImWp--Xp-sImv tbip-hn\p ]nim-Nns\
Xs ASp- hcm-sX-bm-p-hmt\m hp-]n-Sn--Xns tijw
Xs D]-{Z-hn-m--hn-[-n ASn \ndp-p-hmt\m X
Ww amn Zqc-p-I-f-bp--Xnt\m Hn\pw Xs in-bn-s-
p-Xp \n-b-am-Ip-p.
A-s\-b-m, (a-mbn 4 A. 1-hm.) tbip-\m-Y tbml-
m-\n \np kv\m\w G DSs\ ]nim-Nn-\m ]co-n--s--
h-\mbn Bm-hn-\m acp-`q-an-bn-tep tat]mp \S--s-p.
Fp ]d-n-cn--sImv Bm-hns A\p-hm-Z-{]-Imcw ]co-n-
m-\m-bn-mWv tbip-hns\ ]nim-Np-]n-Sn--Xv. AmsX ]nim-Nn\p
tXmn-b-Xp-t]mse A{I-a-am-bnp hp ]nSn--X Fn Cu
hnj-b-s-p-dnv Aev]w ]cym-tem-Nn-mw. Bmhv tbip-hns\
h\m--c-n sImp-sNv ]nim-Nn-\m ]co-n--s-S---
hw Bn-bXv Fn-\m-bnv? tbip ]co--I-fn Pbnv ]nim-
Nns ]\nv Ctlw ssZh-]p-{XX-s-bmWv Fp tbmKy-
Xm-]{Xw (kn-^n--v) km-Zn-p-sImm temIcv A{]-Imcw
hniz-kn-p-sIm-p-sav Bmhv \ncq-]n-m-bn-cn-ptam? ]nXm-hv,
]hn-{Xm-m-hv, ]p{X Ch aqp-t]cpw ss{XI-Xz-{]-Imcw Hcp-
-\tm BIp-X - v. B nXnv ]p{X ]hn-{Xm-m-hn\npw
]hn-{Xm-mhv ]nXm-hn (ssZ-h-n AXm-bXv btlm-hm-bn)
\npw thsdb-sbpw hcp-a-tm. ]p{X ]nim-Nn-\m ]co-n-
-s--Xp-sImv ]hn-{Xm-mhpw ]nXm-hpw- IqSn ]co-n--s--
h-cm-bn-s `hn-p.
C\nbpw ssZhw-Xs As-n Xs Awi-amb tbip-hns\
temI AwKo-I-cn----hw ]nim-Nns ]co--bn Ds-
Sp-n-b-Xn-s\-p-dnp hnNm-cn-m B ssZhw Hcp-thf ]nim-Nn\p
Xs (A-s-n Xs Awi-amb tbip-hn-s\)mfpw in Dm-
bn-cn-ptam Fp kwi-b-ap--h-\mbpw ]nim-Nn\p Xtmfw (A-
s-n Awi-amb tbip-hn-t\m-fw) in Cs-p \nbw
Cm-h - \
- mbpw Poh-tIm-Sn-I tbip-hns\ hniz-kn-p-X
- n-tev
CXp-Xs \ am-sap \ncq-]npw Ccp-n-cn-p-sav A\p-am-
\n-p--Xnt\ hgn ImWp-p-p. lm! lm! At-l-ns k-
-Xztam Atlw ssZh-ns Hcw-i-am-bn-cn-p hn[tam

digitized by www.sreyas.in
52 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

Atlw temI-ns cm-ams Ip-]n-Snv \nb-an


tbmKy-Xtbm? Am! CXp-I-sfmw Ghpw AXn-i-bn----
h-I-fm-bn-s Ccn-p-p. BIs C\n tbip ]nim-Nns ]co-
-I-fn Pbntm Fpw ]co--IXs Fs-m-am-bn-cpp
Fpw t\mmw. ]nimNv tbip-h n\v hni- p- sp Inv
Aev]hpw Iqk IqSmsX \o ssZh-]p-{X-\m-sW-n Cu Ip-I-
tfmSv A-am-Im sNmpI Fp ]d-p. Fn-tm, tbip A{]-
Imcw sNbvXn-m. t`jv! _se! CXmtWm Pbw? tbip ]ns-
sbp sNbvXp? a\p-jy Aw-sImv am{X-a Pohn-p--Xv.
ssZh-hm-bqsS hcp kIe hN-\-m-es{X Fv ]d-I-am-{Xta
sNbvXp-p. lm! lm! Cu Akw-_w ]dXpw Ip-Isf
A-am-msX Ccp-Xpw Fp-sImv? tbip 40 Znhkw D]-h-
kn--Xns tijw hnip Fv am-bn-Xs ]d-n-cn--
sImv hni-n-m-n-m-bn-cpp Fv \n-bn-m\pw ]mSn-. hni-
ns\ Pbn-n-cp-p. AXp-sIm-mWv Fn `-W-n\v Hpw
Cm-Xn-cp B kabw t\mn hniv {]Xn-Iq-e-am-bnp hcp-Xv
Fp-sImv? hmepw tbip Dcw ]d--Xp-t]mse ssZh-
hm-bqsS hcp kIe hN-\--sf-smv AXns\ XSp-p-I-f-
bm Ign-bp-am-bn-cpp Fn, X-m adv An-a-c-ns\
i]n----hw Dm-b -tIm-]-n\v Imc-W-am-bnp h hni-
ns\ XSp-p--Xn-tev Cu 3hN-\-t`-j-Ps Ap {]tbm-Kn-
p-t\m-msX Ccp-Xv Fp-sImv? {]tbm-Kn-npw ^en-nm
Fn tbip Dcw ]d--Xmbn ]d-bp-Xv (a-mbn 4-A. 4-
hm.) ipta \pW-X-s-bm-Wv. BI-bm tbip-hn\p hni-n-m-
npw hni-ns\ AS-p-hm Ign-bp-am-bn-cp-npw ths-p-
tXm-opw A Ins\ A-am-m-X - v. Znhy-in Fp th,
Hcp Pme-in t]mepw Cm-n-p-X-s-bm-Wv. Dcw apn-bm
sIm\w Impw F ]g-sm-p-t]m-se-bs{X tbip-hns Nne-
tm-gp hmp-I. ]ns Fm-bn-cpp ]co? ]nimNv tbip-
hns\ FSp-p-sImp sNp tZhm-e-b-nse amfn-I-ap-I-fn
hpw sImp Xmg-p-Nm-Sp-I, ]mSp-tISv Hpw hcmsX ssZh-Zq-
X hp Xmn-sm-p-sap ]d-p. Fntm? A{]-Im-chpw
sNbvXn-. Hmtlm! ChnsS Hn-s\mp \ Pb-am-bn-p-XsbmWv
ImWp--Xv. Fnepw tbip apn ]d--Xp-t]mse CXn-tepw
D-c-am-bnp hXpw ]d-n-ptm? Dv--D-v. \ns Im-
hmb ssZhs ]co-n--cp-sX-pw-IqSn Fgp-Xn-bn-cn-p-n-tbm

digitized by www.sreyas.in
{InkvXp-N-cnXw 53

Fm-bn-cpp ]d--Xv. CXv Fsmcp Akw-_w! ]nimNv


]d--{]-Imcw NmSm-sX-bn-cp-Xv Fp-sImv? tbip a-bp-
-h\- m-Ib- m As\ sNmsX Ccp-X - mWv Fn, C{X a-
bp ]pWy-hm-f A\ym-b-am-bnv Nne ka-b--fn Nnesc i]n-
p-Ibpw {Iqc-hmv ]d-bp-Ibpw sNbvXn-p--tm. AsX-p-
sImv? AXn-\m a-sIm- `b-s-n-s{X NmSm-X - v. Am-
sXbpw ]nim-Nn-\m ]co-n--sv Pbn-m\pw Bm-hns
\ntbm-K-{]-Im-chpw Xs-bmWv tbip ]nim-Nns In AI-
s-Xv Fp kam-[m\w Ak-Xy-a-sp hcn-In \n-b-am-
bnpw ]co-n-m-\p ISa ]nim-Nns taepw B ka-bp
]nhm-msX FXnp-\nv B ]co-I - f
- n Hs Pbn-t
ISa tbip-hnstaepw BIp-p. B nXnv ]nimNv ]co--
bvp-thn ]d--sXmw \Sn Pb-ho-c-\m-bn-sm-msX
4
tNmam-cn-bmbn (\n-w-K-\m-bn) Ccp-p-I-f-Xpw B ka-bv
Bh-iy-an-m--Xmb Nne hmp-Isf ]d-Xpw A-tbm, Xs
Ab Bm-hn-sbpw ssZh-n-sbpw A`n-{]m-b-n\pw Xm
Gp-sIm-p-h Imcy-n\pw t\sc hncp--am-bn-p-f-fXv?
AXpw Ccn--s. C\n tbip ssZh-ns Hcp Ir]-bp--h-
s\p hcn-Inepw \n-b-am-bnv tZh-Zq-X hv cn-p-sav
ss[cy-sp Xmgp NmSn-f - b
- c
- p-Xmtm? Am-]- w Xs
aln-a-sImv B ]nim-Nns\ Xmgp Xn--f-I-sb-nepw Xs
kzcq-]s Xmgp NmSn-b-Xp-t]mse tXmn-n Fnepw sN-
cp-Xmtm? CXp-If - n Hn-s\bpw sNbvXX- mbn ImWp-n-t- m.
]nsbpw tbip-hns\ ]-cw-t]mse Idn FSpv Hcp
henb ae-bpsS apI-fn sImp-sNp kIe cmPy--sfbpw
ImWn-p-Ibpw Xs ]mZ--fn \a-kvI-cn-m CXp-I-sfmw
\n\p Xcm-sap ]d-bp-Ibpw sNbvXp. tbip InSv `b-sp
IpSpn hne-]nv {`mp-]-dI am{Xta Atmgpw sNbvXn-p-p.
]ns `bw-sImv Fsmw tKmjvSn-I ]nim-Nns apmsI
ImWn-n-cn-p-sav Ahp cp-t]pw Xs Adn-bmw. AXpw
Ccn--s. ]nim-Nns\ Pbn-bpw inn-bpw sNbvXp Fn
Pb-ho-cs
- \pw temI-c- I
- s
- \pw hniz-kn-p-sIm-m-am-bn-cpp.
ChnsS hmkvX-h-am-bnp ]d-b-W-sa-n tbip ]nim-Nns\ Pbn-
-b Dm-b-Xv. ]nimNv tbip-hns\ Pbn--bm-bn-cp-p. BI-
bm ]nXm-hv, ]hn-{Xm-mhv, ]p{X Cu aqp-t]cpw ]co--I-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
54 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

\mb ]nim-Nn-t\-m in Ipd--h-cm-sWp \-Xnhw


sXfn-bp-p. Cs\ ]nim-Nn-t\mSp tXm-h ssZh-am-Wp-t]m-epw.
AsX! AsX! Ctlw \ kaX-s. Ctlw ]nim-Nns\
Pbn Pbta Pbw! Ctlw ae-bn\np NmSnb Nmta Nmw!
Ctlw Ins\ A-am-nb anSpt anSpv! AsS Am! Fv
ApXw! Atm! Xs hmp-Isf tIm tbip-hns\ A]-
P-b-s-Sp-msX ]mh-sapw sNmn hnp-I-f ]nim-N-tbm
btlm-hs - b-mfpw Ir]-bp-h
- ? Hcp-s\ ]nSn-n-cp At\Iw
]nim-Np- {InkvXp-hn-t\mSv Hcm-bncw ]n-Isf `-W-n-\m-
bnp tNmZn-bpw {InkvXp A{I-a-am-bnv A{]-Imcw sImSp-p-I-
bpw, ]nim-Np- B ]n-Isf kap-{Z-n apn-sm-p-Ibpw
sNbvXp. B ]n-I-fpsS DS-b-m-c\v F{Xtbm \jvSw! t\mp-
hn! CXpw tbip-hns tZh-Xz-n\v Hcp ZrjvSm--amWp t]mepw.
Hcn- tbip-hn\v hni-p-_p-n-ap-n-b-tm Bb-Xn\v
Adnv ]gw sImSp-m-X - p-sImv An-hr-s i]nv DW-
n-f -
- p. tlm! CXv henb Ap-Xw-Xs- . ]g-an-m Imev
F-s\-bmWv sImSp-p-Xv? Hcp-thf ]gw D ka-bw-Xs
Bbn- c p- mepw A\y- m Bh- i yw- t ]mse ]dn- p- s Im- pI
AmsX AXns\ Adn-p-X-cp--Xn-tep ac-n\p Ign-bptam?
Am-sXbpw ac- hfv AXm-Xp-Im-e--fn ]qp-Xpw
Imbvp-Xpw ]gp-p-Xpw Fmw ssZh-\n-bawt]mse Atbm?
Atlw ssZh-sap hcn-In ]gw sImSp-m--Xn\p ImcWw
am-cp-a--tm. Bb-Xp-sImv tbip Xs-s i]n-p-sIm-p-
I-b-msX Hcp tZmj-n\pw Imc-W-am-Im B hrs i]n-
Xv Fn\v? Fnepw Atm! A{X henb hnitm? B hni-
ns\ AS-p-hm Ign-bm--h-\mtWm Xmev]Xp Znh-kw-hsc D]-
h-kn-Xv? CXp ipta \pW-X-s. hni-ns\ AS-p-hm At-
l-n\p in-bpv Fn-epw, Xs aln-asb injymp
ImWn-p--Xn-tep thn-bm-bn-cpp i]n-Xv Fn, ]gw
sImSp-m hr-n-s\-smv Atms sImSp-n-
tXmbn- c p- p. AXmWv A[nIw alna. Fs- m
Xmew hniv ASn Xr]vXn-s-Sp-Ibpw injy-m hniz-kn-
p-Ibpw sNp-am-bn-cp--tm. thW-sa-p-Xv Hpw sNp--
Xn-tev tbip-hn\v Adn-p-Iq-Sm. Ctlw B nXnv Hcp-
thf \mev]Xp Pnhkw D]-h-knp Fp-h-cn-Inepw BbXp Xs

digitized by www.sreyas.in
{InkvXp-N-cnXw 55

a\-tm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-m. ]ns-tbm Hcp-cpw Hpw sImp-sN-p-


sIm-Sp-m-sXbpw X\n-p-t]mbn At\z-jn-p--Xn\v ]nimNv hn-
b-bvm-sXbpw Ccp--Xp-sImv Icp-I-cp ]n-Wn-bn AI-s-
p-t]m-b-Xm-Ip-p.
C\n tbip sh-n \Sp Fp ]d-bp-Xv ]t,
kXyw-Xs Bbn-cp-mepw, BbXv Hcp AXn-i-b-a-. Cm-ev
km[m-cW a\p-jyp sN---Xmb Pe-kvXw-`-sap ]d-b-
s-Sp Hcp hnZy-bm-Ip-p.
C\n Pme-hn-Zy-mcpw sshZy-mcpw sakva-dn-k-mcpw Cm-
e-f- n sNp-X- mb Nne sNdnb hnti-j - t]mse tbiphpw
sNbvX-Xm-bnp ImWp-p-v. Ah-I \nm-c--fm-I-bm ChnsS
hnh-cn-p-n-.
tbip acn--hsc Pohn-n--Xp-sImv At-l-ns\ ssZh-
sap ]d-bmw. Fn {InkvXp acn--h-cpsS Dbnn ap-\mbn
Fv (A-tm-kvX-e \S-p-I 26.-A. 23--hm)- A-Xp-t]m-se-Xs
(sh-fn-mSp 1-A. 5-hm) ]d-I-bm, tbip asm-cp--scbpw Pohn-
n-n-n-sp \n-b-am-Ip-p. Fs\ Fm Ctlw thsd
Hcp-s\ Pohn-n-n-p nXnv Ct-l-n-\m Pohn-n--
s--h ap Fpw Ctlw ]n Fpw hcp-hmt\ ]msSm-
p. Fs-m tbip Dbn-Xns tijw asm-cp-sc Pohn-
n-p Fp ]d-bp--Xn-tev ss__n Xosc k-Xn-m--Xn-
e-t{X. tbip Pohn--h-cn Hm-a F-msX Pohn-n--s--h-
cn Hm-a-s\pw ]d-n--tm. Fm,
Gh tbip-hn-\m Pohn-n--sp Fp ]d-b-s-Sptm
B Ah tbip-hn-\m Pohn-n--s--h-\m-bmepw Xmt\ Pohn-
-hIq-Sn-bm-Ip-p. Cse cm{Xn CSn-sh-n. AXp-tIv Rm Fgp-
tp Fv Hcph ]d-bp-tm i_vZw tlXp-hm-bn-s-nepw
Rm Fgp-tp Fp ]d-bp--Xp-t]mse tbip-hn-\m Pohn-n-
-s--h Xmt\ Pohn--h\pw BIp-p.
C\n tbip A\y-m-cm Pohn-n--s-SmsX Xmt\ Pohn--
hXs BtWm? A-. At-lhpw Pohn-n--s--hXs
Fv (tdm-a A15, 24--hm.) ssZhw {InkvXp-hns\ acn--h-cn
\npw Fgpn Fp (sIm-cnn. 15 A. 12 apX 15 hsc hm.)

digitized by www.sreyas.in
56 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

tbip Dbnv Fgpp Fv, ImcWw IqSmsX ]d-pw-hv


X-Ww-Xs ssZh-m Fgp-tn--sp Fv Imc-
W-tm-Sp-IqSn ]d-n-cn-p-p.
tdmam. (4--A. 24--hm) tbip-hns\ Poh-t\msS Fgp-n-b-hs\
hniz-kn Fpw (A-tm-kvX-e \Sv 3-A. 5-hm.) ssZhw
{InkvXp-hns\ acn--h-cn\npw Fgpn Fpw (sIm-cnn. 15A.
12 apX 15 hsc hm.) tbip Dbv Fgp-p-hp Fv Imc-Ww-
Iq-SmsX ]d-phv X-Ww-Xs ssZh-m Fgp-tn-
-sp Fp Imc-W-tm-Sp-IqSn ]d-n-cn-p-p. (tdm-am. 10--
A. 8, 10 hmIyw) ssZhw {InkvXp-hns\ acn--h-cn\nv Fgp-
tnp Fp \ns lrZ-b-tmsS hniz-kn-m \o c-s]-
Sp-sap ]cn-jvIm-c-ambn ]d-bp-p. BI-bm tbip acn-p-b-
h-cn Hm-a-s\v {]am-W-hmIyw icn-bm-sWp hcn-In acn--
hsc Pohn-np FXv A_-w-X-s.
C\n tbip P\--fpsS kIe ]m]-pw _en-bm-bnv
acn--Xp-sImv ssZhw Fp ]dbmw Fn,
GXp ssZh-n\v BcmWv tbip-hns\ _en-bm-bnp sImSp-
Xv? Ipw sNbvX tbip-hns\ blq-Z-m ]nSnp sImp-I-f-
p. AmsX Hcn-epw _en-bm-b-X-. Atlw Ip-m-c-\-
mp Fn blq-Z- m sImp-Ibpw Cm-bn-cp-t- m. Atm
_enbpw C-tm.
AXp-am ]m]-_-en-bm-bnp acn-p--Xn-tep a\-tm-Sp-IqSn
Ah-X-cn--h-\m-sW-n Xm t\sc blq-Z-m-cpsS CS-bn ]c-
ky-am-msX KqV-am-bnp k-cn-s - X-n\v? KqV-am-bn-
- m-bn-cpp
Fn (tbm-l-m 11--A. 57--hm.) alm-]p-tcm-ln-Xcpw ]co-kcpw
tbip Ccn-p es Bsc-nepw Adn-m sXcy-s-Sp-
-W-sav D-c-hp-sIm-Spv At\z-jn-n-p-Ibpw sNbvX-tm.
Fnpw ImWmsX Ccp-Xv Fp-sImv? AXn-\m P\--
fpsS CS-bn KqV-am-bn-p-X-s-bmWv k-cn-n-cp--sXp
\nbw. Fnpw `bw apgp-p-X-sImv kam-[m-\-an-msX
AhnSw hnv thsd ev Hfn-p-Xm-a-kn-p-Ibpw sNbvX-tm.
AXv Fn-\m-bnv? AX-s\ hrYm s]mbvt]m-sb--msX `b-
spw Hfnpw Am Fn (tbm-l-m 11--A. 53, 54 hm.) Ap
apX Ah tbip-hns\ sImp-hm Btem-N\ sNbvXp-sImv

digitized by www.sreyas.in
{InkvXp-N-cnXw 57

h-Xn-\m tbip {]kn--am-bnv blq-Z-m-cpsS CS-bn k-cn-


msX Ahn-Sw-hnp acp-`q-an--cp-In F{]mbnw F \K-c-n-
tev ]nhm-n. AhnsS injy-m-cp-ambn ]mp Fpw (tbm-
l-m 8-A. 58, 59 hm.) blq-Z-m Is-dn-bm XpS-n-b-tm
Hfn-p-s]m-bv-f-spw ae-bpsS hn sImp-sNv Xe
Iogmbn Xmgp Xp--Xn\p blq-Z-m `mhn--tm Hfn-tmSn
Fv Fgp-Xn-bn-cn-p-Xv Fp-sImv? AXp ap c-km-
n-I-sf-tmse thK-ntem Nne Bfp-I am{Xw Adn-Itbm
IjvS-s-m t]mcm Xv Hcp cn-Xmhv hv IjvSw A\p-
`-hnp acn-Xv temIw Adn-n-sv \ymb-hn-[n-\m-fn Hgnhp
Ignhp ]d-bm-Xn-cn-m {]kn--ambn IjvS-s-tS--Xm-I-bm
C{km-tb-ey Fm-hc - pw-IqSn hcp henb s]cp-m-fmb s]klm
D-h - n ]pd-Pm-Xn-Ifpw ImsI-s BImhq Fp ]nXm-
hn-\m \n-bn--spw ]p{X-\m k-Xn--spw Ccp--Xmb
B kabw hcp--Xn-\pw-aps IjvS-s-SpXn\p a\-n-m-n-
m-bn-cpp Hfn-n-cp-Xv Fn, CXn-tev hmIy-{]-amWw Dtm,
C-tm. AXpw Ccn--s. \n ]d-bp {]Imcw tbip-hns
IjvS-mSv temIw Bk-Iew Adn-b-W-sav ]nXm-hn\v \n_--
ambn Dmb A`n-{]m-b-{]-Im-cw-Xs Fm-hcpw B IjvS-m-Sn-
s\-p-dnv Adn-p-I-gntm? Ctm Adn-bptm? C\n Adn-
bptam? At\-I-J-WvU--fn At\I P\- tbip-hns t]cp-
t]mepw tI-dn-bp--Xn-\p- apt acn-p-t]m-bn-p-v. Ctm
F{Xtbm acn-p-p-ap-v. C\n-sb-{Xtbm acn-p-t]m-Ip-Ibpw
sNpw. AXp-sImv ]nXm-hn\v CXn-s\-n bmsXmcp A`n-{]m-
bhpw Cm-bn-cp-p. Dm-bn-cn-s-n BbXv sXn-tmbncn-
bm ]nXm-hns ap A`n-{]m-b-fpw ^en-p-sav hniz-kn-
m ]mSn-. B Znn-ep P\--sf-m-hcpw Adn-b-W-sat
Dm-bn-cp-p-q. Fn ]ns-sb-mWv \n ap tZi--
fnepw Cu aXs sImp-\-Sp Ime-t]w sNp-Xv? Am-
sXbpw ]nXm-hn-\m \n-bn--s t\c-n AmsX AXn\p
apt IjvS-s-Sp-hm a\-n-sv ]d--Xn-\m tbip-]n-Xmhv
\n_-nv \n-bn--Xp-sImv am{X-amWv IjvSw A\p-`-hn--
sXpw Xs kz-a-\p IjvS-s-Sp--Xn-tev Aev]hpw Cm-
bn-cpp Fpw ]nXm-hns \n_w As-n Atmgpw IjvS-
s-Sp-I-bn-mp Fpw DXp shfn-hm-Ip-p.

digitized by www.sreyas.in
58 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

C\nbpw ]nXm-hn-\m Hcp-k-abw Ipdn--s-n-p-m-bn-cpp


Fn, AXp-t]m-sebpw B ka-bpw AmsX X\nv IjvS-
mSp hp-Iq-S-tm. hcn-I-bp-an--tm. ]ns-sb-n-\mWv apn
qn Hfn--Xv? ]nXm-hn-\m Cs\ Ipdn--s hnhcw Adn-
n-cp-n-. AXp-sIm-mWv Hfn--sX-n, Adn-n-cn-m--
tmtg AXn\v Xm k-Xnpw Ccn--bn-. Atm Cu IjvS-
mSv a\p-jyp thnbpw Xs a\-tm-Sp-Iq-Snbpw A, Xs
Xte-se-gppsImv h-Xm-sWp \n-b-am-Ip-p.
A-s\-b-, ]nXm-hn-\m \n-bn--s-n-p-sp am{Xta
Adn-n-cp-p-q. BbXv C ka-b-am-sW-p-Xv Adn-n-cp-
n-. AXp-sIm-m-Ipp Hfn--sX-n, kabw \n-b-an-sv
hcn-In, Hfn--Xn\v ImcWw `b-a-msX thsd Hpw As-p-
hcpw AXpw Ccn-s. 5IS-in-bn ]nSn-Iq-Snb Znhkw Xs-bmWv
]nXm-hn-\m Ipdn--s Znh-k-sav AXn\p apn Adn-n-
cn-m CS-bn-m--Xp-sImv Apw Xm Hfn-p-I-f-tb--X-m-
bn-cptm? As\ sNmsX t\tc \np-sIm-Spp Fp ImWp-
tm. AsX-mWv? AXn-\p-apt Nne-cpsS ASp-\nv
s]sv ad-p-I-f-n-p Znhy-in Atm Fhn-sS-tm-
bn-cpp? ]nXr-k--ev]-{]-Imcw Fp ImcWw ChnsS Hcp-hn-
[hpw tNcm--Xp-sImv AXp tlXp Bbn-mWv apv Hfn-p-I-f-
Xpw ]ns t\sc-\n-p-sIm-Sp-Xpw Fp \n-bn-p--Xn-
tep ]mSn-. i{Xp-f - psS ssIpn AI-s-X - p-sImv HmSn
adp c-s]-p-sIm-p-hm Atm ]mSn-msX h-Xn-\m-
es{X \np-sIm-Sp--Xv. AmsX AhnsS Fp sNp-hm
Ignbpw? AXn-\m btlmh Atm tbip-hns\ ]m]-_-en-m-
bnv \n-bn-p-Itbm BbXv C ka-b-sp Xocp-am-\n-p-
Itbm, tbip AXns\ Adn-bp-Itbm k-Xn-p-Itbm Hpw-Xs
sNbvXn-p--X-sv \n-bw.
BsI-msS ]nXmhv Xs-p-dnv C-t]mse \n-bn-n-p-
spw B nXnv A{]-Im-cta `hnq Fpw D Hc-dnhpw
hnizm-khpw tbip-hn-\p-m-bn-cpp Fn \n-b-am-bnpw Hfn-
p-\S-
- p-Ib
- n-m-bn-cp-p. Am-]
- w tbip-hns\ ImWn-p-sIm-
Sp blq-Zm-hns\ A\p-{K-ln-m-Xn-cp-Xpw (a-mbn 26--A. 24-
-hm.) a\p-jy-]p-{Xs\ ImWn-p-sIm-Sp-p a\p-jy\p lm IjvSw!
B a\p-jy P\n-n-s-n Ah-\p-sIm-m-am-bn-cp-p Fn-s\

digitized by www.sreyas.in
{InkvXp-N-cnXw 59

tbip im]-an-Xpw Fn-\m-bnv? blq-Z-bpsS Cu t{Zml-{]-hr-n-


sb-n Ah imkn--s-n-s-p hcm-sX-bn--cn-mthn Bb-
Xns\ Nqn-m-Wnp sImSp--XmWv Fn,
A{]-Imcw Hcp Nqn-m-Wn-e - mb im]w a\-n-m Xs
Cs\ \n_-nv AI-s-Sp-n-b-h\pw CXn-tev Fmw Imc-
W-`q-X\
- p-amb ]nXm-hnp sImSp-t-X - m-bn-cp-p. As\ sNm-
-Xp-sImv CXv icnbmb imk-\b -
- . hyk-\w-sIm-p im]w-
X-s-bm-Wv.
kI-ehpw Adn-bp Xs ssZh-kz-`m-h-{]-Imcw blq-Z-bpsS
t{Zmls Xm BZyta shfn-s-Sp-p-hm-\m-bn-mWv i]n--sX-
n Chs\ t{Zmln-sbv BZyta Adn-bmsX Atm-kvX-e-m-
cn Hcp-h-\m-bnv kzoI-cn--Xp-sIm-p-Xs tbip-hn\p apnIq-
n-bp Adn-hn-m-bn-cp-p Fp \n-b-am-Ip-p. AX Xm
Adn-p-sIm-p-Xs Bbn-cpp Fn B t{Zmls Xm
sNn--Xm-bn-t hcq? B apdbvv IqSntb Xocq Fn Xs-
bpw, {][m-\-Im-c-W-mc\mb btlmhsbbpw Atbm i]n-p-
sIm-t-Xv? AXp-sImv Cu kam-[m-\hpw blq-Zmsb am{Xw
t{Zmln Fp ]d-bp-Xpw tNcp-n-.
Fmw-IqSn ASp apdpIn h-tm ap Nne-sc-tmse
tbiphpw Adn-n-cn-p-sa-
- msX apIqn Adn-n-cpp Fp
]d-bp-Xp I-am-Ip-p.
C\nbpw tbip-hns IjvSX - bvv ImcWw b-lq-Zm-hns Imn-
sm-Sp-tem ]nXm-hns \n-bn-tem AtXm cpw IqSntbm?
blq- Z m- h ns Imn- s m- S p- - e m- s W- n ]m]- _ - e n- b - s p
\nbw. ]nXm-hns \n-bn--em-sW-n AXn\v A\p-Iq-e-amb
ImWn-p-sIm-Sp--ens\ sNbvX blq-Zm-hns\ Hcn-epw t{Zmln-
bm-sWp ]d-Ibpw \c-I-n Xp-Ibpw sNbvXq-Iq-Sm. cpw-
IqSn BsW-n Hp KpW-sapw Hp tZmj-sapw ]d-bp-Xv
henb A\ym-ba - m-Wv. AXn-\m `b-sv Hfn-p-\S- Xs ImWn-
p-sIm-Sp--Xn-ep-mb k-Sw-sImv a\-s-cnp i]n--Xp-X-
s-bm-Wv. Cu \ymb--sf-smv {InkvXp ]m]-_-en-bm-bn-m
acn--sXp sXfn-bp-p.
CXn\p ap]n tbip acn--Xns tijw ssZh-m Pohn-
-s-X
-
- msX Xmt\ Pohn-tm Fp ]d-n-p-t- m. Ctm

digitized by www.sreyas.in
60 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

ssZhhpw Pohn-n-n Fpw acn--h acn--hXs Fpw


m]nmw (1 sImcn-n-b 15--A. 17--hm) {InkvXp Fgp-t-n-s-
n \n-fpsS hnizmkw hrYm Bbn-cn-p-sav ]utemkv ]d-
bp-p. {InkvXy-m-cpsS hnizm-k-n\p {InkvXp Dbns-gpp
Fp- Xv apJy- I m- c - W - a m- b n- c n- - b m B hnj- b - s - n
{]tXyIw Hcp ]pkvXIw Fgp-Xn-h-cp-p. AXp-sImv Bb-Xns\
ChnsS Npcpn ]d-bp-p. tbip Dbns-gptm Ctbm Fp-
-Xn-s\-p-dnv hnNm-cn--W-sa-n Atm-gp-m-bn-cp--h-cn
Bsc-nepw In-ptm Fv t\mt-Xv AXym-h-iy-am-Wv.
Atm-gn-cp blq-Z-m-sc-m-hcpw {InkvXp Dbns-gpp Fv
DZvtLm-jn-p-Xv ipta Ak-Xy-am-sWp ]d-n-cn-pp.
Ctm ]d-p-h-cp--Xns\ {InkvXp-hn\v km[-I-ambn ]d-bp
ss__nsImp t\mmw. ss__n-fm-Nm-cy-m-cn Hcp-cpw
tbip Dbns- g p- - X ns\ t\sc I- X mbn ]d- b p- n-
]nstbm? Ah Ip, Ch Ip Fsmw A\y-m-cpsS
ta ]gn Npa-p-t-bp-q. tlm! icn-Xs, Ah ImWm--
Xns\ F-s\-bmWv I-Xm-bnp ]d-bp--Xv? (a-mbn 28--A.
17--hm) ]Xn-s\mp injy-mcpw tbip-hns\ Keo-en-bm-bn Ip
hn-p. Fm Nne kt-l-s-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp. Cu ]Xn-
s\mp t]cn am-bnbpw Hcp-h-\m-Wv, Cbm kt-l-s--h-
cn Hcp-X-stbm Atbm F-dn-bp-n-. Cbm hmkvX-
h-n In-cpp Fn Xm Ip Fv Fp-sImp ]d-
p-IqSm? AXn-\m Cbmfpw kt-ln--h-cn Hcp-hX-s-bm-
Wv. Fm Nne injy-m-sc-nepw kwi-bn-m Fv? IXv
tbip-hns\ Atbm? hf-sc-\m ip{iq-jbpw sNbvXp-sImv
tbip-hn-t\m-Sp-IqSn k-cn {][m\ injy-m-cp-t]mepw kwi-
bnpw hniz-kn-m-sXbpw Ccn-p nXnv 1890 kwh--c-
n\p apv {InkvXp Dbns-gpp Fp ]d-bp--Xns\ \mw
F-s\-bmWv hniz-kn-p-Xv? Am-tX-bpw, tbip Dbns-gp-
tp Fp ]d--h-cmb am-bn, atm-kv, eqtm-kv, tbml-
m Ch \mep-t]cpw At\ym-\y-hn-tcm-[-ambn ]d-n-cn-p-p.
AXns\ Npcpn ImWnmw! (tbm-l-m) {]`m-X-Im-ev Ccp-
p--tm aKvZ-eq adn-bm (H-cp-n) tbip-hns I-dbvp
t]mbn (a-m-bn) Dj-n\v aKvZ-eqa-dn-bmfpw thsd adn-bmfpw (c-
p-t]) I-dbvp t]mbn (atm-kv) AXn-Im-ev kqtcym-Z-
b-n- aKvZ-eqa-dn-bmfpw bm-q-_ns A-bmb adn-bmfpw

digitized by www.sreyas.in
{InkvXp-N-cnXw 61

kmfta F-hfpw (aq-p-t]) I-d-bvp-t]mbn (eq-tmkv)


F{Xbpw {]`m-X - n aKvZe - q adn-bm-fpw thsd kv{XoIfpw (]e)
I-d-bvp- t]mbn (a-m-bn) tbip-hns I-d-bn-t In-cn-p-
Xm-bnp Sn. kv{XoI Ip. Atm ssZh-Zq-X hmXn-en-en-
cp Ins\ adnv Xnbpw hv AXn-t Ccpp (atm-kv)
kv{XoI I-tm I-d-bn-t In-m-bn-cp-p. Atm Hcp
bphmhv (tZ-h-Zq-X-\-) Intencn-p--Xns\ Ip. (atm-kv)
cp a\p-jy \np--Xns\ Ah Ip. ChnsS ambn
atm-kp-I ]d tZh-Zq-X-s\tbm Hcp sNdp--m-c Ccp-
-Xn-s\tbm Ch In-. (tbm-l-m) kv{XoI cv ZqX-
msc Ccp--Xm-bnv Ip. ambn ]d Hcp tZh-Zq-X-s\tbm
atmkv ]d Ccp-n-cp bphm-hn-s\tbm eqtmkv ]d
\nn-cp--h-cmb cp a\p-jy-sctbm kv{XoI In-. (eq-tm-
kv) ]ns kv{XoI Cu hnj-b--sf-n injy-m-tcmSp ]dp
(atmkv 16.-A. 8-hm.) kv{XoI `bv Hcp--tcmSpw ]d-n
(a-mbn 27-9) kv{XoI injy-msc Adn-bn-m t]mIp-tm
tbip-hns\ In (a-m-bn) aKvZ-eqa-dn-bm tbip-hns\ I
DSs\ tbip-hns Imens\ sXmp hWn (tbm-l-m 20--A.
15, 17--hm.) aKvZ-eq adn-bm tbip-hns\ sXmn (tbm-l-m)
tbip-hm-sWv a\-n-em-bn- (tbm-l-m) BZyw aKvZ-eqa-dn-
bmv ImW-sp (a-m-bn) tbip kv{XoIv BZyw ImW-
sp (eq-tmkv 24-A. 50, 51--hm) tbip s_-s\-bn\npw
kz-n-tev t]mbn (A-tm-kvX-e 1 A. 912 hm.) {InkvXp
Henhm F ae-bn\npw kz-n-tep t]mbn (eq-tmkv
24--A. 33-36, 37--hm) (tbm-l-m 20--A. 19--hm) tbiphns ]Xn-
s\mp injy-mpw Pdp-k-te-anhv BZy-{]m-hiyw Zi\w
Dm-bn. (a-mbn 28--A. 16, 17--hm.) ]Xn-s\mp injy-mpw
Keo-em-bnhv tbip BZy-{]m-hiyw ImW-s-p (a-mbn 12--
A. 40--hm.) tbip I-d-bn aqv ]Iepw aqv cmhpw Ccnpw
(Fv tbip) ]d-p. (amtmkv 14--A. 25-42, 44-45, 46--hm.)
tbip I-d-bn Hcp ]Iepw cv cmhpw Ccpp. Sn. \mep-t]cpw
]c-kv]cw hncp- - f- mbn Cs\ Fgp-Xn-bn-cn-s - Imv Hcn-epw
hniz-kn- - - h - b
-
- . C{]-Imcw ssIhn-p-If nXnv thsd
C\n Ftm-mWv CXn-tev B[m-c-am-bn-p-Xv?
Ah \mep-t]cpw C{]-Imcw hncp---fm-bnp ]dp Fp
hcn-Inepw Ahcn Hcp--s\-nepw {InkvXp Dbns-gp-t-nm

digitized by www.sreyas.in
62 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

Fp ]d-n-ptm? Ctm Fv Nne {InkvXy-m ]d-bpp


Fn CXn-tev Hcp ZrjvSmw ]d-bmw, tIn. Xncp-h-\--
]p-cv A-p-f-sc jmn In-en-t Imev 6 aWn apX
sshInv 6 aWn hsc Hcp shfp Im Ccpp Fv Hcp-h\pw,
B Im-Xs B ka-bp shm-bp Ipdp-ns hon
InS--bn Ccp--Xm-bnv asm-cp-\pw, B ka-b-p-Xs B
Im iwJp-ap-Jv sImm-c-n Ccp--Xm-bnv aqm-a-sXm-cp-
\pw, B Im B ka-b-p-Xs sImm-c-c t{X-n
Ccp--Xm-bnv Hcp-\pw ]d-p-I-gn-m AXns\ tIp-
-h Ch-cn Bcpw shf-f-m Csp ]d-n--tm, Bb-
Xp-sImv sh-m Dm-bn-cp--Xp-Xs Fv \ncq-]n-ptam?
]cn-lk
- n-ptam? ]cn-lk
- n-pIXs sNpw. tam-Wn \ymb-
-sf-smv ]nim-Nns\ Pbnp Fp--Xp-ap-X acn-p-bp
Fp--Xp-hsc ]d-n-p--h-bn Hc-p-Xhpw tbip-hn-\m
sN-s-n-n-sv sXfn-hm-Ip-p.
C{X-bp-ap, IS-in-bn tbip-hns\ ]nSn-n-cp--h Ahs\
]cn-lkn-v Xn, Iv aqSn-s-n, apJv ASn-tv \ns ASn-
-h Bscp tNmZn--Xns tijw tbip-hn\p ]d-bm Ign-
n-. Gtcm-tZ-kp-cm-Pmhv tbip-hns\ Ip hfsc ktm-j-
tm-Sp-IqSn hXpw Hc-pZw sNbvXp ImWn-m ]d-nv
AXn\pw Ign-n-. Fn-mWv Xqn-en-Sp-hm \nb-an--Xv.
alm]ptcm-ln-X - mcpw imkv{Xn-amcpw aq-mcpw Ch C{km-tb
cmPm-sh-n Ipcn-in\nv Cd-n-h-cs Fm R hniz-
knpw Fp ]-dnpw Xm t{]Xwt]mse \n-Xt Dq?
Itdp sImp-sap tXmn-b-tmgpw ae-h-n\np X-s-
Smt\-cpw injy-m-tcmSp kam-[m\w ]d-tp `bv Hfn-
tm-Sn-b-Xns\ Znhy-i-n-sImp ad-p-I-f--Xm-sW--tbm
\n ]d-bp--Xv. Fm B Znhy-in Cu ka-bv Fhn-
sS-tmbn? tbip-hn\v Hfn-p kmcw ]Xn-hm-bn-cp-p. Nne-
tm i{Xp- h-hcpw ]nSn-Iq-Sn-bmepw h-hn-[hpw Bq--
n ]Xpn Hfn-tm-SpI ]e-tmgpw Dm-b-Xn-\m Hcn-bv
Ah hfsc XmXv]-cy-sp ]nSn-Iq-Sn. Atm-g-I-spwt]mbn.
As\ AI- s Znhkw ]nXm- h n- \ m \nb- a n- - s
ZnhkamsWpw ]d- p- s Im- p- p. Cu nXnv kI- e -

digitized by www.sreyas.in
{InkvXp-N-cnXw 63

t]pw ssZh-Xzhpw a\p-jy-Xzhpw Dspw ssZh-am-sWpw


]d-p-sIm-m-a-tm.
BI-s, ta-d Ap-X--sfmw tbip sNbvX-Xm-bnv
t\mmw. Fmepw ssZh-sap ]d-bm ]mSn-. Fp-sIm-s-
m tami, tbip-hm, Geo-im, Fenbm apX-em-b-hcpw CXp-t]m-
se-Xs At\Iw Ap-X-sf sNbvX-Xm-bnpw (]p-d-m-Sp-]p-
kvX-Iw 7-Dw, 8Dw Aym-bw) \n-fpsS ss__n-fn tLmjn-
-bm Ah-tcbpw {]tXyIw ssZh-sap ]d-tb--Xm-bn-p-h-cpw.
AXp-sIm--t{X,
Am-sXbpw (a-mbn 17 A 20 hm) Hcp ISp-Ip-a-Wn-tbmfw
am{Xw \np hnizm-k-ap-m-bm Cu ae-tbmSv ChnsS \nv
Ahn-tSv hmn-tm-I-sbv (\o-n-tm-sb-v) ]d-bmw. hmn-
tm-Ibpw sNpw. A{X-bp-a \nv Ign-bm-Xv Hpw Dm-
I-bn-. (Sn-22 hm. tbml-m 14 A) D]-h-knp {]mn-p--
hpw ssZh-n hnizm-k-ap Fmhpw henb Ap-X-
sf sNbvhm Ign-bp-sapw (]pdmSp]pkvXIw 7, 8 Aymbw)
ssZh-ns aln-a-bn-\m tami apXt]sc CuPv]vXv tZiv
]dthm F cmPm-hns ASp- sNp tImens\ ]mm-,
shs c-am-, Xhf Dm- apX-emb Ap-X-sf
sNbvX-tm cmP-k-ao-]-p-m-bn-cp--hcpw ssZh i{Xp-fpw
iq\y-m--cp-amb am{n-I
- m CXp-Ip Xpey-ambpw A[n-Ia
- mbpw
sNbvXp Fp ImWp-p. CXp-I-fm ssZhw Am-hpw
hnizm-k-an-m ssZh-i-{Xp-pw Ap-X-sf sNp-hm
Ign-bp-sa-p-Xp kv]jvS-am-bn-cn-p-p.
]nsbpw (a-mbn 24--A. 24--hm.) I-{In-kvXp-fpw I-
ZoL-Zin-amcpw hp-I-gn-bp--Xm-bn-cp-m sXc-s-Sp--s-
-h-scbpw hn-mX--hw hep-Xm-bn-p AS-bm-f--sfbpw
Ap- X - - s fbpw Impw. CXn- \ m Hcp- h Ap- X - sf
sNbvXm Ahs\ ssZh-sap hniz-kn-p-t]m-I-cp-Xv. Fp am{X-
a ssZh-`--\m-sW-s-nepw hnNm-cn-p--Xn-tev amhpw
ssZh-i{- Xp-hm-sWp \n-bn-p-X - n-tev bmsXmcp hntcm-[hpw
Cspw Dd-m-m-hp-X - m-Wv. Fs\ hnNm-cn-mepw tbip-hns\
ssZh-sap ]d-bp--Xn-tev ISp-tIm-fhpw \ymbw ImWp-n-m.
C{]-Imcw acn-p-t]mb tbip Dbns-gp-n-sv At\Iw
{]_-e-\ym-b--sf-smp m]n-p. C\n acn--Xns tijw

digitized by www.sreyas.in
64 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

GXv nXn-bn Bbn-cnmw Fp--Xns\ ss__n-fnse \ymb-


-sf-sm-p-Xs Nnn-p-t\m-mw.
]m]n-Is-m-hpw \c-I-am-Ipp \nXy-hm-k--ew.
Fm tbip-hm-Is Fm-h-cp-sSbpw kIe]m]--sfbpw Gp-
t]m-b-Xp-sImv Fm-t]-sc-mfpw alm-]m-]nbpw AXp-tl-Xp-hm-
bnv 6XnSn-s\p \c-I-n t]mbn hogp--Xn-tep am{X-a-msX
asm-n\pw tbmKyX Cm-h\pw BIp-p. Bb-Xp-sImv
tbip \c-I-nXs ]Xn-n-cn-p-sav Dd-m-bnp \n-bn-t-
-Xm-Wv. Fp Xs-bp-a CXn--\p-k-c-W-am-bnp {InkvXp acn-
-Xns tijw ]mXm-f-n Cdn Fpw-IqSn Atm-kvX-e-
m-cpsS hnizm-k-{]-am-W-n ]d-n-cn--sImv kt-l-an-m.
{InkvXp \c-I-nXs t]mbn-cn-pp Fp Xo-bm-bn-cn-
p-p.
C\nbpw \c-I-n t]mb-hv Xncnp Itc--an-sp
\nXs knm--am-bnp ]d-bp--Xp-sImv \c-I-n
t]mb-h-\mb tbiphpw A{]-Im-cw-Xs aSn Itc-do-n-sp
\n-bn-p--Xnt\ \ymb-ap-p. CXn-tev A\p-Iq-e-am-bnv (tbm-
l-m 20--A. 17--hm.) Fs ]nXm-hns ASp--tev CXp-h-
scbpw Itcdn t]mbn-nm Fn-s\ {]am-Whpw knn-n-cn--
bm kwi-ba - n-m. tam-n t]mbn-n-spw IqSn Xo-bmbn.
Atm tam-n hym]n-m nXnpw Fpw hym]n-
n-cpp Fpw ]d-bm\pw ]mSn-. AXp-sImv Xs tbmKy-
Xbvp X-hw sNp-tN m\hpw Bcm-bmepw icn
sN-I-s--hv HcpImepw tamN-\-an-m ehpw Bb
\nXy-\-c-I-ns AS-n-n-S-pp F-msX thsd Hcp-
hn-[-nepw ]d-bp--Xn-tev {ipXnbpw bpnbpw A\p-`hhpw
Hpw-Xs Cm.
BI-bm, (tbm-l. 20 A. 28--hm.) (a-mbn 1-A. 23--hm.)
\tm-Sp-Iq-sS-bp ssZhw (F-{_- 1-A. 8-hm.) \nXy-knw-lm-k-\-
-\mb ssZhw (tdma. 9-A. 5-hm.) Ftpw hmgv-s--h-
\mbn k-n-tepw ssZh-am-b-h. (b-lqZ. 25--A. Xntam. 1-
A. 17--hm.) \psS cn-Xm-hmIp GI-m-\n-bmb ssZhw,
(Xo-tam. 6 A. 14-16 hsc hm.) [\y-\mb GIm-[n-]-Xnbpw cmPm-[n-
cm-Pmhpw Im-[n-Im-hpw, (1 tbml. 3-A. 16--hm.) \ap-p-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
{InkvXp-N-cnXw 65

thn Xs Pohs\ h ssZhw, (A-tm. \Sv. 20--A. 28--hm.)


\s kz-c--m km-Zn ssZhw. (Xo-p. 2-A. 14--hm.)
alm-ssZhw (Xo-tam. 3-A. 16--hm.) PU-n shfn-s ssZhw (1
tbml. 5-A. 2-hm.) kXy-ssZhw (F-imb 9-A. 6-hm.) in-
bp ssZhw (tbm-l. 1-A. 1-hm.) hN-\-am-Ip ssZhw (sh-fn.
17--A. 14--hm.) Im-[n-Imhv (eq-m. 2-A. 6-hm.) Im-
hm-Ip {InkvXp (sh-fn. 1-A. 8-hm.) Ccp--h\pw Ccn-p--h\pw
hcp--h-\p-amb Imhv (1 sImcn. 8-A. 6-hm.) tbip-{InkvXp
F GI Imhv (F-imbm 6A. 411--hm.). ssk\y--fpsS
btlm-h-bmb Imhv (tbml 12--A. 38--hm 1 sImcnn. 2-A.
8-hm.) al-Xz-n Imhv (tdmam. 14--A. 8-hm.) Pohn-Ipw
acn--hpw Imhv (2 sImcn. 15 A. 47 kz-n \np
Im-hv) \o-Xnbpw Icp-W-bp-ap--h-s\ A-ap--Xmbn ]d-
bp-p, Am-H-taKm (sh-fn. 22-A. 13--hm.) BZnbpw Ahpw
(sh-fn. 3-A. 14--hm.) Bta. (sh-fn. 19--A. 16--hm.) cmPm-[n-cm-
Pmhv (F-{_m. 1-A. 12--hm.) bYm-hm (sh-fn. 2-A. 23--hm.) Dq-
hp-I-sfbpw lrZ-b--sfbpw Bcm-bp--h. (sIm-em. 1-A. 17--
hm.) k-n\pw ap (tbm-l. 16--A. 30--hm.) kI-ehpw Adn-
bp--h (sImsem. 1 A. 16--hm.) kI-ehpw krjvSn--h (sh-fn.
1-A. 8-hm.) k-i- (2. sX. 1-A. 8-hm.) \ymbm-[n-]Xn
{]Xn-Imcw sNp--h (1 tbml. 12--A. 12--hm.) \nXy (F-imbm
9-A. 6-hm.) \nXy-]n-Xmhv (b-d-an. 23 A 5h) cmPmhv (shfn 22. A.
12 h) {]Xn-^ew sImSp-p--h (a-m. 9-A. 6-hm.) ]m]-sf
tamNn-p--h (tbm-l. 6, 5354 hm.) acn--hsc Dbnn-p--
h (F-{_m. 13--A. 8-hm.) am-an-m--h (sh-fn. 22--A. 13--hm.)
Hm-a--h\pw HSp---h\pw (eq-m. 1-A. 76--hm.) AXyp--
X (F-im. 40--A. 3-hm. bdn. 23--A. 6-hm.) btlmhm (k-o. 68-
-A. 4-hm.) Fn-s\ Fmw tbip-hn-\p--Xmbn ]d-b-s-Sp
\ma--sfmpw tbip-hn\p tNcp-I-bn-. C{]-Im-c-ap--h-\m-bn-cp
tbip-hns\ ssZh-sap m]n-mthn ]d-n-p Abp-
-fpw Ak-Xy--fp-amb kam-[m-\--sfbpw kw`-hn-n-n-m--
Xp-I-fmb aln-a-I-sfbpw t\mp-tm C\n BscbmWv GXp
Poh-m-sc-bmWv \n-fpsS Cu \ymb-{]-Imcw ssZh-sap m]n-
m ]mSn-m-Xv? IjvSw! IjvSw! Fs-nepw Xm-e-Im-cy-
em-`-s--cpXn aSn-Iq-SmsX CXnhw ]d-p-sImp \S-m

digitized by www.sreyas.in
66 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

Xp\n-mepw tIp--hsmw Hcp-t]mse aXn-sI-p-t]m-Ip-


sap \ncq-]ntm?
Cs\ tbip-hn-s\-p-dnv hnNm-cn--Xnepw ssZh-e--W-an-
sp In-cn-p-p.

Ipdn-p-I
1. N-n-kzman Cu ]pkvXIw cNn hjs kqNn-n-p-p.
2. N-n-kzman Cu ]pkvXIw cNn hjs kqNn-n-p-p.
3. hN\ t`jPw = hmm-Ip Huj[w
4. tNmamcn = aTb
5. IS-in-bn = Ah-km-\-ambn
6. XnSo-s\v = s]sv

digitized by www.sreyas.in
67

C\n \n{K-lm-\p-{Klw
{InkvXp temIm-h-km-\p hnNm-cW sNbv-hm-\m-bnp hcpw
Fp \n ]d-bp-p-h-tm. hnNm-c-W-Im-e-n\p apt acn--
h Fm-t]cpw sNp tNcp-Xp \c-I-tam---fntem? thsd
h etm? thsd e-m-Ip-p-sh-n BZw, A{_lmw
apX-em-bh
- cpw hnNm-cW
- I
- m-e
- n\p apt-Xs tam-nepw ap
]ecpw \c-I-nepw {]th-in-p-shp \n-fpsS ss__n ]d-
bp-Xp I-am-Ip-p.
acn--h-sc-m-t]cpw XWwXs \c-I-nepw tam-
nepw sNv kpJ-Zpx-J - sf A\p-`h- npw Fp-hc- p-In temIm-
h-km-\-Im-e-n hnNm-c-W-sN--W-sa-n--tm. AX hnNm-cW
sNWw Fn B hnNm-c-W-sImv apn-bn Ccp--hsc \c-
I-nepw \c-I-n Ccp--hsc apn-bnepw amn amn Ccp-
ptam? Ccp-p-Ib - n-s-n hnNm-cW sNp-X- p-sImv {]tbm-
P\w bmsXmpw C-tm. Fm apt-bn-cp--{]-Im-cw-Xs
apn-bn Ccp--hsc apn-bnepw \c-I-n Ccp--hsc \c-I-
nepw CSp-sa-n Atlw \qX-\-ambn hnNm-cW sNp-sa-p-
Xv Fn-\m-bnv? BI-bm temIm-h-km-\-n hnNm-c-W-sb-
sm-p-sp ]d-bp--Xp-Xs ip-I--am-Ip-p.
C\nbpw Atlw hnNm-cW sNp-tm ay--\m-bn-cn-p-
sav \n ]d-bp--tm. Bm- bmsXmcp Ihpw sNm-
Xn-cns Xs a\-p-t]mse Nnesc kpJ-t`m-Kn-I-fm-bnpw Nnesc
ZpxJm-\p-t`m-Kn-If
- m-bnpw krjvSn-X
- p-sImv ]-]m-Xn-bm-bn-cn-p-
-h ay--\m-Ip--Xn\p tbmKy-\-.
C\n {InkvXp-hm-Is hnNm-cW- I
- m-ev GXp {]amWwsImp
hnNm-cnpw? ss__n-fn-s\-smp hnNm-cnpw Fn B
]pkvXIw At\-It- ImSn apJ-f - mbn ]ncnp appw ]npw Hn-
s\mp hn]-co-X-sv Hcp t]q-p-t]mse Ccn-p--Xns\

digitized by www.sreyas.in
68 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

\n \-Xn-hw In-cn-p-atm. AXn-s\-sm-p- \oXn


hnNm-cn-p--sX-s\? AXn-s\-sm-p-Xs Hcp-thf hnNm-cn-
mepw B ss__n-fns\ Ipw tIpw Adn-bm ]e ]e tZi-
-fn-en-cn-p P\-v GXn-s\-smv \oXn hnNm-cnpw?
CXv \Xv CXv No Fv ]Ip--dn-bp hnth-N-\-I-fp
a\- m- n- s b- s mv hnNm- c n- p- s a- n ap]- d - - t ]mse
\Xpw Nobpw C-Xn--Xm-Ipp, F-dn-bp--Xn\v k{-Zm-
b-im-kv{X- IqSm-sX-Ig - n-Ib
- n-. BI-bm Ah-\h - ssIsm-
n-cn-p k{-Zm-b-im-kv{X-v tN-bm-bn-p-Xs Ah-
\-h\v Adn-hp-m-bn-cn-pw. B nXnv Ah-\h - s Adn-hm-Ip
a\-m-n-sb-smv hnNm-cn-t--Xm-sW-n Ah-\-hs aX-
im-kv{X--sf-s {]am-W-am-n-sImv hnNm-cn-t-n-h-cpw.
As\ hnNm-cn-p--]w ss__n-fn-s\-s {]am-W-am-n-
smp hnNm-cn-p-sapw ap aXim-kv{X--sfmw Ak-Xy-
im-kv{X--fm-sWpw \n Fn\p thn-sb-nepw \Sp
tLmjn-p-Xv henb Iw Bbn-tm-Ipw. Ahpw ss__n-
fn-s\-sm-p-Xs hnNm-cn-p-sa-n Ah-cpsS P\\w apX
acWw hscbpw Ipw tIpw Adn-bm ss__n Iev]-\-Isf
Ahcp ssIsm-nm Fp tIm]nv Ahsc ZWvUn-n-p-Xv
alm-I-Tn-\hpw A\ym-bhpw Bbn-tm-Ipw. Bb-Xn-\m {InkvXp-
hn\p hnNm-c-W-sN-p--Xn-tepw {]am-Wta C.
{InkvXp- XshnNm-cn-m--hsc \nXy-\-c-I-n Xn--
f-bp-p-shp \n ]d-bp-p-h-tm. K`-n Ccn-p-tmgpw
P\n-p-tmgpw P\n-X - ns tijw inip-{]m-b- nepw acn-p-t]mb
Bm-fpw IpcpSpw sNInSpw Bbn-cp-p. acn-p-t]m-b-hcpw P\n-
-\m XpSn Nn-{`aw apX-emb hym[n ]nSn-p-In-Sp acn-p-
t]m-bh- cpw {InkvXp-aXw \S-m-m tZi-f - n-en-cpv Ah-\h - s
aX-im-kv{Xw-sImv knn Adn-hn{]-Imcw kmn-If - m-bn acn-
p-t]m-b-hcpw {InkvXp-hns\ Adnpw hniz-knpw Ccn--bn-.
ss__n-fns\ ]Tn--dn-npw AXv ssZh-imkv{Xw Fp-hn-
izmkw hcmsX Xm ssIsm-n-cn-p aX-ns
Ccpp acn--hcpw {InkvXp-hns\ hniz-kn-n-cn--bn--tm. Atm-
B Bm-sf \c-I-n Xptam? apn-bn tNptam?
\c-I-n Xp-sa-n AXp-t]m-es A\ymbw thsd Hpw

digitized by www.sreyas.in
C\n \n{K-lm-\p-{Klw 69

C. apn-bn Ccp-p-sa-n Xs hniz-kn-m--hsc \c-I-


n Xn--f-bp-sav ]d-bp-Xv Hpw tNcp-I-bp-an-.
\n-fpsS ssZhw Bm-sf CS-m-ep krjvSn-bpw
Ah-tcm-Sp-Iq-Sn-s Aip--Xtbbpw ipw Cm Ic-Wm-Zn-
I-tfbpw Ima-t{Im-[-tem-`-taml aZ-am--cy-Kp-W--sfbpw At-l-
n-\m AmsX a\p-jy-cn Hcp-h-cmepw A\p-jvTn--s-Sp-hm
Ign-bm-Xpw bmsXmcp {]tbm-P-\-hp-an-m-Xpw Bb Hcp \oXn
hn[nsb \nb-anv \S-n-bpw sNbvtXv ]ns hnNm-c-W-Im-
ev B Bm-sf Ip-hm-fn-I-fmnop-Xv Fp \oXn-
bmWv?
btlmhm Bm-sf Aip- - m-cm-bnv krjvSn-n-m-sb-n
Bm- Aip--I-c-Wm-Zn-Isf Xmm--fm-bnv Dm-n-
bnptm? As\ Dmnbn Fp--Xn\v {]am-W-am-bnv
tIm]w apX-emb Zpp-W--sfmw P\n--bp-Ss\ ImW-s-Sp--
tm. Ah P-]m-]w-sIm-m-Ip-p-sh-n BZn Bmhn Ah
Fs\ Dmbn? BZn Bmhv sNbvX ]m]w-sIm-p-mbn
Fn B ]m]w sNp-X - n\v Imc-Wa - mb hn]-co-X
- m\w Dm-
b-sX-s\? BI-bm Bm-sf Aip--m-cm-bn-p-Xs
krjvSn-p-shp sXfn-hm-Ip-p.
btlmh Cmv C {]Imcw \S--W-sav Bcw-`-
ns \nb-a-n Fp ]d-bp-p-sh-n \S-m t]mIp-
-hsb \nb-an-m-t- mtg Ahsb Adn-p-an-cn-p-Ib - n-. A-
s\-b Adn-p-X-s-bn-cn-p-sa-n \nb-an-p-an-cn-pw. \nb-an-
npw A{]-Imcw \S-msX sXn-tm-sb-n IrXzw Cs-
p-h-cpw. AXp-sImv btlm-hm-bpsS \nb-a-{]-Imcw AmsX
thsd Hcp-hn-[-nepw Hpw \S--bn Fv k-Xn-t--Xm-
bnp Xocpw.
BI-bm, Atlw X-ms\ Bm-hn-t\bpw Aip--X-
tbbpw hnj-hr--tbpw bmsXmcp {]tbm-P-\hpw Cm Hcp
hn[n-sbbpw ]nim-Nn-s\bpw \nnv HSpw Xs Cu hm
sNbvh\-I-sf-smp ]m]w Dm-b-tm Xs Ips A\y-
m-cn m]n-p-Ibpw Xm Zb-hp--h-s\-tmse shfn-bn
ImWn-p--Xn-\p-thn cm-aXpw B ]m]s Xn hlnpw
Xm thZ-\s- -Sp-h
- s
- \-t- ]mse `mhn-bpw Xtm-Sp-Iq-Snb a\p-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
70 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

jy-Xz-s-am{Xw thZ-\-s-Sp-p-Ibpw Xm c-I-s\p t]sc-


Sp-p-sIm-p-Ibpw sNbvXp-sImv Hpw Adn-bm--h-t\bpw
sNm--h-t\-bpw-t]mse hv \oXn-hn-Nm-cW Ignv Bm-sf
Ip-hm-fn-I-fm-n-op-Xp alm-A-\o-Xn-bm-sWv Ipp-
p-t]mepw Adn-bm-hp--Xm-Wv. BI-bm, Atlw bmsXm-
cp--tcbpw Ip-hm-fn-I-fm-n-om \ymb-an-.
{InkvXp-hns\ Hcp-h hniz-kn-m-sX-bn-cn-p-Xv ]m]-am-Ip-
p-shp \n Xs-ms\ ]d-I-sImpw {InkvXp appw
]npw D kIe ]m]-p-am-bnv ]mSp-s]p Fv ImWp-I-
sImpw hniz-kn-m--Xmb ]m]-n\pw {InkvXp A\p-`-hn
thZ- \ - X s {]mb- n- - a m- b np Xocpw. BI- b m {Inkv X p
Xmam{Xw \c-I-th-Z\ A\p-`-hn--b-msX ap--h-tc-bpw-IqSn
A\p-`-hn-n--sb-p-Xv \oXn-bm-I-bn-. Cs\ \n{K-lm-\p-{K-
l-s-p-dnp hnNm-cn--Xnepw ssZh-e--W-an-sp sXfn-hm-bn-
cn-p-p.

digitized by www.sreyas.in
71

]hn-{Xm--N-cn{Xw
]hn-{Xm-m-hv, krjvSn apX-emb IrXy-p thp
klmbw sNpp Fv \n- ]d-bp--tm. btlmhm k-
i- Fp-h-cn-In Xm sNp IrXy-v ]hn-{Xm-m-
hns klm-bw-IqSn Cn-ptam? btlmhm kzbw IrXyw sNp-
-Xn\v {XmWn-bn-m--h-\ Fnepw Atlw sNp IrXy-
v Xm\pw-IqSn k-Xn-p-sIm-n-cn-p--Xn-s\-bmWv ]hn-{Xm-
mhv sNp klmbw Fp ]d-bp--Xv Fn Cu A`n-{]m-
bs k-Xn-p--Xn-tep {]amWw Cm--Xp-sImpw Dm-
bn-cp-mepw Ct-l - ns k-Xs Cn-nt btlmhm IrXyw
sNp-I-bpq Fpw AXn-\m btlmhm A\--i-n-bp--h-
\-spw hp-t]m-Ipw. ]hn-{Xm-mhv ss__n-fns\ XmXs
Dm-msX `-msc DWn Ah-sc-smp sNn-Xv Fn-
\m-bnv? Cu ]hn-{Xm-mhv {InkvXp-hns\ tZmj-c-ln-X-a-\p-jym-Ir-
Xn- b m- b nv krjv S ntmtg- X s At- l - n ipnbpw
m\hpw IqSn Dm- b n- c n- p- a m- b n- c p- - t m. B nXnv
{]mhns cq]w [cnp hp {]th-in-Xpw (tbm-l-m 1-A. 32-
-hm.) As\ {]th-in-n-cp-npw HSppw B {InkvXp thZ-\-
tbm-Sp-IqSn \ne-hn-fn--tm- cn-msX hnp-I-f-Xpw Fn-
\m-bnv? A-s\-b cn--Xs sNbvXp Fp-h-cn-In tbip
Fs ]nXmth Fs ]nXmth Fp hnfn--tm- At-l-
ns A-bmb adn-b-n-t\mSv can ]nXm-hmb Xm anm-
sX-bn-cp-p-I-f-Xv Fp-sImv? AXv Ccn--s.
BZn-a-\p-jys\ hn-m h ]nimNv ap thj--sf-
sbmpw ssIsm-msX k-ns thjs ssIsm--
Xn-\m BbXp ]m]-n\p Imc-W-ambn `hnp Fp sNmn
k--sf-sbms i]n btlmhm ]hn-{Xm-mhv ap thj-
-sf-sbm-n-t\bpw FSp-msX {]mhns thjss kzoI-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
72 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

cn-Xv ]pWy-n\p Imc-W-am-btm Fp ktm-jnv {]mhp-I-


sf-sbm-sbpw \nsf Bcpw shSn-sh-bpw Xnp-Ibpw C
Fp ]dv Hv A\p-{K-ln-p-If - b
- msX Ccp-Xv Fp-sImv?
Cs\ ]hn{Xmmhn-s\-p-dnp hnNm-cn--Xnepw ssZh-e--W-
an-sp sXfn-hm-bn-cn-p-p.

digitized by www.sreyas.in
73

ss{XyIXzw
Cu hmIyw ss__n-fn-en-. ]nXmhv Fp ]d-bs - -Sp btlm-
hmsb ssZh-sap ]d-bp-X
-
- msX Hcn-Ss
- -nepw {InkvXp-hns\
ssZhw Fp ]d-bp-n-. ]nXmhv ]p{X ]hn-{Xm-mhv Fp
aqp \mafpw Hcp-anv ss__n-fn Fgp-Xn-bn-cn-p hmIy-
aqpw aqp-X-s-bm-Wv.
Hm-aXv (tbm-l-m 5-A. 7 hm.) ]c-tem-I-n kmyw
]d-bp--h aqh-cp-v. Bm-hv, Pew, cw Ch aqpw Hn-
te-m-Ip-p.
cm-aXv (a-mbn 28--A. 19--hm.) ]nXm-hv, ]p{X, ]hn-{Xm-
m-hv Ch-cpsS \ma-n kv\m\-s-Sp-p-I.
aqm-aXv (sImcn-n-b 13--A. 14--hm.) Im-hmb tbip-
{In-kvXp-hns Ir]bpw ssZh-ns kvt\lhpw ]cn-ip-m-m-
hns Iqm-bvabpw \n-sf-m-h-tcm-Spw-IqSn Ccn-q-Xm-I. Ch-bn
BZys hmIyw Xan-gnepw Cwo-jn-ep-ap ss__n-fn am{X-a-
msX CXp-Ip aqe-amb {Kop-`m-j-bn-ep ss__n-fn C.
]- ] mXw IqSmsX \ymbs am{Xw kzoI- c n- phcmb
Hmtcmtcm bqtdm-]y-{In-kvXy-m-cp-t]mepw Cu hmIyw ss__n-fn
hymP-am-bn-mWv tNn-cn-p-Xv Fp-Iv AXns\ \on--
f-p. BI-bm AXn-s\-n Ku\n-p-Xv A\m-h-iy-am-Ip-p.
cm-as hmIy-n ]nXm-hv, ]p{X, ]hn-{Xm-mhv Cu aqn-
t\bpw Hsp ]d-bp-ptm? C Hmtcm-ns\ {]tXyIw {]tXy-
I-sa-nepw ssZh-sap ]d-bp-ptm? AXp-an-. aqpw Xpey-am-
sWp ]d-bp-ptm? A-s\bpw C. B aqn-t\bpw hn-
p- - X n\p ]d- b p- ptm? AXp- a n- . C{]- I mcw Hstm
shtsd ssZh-satm Xpey-satm hy-satm ]d-bm-Xn-cn-p
nXnv B aqn-t\bpw F-s\-bmWv \n- ssZh-e--W-
n Ds-Spn ss{XyI-Xz-amn kzoI-cn-p--Xv.

digitized by www.sreyas.in
74 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

aqm-aXp hmIy-n thsd ssZh-satm aqpw Xpey-


satm Hstm hy-satm ]d-n-n-. Fp-X-s-bp-am
ss{XyI-Xzs \ntj-[n-p-I-bpw-IqSn sNp-p-v. Fs\
Fm ]nXm-hv, ]p{X, ]hn-{Xm-mhv Fp ]d-bmsX ssZhw,
]p{X, ]hn-{Xm-mhv Fp ]d-n-cn-p-p. BI-bm B aqp-
t]-cn Hcp- ssZh-sapw ap cp-t]cpw ssZh-as- pw sXfn-
hm-Ipp ssZh-a-m--Xn-\m {InkvXp ss{XyI-Xz-n tN-
h-\-. (Sn. hnj-b--sf-n hnh-c-ambn Adn-b-W-sa-p--h
1827-mw hjw AIvtSm_ amkw 28-\v sdh-dv slv dnhb
F ]mXn-cn-bm sN-s D]-\ym-ks t\mpI.) C\n CXn-
s\-n ]nXmhv {InkvXp Ch-cpsS A`n-{]m-b--sfbpw ss__n-fm-
Nm-cy-m-cpsS A`n-{]m-b
- s
- fbpw ImWnp ss{XyIXzw Xosc Cm-
-Xm-sWpw m]n-p-p-v.
(]p-d-mSp ]pkvXIw 8-A. 3-hm.) Fs apmsI A\y-ssZ-
h-- \n\-p-m-I-cpXv (B-h-\-]p-kvXIw 32--A. 39--hm.)
Rm, RmXs Ah-\m-Ip-p. Ftm-Sp-IqSn ap ssZh-an-.
(b-imbm 4, 5 A. 5 apX 8 hsc hm.)
Rm btlm-h-bm-Ip-p. asm-cp--\p-an-m. Rm\-msX
asmcp ssZhhp-an. Rm btlm-hm-bm-Ip-p. (]p-d - m-Sp-]p-kvXIw
3-A. 15--hm.) Ccn-p--h-\mb Rm\n-cn-p-p. (a-mbn 22A;
31, 32 h) A{_-lm-ans ssZhhpw Ck-lm-ns ssZhhpw
bmtm-_ns ssZhhpw Bb btlmhm CXv Ftpw Fs
\mahpw CXp Xe-ap-d-bmbn Fs Hm {]kvXm-h-hp-am-Ip-p.
ta ]d-b-s hnj-b-s-n tbip k-Xn-p-sIm-p--Xns\
t\mp-hn. Rm A{_-lm-ans ssZhhpw BIpp Fv Ah
]d-n-cn-p--Xns\ \n hmbn-n--tbm. (a-mbn 19--A. 17--
hm). Hcp-h tbip-hns\ \-h-s\p ]d--tm tbip Ah-
t\m-Sm-bnv Fs \-h-s\p ]d-bp-Xv Fv? ssZhw Hcp-h-
s\m-gnsI \-h-s\m-cp--\p-an-. (atmkv 12--A. 32--hm.) Hcp-
h Hcp ssZhta Dq Ah-s\m-gnsI am-cp-an Fp ]d--
tm tbip icn-Xs Fv k-Xn-p. (tbm-l-m 14--A. 28--
hm.) ]nXmhv Ft-m- hen-b-h-\m-Ipp Fv tbip ]d-bpp.
(A-tm-kvXe - 2-A. 22-h
- m.) tbip-{In-kvXp-hmb a\p-jys\ ssZhw
k-Xn-p. Cwojv ss__n-fn t\mpI (1 sImcnn. 11 A.
3hm.) a\p-jy\pw {InkvXp-hn\pw F{X-tmfw hyXym-k-aptm

digitized by www.sreyas.in
ss{XyIXzw 75

A{X-tmfw hyXymkw ssZh-n\pw {InkvXp-hn\pw Xn-ep-s-


p A-n CXm kI-e-]p-cp-j\pw Xe {InkvXp-hm-Ipp
{InkvXp-hn\p Xe ssZh-sapw; Cs\ ]d-p-t]m-bm A[n-
I-hn-kvXm-c-am-Ip-sap IcpXn C\n t] Aymbw hN\w Chsb
am{Xw ImWn-pp (]p-d-mSv ]pkvXIw 3-A. 14, 15--hm., Sn. 20--
A. 3-hm., Bh-\-]p-kvXIw 4-A. 39--hm., Sn 6-A. 4-hm., Sn.
32--A. 39--hm., Sn. 5-A. 7-hm., imap-th 7-A. 22--hm., 2 cmPm--
m 19--A. 19--hm., s\sl-anbm 9-A. 6-hm., ko\w 83--A.
18--hm, Sn. 36--A. 10--hm., sbimbm 37--A. 16--hm., Sn. 37--A. 27--hm.,
Sn. 40--A. 25--hm., Sn. 41--A. 4-hm., Sn. 42--A. 8-hm., Sn 44--A. 68--
hm., Sn. 45--A. 5, 6-hm., Sn. 45--A. 18, 21, 22--hm., Sn. 43--A. 10, 11, 14,
15--hm., Hminbm 13--A. 4-hm., tbmsh. 2-A. 27--hm., ambn 19--
A. 17--hm, Sn 7-A. 21--hm, Sn12 A. 32-34 hm; Sn. 20--A. 23--hm.,
ambn 26--A. 39--hm., Sn. 5-A. 42--hm., tbml-m-17 A3 hm,
Sn 4-A. 34 hm. Sn 5-A-. 38 hm. Sn. 6-A. 37--hm., Sn. 20--A. 17--hm.,
Sn. 14--A. 28--hm., atmkv 13--A. 42--hm., atm: 11--A. 20-hm.
Sn 22--A. 29--hm, tdma 17--A. 27--hm, Sn. 10--A. 9-hm., Sn. 4-A. 24-
-hm., 1 sImcn-n-b 8-A. 6-hm., Sn. 1-A. 6-hm., Sn. 11--A. 3-hm.,
2 sImcn-n-b 8-A. 3-hm., 1 Xntam-sY-bqkv 1-A. 17--hm., Sn. 24--
A. 5-hm., Sn. 6-A. 15, 16--hm., Kem-Xy-m 3-A. 20--hm, Fn-ko-
b 4-A. 6hm; Sn. 1-A. 17--hm., bmtm_v 2-A. 19--hm. shfn-
mSv 15--A. 34--hm. sImtem-kn-b 1-A. 3-hm.
Cu hmIy--fm ss__n{]-Im-cw-Xs ss{XyI-Xz-an-
sp \n-b-am-Ip-p. C\n-sb-nepw ss{XyI-Xz-sa hmns\
\n ad-p-I-f-hn.
BI-s, Fnepw Cu hmIyw D-Xm-bn-p-Xs \ncq-]n-mepw
BbXp icn-bm-bn-Sptam Fp t\mmw. ss{XyIXzw F ]Z-
n\p aqv Hmhpw Fp-Xv Fm-Ipp Aw. aqv Hm-
-Ip-sa-n aqm-bn-n-cns Hm-Iptm? B aqpw \inv Hm-
Iptm? aqpw aqm-bn-n-cpv Hm-Ip-p Fn aqv aqm-bn-
p-Xs Ccp-m asm-m-Ip--sX-s\? BbXv Hcn-epw icn-
bm-I-bn-. aqp amX-f-gw aqm-bnp Xs Ccn-sh Ah Hcp
]g-am-Iptam? C-tm. AXn-\m aqp aqm-bn-n-cn--bn Hm-
Ip-sa-p ]w bp-a-. aqp \inv Hm-Ip-sa-n B
aqs-p-Xv Cm-sX-t]m-Ip-a-tm. Am-sXbpw aqv Hv Ch-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
76 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

bn ImcWw GXv? Imcyw GXv? ap]v Cm-Xn-cpv Dm-Ip--


Xm-Ipp Imcyw. BI-bm ap]v Cm-Xn-cp-p-mb Hp Imcy-
am-Ipw. Imcy-n\p \nb-X-ambn ap\n-ev]Xp Imc-W-am-I-bm
Imcy-amb Hns\ \nb-X-ambn ap\nv aqp Imc-W-am-Ipw. Imc-
W-amb aqv Hm-Ip-tm B aqs-p-Xv \in-p--Xn-\m
Imc-W-an-msX t]mIp-p.
C{]-Imcw D]-ta-b-tbpw t\mn--m ]nXmhv ]p{X
]hn-{Xm-mhv Cu aqp-t]cpw \in-p-t]m-Ipw. Cu aqpw \in-
mepw Ch-bm-ep-m-Ip Hs-nepw \ne-\n-bn-tbm?
Fm AXpw \in-p-t]m-Ipw. Fp-sIm-s-m Imcyw \iz-
c-am-Ipp Fn-cn--bm-e-s{X. AXn-\m ]nXmhv, ]p{X, ]hn-
{Xm-mhv Cu Imc-W-amb aqn-t\m-Spw-IqSn Imcy-amb Hv \in-
p-sa-p-Xp \n-b-am-Ip-p.
C\nbpw aqv Hm-Ip-sa-p--Xn ]nsbpw Hcp tZmj-an-
cn-p-p. AXm-bXv aqn\pw hnIm-c-Xz-ap-m-I-em-Ip-p. aqn\pw
{XnXzw \inv hnIm-cs {]m]n-msX Hm-I-bn-. C{]-Imcw
]nXm-hv, ]p{X, ]hn-{Xm-mhv F apsm-cp-fn\pw hnImcw
IqSmsX Hm-Im Ign-I-bn-.
C\n Hp aqm-Ip-sa-n Hv Hm-bn-cp-p-sImv aqm-
Iptm? Hp \inv aqm-Iptm? Hm-bn-cp-p-sImv aqm-
Ip-sa-n BbXv ]mSp--X-. Hcp amX-f-gw Hm-bn-p-Xs apgp-
h-\p-an-cns BbXv aqp ]g-am-Ip--sX-s\? BI-bm Hv
Hm-bn-cp-p-sImv aqm-Ip-sa-p--]w tOZn--s-p-t]m-Ip-
p. Hv aqv Ch-bn Hv Imc-Whpw aqv Imcy-hp-am-Wv. Fp-
X-s-bp-a ImcWw \inv Imcy-am-Ibpw sNp-p. C{]-Imcw
D]-ta-bs t\mn-bm GI-amb ssZhw \inv ]nXm-hv, ]p{X,
]hn-{Xm-mhv F aqp t]cmbn `hn-p-p. Imcyw \iz-c-am-bn-
p--Xm-Ip-p. Fn-cn--bm Imcy--fmb Sn. ]nXm-hv, ]p{X,
]hn-{Xm-mhv Cu aqp t]cpw \in-p-t]m-I
- - h
- c
- m-Ip-p Fp
\n-b-am-Ip-p.
C\n Sn.- aq-p-t]cpw {]tXyIw {]tXyIw D-hXs Fp
hcn-Inepw Xpey-i--m-c-I-bm Hcp-Xs Fp ]d-bmw,
Fn Nne KpW--sf-smv Xpey-m-cmI-bm a\p-jy-sc-m-
h-tcbpw Hcp- Fp ]d-tb--Xm-Wv. a\p-jy-cn Nne KpWw

digitized by www.sreyas.in
ss{XyIXzw 77

icn-bm-bnpw Nne KpWw icn-bn-Sm-sXbpw Ccn-b


- m Hcp-s- \p
]d-p-Iq-Sm. Sn. aqp-t]-cpsS ASp-epw Aev]hpw t`Zw IqSmsX
Fm KpW-fpw icn-bm-bn-n-cn--bm Ahsc Hcp-h Fp ]d-
bm-sa-n aqp shn-cq-]m-I Aev]hpw t`Zw IqSmsX Hn-
cp-npw Ahsb Hcp-cq]m Fp ]d-p-Iq-Sm--Xp-t]mse Sn.
aqp-t]cpw Xpey-m-cmbncpmepw Hcp- Fp ]d-p-Iq-Sm.
Am-sXbpw B aqpt]cpw {Inb-sImpw Ime-tZ-i-Kp-W--sf-
smpw Xpey-m-cm-sWp ]d-bp--Xn\v CS-bn-. ]nXmhv
temIs krjvSn-p. a\p-jysc ]m]n-I-fm-n. Hgn-hp-\m-fn the
sNbvX Hcp-s\ Is-dnp sImp--Xn\p I]n-p. hr-t-
Z\w sNm Hcp-s\ Hfn-n-cpp sImp-hm t\mn. CuPn-
]vXy-m-tcmSp sIm-sN-bvhm ]dv ]p-I-ev]-\sb sImSp-
p. krjvSn-p-ap-n-cpp tbip-hns CS-p-`m-K-n-cpp
_ensb kzoI-cn-p. C\nbpw C{]-Im-c-ap At\-I-Im-cy-sf
sNbvXp. tbip cmPy-t{Zm-lhpw ssZh-t{Zm-lhpw sNbvXp. Fpw
sNmn Ipcn-in Xdp sIm-sv ]nXm-hns he-p-`m-K-n-
cpp.
C\n ]hn-{Xm-mhv adn-b-n {]th-inv tbip-hmbn `hnp
{]mhn-s\-tmse `qan-bn-tep hp. CXn-\m aqp-t]cpw Hcp-
t]m-se-bp--h-c-sp sXfn-hm-Ip-p.
Hcp hkvXp cv As-n aqm-I-sbpw aqv As-n
cp hkvXp- Hm-I-sb-p-ap-Xv A]-cn-]q-h-kvXp-hn
Am ]cn-]q-hk - vXp-hn kwL-Sn-b- n-. Pew \nd tae-
S-n Hcp ]m{X-n-\-Iv Pew cpw aqpw BsI-sb-p-Xp
tNcptam? Hcp hkvXp cm-bnv ]ncn-b-W-sa-n AXn\p thsd
ew thn-h-cp-p. CS-hn-SmsX Fpw \nd-n-cp-m ]ncn-
hp-m-Im ]mSn-. ]ncn-bpw IqSp-Ibpw sNp--h-sbmw hnIm-
c-tm-Sp-Iq-Snb PU-h-kvXp- Bbn-cn--Ww. AmsX ]cn-
]q-amb Hp ]e-Xm-Ibpw ]e-sXm-m-Ibpw sNbvIs - b-p-Xv
tNcp-Ib- n-m. C{]-Imcw ]nXm-hv, kpX, ]hn-{Xm-mhv Cu aqhcpw
Hcp-h\
- m-sWpw Hcp-h B aqh-cm-Ipp Fpw ]d-bp-Xp tZmj-
am-bnp Xocpw.
C\n thsd Hcp {]Im-c-n Sn. aqp-t]-cn cp-t]sc
FSpp t\mmw. BbXp icn-s-m AXn-s\-s aqp
t]pw hp-sIm-mw.

digitized by www.sreyas.in
78 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

]m sXcm-Ip-X - p-t]mse ]nXmhv ]p{X-\m-bn-cn-p-p. CXn


1
]q-Xz-tZm-j-an Fn CXp, ImcWw \inp Imcy-am-Ip
]cn-Wm-a-hm-Z-a-s{X. ]mep-Xs ssXcm-Ipp Fp--Xn ]m
\in-mWv ssXcm-Ip--Xv. C{]-Imcw D]-ta-b-tbpw t\mn-bm
]nXmhv \inp ]p{X-\m-IW - w. Atm ]nXmhv ]c-aW - vUe- - nepw
]p{X `qan-bnepw Ccpp FXv A_--am-bn-tm-Ipw. Fs-
m ssXcm-bnp `hn ]mepw B ssXcpw Xn ]ncnp
thsd2 e--fn Ccn--bn-s-p--Xp-sIm-s-s{X. BI-bm
]nXmhpw ]p{X\pw Xn ]ncnp cp ev Ccp--Xmbn
ImWp-I-sImv 3oc-Z-[n-Zr-jvSmw LSn--bn-. Cu oc-Zr-
jvSmw ]d-bp--Xn-en-\n-bp-samcp tZmjw Ccn-p-p. AXm-b-Xv,
]mep \inv ssXcm-Ip-p. A\-cw B ssXcpw ssXcm-bn-p-X-
s-bn-cn-msX BbXp \inv asm-m-Ipw. B asmp \inv
thsdm-m-Ipw. C{]-Imcw Hcp \ne-bn-msX s]mbvtm-Ip-sa-m-
Ip-p. CXp-t]m-se-Xs ]nXmhv \inv tbip-hmbn tbip \inv
asm-cp--\mbn Ah\pw \inv thsdm-cp--\mbn Cs\ Afhv
ISp s]mbvt]m-Ipw. Cu nXnv Xmew ]nXm-hp-anm
tbip-hp-an-m. Ctm Ccn-p--h C-h-s\v Adn-bm\pw
]mSn. Hcp-thf Adn-bp-sav shp-sIm-mepw Bb-hXs
C\n-taepw Ccn-p-sap \n-bn-m\pw CS-bn-. Am-sXbpw Gh-
s\-nepw Hcp-h Ctm- D-Xm-bnp \ncq-]n--s-Sp-In
AhXs ]c-a-WvU-e-n Ccn-p--h-s\p hc-Ww. B
nXnv Ctmgpw ]nXmhpw ]p{X\pw Ccn-pp Fp ]d-bp-
Xv ss__n-fn\v hntcm-[-ambn `hn-pw. ss__n-fns\ hntcm-[-
ambn \n-bn-p--hsc {InkvXy-m-scp ]dpw IqSm. Ccn-
-s, ]mep apgp-h\pw \inp ssXcm-Ip--Xp-t]m-se-b ]men
\np Iptd `mKw \inv ssXcm-Ip--Xmbn `mhn-p-sImv A{]-
Im-cw-Xs ]nXm-hn Ipsd `mKw \inv ]p{X\m-Ipp Fp
\n-bn-m-a-tm. Fn \njvI-f-\pw \nn-Im-c-\p-amb ssZh-
n\p Iptd-`m-K-sa-nepw Ifw `hn-m ta]-d \njvI-f-
m-Zn-\m-a
- tNcm-h - b- m-bn-o-cpw. Am-sXbpw If-s - `mK-
sam-gnp If--am-bn-cn-ptam? Fm AXp-an-. Fp Imc-W-
m Hcn- Iptd `mKw If--s-pthm B Imc-W-m
s asm-cn- at `mK-hpw, IS-in-bn (A-h-km-\w) at
`mK-sa-nepw Hcp-thf Ww-sImv apgp-h\pw If--s-p-t]m-Ipw.
If-s - v hnIm-cs {]m]n-m-Xn-cp-mepw kmh-Im-i - n A{]-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
ss{XyIXzw 79

Im-c-am-bn-tm-Ip-sa-p--Xn-tep kt-l-an-m. ]nXm-hns Imew


C{X-tmfw Fp KWn-p-X - n-tev Hcp-c - mepw Ign-Ib
- n-sv
\n Xs k-Xn--sImv CXn\p apns ]nXmhv
If--sp \in-p-t]m-bn-cn--Ww. ]mep \inp ssXcm-bm
hopw ]mem-I-bn-. AXp-t]mse ]nXmhp \inp ]p{X-\m-bm
4
adp-]-Snbpw (ap-t-tm-se) ]nXm-hm-I-bn-. Cu nXnv ]nXmhv
Ctmgpw Ccn-pp Fp ]d-bp-Xp I-am-bn-tm-Ipw. C\n
thsd Hcp-hn-[-n t\mmw. ap IpS-am-Ip--Xp-t]mse ]nXmhv
]p{X-\m-Ip-p. CXn ap \in-msX IpS-am-Ip--sXm-v, IpSw
aS-nbpw (Xn-cn-pw) am-Ip--sXm-v. C{]-Imcw ]nXmhp \in-
msX ]p{X-\m-Ip--sXmv. ]p{X aS-nbpw ]nXm-hm-Ip--
sXmv, arn-Ibpw LS-hpw-t]mse ]nXmhp ]p{X Cu cp-
t]cpw Hcp--\m-Ipp Fn apw IpShpw shtsd Am Htc
hkv X p- h - t {X. ]nXmhpw ]p{X\pw A- s \- b thsd thsd
BWtm. av Hcp epw IpSw asmcp epw Ccn-p-
I- b n- . ]nXmhv Hcp epw ]p{X ({In- k v X p) asmcp
epw AXm-bXv ]c-a-WvU-e-nepw `qan-bnepw Ccpp Fp
ss__n ]d-bp-p. BI-bm arXvL-S-Zr-jvSmw tN-bp--
X-. am-Is 5Iw_p-{Ko-hm-Zn-hn-Im-c-sf (Ipw-_p-{Ko-hm-Zn--C-Sp-
nb Igpv XpS-n-b) {]m]nv IpS-am-Ip-p. A{]-Imcw ]nXm-
hmb btlm-hmbpw hnIm-c-sp ]p{X-\m-sbpw ]d-tb--Xm-Wv.
ans hnIm-c - n-\t{X IpS-sap t]. AXp-t]mse tbip F
\mahpw ]nXm-hns hnIm-c - n-\pXmsWp hp-t]m-Ipw. Am-
sX-bpw, apw IpS-hpw-t]mse A`n-a - m-bnp ]d-bp-X- n C\nbpw
tZmj--fn-cn-p-p. tbip app-apSn [cn-p. ]nXmhpw [cntm?
tbip Ipcn-in Xqn acn-p. ]nXmhpw As\ acntm? tbip
\ne-hn-fn-p. ]nXmhpw \ne-hn-fntm? tbip ]nXm-hns\ t\mn
Fs Fp-sImv ssIhnp Fp ]dp \ne-hn-fn-p. ]nXmhpw
Xs ]nXm-hns\ t\mn A{]-Imcw \ne-hn-fnp ]dtm? A{]-
Imcw hnfnp ]dp Fn B ]nXm-hns ]nXm-hm-bnp thsdm-
cp--\pw Ahs ]nXm-hm-bnv asm-cp-\pw Ccn--Ww. Cs\
6
A\-hmtZmjw Dm-Ipw. tbip ssZhhpw a\p-jy\pw Bbn-
cp-p. ]nXmhpw A{]-Im-c-am-bn-cptm? tbip adn-b-ns DZ-c-
n P\np. ]nXmhpw A{]-Imcw P\ntm? ]nXmhv ]p{X Cu
cp-t]cpw ]c-a-WvU-e-n he-Xp-h-ipw CS-Xp-h-i-p-am-bnv
Ccn-pp Fp ]d-bp--Xn he-Xp-`m-K-n-cn-p--h CS-Xp-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
80 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

`m-Kpw CS-Xp-`m-Kv Ccn-p--h he-Xp-`m-Kpw C. CXp-


t]mse apw IpShpw shtsd m\--fn Ccn-p-ptm?
Imc-Wa- mb an\npw IpSs Dm-p-X - n\v Ipi-h thW-
sa-p-X- p-t]mse Imc-Wa- mb ]nXm-hn\npw tbip-hns\ Dm-
p--Xn-tev Hcp- thWw. Ah B? Ahs\ krjvSn--
h Gh? C{]-Imcw At\-I-tZm-j- t\cn-Sp--Xp-sImpw
arXvL-S-Zr-jvSmw tNcp-I-bn-.
C\n _nw_-{]-Xn-_nw-_-Zr-jvSmw t\mmw. kqcy-\m-b-
_nw_w Pe-n {]Xn-_nw-_n-p-X - p-t]mse ]nXm-hmb _nw_w
{]Xn-_nw-_nv tbip-hm-bn-op. CXnepw tZmjw Cm-Xn-cn-p-
n-. ]nXm-hns m\v kqcy\pw tbip-hns m\v {]Xn-
_nw-_-kq-cy\pw BIp-p. Ch-bn kqcy D hkvXp. A{]-
Im-cw-Xs ]nXmhv D-h\pw tbip Cm--h\pw tXm
am{Xhpw Fp-h-c-Ww, Atm tbip P\np Ipcn-in Xqn
acnv Ap-X-sf sNbvXv kz-n-en-cn-pp; \ymb-hn-[nv
hcp-sapw apw CXp-t]m-se-bp At-l-ns Ncn-{X-
Ati-jhpw Cm--h-Im-fmsWp Xo-bm-Ipw. tbip Cm--
h-s\p hcp-tm 7X-cn-{X- t\cm-Iptam? Ncn-{X- I-
sap hcp-tm ss__nam{Xw kXy-am-Iptam? Cu _nw_-{]-
Xn-_nw-_Z- r-jvSm-
- ns C\nbpw Hcp tZmj-an-cn-p-p. Cu
ZrjvSmw A]-cn-]q hkvXp-hn-e-msX ]cn-]q-h-kvXp-hn
tNcp-I-bn-. kqcy BIm-ip \np-p. Pew Xmgpw Ccn-
p-p. kqcy Ccn-p-n-Sv Pehpw Pew Ccn-p-n-Sv
kqcy\pw C. Bb-Xp-sImv kqcy {]Xn-_nw-_n-p-p. kqcy
CS-hn-SmsX Fpw ]cn-]q-\m-bn-cp-p-sh-n Pew Ccn-p--
Xn\p e-hp-an-. Atm {]Xn_nw_-ap-m-Ib - n-. \n ]nXm-
hns\ ]cn-]q-s\p ]d-bp-p-ap-v. B nXnv ]nXm-hns
{]Xn-_nw-_-amWv tbip Fp ]d-bp-Xv Hcn-epw icn-bm-bn-
pX.
C\n thsd Hcp D]-am\w ]d-p-t\m-mw. AXm-bXv cp-
hn khpw Im\-en Pe-hpw-t]m-se-bm-Ip-p. CXn D]-tabw
Ib-dns m\v ]nXmhpw ]mns m\v tbiphpw BIp-
p. C\n CXn-ep tZmjw F-s\-sb-m, Ib-dn ]mpw
Im\-en Pehpw Fs\ anYy-tbm, Fs\ kev]w am{X-am-
bn-n-cn-ptm (A--s\) Ib-dn-t\bpw Im\-en-t\bpw Hgnp

digitized by www.sreyas.in
ss{XyIXzw 81

khpw Pehpw F-s\-bn-tbm A{]-Imcw Xs tbiphpw


anym-`q-X-\pw, ]nXm-hns\ Hgnp thsd Cm--h\pw BIp-p.
Ib-dn ab-w-tl-Xp-hm-bnp ImW-s-Sp ]mpw Im\-en
tXmp Pehpw Hcp kv{XobpsS DZ-c-n sNp P\n-ptam?
8
Nn-U-I--fn-se-ns\ (Nn-Xv, PU-hkvXp Fn-h-bpsS
I-) Fnepw sNptam? C-tm. CXp ipta \pW-X-
s-bm-Wv. A{]-Im-cw-Xs tbip Fsm-cm Dm-bn-cp-spw
At\-I-Im-cy-sf sNbvXp-shpw ]d-bp-Xp I-am-bn-o-cpw.
Ib-dn tXmp ]mn-s\bpw Im\-en tXmp Pe-tbpw
t]mse-bm-sWp ]d-tp ]ns tbip Fsm-cm hmkvX-
h-am-bn-p-m-bn-cpp Fv Bsc-nepw ]d-bptam? Cu nXn-bn-
ep Hcm-sf-p-dnv Hcp aXhpw thW-sa-ptm? D-]w B
aXs _pn-am-m A\p-k-cn--W-sapw AXns\ kXy-am-bn-
p--Xm-sWpw imkv{X--m-cm-bn-cn-p ]WvUn-X-m-cpsS
apmsI {]kw-Kn--W-sa-pw-Iq-Sn-bptm? IjvSw! IjvSw!
]nXm- h v , ]p{X, Bmhv Cu aqp- t ]cpw Hm- s W-
pXntev C\nbpw Hcp ZrjvSmw ]d-bp-p. AXm-bXv (kq-
cy) {]Im-iw, hw, DjvWw Cu aqpw Hm-bn-cn-p--Xp-
t]mse Cu aqp-t]cpw Hcp-hXs Fm-Ip-p. CXp-sImv
Hmtcm ]Zm-pw CXp-t]m-se-Xs ssZzI-Xzw, ss{XyI-
Xzw, NXp-ssc-I-Xzw, ]ss-I-Xzw, jssU-IXzw, AjvssS-IXzw
apX-emb At\I GI-Xz- ]d-tb-n-h-cpw. ]rYn-hnp ITn-\-
KpWw Ccn--sImv GssI-I-Xz-sapw B ]rYn-hn-p-Xs ITn-
\-tm-Sp-IqSn Kw, ckw, cq]w, kv]iw, i_vZw, hw, PU-
Xzw, {]Imiw As-n A{]-Imiw; DjvWw As-n ioXw
Ch-Ifpw Ccn--bm {Ia-n\p ssZzI-Xzw, ss{XyI-Xzw, NXp-
ssc-IXzw, ]ss-I-Xzw, jssU-I-Xzw, k]vssX-I-Xzw, AjvssS-
I-Xzw, \ssh-I-Xzw, Zssi-IXzw Fpw Cs\ KpW- ]e-
Xm-bn-cn--bm Hmtcm hkvXp-hn\v Hp apX At\-ssI-IXzw
]d-tb--Xmbn hcpw. kqcy\p \n ({In-kvXy-m) ]d-bp--{]-
Im-cw {]Im-iw, \ndw, DjvWw Cu aqp KpW-- am{X-a
kv]iw, PUw, Zqcw, hrw, Af-hv, BIr-Xn-hn-tijw apX-emb
KpW-fpw Ccn-p-p. ]nXm-hv, ]p{X, Bmhv Ch aqp-
t]cpw KpW--fm-sW-n AXn\p 9KpWn (Kp-W-ap--h) GXv?
B KpWnv Cu KpW- `n--tfm, A`n--tfm? KpWnv

digitized by www.sreyas.in
82 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

KpW- A`n- - f
- m-sWv DXv Bpw A\p-`h - a
- t- {X. KpW-
-fm-bh KpWn-tbmSp ths]v X\nv {]hn-ptam? DZ-c - n
sNp P\nv Ax-I-c-W--_-ln-jv-c-W--tfm-Sp-IqSn a\p-jym-
IrXn FSpv Dp-Spv hmgvv Nncnp Icv acn-ptam? CXp
Xosc tN-bn-m--Xm-I-bm CsbvXnI-tfm-Sp-Iq-Snb ]nXm-hv,
]p{X, Bmhv Cu aqhcpw KpW- Fp ]d-bp-Xp icn-b-
m--Xm-Ip-p.
C\n Nne lkvX-I-c-]mWn F-t]mse Hsp ]d-bp-p.
CXv Hcp hkvXp-hn-\p-Xs aqp \ma--fm-Wv. Cs\ Hcp-h\p
Xs ]nXm-hv, ]p{X, Bmhv Fp aqp\ma--fm-bn-cn-
tXmWv. A-s\-bm-Ip-tm ]nXmhv Hcp epw ]p{X
thsdmcp epw Bmhv asm-cn-Spw Ccp-p-Iq-Sm. Hcp
ev lkvXhpw Hcp ev Ichpw Hcp ev ]mWnbpw
thsd thsd-bn-cn-p-ptm? C-tm. AXp-sImv Cu D]-am-
\hpw tNcp-n-.
a\p-jy Hcp-Xs Poh\pw tZlhpw Fp cpw Bbn-
cn-p-p. AXp-t]mse Hcp- aqp t]cm-bn-cn-p-sap ]d-bp-
p Fn \n FSp-p-sIm-p-h-cp 9ZrjvSm--n\p
]d 10ZmjvSm-nIw tNcp-I-bn-. 11\nt-W, tNX-\-Xzw,
AtN-X-\-Xzw, cq]w, Acq-]w, hym]-I-Xzw, hym]y-Xzw, 12t{]c-I-Xzw,
13
t{]cy-Xzw, A\--Xzw, AXzw apX-emb [--fn (F-m-
nepw IqSn) Ds-Sm kz`m-h-ap Poh\pw tZlhpw cpw
Hm-bn-tv Hcp- BIp-sa-pXv Xs tNX-\Xzw tNcpw.
AmsX X\ntb hym]-IX - zw, t{]c-IX
- zw, \nXyXzw apX-emb [-
-sf-smp Xpey-kz-`m-h- D-h-cmb ]nXm, ]p{X, ]hn-
{Xmm Fp-t]-cp aqp-t]cpw Hcp--\m-Ipp Fp-Xpw
Cu ZrjvSm-w-sImp knn--s-n-. Am-sXbpw ([--
sf-smv Xpey-`m-h- Am-sX-bpw) Poh-t\bpw tZl-tbpw
H-n-n-cn-p-tm-g-msX aqp-t]cpw {]tXyIw {]tXyIw ssZh-
sap ]d-b-s-Sp--Xp-t]mse thsd thsd a\p-jy Fp ]d-
bp-Xv tNcm--Xm-bnt `hn-q. taepw kpX ]mSp-s]--tm
]nXmhpw At-l-ns\ hnp-]n-cn-p Fp ]d-n-cn--sIm-
pXs Ahcp cp-t]cpw Xpey-m-c-sp sXfn-hm-bn-cn-pp.
tbip kv\m\w sNbvX-tm ]c-a-WvU-e-n\npw ]hn-
{Xm-mhv At-l-ns ASp-p-h-tc--Xm-bn-cp--Xp-sImpw

digitized by www.sreyas.in
ss{XyIXzw 83

Xs injy-msc t\mn-smp Rm hm\-tem-I-tp


t]mbmemsX \nv ]hn-{Xm-m-hn-s\bpw Ab-p-X-cp--Xn-
tev CS-bnm Fp ]d-n-cn--sImpw Ah cp-t]cpw
Hcp--\m Fpw, CXn-\p-ap-n {InkvXp Ncn-X-n sXfn-
hmbn ImWn-n-cn-p--Xp-t]m-se-Xs {InkvXp hm\-tem-I-amb
]nXm-hns ASp- t]mbnm Fp-Xv kXy-am-I-sImpw,
{InkvXy-m-cmb injy-mpw \npw {InkvXp Ap-t]m-
bm-e-msX hcm CS-bn-spw ]d-b-s-n-cn-p ]hn-{Xm-mhv
hn-n-spw B nXnv \n-fpsS A`n-{]m-b--sfmw Zpcn-
X-Im-cW
- - f
- m-bn-cn-t-bpq Fpw \cIn t]mbm Xncnp
Itc--an-s-p-Xpw AXn-\m ]mXm-f-n t]mb {InkvXp-
hn\pw aSn Itc-hpw hm\-tem-I-{]-th-ihpw Cm--Xpw-sImv
\nv C\n taepw Hcp-Im-epw ]hn-{Xm-mhv hcn-I-bn-sv
Duln-mt\ amw ImWp-p-q. Bb-Xp-sImpw ]nXm-hv,
]p{X, ]hn-{Xm-mhv Cu aqp-t]cpw Hcp-h\
- m-sWp ]d-bp-Xp
tNcp-I-bn-.
Cs\ ss{XyI-Xz-s-p-dnp hnNm-cn--Xnepw ssZh-e--
W-an-sp km[n--s-n-cn-p-p.

Ipdn-p-I
1. ]m ssXcm-Ip--Xv, ]mens KpW-p amw-kw-`-hnv ssXcns
hnIm-c- kzoI-cn-p-sIm-p ]q-am--am-Wv. AhnsS ]mep \in-
mWv ssXcm-Ip--Xv. ]mep ssXcm-b-tijw ]mepw ssXcpw Hp-X-s-
bmWv Fp-hm-Zn-p--Xv, cn\pw At`Zw Iev]n-p--Xv, ]q-Xz-tZm-
j-am-Wv.
2. ]mep ssXcm-bm ]ns Ht Dp, ssXcp-am-{Xw. cp--ev
]mepw ssXcp-am-bn-n-cn-m kmy-a-.
3. oc-Z-[n-Zr-jvSmw ]memWv ssXcm-bnp amdn-b-Xv F-t]mse
]nXmhp ]p{X-\mbn FXv
4. adp-]-Snbpw = hopw (X-an-gv)
5. iwJns Igpv CSp-n-bn-cn-p--Xp-t]mse CSp-n-bm-Wsm IpS-
ns Igpv BImcw {]m]n-p--Xv, AYhm cq]w-sIm-p--Xv.
6. A\-h-m-tZmjw = Imcy-p kp\n-n-X-Xz-an F tZmjw
7. X-cn-{X- = At-l-ns Ncn-{X-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
84 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

8. Nn-U-I- = NnXv, PU-hkvXp Fn-h-bpsS I-


9. KpWn = KpW-ap--h
10. ChnsS ZrjvSmw Poh\pw tZl-hp-am-Wv. ZmjvSm-n-Iw--]n-Xm-hv ]p{X
]cn-ip-m-m-hv. Poh\pw tZlhpw tN Hns\ Hcm-sfp ]d-bp-p.
AXp-t]mse ]nXmhv ]p{X ]cn-ip-m-mhv Ch aqpw tNv Hm-
sWp ss__n{]-Imcw sXfn-bp-n-.
11. ZrjvSm-nIw = t{]cn-n-p--Xv, B
12. \ntW = ]cn-]q-amb krjvSn-sImv
13. t{]c-IXzw = t{]cn-n-m-\p tbmKyX
14. {]cyXzw = t{]c-Wbvp tbmKy-am-b-tX-tXm, AXv t{]cyw

digitized by www.sreyas.in
85

]ip-{]-I-cWw
DXv]n
Atbm {InkvXob{]-kw-Kn-I-sf,
ssZhw a\p-jys aqns Hm-bnqsS Poh-izm-ks
DuXn, AXp-sImv Ah Pohm-m-thm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-h-\mbn Fp
\n ]d-bp--tm. Poh-izm-kw-Xs Bm-hmbn Fp k-
Xn-p--]w AXv AWp-Iq--amb `qX-n Hmbn PU-ambn
\iz-c-h-kvXp-hm-bn-cn-pw. AmsX tNX-\-hkvXp BI-bn-. Bb-
Xp-sImpw \n{Z-bn {]mW-hmbp bmsXmpw Adn-bp--Xmbn
ImWm--Xp-sImpw Cu ]d-bp-Xp tNcp-I-bn-. AXns\
IqSmsX thsd Hcp Bmhv krjvSn--s--Xmbn hnNm-cn-p-p
Fn, AXn\p hmIy-{]-am-Whpw C.
C\n Poh-izm-ks BIs, As-n thsd GXns\
Fnepw Hns\ BIs, Bmhv Fp k-Xn-p--]w
Bmhv A\m-Zn-bnte D-Xm-bn-cp-p. CSbvv ssZh-n-\m
hnti-js - -Spn ico-ct- m-Sp-IqSn krjvSn-s
- p Fn AsXm-
cp-hn[w \appw k-X-am-Ipw. CSbvv \qX-\-am-bn-mWv krjvSn-
-s-s- X-n AXv Hcp-{]-Im-c - nepw tNcp-Ib- n-s-p-X
- n-tev
]e \ymb--sf-bpw-IqSn ImWn-mw. Fs\ Fm,
BZyw Cm-Xn-cp Bm-hns\ \qX-\-am-bnp krjvSn-p-
-Xn-tep bmsXmcp \nan-hpw Cm.
\apv Adn-hm ]mSn-msX Hcp \nanw Dm-bn-cn-bpw
B \nanw A\m-Zn-bm-bn-p--sX-p-h-cn-Ibpw sNbvXp Fn
krjvSnbpw A\m-Zn-bm-bn-p--Xm-sWp {]kw-Kn-t-n-h-cpw.
CS-m-ev Poh Xm\m-bn-p-Xs h-sXtm A\y-m-
cm h-sXtm ]d-bp-p-sh-n ssZhw k-Im-h-sv

digitized by www.sreyas.in
86 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

Bbn-o-cpw. ssZh-n-\m sN-s--Xm-Ipp Fn B \nan-


s sNp--Xn\v thsd Hcp \nanw thn-h-cpw. C{]-Imcw
Hcp hc-n-msX A\-h hp-t]m-Ipw.
Bm-hns\ 1D]m-Zm-\-Im-c-W-n\npw krjvSn-p-sh-n
AXp ]noSpw \inv B Imc-W-ns HSp-n-tm-Ipw.
iq\y-n\npw krjvSn-pshn AXp ]noSpw As\
Xs Agnp iq\y- a m- b n- t m- I pw. Fp- X - s - b - , iq\y-
n\npw krjvSn-sbp ]d-bp-tX tNcp-I-bn-m. mh-c-
-sfbpw a\p-jy-i-co-c-sbpw ay--sfbpw krjvSn-p--Xn-
tev an-s\bpw Pe-sbpw D]m-Zm-\-Im-c-W-am-bnv FSp
ssZhw D]m-Zm-\-Im-cWw IqSmsX iq\y-n\npw krjvSn--
bn-m.
tZh-ka - m-\a
- m-bnp ipn, m\w, B\w Ch-I D-Xmbn
krjvSn--s Bm-hn\v A\-cw ico-c-s-bpw-IqSn sImSp-
-Ws - a-n-t- m. Bm-hn\p kl-Pa - mbn {]Im-in-n-cp m\-
sbpw B\--sbpw sXfn-bn-p--Xn-tep icocw thW-sa-
n, Bmhv ip-m-\n-bm-bn- krjvSn--s--sXpw
Bm-hns m\w, IrXyw, {]Imiw ChIp XS-hp-m-bn-
cpp Fpw B XS-hns\ Dm-n-bXpsImp ssZhw Ir]-bn-
m- - h - s \pw k- X n- t - n- h - c pw. Bm- v BZyw
sImSp icocw ip-i-co-cw-Xs Bbn-cp-p-sh-n AXn\p
hniv apX-emb tZmj- Dm-hm CS-bn-m. B nXnp
mh-c-t`m-P\w hn[np Fpw Hcp ]gw Xnp Fpw ]d-bp-
Xp I-am-bn-tm-Ipw. ip-m-\n-Ip ip-i-cocw t]mepw
thW-sa-n--tm. ip-m-\n-I-fmb tam-hm-kn-I Fs-
tpw ip-m-\n-I-fm-bn-cn-p-sap ss__n-fn ImWp-p-
sh-n (2 sImf-n-b-m 4-A. 18--hm.) ImW-s-h A\n-Xy-
-fm-Ipp Fp ]d--{]-Imcw Xs tam-hm-kn-Ifpw ico-
c-tm-Sp-Iq-Snb-hcm-I-bm Agn-p-t]m-Ip-sa-p-Xp \n-b-am-
Ip-p. BZn-a-\p-jy-i-cocw hni-p-ap-X-em-b-h-tbm-Sp-IqSn Ccp--Xp-
sImv tam-hm-kn-Ipw AXp-t]mse hnip apX-em-bh kw`-
hn-p-Ibpw ss__n I-am-bn-tm-Ip-Ibpw sNpw. BI-bm
ip-m-\n-Ip sImSp-s - icocw ip-ap-X - - m. Hcpthf
ip-ap--sXp hcn-Inepw BbXv thW-sa-p--X-.

digitized by www.sreyas.in
]ip-{]-I-cWw 87

BZyw krjvSn--s--tm-sgXs Bm-hn\p ipnbpw


m\hpw Dm-bn-cp-p-sh-n Bb-Xn\p hn[nsb \ntj-[-
sapw \ntj-[s hn[n-sbpw abn hn]-co-X-am-bnp [cn-p-
-Xn-tep (sX-n--cn-v) Imc-W-amb Am\w F-s\-bp-
mbn? B abw ]nim-Nn-\m h-Xm-Ip-p Fm, ]pd-ta-
bp Imc-W-amb Bbncw ]nimNp IqSn-bmepw Dnse Imc-W-
amb Am-\-an-m--tm-sgpw ab-s Dm-p-hm Ign-
I-bn-.
C\n k-m-\-ns Cm-bva-bmWv ab--n-tep
ImcWw Fn, tam-hm-kn-Ifpw ab--ap--h-cm-bn-tm-Ipw.
Am-sXbpw k-m-\-iq\yw FXv Fm Imcy-sf
Adn-bmsX Ccn-p--Xn\p Imc-W-ambn `hnpw F-msX,
Fn Adn-I - m-cys hn]-co-Xa
- mbn [cn-p-sIm-p-X
- n\p Imc-
W-am-I-bn-m.
Bm-hn\p ssZh-n-\m sImSp-s - kzm[n-Im-ca
- mWv ab-
-ns Dm-c-W-sa-n kzm[n-Imcw FXp thsdm-ns
hi-s ab--n\p Imc-W-am-Ip--X-m. Xs hi-sp ab-
m-sX-bn-cn-p--Xn-tep Imc-W-am-bn-cn-p--XmWv Fp-Xp
bpn-kn--am-bn-cns AXmWv ab-p--Xn\p Imc-W-sap ]d-
bp-X
- v. ]pI ImWp-Is - Imv An Cm Fp ]d-bp-X - p-t]mse
hntcm-[-am-Ip-p.
Fm Hcp Imc-Whpw IqSmsX Npm ab-n-tmbn Fn
A{]-Im-cw-Xs tam-hm-kn-Ifpw Hcp Imc-Whpw IqSmsX ab-
n-tm-Ip-sa-p-h-cpw. Am-sXbpw Hcp tam-hmkn B-c-Im-c-
W-am-bnp bmsXmpw _mly-Im-cW - a- mb ]nimNpw IqSmsX Xs-
ms\ ab-n-n-cnp ]nim-Nm-bn-tmbn Fp ss__n ]d-
I-sImv apn-kn-n--hcpw Nne-tm abn ]m]n-I-fmbn \c-
I-n-tep t]mIp-sapw B nXnv B apn A\n-Xy-ambn
`hn-p-sapw BI-bm AXns\ {]m]n-np ^e-an-s-pw-IqSn
\n-b-am-Ipw.
C\nbpw ssZhw BZyw Cm-Xn-cp Bm-sf CS-m-e-
n krjvSn-p-sap ]d-sm? Atlw krjvSn-p--Xn\p
apn Bm- Hcp-c - p-an-m-Xn-cp-X
- p-sImv Ah-cm sN-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
88 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

s bmsXmcp Imcy-fpw Cm-sX-X-s-bn-cn-pw. A-s\-bn-cn-


p-tm ssZhw Bm--fn Nnesc D-a-i-co-cn-I-fm-bn-pw,
Nnesc ay-a-i-co-cn-I-fm-bn-pw, Nnesc A[-a-i-co-cn-I-fm-bn-pw,
Nnesc Ipcp-S-m-cm-bn-pw, Nnesc sNIn-S-m-cm-bn-pw, Nnesc apS-
-m-cm-bn-pw, Nnesc kt-{n-b-im-en-I-fm-bn-pw, Nnesc \nXy-
hym-[n-am-m-cm-bn-pw, Nnesc \nXy-kz--m-cm-bn-pw, Nnesc k-
-m-cm-bn-pw, Nnesc Zcn-{Z-m-cm-bn-pw, Nnesc hnZzm-m-cm-bn-pw,
Nnesc aqV-m-cmbnpw, Nnesc Bcy-m-cm-bn-pw, Nnesc t-m-
cm-bn-pw, Nnesc kzman-am-cm-bn-pw, Nnesc Zmk-m-cm-bn-pw, Nnesc
ZpjvS-m-cm-bn-pw, Nnesc injvS-m-cm-bn-pw, C\nbpw ]e-am-Xn-cn-
I-fn-emn Nnesc t`mK-`p-h\ - - f - n-epw, Nnesc h\-f - n-epw, Nnesc
ae-If - n-epw, Nnesc kap-{Z-f - n-epw, Nnesc ioX-`q-an-If- n-epw, Nnesc
DjvW-`q-an-I-fnepw Ccpn, Nnesc K`-]n-WvU-n-epw, Nnesc
P\-\-Im-e-n-epw, Nnesc inip-{]m-b-n-epw, Nnesc buh-\-Im-
e-n-epw, Nnesc hm-Iy-Im-e-n-epw sImv, Nnesc inh-a-X-
n-epw, Nnesc hnjvWp-a-X-n-epw, Nnesc _u-a-X-n-epw,
Nnesc blq-Z-a-X-n-epw, Nnesc tbip-a-X-n-epw, Nnesc thsd
aX-nepw tNv P\\w apXt C{]-Imcw At\-I-t`-Z-K-Xn-
I-tfm-Sp-IqSn krjvSn-p--Xn-tev ImcWw Fv?
AXn-\p-Im-cWw bmsXm-p-an-, ssZhw Fmw Xs A`n-
{]m-b-{]-Imcw sNpp Fn A{]-Im-cw-Xs a\p-jy acn--
Xns tijw A\p-`h - n-m-\p kpJ-Zpx-J- pw bmsXmcp Imc-
Whpw thW-san-s-pw, Xs a\-p-t]mse Nnesc tam-
nepw Nnesc \c-I-nepw Bn kpJ-Zpx-J-sf A\p-`-hn-n-
p-sapw ]d-tb--Xm-Wv. A{]-Im-c-a-msX Ah-c-h sNbvX
KpW-tZm-j-p X-Xmb ^e-sf sImSp-p-sp ]d-bp-
-]w AXp-t]m-se-Xs Nne kpJ-tmSp IqSn-b-h-cmbpw
Nne ZpxJ-tm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-h-cmbpw P\n-p--Xn-tev X-Xmb
ImcWw Dm-bn-cn--Ww.
AmsXbpw B ssZhw Hcp Imc-Whpw IqSmsX Hcp-h\p
kpJ-sbpw Hcp-h\p ZpxJ-sbpw sImSpp Fp-h-cn-In
Ah \oXn, Ir], ]cn-ip-n, k-m\w apX-emb KpW--
sfm-p-an-m--h\pw ]-]m-Xn-bp-ambn t]mIp-a-tm.
sNdnb Adn-hp Hcp a\p-jyt]mepw Xs ]p{X-ms-
m-t]pw Xm km-Zn {Zhy-sf ]-]mXw IqSmsX \ymb-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
]ip-{]-I-cWw 89

{]-Imcw hoXn-p-sIm-Sp-t-bp-q. A-s\-b-msX Hcp-hs\


hnv a- h \p sImSp- m Bb- h s\ alm- t {Zm- l n- s bp
temI ]d-bpw. B nXnp k-Po-hn- Z-bbpw k kma
y-hp-ap--h-\mbpw, Hcp-h-t\mSp kvt\lhpw asm-cp-h-t\mSp
tZzjhpw Cm--h-\mbpw, k-tem-I-hym-]-I-\mbpw Ccn-p
ssZhw Nnep kvt\lw-sImp kpJ-sbpw Nnep tZzjw-
sImp ZpxJ-sbpw sImSpp Fp ]d-bp--Xns\ temI
ssIsm-ptam?
Am-sXbpw Iq\v, Ipcp-Sv, sNIn-Sv, apSv apX-emb GsX-nepw
Hcp Ipd-hp ss]X ssZhs t\mn-smv Atm! Fs
cn-Xmth, Fs tPyjvTs\ AXn-kp--c-\mbpw Btcm-Ky-im-en-
bmbpw kI-e-kKp-W-k---\mbpw ASn-bs\ Ipcq-]n-bmbpw
tcmKn-bmbpw Zpp-W-\n-a--\mbpw \nn-cp-hSn krjvSn--tm.
Fs tPyjvT \nn-cp-h-Snp sNbvX D]-Im-c-sa-mWv? ASn-
b sNbvX A]-Im-c-sa-mWv? Fs ssZhta Fp ]dp
\ne-hn-fn-m B ssZhw, AXn-s\-p-dnv \o tNmZn-p-t]m-I-cp-
sXp ]d-bptam? Fs a\pt]mse sNbvXp, \o C\n AXn-s\-
p-dnv Fn-\m-bnp tNmZn-pp Fp tNmZn-ptam? hen--
sapw sNdp--sapw Cm-tX-bn-cp-m temIs icn-bmbn
\S-p--Xn-tev \mse Ign-I-bn-. AXp-sImv Cs\
sNbvXn-cn--bmWv Fp ]d-bptam? BZ-ns hn\- hgnbmbn
P\n--Xp-sImv \np cp-t]pw As\ kw`-hnp
Fp ]d-bptam? Hcp Ipi-h a]m-{X-sf Dm-p-tm
Nne ]m{X- tZmj-sp t]mIp-n-tbm? AXp-t]mse Rm\pw
krjvSn--tm {]amZwsImp kw`-hn-p-t]m-b-Xn-tev C\n
Fp sNmw? Fp ]d-bptam? B _me C{]-Im-c-samw
InSp \ne-hn-fn-p i_vZs B ssZhw tI-X-s-bn-
tbm? AX-, tIp-sImp au\-am-bn-cp-p-I-f-bptam? Ftmp
sNpw? F-s\-bm-bmepw CXp-I-fn Hpw-Xs tNcp-I-bn--
tm. AXp-sImv ssZh-n-\m Poh-m C-s\-bp t`Z-K-
Xn-I-tfm-Sp-IqSn krjvSn--s-Sp--Xn-tep ImcWw Dm-bn-cn-
Ww. B Imc-Whpw B Poh-mv A\m-Zn-bm-bnv AS-n-n-
S ^e-Iw Xs-sbpw hcpw. Atm Poh-mcpw A\m-Zn-
bm-bn-p--h-cm-Ipp F-msX CS-m-ev krjvSn--s--h-c-
s-p-Xs km[n-bpw, AXp-\n-anw Poh-msc CSbvp

digitized by www.sreyas.in
90 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

krjvSnp Fp \n ]d-bp-Xv Aev]hpw tNcp-I-bn-sp


sXfn-hm-Ibpw sNpw.
Cs\ DXv-n-sb-p-dnp hnNm-cn--Xnepw Poh-e--W-
ansp km[n--s-n-cn-p-p.

Ipdn-p-I
1. D]m-Zm-\I
- m-cWwss_-_n ]d-bp-Xv ssZhw `qan-bnse s]mSn-sImp a\p-
jys\ cq]-s-Spn Fm-Wv. Bm-hn-s\bpw CXp-t]mse cq]-s-Sp-n-
sb-n `qan-bnse s]mSnbmWv D]-Zm\ Imc-Ww.

digitized by www.sreyas.in
91

arKmZn
Atbm {InkvXo-b-{]-kw-Kn-I-tf,
a\p-jyp am{X-a-msX arKm-Zn-Iv \nXym-mhv Csp
\n ]d-bp-p-h-tm. BbXv Fp \ymbw sImsv Adn-
bp-n-. Dstm Cstm \n-bn-p--Xn\p apns
Bm-hn-s\-p-dnv Hp Nnn-mw.
Bm-hn\v m\-am-Ipp kzm`m-hn-I-am-bn-p--Xv. m\-
sa-Xv Adn-hm-Ip-p. Adn-hm-Is Ap-hn-[-ambpw Ccn-p-p.
Ahbvp mt\-{nbw Fp \maw. t{im{Xw, Xzv, Np,
Pnlzm, {LmWw Ch-I-fm-Ipp AXns {]tXyI \ma-. CXp-
I-fn t{im{Xw-sImv i_vZ-sbpw Xzp-sImp kv]i-
sbpw Np-vsImv cq]-sbpw Pnlz-sImp ck-sbpw
{LmWw-sImp K-sbpw a\-mb Adnhv Adn-p-sIm-p-
p. Cu Av C{n-b--fn NneXv Cm-Xn-cp-mepw Adn-hn-
sp hp-t]m-I-bn-. t{imt{X-{n-b-an-m s]m\v Adn-hn-
sp ]d-p-Iq-Sm. Ap-an-m-h - t\ Adn-hnm-hs - \p ]d-
p-Iq-Sq. a\-mb Adn-hn-m--h\v Cu An-{n-b--fn Hp-
an-cn--bn-. Cu Ah-sb {]m]n-n-cn-p ico-c-s-bmWv
Bmhv Cm ]nWw Fp ]d-bp--Xv. Bmhv Fhn-sS-
bptm AhnsS Hc-dnhv Fnepw Ccn-pw. FhnsS Bm-hn-tbm
AhnsS Hc-dn-hp-t]mepw Ccn--bp-an-. CXv Fm-hpw k-X-
am-bn-p--Xm-Wv. C{]-Imcw m\-kz-cq-]n-bmb Bmhv arK-
n Fp ]d-bp-p-sh-n K`w, P\-\w, izmkw, `Ww,
\n{Z, ssaYp-\w, kvt\lw, tZzjw, \n\-v, ad-v, `bw, ktm-jw,
ZpxJw, acWw apX-em-bh Fm a\p-jy-cnepw arKm-Zn-I-fnepw Hcp-
t]mse ImW-s-Sp-p. An-{n-b-sImv Ap hnj-b--
sfbpw Adn-bp-p. arK--fn-sem-mb \mbv-m-Is bP-am-\ ad-
n-cpp t]cn-s\-smn hnfn-m HmSn-h-cp--Xp-sImv i_vZ-
m-\-hpw, tNmdpw apw Dcp-n-sh-m ans\ Xn-tbv

digitized by www.sreyas.in
92 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

tNmdns\ Xnp--Xp-sImv ck-m-\-hpw, bP-am-\s\ ImWp-


n-Sp ktm-jnp NmSp-Ibpw Ifn-bpw ico-cs \p-Ibpw
sNp--Xp-sImv cq]-m-\-hpw, ASn-m sNp-tm HmSp-
Ibpw ASn-m thZ-\-sp Ipc-bvp-Ibpw apw sNp--Xp-
sImv kv ] i- m- \ - h pw, Xs PmXn- b n BsWpw
s]spw D Xncndnhpw ih-sapw Poh-\p--sXpw `y-
sapw A`-y-sapw aW--dn-I-sImv K-m-\hpw Dv.
CXn-\m arK-v A-dnhpw Ds-p-Xp kv]jvSa - m-Ipp.
m\-ap-s-nepw kmam-\y-m-\a -
- msX hnti-j- m\w
(]-Ip-d
- n-hv) C-tm. R hnti-j
- m-\s
- -bmWv Bmhv
Fp ]d-bp-Xv Fn,
CXv \ymb-sap tXmp-n-. Hcp ss]k hnebvv \mep-
hoXw hnp, Im^m-d-n cw-Kpew hoXnbpw \of-hp-
ap ]pkvX-Iw Fs\ ]pkvX-Iw-X-stbm AXp-t]mse 4000
^md-n 500 cq] hne-bvp Hcp ]pkvX-Ihpw ]pkvXIw
Xs. AmsX hep-Xns\ ]pkvX-I-sapw sNdp-Xns\ ]pkvX-I-
a-spw ]d-hm ]mSn-. henb cq]-ap B\bpw sNdnb cq]-
ap apbepw t`Zw IqSmsX arK-Pm-Xn-I-fpsS Iq-n tNp
KWn- - s - S p- p. Adn- h p- t `- Z - m- e t{X Bmhv Dspw
Cspw Gs-Sp-Xv; Fn, kI-e-im-kv{X-]-WvUn-Xs\
Bm-shpw A-c-m\w Cm--hs\ PU-sapw ]d-tb-
n-h-cpw. A-c-m-\-an-m--h-\m-bmepw A-sa-nepw Xncn-
-dnhv Ccn--sImv Bmhv Fp ]d-bm-sa-n Xncn--dn-hn-
m Hcp-amkw sN Ipnpw Bm-hnsp hcpw; Ipn-I-
tm Bm-hn; arK-am-bn-s Ccn-p-p. Bmhv hcp-tm-
gmWv ]Ip--dnhv Dm-Ip-Xv Fn, F{X hb-n Bmhv
hcpw? C{X hb-n Fp \n-bn-m Htc ka-bv Fp
htc--Xm-Wv. BbXv F{Xm-as kwh--c-n, GX-b-\w,
GXp EXp, GXp bmaw, GXp aWn, GXp \mgn-I, GXp \nan-jw,
GXp Ww? GsX-nepw Hcp Imes \n-bnp ]d-m
BbXv Fm-hpw icn-bm-bnp hcp--XmtWm? Ipn-Is-m-
hpw Htc Ime-ns ]Ip--dnhv hcp-sa-p-Xv {]Xy-
m-\p-`-h-n\p hntcm-[-am-bn-cn-p--tm. Am-sXbpw m\-
kv\m\w Ign-bm Ipn-Ifpw acn--Xns tijw Bm-hn-m
nXnv arK-f - psS ac-Wm-\ - cw F-s\tbm A-s\-b - msX

digitized by www.sreyas.in
arKmZn 93

bmsXmcp hnti-jhpw D-Xmbn ]d-p-IqSm Fp-hc - pw. Atm


\n-fpsS A`n-{]mbw sXn-tm-Ibpw sNp-a-tm. ]nsbpw ]Ip-
-dn-hp-m-Ip-tm am{Xta ico-c-n Bmhv hcp-pq
Fn,
hbp sN-tijw {`mp ]nSnp ]Ip--dn-hn-m-sX-bn-cn-
p--hv Bmhpw Ctbm? Cs-n Huj-[-n-\m
{`mp ianp ]Ip-d - n-hp-m-Ip-tm Bmhpw hp, Atbm?
a\p-jys ac-Ww-hsc ]p {]mhiyw {`mp hp ianp Fn
ssZhw Bm-hn-s\bpw ]p {]mh-iyhpw sImp-h-cn-Ibpw
sImp-t]m-Ibpw sNbvX-Xm-bn-cn-pw. {`mp ian-n-s-n
Bm-hns\ aS-n-sm-p-h-p-an-m-bn-cn-pw. CXv AXn-ibw
AXn-ibw! henb AXn-ibw Xs. AXp-an-cn--s. {]Xn-Zn-\w,
Pm{Kpw kz]v\hpw ISv Hpw Adn-bmsX Dd-p-tm kmam-
\y-m-\hpw hnti-j-m-\hpw ImWp-n--tm. kmam-\y-m-
\-ap arKm-Zn-Ip-t]mepw Bm-hn-sp ]d-bp--h F-
s\-bmWv Hpw Adn-bm kpjp-]vXn-b-h--bn Bm-hp-
sp ]d-bp-Xv? aqm-h--bntem ]ns tNmZn-t--Xn--
sm. Cu ka-b - f
- nepw ssZhw Bm-hns\ sImp-t]mbn kpjp-
]vXn, aq Ch-I hnSp-tm Xncnp sImp-hn-Sp-am-bn-cn-mw.
AXpw Ccn--s. ikv{X-{In-b-sImp NnIn-n-p-tm thZ\
Adn-bmsX Ccn-p--Xn\p tUmIvS tmtdm-^m-ds FSpp
aqn ]nSn-p-tm kmam-\y-m-\hpw hnti-j-m-\hpw
Cm-sX-t]m-Ip-p-h-tm. Atm ssZhw Bm-hns\ sImp-
t]m-Ibpw sImp-hc - n-Ibpw sNp-Ib - mtWm? sImmw! sImmw!
CXn-s\-p-dnv {InkvXy-m-cmb bqtdm-]y-]W
- vUn-X
- m {]Xy-
-ambn Iv Fgp-Xn-bn-p--h-bn Nne-Xns\ ChnsS ImWn-p-
p. arK-ns Adnhv a\p-jy-cpsS Adn-hn-t\mSp apgp-h\pw icn-
bm-bn-n-cn-p-p. arK-ns hnti-j-m-\-n\pw a\p-jys
bpnpw Gsd t`Z-an-. a\p-jy-i-co-c-am-bXv ]cn-jvI-cn--s
arK-i-co-c-am-Ip-p. a\p-jym-mthm? hn--s arKm-m-hp-X-
s-bm-Wv (Burmeister).
arK-v a\-v, _pn, Nnw Cu Ax-I-c-W- Cs-
p-Xv A\p-`-h-m \ntj-[n--s-n-cn-p-p (Czolde). arK-
v, Ax-I-c-W-an-sp \ntj-[n-p-Xp henb Adn-hp-tI-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
94 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

Sm-Ip-p. Ah-Iv Btem-N-\-bp-v, Hm-bp-v, kvt\l-tZz-


j- Dv. AXp-I-fpsS C{n-b-m\w \p-tS-Xn-t\-m-fpw
AXn-kq-va-am-bn-cn-pp (Systeme de le Nature). t_mWntbm,
kpam-{Xm, hmf-\njy Fo e--fnse ImSp-I-fn Ipc-n-s\-
tm-se-bp P\- Dv. Ah BIr-Xn-sImpw Adn-hp-
sImpw Ipc-n-t\-m hnti-j-ap--h-scp tXmp-n-m.
Ah m]-Ihpw Fhpw `qX-`m-hn-h-am-\-Im-e--sf-n
bmsXmpw Cm--h-cm-bn-s Ccn-p-p. hniv Hcp-Iqw
am{Xta Ahv ZpxJs sNp-p-q. Ipc-p-Ip X{-
Kp-W-a-msX thsd at\m-hym-]mcw Hpw-Xs C (Hope).
]Zm--fpsS DXv]-n-sb-p-dnv Bcm-n-p--h-sc-m-t]cpw
arKm-m-hn\pw a\p-jym-m-hn\pw KpWw-sImp hyXymkw Cm;
Af-hp-sImp am{Xta hyXym-k-s-Sp-p Fp \-Xnhw
k- X n- n- c n- p- p. a\p- j yp hnti- j - K p- W - a p- - X m- b np
bmsXmcp Ax-I-c-Whpw C. arK--fpsS Ax-I-c-W-{]-hr-n-
Isf a\p-jy Xs D-Xs - -Sp-p-X
- n-\p-thn kmam-\y-m-
\-sap ]d-p-sIm-p-I-bm-Wv.
Imp-enpw (I-c-Sn), hmen-m-p-c-n\pw Xn Fp
hyXymkw? Ap-shn (Antwerp)ep Hcp tXm-n Hcp hmen-
m-p-cv Xs Iqn-\-Iv Hcp InS Dmn cm{Xn-bn
AXn t]mbn InS-v a\p-jy-sc-tmse ]pX-p-sIm-p--Xns\
Ip (Dr. Louis Buchner).
Poh-cm-in-I-fpsS Ncn-{Xm-Nm-cy Ion-am-\mb _^ ]d-
-Xv: eoSkv F ]-Wv Hcp kP s\mn-bmb Hcp
kv]m\n-b \mbsb Ip. AXns\ hnfnp `h-\-n sImp-
sNv Imen\p Imbw sIn cp-Zn-hkw Ign-X - n-s-tijw Ahn-
sS-\npw shfn-bn-tev HmSn-p-I-f-p. B \mb Imep \-
Xnhw KpW-s-Sp--Xp-hsc B kPs `h-\-n-tep Znh-
kw-tXmdpw Imep hp-sIm-n-cp-p. Ipsd Znhkw Ign--Xn-
s- tijw B ]n Im s\mn-bmb thsd Hcp ]nsb Iqn-
smv B kPs ASp- hp. X\np sNbvX-Xp-t]mse
Xs kvt\ln-X\pw sNbvXp-sIm-Sp-W - s
- a-p `mh-\b - n hnth-
I-tmSpw BZ-c-thmSpw Ffn-b-ap-Js ImWnp a\-n-em-n-
p. CXv Hm-bn-\mepw A\p-`-h-n-\mepw Dm-bn-p--Xm-sWv
Adn-p-Iq-Stbm? CXns\ shdpw kmam-\y-m-\-tm-Sp-Iq-Snb

digitized by www.sreyas.in
arKmZn 95

Imcy-am-sWv Hcp-h\pw ]d-I-bn-. Hcp-h X\np apt KpWw


sNbvX Hcp ka-\mb kPs ASp- ssI HSn Xs
kvt\ln-Xs\ Iqn-sm-p-t]m-Ip-sa-p-h-cn-In, C-Xns\
sNbvXm C-^ew knn-p-sa-p Xncn-d - n-hp-sIm-m-sWv
Atbm \n- b n- t - - X v . Cs\ sNp- - X p- X - s - b mWv
_pnp t{ijvT-X-bm-bn-p--Xv.
Ct-lw-Xs Hcp Ipdp--s\-p-dnv a\p-jy-sc-m _pn-
bp--Xm-bnv Fgp-Xn-bn-cn-p-p.
]nsbpw Nne bqtdm-]y-]W- vUn-X
- m \o\m-b, ]n, Ddpv
apX-emb Pp--sf-p-dnp ]d-n-cn-p--Xns\ Hmp-tm
a\p-jy-sc-m hnti-j-_p-n-bp--h-I-fm-sWp \ncq-]n-p-t]m-
Ipw. AXn Nne-Xn-s\-sb-nepw ChnsS ImWnmw Fp-sh-m
]pkvXIw hnkvXm-c-am-bn-tm-Ip-sap IcpXn ChnsS hnc-an-p-p.
C\nbpw arK-v Adn-hp-s--Xn-tep {]amWw (B-Zy-
]p-kvXIw 3-A. 1-hm). btlm-hm-bmb ssZhw Dm-nb Fm
Pp--sf-mfpw A[nIw Iui-e-ap--Xm-bn-cpp ]mv (b-imb
1-A. 3-hm.) Imf Xs DS-b-h-s\-bpw, IgpX Xs bP-am-\s
]pq-Sn-s\bpw Adn-bp-p. Fm C{km-tb Adn-bp-n-.
Fs P\w hnNm-cn-p-n-. (]-t{Xmkv 2-A. 16--hm.) Dua-bm-bp
IgpX a\p-jy-cpsS i_vZ-am-bnp kwkm-cn-v ZoL-Zin-bpsS aqV-
Xsb hntcm-[np (tkm-f-a--\oXn hmIyw) Fdp-n-t\mSp ]Tn
Fp \n-fpsS ss__n-fnepw ]d-b-s-n-cn-p-p.
C\n ssZhw Hcp- h - \ p- s - p Adnhv arKm- Z n- I n-
mXpsImv Bmhpw Cm-sb-n \mkvXn-I-m apX-
embhpw Bm-hn-sp ]d-tb--Xm-Wv. AXp IqSm-sXbpw
Bm-hm-Is Fs-nepw Hcp km[-\-s-sm--msX Adn-
Ibn Fn-cn-b - mepw, ssZhw Hcp-h\
- p-s-p Hc-dn-hns\ P\n-
n- p- - X n- t ep th- X mb km[\w arKm- Z n- I n-
mXpsImpw ssZhw Dsv Adn-bp-n-m-B km[\w
Dm-bn-cpp Fn a\p-jy-sc-tm-se-Xs arKm-Zn-Ifpw Adn-
bpw. Cm nXnp arKm-Zn-I-sf-tm-se-Xs a\p-jycpw Adn-
I-bn-. Cs\ B km[-\w-am{Xw Cm--Xp-sImv Bmhpw
Csp ]d-bp--]-w, ]nd-hn-Ip-cp-S-m, ]nd-hn-sN-In-S-m apX-
em-b-hpw {ipXn, Kpcp Ch Cm--hpw Bm-hn-s-p-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
96 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

hcpw. BI-bm B km[\w am{Xw Cm--Xp-sImv arKm-Zn-


Iv Bmhpw Cs-p-Xp Aev]hpw bp-am-I-bn-. \in-
p-t]m-Ip-sa-n cp hI-m-cpsS Bmhpw \in-p-t]m-Ipw.
Cs-n cpw Cm.
Fm arKm-Zn-I kwkm-cn-m--Xp-sImv Bmhpw
Cm-sbp ]d-bpp Fn Dua-Ipw Bm-hn-sp ]d-
tb-X- m-Wv. Am-sXbpw arKm-Zn-I kwkm-cn-b - n-sv Fs\
]dbmw? ta`m-Kp ]cpv h-anp ]d-p--Xns\p tImgn-
I sIm-c CSp-tm B AS-bm-f-ns\ Adnv AXns
Ipp--sfmw HmSn-hv AXns Nnd-In-\-Iv Hfn-p-Ibpw
Nmhtmgn t]mcn-\m-bnv Ad-Iq-Ip-tm B i_vZs tI
DSXs t]mcn\p hnfn-pp F-dnv AXn-te-m-bnp thKw
sNpIbpw B]p hcp-tm Xs C\-sf hnfn-m B
hnfnsb Adnv B PmXn-I-sfmw hp-Iq-Sp-Ibpw `-Ws
Im Atms i_vZ--sf-smv AXm-Xns Iqp-
Imsc Adn-bn-bpw A{]-Im-cw-Xs Ah--I Adn-p-hv Hcp-
anp IqSn-bn-cpp `n--Ibpw sNp--tm. C-s\-Xs arK-
pw ]n-Ipw AXm-Xn-\p-X--h-bmb `mj-I-fp-v. Ah-
Isf AXm-Xp-Pm-Xn-Ip am{Xta \-hw Adn-bm-hq. Am-
sXbpw \psS `mj-Is - f-tmepw Infn, ae-n-nc apX-emb ]n-
I kwkm-cn-p-n-tbm? AXp-sImv arKmZn-Ipw Hmtcm
AS-bm-f-`m-j-I-fp-s-p-Xp \n-b-am-Ip-p.
C\nbpw arKm-Zn-Isf a\p-jyv Blm-c-am-bn-mWp krjvSn-
Xv Fp \n ]d-bp-p-h-tm. \mb, \cn, ]pen, Ic-Sn, Im,
Cu, t], aq apX-em-bh a\p-jy-cm Blm-c-am-bnp kzoI-cn-
-s-Sm--Xp-sImpw ]c-am-Wp-hn-s\-mfpw sNdp-Xmb Pp-
sf Blm-c-am-bn-s-Sp-m Ign-bm--Xp-sImpw BbXpw tNcp-
n-. Fm Ah-I Blm-c-am-bn-s-n a\p-jyv D]-Im-
c-am-Ipp Fn,
knwlw, ]pen, B\, Ic-Sn, ]mv, tX, ]gp-Xmc apX-em-b-
Xp-I a\p-jyv D]-Im-c-s-Sp-n Fp am{X-a-, `b-s-Sp-
p-Ibpw sImp-Ibpw sNp--Xp-sIm-v, A]-Im-c-s-Spp
Fpw IqSn ]d-tb-n-bn-cn-p-I-bm \n-fpsS Cu hmpw icn-
bmbn-cp-n-.

digitized by www.sreyas.in
arKmZn 97

a\p-jy sXp sNbvX-Xp-sImv Ahv arKm-Zn-I Iog-S-


m-sX-t]m-Is Fp btlmhm i]n-\ - n-anw A{]-Imcw Bbn-
tmbn Fn,
BSv, amSv, t]mv, ]n, ]n, tImgn, ]q apX-emb Pp-
a\p-jyp Iog-S-n-bn-cn--sImp i]np Fp ]d-bp-
Xv I-am-bn-tm-Ip-I-bpw, a\p-jyp ]pen apX-em-bh Iog-S-
msX t]mIp-Ibpw amSv apX-em-bh Iog-S-p-Ibpw sNs
FmWv i]n--sX-n A{]-Im-c-a-msX Hmtcm ka-b--fn
]mv apX-embh Hmtcm-cp-\v Iog-S
- p-Is
- Impw amSv apX-embh
Hmtcm-cp-sc sImn-cn--sImpw BbXpw icn-b-.
AsXmw Ccn--s. \n-fpsS ss__n-fnse thZ-\ym-b-{]-
am-W-amb ]p Iev]-\-I-fn Hcp Iev]\ sIm-cp-sX-p--Xm-
W-tm. AXn-s\bpw \n \ntj-[n-p--h-cm-Ip-p-h-tm. ka-
kr-jvS--sf, AXm-bXv a\p-jysc sIm-cp-sXp am{Xta CXn-
\-ap-q Fp \n ]d-bp-p-sh-n, arK--sftm a\p-
jy-sctm \nt-in-msX s]mXpsh sIm-cp-sXp ]d B
hmIy-n\v C{]-Imcw Zphym-Jym\w sNp-Xp icn-bm-I-bn-.
Bb-Xn-tev ASn-m-\-hp-an-.
Fm AXn-tev ASn-m-\-ap-v. AXm-bXv (A-tm-kvX-
e {]hr-n-I 10--A. 11-mw hm.) BImiw Xpd-n-cn-p-Xpw
hen-sbmcp Xp-n-t]mse \mep tImWpw sIn `qan-bn-te-n-d-n-
hn-smcp ]m{Xw hcp-Xpw Ah ImWp-p. (Sn. ]pkvXIw 12-mw
hm.) AXn `qan-bnse kI-e-hn[ \mm-en-Ifpw Cg-Pm-Xn-Ifpw
BIm-i-nse ]d-h-Ifpw Dm-bn-cp-p. (Sn. ]pkvXIw 13-mw hm.)
]t{Xmtk, Fgp-t-p, Adpp `n-pI Fv Ah-t\mSv Hcp
i_vZ-ap-mbn (Sn. ]pkvXIw 14-mw hm.) Fm ]t{Xmkv ]d-
Xv Hcn-epw hlnbm Im-th. aen-\tam Aip-tam Bbp-
-sXmpw Rm Hcp\mfpw `n-n-n--tm. (Sn. ]pkvXIw 15-mw
hm.) B i_vZw ]nsbpw cmw-{]m-hiyw Ah tIp ssZhw
ipo-I-cn--Xns\ \o aen-\sap hnfn--cp-Xv. (Sn. ]pkvXIw
16-mw hm.) CXp aqp {]mh-iy-ap-m-bn. DSs\ ]m{Xw BIm-i-
n-tev FSp-p-sIm--s-p. C{]-Imcw ssZhw Xs Iev]n-
n-cn-p--Xn-\m B hymJym\w icn-bm-bn-p--XmWv Fp ]d-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
98 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

bp-p-sh-n, ap Iev]-\-Ipw C{]-Imcw Zphym-Jym\w


sNbvhm ss__n-fn\np [mcmfw {]am-W- Inpw.
F-s\-sb-m (1 cmPm--m, 22-mw A.) btlmhm Hcm-
m-hns\ Abv Iw ]d-bnv BIm_v F-h-s\bpw Ahs
tk\-I-sfbpw sImp. (]p-d-mSv ]pkvXIw. 13-mw A.) an{k-bnw-
tZ-i - p Fm ISn-qIp-n-Is - fbpw ]mXn-cm-{Xn-bn sImp.
]d-thms lrZ-bs ITn-\s - -Sp-n. Xs Iev]\ - sb ssIsm-
msX hne-n-smv Ah-t\bpw tk\-I-tfbpw kap-{Z-n
apn-sm-p. (te-hnb ]pkvXIw 16-mw A. 1mw hm.) Xs kn-
[n-bn h Al-tcms ]p{X-msc cp-t]sc sImp. (i-ap-
th 1mw ]pkvXIw 25-mw A. 38-mw hm) \m_m F-hs\
ASn-p-sIm-p. ]nsbpw C{k-tb P\--fp-sSbpw ap ]e-cp-
sSbpw CS-bn At\Iw Ie-l-sf Dmn hfsc sIme-
sNbvXp Fp ImWp--Xp-sIm-v, sIm-cp-sX Iev]-\bvv
ka-kr-jvS-sf AXm-b-Xv, a\p-jysc Fm-sW-p \n-fpsS
hymJym\w tNcp-n-s-p-X-s-b a\p-jysc sImm-sa-p
Aw-IqSn knn-p-p. (]p-d-mSv ]pkvXIw 11-mw A.) C{km-
tb-e-msc Abm-tcmSv B`-c-W-sf hmn-p-sImv Hfn-
p-t]m-Im Iev]n-p. CXymZn {]am-W--fm A\y-m-cpsS apX-
ens\ B{K-ln--cp-Xv F Iev]-\-bpsS apn thm-sbp
tXmp-tmsfpw, C\nbpw; (]p-d-m-Sp-]p-kvXIw 1mw A.) hb-
m-n-I-fmb kn{]mbpw ]qbmbpw Iw ]d--Xp-sImv Ahsc
A\p-{K-ln-p. (1. cmPm--m 22-mw A.) Hcm-m-hns\ Abp
Iw ]d-bn-p. CXymZn {]am-W--fm AkXyw ]d-b-cpXv F
Iev]-\-bpsS apn Bh-iy-an-sp tXmp-tm Fpw
C\nbpw (2. iap-tb 12-mw A.) ZmhoZv F-h Ddn-bm-hns
`mcysb ]nSnv Zmho-Zns kv{XoIsf Ahs Abm-c-t\m-Sp-
ibn-m Iev]n-p. (tlm-ibm 1mw A. 2mw hm.) \o sNv
\n\p thiym-hr-n-bp Hcp `mcy-sbbpw thiym-hr-n-I-fnse
ss]X--sfbpw FSp-p-sImI. CXymZn {]am-W--fm hy`n-
N-cn-c - pXv F Iev]\
- b
- psS apn [mXp-]p-jvSn-bn-m-t- mgpw
thsp tXmp-tmgpw Fpw, C\nbpw {InkvXp Hcp P\-q-
-nshv Xs At\zjnp ZpxJnp h amXm-hn-t\mSv A\m-
Z-c-hmbn kwkm-cnp; CXymZn {]am-W--fm A-\--amsc D]-
N-cn-pI F Iev]-\-bpsS apn, thW-sap tXmp-tm

digitized by www.sreyas.in
arKmZn 99

Fpw tNt-n-h-cpw. Bb-Xn-\m Cu I-\-Isf BN-cn-


-W-sap \n_--an-spw Ah-\-hs a\-p-t]m-se, AXm-
bXv tXmym-k-am-bn-m-Im-sapw knn-pw. Cs\ tXmym-
k-am-bn-p--Xn-tev Hcp Iev]-\tbm \nb-atam aXtam Bh-iy-
an-m. Bh-iy-an-m nXnv Cu Iev]-\-I (ss_-_n)
shdptXbp-sXpw shdptXbp-Xns\, thW-sap Iev]n
B, Adn-hn-m--h-s\pw knn-pw.
C\nbpw arKm-Zn-Isf a\p-jy `n-p-X- p-sImv Ahm-
bn-mWv Ah-Isf krjvSn--sX-n, a\p-jy-scbpw \mb, ]pen,
ISp-h apX-emb Pp- Xnp--Xp-sImv arKm-Zn-Iv Blm-
c-am-bn-mWv a\p-jysc krjvSn--sXpw ]d-tb--Xm-Wv.
BI-bm arKm-Zn-Isf krjvSn-Xv a\p-jyv Blm-c-n-
tep thn-b-s-p-Xv \n-b-am-Ip-p. Cu hmkvX-hs
Adn-n-cp-npw \apv Blm-c-n-\m-bn-mWv arKm-Zn-Isf
krjvSn-s- Xpw Ah-Ip \nXym-m-hn-spw, Ahn-th-InI
sInsa\-p-m-nb ss__n-fns\ hniz-kn-p-sImv Cu alm-
I-Tn-\-Xsb sNbvXp-t]m-Ip--tm. AXn A{]-Imcw ]d-n-cp-
mepw arK-sf ASn-bpw apw sNp-tm Ah-Ipm-
Ip thZ-\-Isf Ip-sIm-v, ImWm--h-scbpw Adn-bm--h-
sc-bpw-t]mse Aev]hpw IcpW IqSmsX B arKm-Zn-Isf ASnpw
Adppw sh-n apn-bpw, ssIIm-ep-Isf sIn Xobn
Cpw apw ]e- h n- [ - n Ijv S - s - S pn sImp- X n- p- Xv
\oXntbm? Atm! Zbm-lo-\-msc! \n-fpsS ss__n (B-
Zn-]p-kvXIw 7-A. 1-hm.) Poh-izm-k-ap amwk-P-p- Fmw
t\mhm-bpsS ASp- s]-I-n {]th-inp Fp ImWp-p.
a\p-jypw Cu Poh-izm-k-s-sbs DuXn-b-Xv. AXp-
sImp cp hI-mpw Htc Poh-izmkw Xs Fp ImWp-
I-bm, Hcp-v BbXv Dspw, Hcp-h-I-mv BbXv
Cspw F-s\- ]-dbmw? tZmj-an-m {]am-W- Hpw
\n-fpsS _pn-bn tIdp-I-bn-tm? Fp sNmw, ]m]-i-n-
X-s.
C{]-Im-c-ap tZmj- \nanw hcp ]mX-I- Hgn-
bp-Xv GXp Imetm? AXn-cn--s, tam-Wn \ymb--
sf-smv arKm-Zn-I a\p-jyv Blm-c-n-\p-thn krjvSn-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
100 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

-s--h-b-spw ]q-P--Iw-\n-anw A{]-Imcw krjvSn-


-s Pp--fm-Ipp Fpw \n-b-am-bnv 1DWp sImp-
hn.
Cs\ arKm-Zn-I-sf-p-dnp hnNm-cn--Xnepw kXy-e--W-an-
sp ImW-s-n-cn-p-p.

Ipdn-p-I
1. DWp-sIm-pI = Adn-p-sIm-pI

digitized by www.sreyas.in
101

aqm-aXv
]mi-{]-I-cWw
P-]m]w
Atbm {InkvXo-b-{]-kw-Kn-Isf!
BZn-a-\p-jy ]m]n-I-fm-bn-o-Xp-sImv Ah-cpsS ip-
tim-Wn-X-h-gn-bmbn P\n-p Fm a\p-jypw P-]m-]-ap-m-
bn-cn-p-sap \n ]dbp-tm. Hm! tlm! ]m]-sa-Xv Ftm-
mWv? Hcp {Zhytam KpWtam? cp-a--tm. AXv hne-n-b-Xns\
sNbvX I-am-bn-pw, hn[n--Xns\ sNbvXn-n-s-p I-
ns Cm-bva-bm-bnpw Atbm Ccn-p-Xv? B nXnp
Ihpw I-ns Cm-bvabpw Hcp hkvXp-hn tXmn
X-Ww-Xs \in-bpw sNpw. BI-bm BbXv Hcp--
cns Nnc-Imew Ccp-p-sImv Ah-cpsS hnp-hgn ap--h-
cnepw {]th-in-p-sap ]d-bp-Xv tN-bn-m-Xv. IqSm-sXbpw
A-\ - a- m-cpsS hnp-hn-\m Dm-Ip-Xp ico-ca
- m-Ip-p. AmsX
Bmhv A. icocw PU-ambpw Bmhv Nnmbpw Ccn--bm
AXns kz`mhw thsd, CXns kz`mhw thsd, BI-bm AXn-
t\mSv CXn\v Aev]hpw kw_w Cm.
Cu Bmhv A-\--am-cpsS Bm-hn\nv Hcp Awiw
Am. Hcp Awiw Fp hcn-In m\-kw-_-w-IqSn Dm-bn-
cn-p-Ibpw B Bmhv JWvUn--s-S---sXp ]d-bp-Ibpw
sNt--Xm-Wv. BI-bm- A-Xn\pw CXn\pw bmsXmcp kw_-
hpw Ctm. Cs\ Ccn-p-tm Hcm-mhv sNbvX Ipw
asmcp Bm-hns\ ]n-n-Sn-p-sap ]d-bp-Xp \ymb-amtWm?
taepw ipwhgn-bmbn ]m]w kw_-n-p-sa-n Ipcp-Sv,
sNInSv apX-emb Du\-ap--hp \ ku-cy-ap Ipn-Ifpw
\nXy-tcm-Kn-Iv Atcm-Kn-I-fmb ]p{X-mcpw ZpjvS-\mb ]nXm-
hn\v injvS-\mb ]p{X\pw injvS-\mb ]nXm-hn\v ZpjvS-\mb

digitized by www.sreyas.in
102 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

]p{X\pw P\n-p-Xv Fp-sImv? Cu kwK-Xn-I-fmepw hnp


hgn-bmbn ]m]-kw-_
- a
- p-m-Ip-sap ]d-bp-Xv Aev]hpw bp-
a-m. C\nbpw A{]-Im-cw-Xs ]m]w IqsS XpSp sNp-sa-
nepw B ]m]w Xmt\ s]mbv-f-bptam? C-tm. AXp-sImv
ssZhw-Xs AXns\ CmsX Bt--X-tbm? As\ Ccn-
p-tm Hcp- sNbvX ]m]s asm-cp-s t]cn Npa-
p-I-bm B ssZhw alm A\ym-b-m-c Atbm?
Cu temI- n- e p cmPm- - mt]mepw Hcp- h Ipw
sNbvXm Ahs\ ZWvUn-n--b-msX AXn-te-p-thn asm-
cp-s\ ZWvUn-n--bn-. B nXn-v k--\m-bpw, k-
Z-bm-ep-hm-bpw, ]cn-]q-\m-bpw, kvt\l-tZz-j-c-ln-X-\mbpw Ccn-
p ssZhw Hcm-mhp sNbvX Ips asmcp Bm-hns
taemn ZWvUn-npw Fp ]d-bp-Xp \ymb-a-m--Xm-Ip-p.
Cs\ P-]m-]-s-p-dnp hnNm-cn--Xn-epw, ]mi-e-Ww
Csp sXfn-hmbn m]n--s-n-cn-p-p.

digitized by www.sreyas.in
103

\mem-aXp
KXn{]I-cWw
apn-km-[\w
Atbm {InkvXo-b-{]-kw-Kn-Isf!
Xm sImSp Iev]-\sb ISp a\p-jy ]m]w sNbvX-Xp-
sImv ssZhw Ahsc \ymb-{]-Imcw i]np Fnepw A\-cw
Ir]-tXmn Ahp-thn ]m]-_e - n-bm-hp-X
- n\p Xs ]p{Xs\
Ab-p-shp \n ]d-bp-p-h-tm. Fm ssZhw B ka-
bp i]n--Xp-Xs A\o-Xn-bm-bn-tmbn Fp apnIqn
ImWn-n-p-v. Am-sX-bpw,
Xm hn[n Iev]-\sb AXn-{I-an-p-sImv hn ]m]-
n-tep {]mb-nw sNbvhm a\p-jy i-m-cmbn `hn-
-bn-tm Fp Zb-hp-tXmn AXn-\m-bnp Xs ]p{Xs\ Ab
ssZhw Xm hn[n-p Iev]-\-sImp a\p-jy ]m]n-I-fm-bn-
tm-Ip-sa-p--Xns\ apnIqn Adnp hn[n-msX Xs
Ccp-p-I-f-b-cp-Xmtm? BI-s, AXn-tev CS-bmbnsnepw
Xs im]s a\p-jyp XSp-p-hm Ign-bn-sp Ir]-tXmn
i]n-msX Ccn--cp-Xmtm? Am--]w Xm krjvSn-m
XpS-n-bm C{]-Im-c-ap k-S-fpw tZmj-fpw kw`-hn-p-
sav BZyta Adnv Xs ]mn\v A\-m-sX-I-n-cn-m Ign-
I-bn-mtm?
XmXs alm- t h- Z - \ sb hcp- p- I bpw hne- p- I bpw
sNbvXXv Xs \oXn-tbbpw Ir]-tbbpw A\y-msc t_m[n-n-
bpw Xs kvXpXn-n-bpw sNp--Xn-\p-thn BIp-p-sh-
n AsXm-cp-{]-Im-c-n tNcpw. Fp-sIm-s-m btlm-
hm-bpsS {]hr-n-I-sfmw X\-Xp-Im-cys Dt-in--msX A\y-
m-cpsS kpJs Dt-in--m. BI-bm \nXym-\-hpw \oXnbpw
Ir]bpw Cm--hX-s-bm-Wv.

digitized by www.sreyas.in
104 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

C\n Xs ]p{Xs\ Ab-p-shp ]d-bp-p-ht- m. ]p{Xs\ X


]nXmhv ap-s\-pw, ]nXm-hn-\m Xc-s ]p{X ]n Fpw
]nXm-hn-\m Ab-bvs - -X
- p-sImv ]p{X ]c-X{- Fpw
shfnhmbn ImWp-Ib- m ]nXmhpw ]p{X\pw Hcp-h\ - m-sWpw Xpey-
m-cm-sWpw \n ]d-bp-Xv alm-hn-cp-a - m-Ip-p.
]p{X-\mb {InkvXp `m-hn-msX K`w [cn I\y-Ib - psS
hb-n P\n-h- s
- \pw At-l
- n\p ssZhXzw Dspw P-
]m]w Cs-pw, Ap-X - sf sNbvsX-pw, acn-X
- ns tijw
Pohn-spw \n ]d-bp-Xp ip-\p-Wb
- m-sWpw B {InkvXp,
tZh-\m a\p-jyXs Fpw apt-Iqn m]n-p-htm.
{InkvXp a\p-jy A\p-`h
- n-t-X
- mb ZWvUs Xm A\p-
`-hnp Fp ]d-bp--tm. Ah-\-h sNbvX Ip-n\v Ah-\-
hXs ZWvU-a-\p-`-hn-t--X-msX asm-cp-h ZWvUn-n--
s-Sp-Xp \oXn-bmtWm? Hcp-s hnip asm-cp- `Ww
Ign--Xp-sImp ian-ptam? Hcp-hs hym[n asm-cp-h acpp
tkhn-m ian-ptam? (sl-k- 18-mw A. 20-mw hm.) ]m]w
sNp Bmthm AXp acn-pw. ]p{X ]nXm-hns AXn-{I-
as hln--bn-m, ]nXmhp ]p{Xs AXn-{I-as hln-p-I-
bp-an-. \oXn-ams \oXn Ah-s-ta Ccn-pw. ZpjvSs ZpjvSX
Ah-s-ta Ccn-pw. (B-h-\-]p-kvXIw 24-mw A. 16-mw hm.)
]p{X-mp-thn ]nXm--m sIme-sN-bvI-s-Sp-Ibpw Acp-
Xv. Ah-\-hXs Xs ]m]w -\n-anw sIme-sN--s-S-Ww.
C{]-Imcw \n-fpsS ss__n ]d-bp-sa-n a\p-jy A\p-`-hn-
m-\p ZWvUs {InkvXp XmXs A\p-`-hnp Fp ]d-
bp-Xv Aev]w Fnepw icn-bm-Iptam?
C\n-bpw, {InkvXp thZ-\-s-p, AXp-sImv \nXym-\--\-m,
At-l-ns a\p-jy-Xz-a-msX tZhXzw thZ-\-s-n-n Fp
hcn-In, a\p-jy Iev]-\sb AXn-{I-anp sNbvX ]m]w a\p-
jy ]mSp-s]--Xp-sImv \nhr-n-bm-Inm Fp \nXs
]d-I-sImv At-l-ns a\p-jyXzw am{Xta ]mSp-s]-smp
Fn ]m]-tam-N\w hn-p-an-m. \n-bw.
Am-sXbpw {InkvXp Xmt\ ZWvUn--sp cnp Fv
]d-tp ]noSv a\p-jyXzw ]mSp-s]p tZhXzw cnp Fp
]d-bp-Xp If-h-tbm?

digitized by www.sreyas.in
KXn{]I-cWw 105

]nsbpw A\-t- ImSn Poh-m \nXy-Im-ehpw A\p-`h - n-t-


-Xmb kIe thZ-\I - s
- fbpw {InkvXp X\nv Aev]I - mewsImv
A\p-`-hn-p-I-fp Fp-Xp icn-bm-Iptam? As\ sNbvXp-
sh-n Aev]-Imew t]mepw Xm thZ-\-s-SmsX k-km-
ayw-sImv A\y-mcpsS thZ-\I - sf hne-n-f
- b
- c- p-Xmtm?
ssZhw a\p-jyv Cu P-n bmsXmcp Imc-Whpw
IqSmsX Xs Xncp-hp--{]-Imcw am{Xw kpJ-Zpx-J-sf sImSp-
pp Fpw a\p-jy Ctm sNp ]m]-sf Imc-W-am-
n-smv Ahsc acn--Xns tijw \c-I-n Xn \nXy-
th-Z\- I
- sf A\p-`h - n-n-p-sapw \n ]d-Is - Imv {InkvXphpw
Cu Pv A\p-`-hn kIe ZpxJ-fpw Hcp Imc-Whpw IqSmsX
ssZh-ns Xncp-hp--{]-Imcw hp tN-sXpw AXp-sImv
a\p-jypw ]m]-tam-N\ - a
- m-Ib
- n-spw Cu Pv {InkvXp kI-
e-a-\p-jy-cpsS ]m]--sfbpw Gp-sImp Fp ]d-bp-Xv kXy-
sa-p-hc - n-In ]c-n \nXy-\c - I- t- h-Z\ A\p-`h
- n-p-sap \n-
bn-p-sImmw Atbm?
Am-sXbpw Cl-n Aev]w ]m]w sNbvX-hcpw ]c-n
\nXy- t h- Z \ A\p- ` - h n- p- s ap \n ]d- b p- p- h - t m. B
nXnv Fm alm-]m-]--sfbpw Xn Gp-sImp {InkvXp
Cl-nepw ]c-nepw AXy--tLm-c-th-Z-\-Isf \nXyhpw A\p-
`-hn-t--Xm-Wv Fp--Xn\p kt-l-an--tm.
Xs ]p{X-s\ hm-eyw-sImv btlmhm Ct-l-ns\
\c-I-n Xm-sX-Iv hn-bbvpw Fp-h-cn-In btlmhm
]-]mXw D-h-\m-bn-tm-Ipw.
taepw a\p-jy apt sNbvXp-t]mb ]m]--fpsS \nhr-n-
m-bnp am{X-am ]noSp sNbvhm t]mIp ]m]--fpsS \nhr-
n-m-bn-pw-IqSn ]mSp-s]p Fp \n ]d-bp-tm? Hcp-\v
C\n hcp-hmt]m-Ip kwh--c-nse hni-n-s\-bpw-IqSn
Xop-I-f-bp--Xn-tep asm-cp- Ctms Dp-I-
fp Fp ]d-m Bb-Xns\ Ipp-t]mepw hniz-kn-
ptam?
C-s\-sb-m-an-cn--sImv a\p-jy-cpsS ]m]-m-bnp
{InkvXp ZWvUn-n--sp Fp ]d-bp-Xv Aev]hpw tNcp-I-bn-
-tm.

digitized by www.sreyas.in
106 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

{Inkv X p ]m]- h n- t am- N \w sNbv X p Fp ]d- b p- tm;


As\ sNbvXp Fn ]m]w ]noSv temI-n Fm\pw
Ccn-ptam? Hcp a\p-jy Iev]-\sb AXn-{I-an--Xp-sImv
Dmb ]m]w Fm a\p-jy-scbpw ]nSn-IqSn Fp ]d-bp
\nv Hcp-h hntam-N\w sNbvX-Xp-sImv Ign ]m]w
X-Ww-Xs Fm-hc - n\npw hnp-am-dn-tmbn Fp A`n-
{]mbw Fm sImp-I-bn-tbm?
{InkvXp Fm-h-cp-sSbpw ap]p-m-bn-cp-Xpw ]noSv Dm-
hmt]m-Ip--Xp-amb ]m]--sfbpw \nhm-c-Ww-sNbvXp Fn
B W-ns kI-ecpw ]m]-n\npw ths]p
ap-m-cmbn `hn-t--Xm-Wv. As\ `hn-m--Xp-sImv
{InkvXp ]m]-hn-tam-N-\s sNbvXnm FXv \n-b-am-Ip-p.
taepw Hcp cmPm-hm-Is Xm hn[n- I-ev]-\-Isf Nne P\-
AXn-{I-an-p-t]m-sb-p-h-cn-In AXn-te-m-bnv Ahsc
inn-b -
- msX hntam-N\- w-sNbvXp hnSpI Fpw, B Ip-n\p
Xm\m-bnv \nhr-n-bp-m-pI Fpw Xs Xe-bn ap-hmcn
Cp-sIm-pI Fpw A\ymbnsmp Xs aIs\ ZWvUn-
n Fpw D-sXmw \oXn-bpw, aln-ab - pw, _pn-bpw, \ymbhpw
BtWm?
BI-bm a\p-jy-cpsS ]m]-ns\ Ahv A\p-`-hn-m
CS-hc
- msX Ahp-thn {InkvXp hntam-N\
- w-sNbvXp Fp-Xv
Aev]hpw kXy-am-bn-p--X-.
C\n hnizm-ka- mWv apnsb Xcp km[\w Fpw kv\m\w
sNp-X- n\p aptm, sNbvXX
- ns tijtam acn Ipp-v
tam- a p- s pw \n ]d- b p- - t m. B Ipp- v
hnizmkw Dtm Ctbm? B nXnv Ahv apn-km-
[\w Ftmm? BbXv Ah-sc-p-dn-p Ir]-bm-Ipp Fn
hnizmkw Cm Fm Bm--sf-p-dnpw B Ir]-bp-m-
Im-Xv Fv?
Cs\ apn-km-[\
- \
- n-cq-]W
- w-sImpw KXn-e
- W
- a
- n-sp
km[n--s-p.

digitized by www.sreyas.in
107

1
\ncbw
Atbm {InkvXo-b-{]-kw-Kn-Isf!
ssZhw ]m]n-Isf \c-I-n-enp \nXy-Im-ehpw Hcp-t]mse
ZWvUn-n-p-sap \n ]d-bp-p-h-sm, AXv Aev]hpw tNcp-
I-bn-m. ka-kvX-\m-b-I-\mb ssZhs Zpjn--bpw, Hcp-hs\
sImp-Ibpw Hcp hkvXp-hns\ tamjvSn--bpw, Ip-Ip-Sn--bpw,
hy`n-Nmcw sNp-I-bpw, Iw ]d-I-bpw, Kpcp-hns\ \nn-bpw
Cs\ ]e h--fmb kIe ]mX-I--sfbpw apgp-h\pw
sNbvX-hpw Ah-bn GXns\ Fnepw Hn-s\-am{Xw sNbvX-
hpw Htc in-Xs Fpw ]d-p-Iq-S-tm.
Am-sX, Hcp thiy-tbmSp tNcp-Ib - pw, Hcp I\y-It- bmSp tNcp-
I-bpw, A\ys `mcy-tbmSp tNcp-Ibpw Kpcp-hns `mcy-tbmSp tNcp-
Ibpw amXm-hn-t\mSp tNcp-Ibpw ktlm-Z-cn-tbmSp tNcp-Ibpw
sNbvXm Ch-I-sfmw Hcp h-n-eps ]m]--fm-Ipp
Fp hcn-Inepw Hn-s\mv AXn-`m-c-am-bn-cn--bm Ahsb
sNbv X - h s- m- h pw Hcp- h n- [ - a mb insb Hcp- t ]mse
sImSppw Fp ]d-p-Iq-S-tm.
C\nbpw Hcp h-n-ep Htc hn[-amb Hcp ]m]s
s Hcp \nan-j-n sNbvIbpw Hcp \mgn-I-hsc sNbvIbpw
Hcp aplqw-hsc sNbvI-bpw, Hcp bmaw-hsc sNbvI-bpw, Hcp
Znhkwhsc sNbvI-bpw, Hcp hmcw-hsc sNbvI-bpw Hcp ]w-
hsc sNbvI-bpw, Hc-b\w hsc sNbvIbpw D-\m apgp-h\pw
sNbvIbpw sNbvXm Ah-I-sfmw ka-sapw Cs\ sNbvX-
h Fm-hcpw Htc in A\p-`-hn-p-sapw ]d-p-Iq-S-tm.
(tbm-l-m 19--A. 11--hm.) Fs \ns ssIbn Gn--h\v
A[n-I-]m]w Dv Fp ]d-b-s--Xn-\mepw ]m]-Xm-c-Xayw
Dsp km[n--s-Spw.
A{]-Imcw Ah-c-h sNbvX ]m]-n\p XXmb insb
X-Xmb Imew-h-scbpw sNbvI F-m-sX, Ahsc Fm-h-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
108 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

scbpw \nXyhpw Hcp-t]mse ZWvUn-n-p-Xp \oXn-b--tm. Cu


temI-n cmPm--mcpw Xs {]P-I-fn Bsc-nepw Hcp-h
Ipw sNbvXm Ah sNbvX Ip-ns hw, Af-hp-Imew
Fn-hsb \mbn Xo-bm-n-smv X-Xmb insb
sNp-p. Inn--m-cmb a\p-jy IqSnbpw C{]-Imcw sNbvI
Fp hm k--\mb ssZhw Ah-c-h sNbvX ]m]--
fpsS hw apX-em-b-hsb Adnv X-Xmb ZWvU\w sNbvI-
b-msX F-s\-bp ]m]n-I-sfbpw Hp-t]mse \nXy-Im-ehpw
thZ-\-s-Spn _pn-ap-n-ptam?
Hcp- h Xs Ipv Ipw sNbv X m, B Ipns\
]noSpw As\ sNm-Xn-cn-p--Xn-\p-thn XqWntem atm
]nSn-p-sIn Hcp \ 2Npn-n-c-p-sImv ASnpw thsd ]e
D]m-b-sf sNbvXpw \ am--fn {]th-in-npw icn-bmbn
hcp-n-sm-mw. AmsX D-Imew apgp-h\pw ITn-t\m-]-{Z-h-
sf sNbv I - b n- . CXmWv Ir]- b p {]hr- n. Hcp a\p-
jyt]mepw C{X-tmfw Ir]-bp--h-\m-sW-n ssZhw F{X-
tmfw Ir]-bp--h-\m-bn-cn-Ww? B nXnv ssZhw Xs
Ipp--fmb Bm-sf Aev]hpw Ir]-bn-msX \nXyhpw
IjvS-s-Sp-ptam?
]nsbpw \c-I-n Ccn-p--h-cn Nne CS-hn-SmsX
tbip-hns\ hnfnv Rsf cn-tW Fv At]-nv Gdnb
hnizmkw hm Ahsc cn-ptam? cn-n-tbm? cn-p-
sa-n \nXy-\-cIw Cm-sX-bm-Ipw. cn--bn-s-n Atlw
k-Po-h-Z-bm-]-c-\-s-pw, hnizmkw apnsb Xcp-sa-p-Xp
I-sapw hp-t]m-Ipw.
C\nbpw Hcp-h Xm sNbvX ]m]w-sImv \nXyhpw \c-I-
n InSp thZ-\-s-Sp-sa-p-h-cn-In Xm sNbvX ]pWy--
fpsS ^es Xosc ssIhn-p-t]m-Ip-sap ]d-tb--Xm-Wv.
Hcp-h Xs ]m]-n-te-p-thn ZpxJs A\p-`-hn-p-
sa-n ]pWy-n-te-p-thn kpJ-sbpw A\p-`-hn-p-sa--
tbm ]d-tb-Xv? A-s\-b-msX ]pWy-n-te-p ^e-amb
kpJs A\p-`-hn-msX ssIhn-p-t]m-Ip-sap ]d-bp-Xv \oXn-
bmtWm? AXp \oXn-bm-sW-n ]m]-ns ^e-amb ZpxJ-
sbpw A\p-`-hn-t Fp-Xs ]d-bmw.

digitized by www.sreyas.in
\ncbw 109

Fm Ftmgpw ]pWyw sNp--XmWv a\p-jyv IS-a-


bm-bn-p--Xv. BI-bm ]pWyw sNbvX-h kpJs A\p-`-hn-
tm Fpw, ]m]w sNp-Xv ssZh-n\p hntcm-[-am-I-
sImp ]m]n-I \nXy-\-c-I-n t]mIp-Xp \oXn Fpw ]d-
bpp Fn, a\p-jy sNp kIe ]pWy--sfbpw IS-a-bm-
sWp ]d--Xp-sImv B ]pWy-sf kw_-nv bmsXmcp
^ehpw Csp Xo-bm-bn. B nXnv F-s\-bp
]pWys sNbvXmepw AXp-sImv Hcp-pw tam-{]m-]vXn
]mSn--tm.
BI- b m Hcp- cpw Hcn- epw at\m- h m- m- b - - f m
bmsXmcp ]pWy-Ihpw sN-W-sa-n-. sNbvX ]m]-n-te-
p-thn ]m-m-]-s-Sp-I. {InkvXpth hniz-kn-, kv\m\w
G, \I-cpW kzoI-cn-, 3apg-m-en \nv ssIIsf cn-
t\bpw aen, tatmp t\mn Ip-Isf aqSn-smp
{InkvXp-hns\ {]mn-, At-l-ns I-\sb {]Nm-cn-,
]pWy--fn bmsXm-n-s\bpw sNmsX Fm-t]cpw kpJam-
bn-cpv apnsb {]m]n-m-a-tm.
A-s\-b-m, apn-kn-nv Cu ]pWy- thW-sa-n
at\m-hm-m-b--sf-smp sNp Cu ]pWy-fpw apn
km[-\-Xs Fp k-Xn-p-t]m-bn-cn-p-p. BI-bm
]pWy--sf-smp {]tbm-P-\-an-sp ]d-p-Iq-Sm. (eq-tmkv
14--A. 13, 14--hm.) Fm \o Hcp hncpp Ign-p-tm Zmcn-{Z-
m-sc-bpw, Du\-ap--h-sc-bpw, apS--sc-bpw, Ipcp-S-scbpw hnfn;
Atm \o `mKy-hm-\m-Ipw. AXv Fp-sIm-s-m \n\p
{]Xn-^ew sNbvhm Ahn-. Fm \oXn-am-m-cpsS Dbn-
\n\p {]Xn-^ew sN-sSpw Xm\pw. (a-mbn 6-A. 3,
4hm.) Fm \o [w sNp-tm \ns [w cl-ky-am-
bn-cn-m-\m-bnv \ns he-pssI sNp-X - ns\ \ns CS-pssI
Adn-b-cp-Xv, Fm cl-ky-n ImWp--h-\mb \ns ]nXmhv
XmXs ]c-ky-ambn \n\p {]Xn-^ew Xcpw. C{]-Imcw \n-
fpsS ss__n ]pWy--sf-smp ^e-ap-sp ]d-bp-tm
\n ]pWy--sfmw ISa Fp ]d-bp-Xv Hptam?
taepw a\p-jy-cm sN-s-Sp ]m]- Ahp am{Xta
ZpxJ-{]-Z--fmbn `hn-q. BI-bm Ah a\p-jyp hntcm[w

digitized by www.sreyas.in
110 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

Fp ]d-I-b-msX Ah-Isf kw_-n bmsXmcp tZmj-fpw


]m ssZh-n\v Ah hntcm-[s - ap ]d-bp-Xv Aev]hpw \m-
I-bn-. BI-bm Hcp-h ]pWy-]m-]-sf cn-s\bpw ka-am-
bn-s-nepw Hn-s\mv A[n-I-am-bn-s-nepw sNbvXn-cp-m B
cn-sbpw ^e-sf Ah A\p-`-hn-p-sa--msX Hns\
hntv Hns\ am{Xta A\p-`-hnq Fp ]d-bp-Xv Aev]hpw
\oXn-b-m--Xm-Ip-p. AXn-\m ]e ]pWy-sf sNbvX-h-\pw
Hcp ]m]s sNbvX-Xp-sImv 4aofm \c-I-n hoWv
\nXyhpw ZpxJw A\p-`-hnpw Fp ]d-bp-Xv _pn-tI-Sm-Ipp.
taepw, \n ]d-bp \c-I-am-bXv CS-bn-ep-m--s--Xm-
I-bmepw JWvUn-X-amb Hcp ew Fp ]d-I-sImpw An,
K-Iw, Iran apX-emb \nXy-]Z- m-t- fm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bX
- m-Is
- Impw
AXn Ccn-p--h ico-cn-I BI-sImpw ImW-s-h Agn-
bp-sap \n-fpsS ss__n ]d-I-sImpw AXv Fp-Iq-Sn-bn-
s-nepw Agn-p-t]m-Ip--X-msX \nXy-am-bn-cn--bn--tm.
BI-bm ]m]n-I \c-I-n \nXy-th-Z\ A\p-`-hn-p-sa-
Xv Hcp-hn-[-nepw tNcp-I-bn-m. Cs\ \nc-b-s-p-dnp
hnNm-cn--Xnepw \c-I-e--W-an-sp km[n--s-p.

Ipdn-p-I
1. \ncbw = \c-Iw, ]m]w
2. ]ncv = Nqc
3. apg-m-en\nv = app-Im-en \nv
4. aofm = Xncnsb FSp-m

digitized by www.sreyas.in
111

apn
Atbm {InkvXo-b-{]-kw-Kn-Isf!
Xs hniz-kn--h apn-bn Ccpv \nXy-Im-ehpw ]c-am-
\-s A\p-`-hn-p-sap \n ]d-bp--tm.
\c-I-n Ccn-p--hcpw Xmm- sNbvX ]m]-n\p
X-hw ZpxJw A\p-`-hn-p--Xp-t]mse apn-bn Ccn-p--
hcpw Ah-\-h Xs at\m-hm-m-b--sf-smp sNbvX ]pWy-
n\p X-Xmb kpJw A\p-`-hnpw F-msX kI-ecpw Htc
ka-ambn \nXy-kp-Js A\p-`-hn-p-sa-Xp tNcp-I-bn-m.
Am-sX-bpw, Bm- ico-c-tm-Sp-IqSn apn-bn Ccn-
p-sap \n ]d-bp--tm.
Cu temI-n Bm- Xs kzm`m-hn-I-amb {]Im-i-
n-tev 1Hcp-X-Shv Ccp--Xp-sImv Bb-Xns\ amn kzbw {]Im-
i-am-bn-s Ccn-p--Xn-te-p-thn ssZh-n-\m km[-\-
am-bnp sImSp--s ico-c-sf FSp-p-sIm-n-cn-p-p.
Xm Xm\m-bn-n-cn-p--Xt{X kpJw, AmsX AXn\np
thdmb ico- c - t m- S p- I q- S n- b n- c n- p- Xp kpJ- a - m, ZpxJw-
XsbmWv. BI-bm icocw apX-em-bh \on kzm`m-hn-I-ssN-
X-\y-a-b-ambn tim`n-n-cn-p--Xp-am-{Xta \nXy-]-c-a-kp-J-am-bn-cn-
p tam-am-I-bp-q. A{]-Im-c-a-msX 2BK-p-I-amb ico-c-
tm-Sp-IqSn ZpxJn-I-fm-bn-cn-p--hsc \nXy-]-c-a-kp-J-ap--h
Fp \n ]d-bp-Xv Aev]hpw hmkvX-h-am-I-bn-.
taepw \n ]d-bp apn-bm-bXv ico-cn-I Ccn-p
e-ambpw CS-bvp-m-s - -X
- mbpw ka-amb \ofhpw AI-ehpw
D NXp-jvtIm-W-ambpw kqcy-Im--a-Wn-sImp sN-s aXn-
ep--Xmbpw ip-kzw-sImp sN-s ]-W-ambpw aXn-ep-
I-fpsS `nn-aq-e-I ]{pw kqcy-Im-w, \oew, Xm{a-a-Wn,

digitized by www.sreyas.in
112 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

ac-X-Iw, sshUq-cyw, timW-c-Xv\w, N{-Im-w, tKmta-Z-Iw, ]-


cmKw apX-emb ]{p cXv\--sf-smpXmbpw ]{p
app-I-sf-smp sN-s ]{p hmXnepw ip-kzw
s]mXn ]fp-p-\n-d-amb hoYn-Ifpw ssZhhpw Bp-p-n-bmb
tbiphpw Ccn-p knwlm-k-\-n\npw ]pd-s-p-h ]fp-
p-t]mse sXfn Pe-ap \Znbpw ]{-p-hn-[-amb I\n-Isf
Npav amkw-tXmdpw Hmtcm I\nsb sImSp-p Aar-X-hr-hpw
D-Xmbpw tZhs \ma-Nn-s s\n-bn AWn-pw-sImp
hgn-s-n-cn-p tkh-I-m hkn-p-n-S-ambpw [-]pcw F
t]tcm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-Xmbpw Ccn-p m\-amWv apn FmWv
ss__n-fn ]d-b-s-Sp--Xv. AhnSw Hcp J-WvUn-X--e-ambpw,
Ccn-p--h ico-cn-I-fmbpw, hm\-tem-I-hp-a-gn-bp-sap ss__n
]d-p-an-cn--sImv B apn FpIqSn-sb-nepw Agn-bp-sa-
-msX \nXy-am-I-bn-m.
Am-sX, tam-hm-kn-If - n Nne Dm-cW - a - mb ab-hpw
]pd-m-cW
- a
- mb ]nimNpw IqSmsX Npm abn ]nim-Nm-bn-tmbn
Fp ss__n ]d-n-cn--sImv Fm tam-hm-kn-Ipw
Hmtcmtcm Imew-sImv A[x-]X - \w Dm-bn-tm-Ip-sap \nbw.
Cs\ apn-sb-p-dnp hnNm-cn--Xn apn-e-Ww
Csp In-cn-p-p.
C\n-bpw- {In-kvXp-aXw Fpw \ndpw {InkvXy-m-cpsS
kwJy A[n-I-spw Ccn--sIm-p-Xs Cu aXw D-X-ambpw
icn-bmbpw D-sXv appw ]npw t\mmsX ]mXn-cn-am apX-
em-b-h ]d-Ibpw lnp--fnepw Nne CXnt\ tIp icn-sbp
hniz-kn-bpw sNbvXp-h-cp-p. B nXnv kXyhpw \ymbhpw
Nnte-S-pw, Ak-Xyhpw A\ym-bhpw ]e-bn-Spw Dm-bn-cn--
sImv IqSp-X-em-bn-cn-p Ak-Xyhpw, A\ym-bhpw Xs {][m-
\hpw D-ahpw Bbn-p--sXp ]d-tb-n-h-cpw. Bb-Xp-sImv
\ndpw Ipdpw Ccn-p--Xns\ IW-mn ta, Xmgva ]d-
bp-Xp \ymb-a-.

Ipdn-p-I
1. HSp-X-Shv = HSp-X-hW
2. BK-pIw = bZr-Obm hcmt]m-Ip-Xv

digitized by www.sreyas.in
113

Iq-sm-e-I
Cu {InkvXp-aXw Cs\ \nd-p-h-Xv \ymbw-sIm-tm,
ap-h--hn-[tam Fp--Xn-s\-p-dnp ]cym-tem-Nn-mw.
{InkvXp P\nv 300 kwh--c-p tijw \n F
Znnse P\--fpsS klm-bw-sImv ImkvsSbn F
B tdmam-]p-c-tp cmPm-hmbn hp. A\-cw D]-Imcw
sNbvX B P\- {InkvXp-hn-s\-p-dnp ssIsm-n-cp Nne
A`n-{]m-b-sf tNv Hcp aX-amn AXns\ hn-n-p--Xn-
tepthn {InkvXy-m-cm-Ip--hv Bsfm-n\v 12 s]mpw
{]tXyIw {]tXyIw sh-hk - v{Xhpw sImSpv, ]o-cm-bncw ]pcp-
j-m-scbpw AkwJyw kv{XoI-sfbpw sNdnb Ipn-I-sfbpw Hcp
kwh- - c w- s Imp tNp (Gibbons Decline, and Fall,
Vol.ii.P.472-3) BbmXs CX-c-a-X-sf \miw sNp--Xn\v
X-h-bmb At\-I-N--sf Dm-n. Bsc-nepw ]gb tZh-X-
Ip _en-bn-m kzp-sf A]-l-cnpsImv Ahsc
sImp-I-fI ]Xn-hm-bn-cp-p. {InP380-mw kwh-cw apX 394
hsc cmPm-hm-bn-cp Xntbm-tUm-jn-bkv F B CX-c-a-X--
msc k` Iqn-qSm Fpw, IqSp sIn-S- cmPm-hn-\m
A]-l-cn--s-Sp-sapw {InkvXp-a-Xs A\p-k-cn-m--hv
bmsXmcp kzmX-{yhpw Cspw D-chp \Sn. (Gibbons
Decline and Fall, V, iii. P. 412)
Am-e-n {InkvXy-m-cm-Im--h-cpsS apXIm-cy-sf
hnp-sIm-Sp-m--]w Pohs\ hnp-sIm-Sp-t-n-h-cpw.
5m-aXp \qm-n C]m-Xnbm Fp Hcp kv{Xo kz-a-Xs
t_m[n-nv Hcp {InkvXym-\nsb AXn tNp--Xn-tev Bcw-
`n--Xn-\m Ahsf {InkvXy]n-bn-tep ]nSn-n-g-p -sIm-p-
sNp hkv{X-sf Dcnv tZls `n-`n--amn amwks
Adp-s-Spv ss__n ]pd-m-Sp-]p-kvXIw 22--A. 20 hmIys
B[m-c-am-n-smv Ahsf Xobn-en-p-sIm-p. Ata-\nb F

digitized by www.sreyas.in
114 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

tZi-n Xnsbm-Udm F N{I-hn\nbpsS Ime-n ew


t]cp-hsc sIm-s-p. 10-m-aXp \qm-n {^mkvtZ-is cmPm-
hmb Nmdv F B {InkvXy-\m-Ip--]w Xs aI-sfbpw
k-n-s\bpw sImSp-m-sap \msatZ-iv sdmtem F
Bfn-t\mSp k-Xnp ]d-bp-Ibpw Abm A{]-Imcw {InkvXy-
\mbpw {InkvXp-aXw C-sX-p-t]mepw Adn-bm kztZ-in-Isf
Fm-h-scbpw {InkvXymcm-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. Sn 10-m-aXp \qm-
n t]mf-p-tZ-is cmPmhv Xs `mcysb Icp-Xn, {InkvXy-
\mb h-am-\s aqm-aXv t]mv tPm F B tI-
dnv B ]-W-hm-kn-Isf {InkvXy-m-cm-p-hm At\-I-]m-Xn-
cn-amsc Ab-p. Fnpw Bcpw-Xs {InkvXy-m-cm-Im--Xp-
sImv A\ym-bN - -
- sf Gs-Sp-n. Ahsc ZWvU\w sNbvXp.
AXp kln-m ]mSn-m B Znp-Im Fmw {InkvXy-m-
cmbn.
Sn. 10--maXv \qm-n djym-tZ-is cmPmhv {Kokp tZis
{InkvXym-\n-kv{Xosb IeymWw Ignv Ah-fpsS \n- - nt]-
cn Xm\pw AXp-\n-anw P\-fpw {InkvXp-a-Xs A\p-k-cn-
p. Sn. 10-m-aXv \qm-n Hsm F-h sUamv tZi-msc
Pbn-bpw A\-cw P\--tfmSv \n-sf-m-hcpw {InkvXy-m-cm-
Ip-sa-n kam-[m-\s - -p-sImmw Fp ]d-bp-Ibpw sNbvIb
- m
asm-cm-{ibw Cm B P\- Fm-hcpw {InkvXy-m-cm-bn.
C{]-Imcw t\ms-tZ-i-mcpw {InkvXy-m-cm-bn.
6m-aXv \qm-n Nns-cnv F-h {^mkvtZ-is
blq-Z-msc \n-nv {InkvXy-m-cm-n.
5m-aXv \qm-n F^o-bv F Znn \S hep-Xmb
]mXn-cn-k-aq-l-n {InkvXp-hn\p hntcm-[-am-bnp ]d--h-\mb
shn-bmkv F ]mXn-cnsb sImp-Ibpw Abm-fpsS In-bn
tN-hsc Xp-Ibpw sNbvXp.
1229-mw hj-n Sptemkv F tZi-p-\np henb aon-
n, tZi-tXmdpw k`-Ifpw k` Hn\v Hcp Kpcphpw cp
injy-mcpw B k`-m AXmXp Znnse {InkvXy-m-cm-Im
Fm-h-scbpw _emm-c-ambn ]nSnp {InkvXy-m-cm-p-Ibpw
Xosc BI-bn Fp ]d-bp-h - sc sImp-Ibpw thW-sap Xocp-
am-\n-p. CXnp tahn-Nm-c-W-m-c H]-Xm-aXp {KnK-dnbpw

digitized by www.sreyas.in
Iq-sm-e-I 115

Bbn-cp-p. {InkvXy-m-cm-Im--hsc \-m-cm-bnp \np-I,


sam- b - S n- p- I , alm- t h- Z - \ - s - S p- p b{- n shv
AapI apX-emb ITn-\-Ir-Xy-sf Sn. k`-mcpw Ah-tcmSp
]ns tN-hcpw sNbvXp Fv knhnen F Znns hnNm-c-
W-Im-hm-bn-cp Bfns ssIp-kvX-I-n Fgp-Xn-bn-cp-p.
CXns\ hnkvXm-ca - m-bnv Adn-bW - s - a-n tUmIvS dq F Bfn-
\m Fgp-Xs - Sn. hnNm-cW Ncn-{X-]p-kvXI - n ImWmw. (Ap-
-
pendix Vol.I.P.339 to 359 Fd. in. 1874) a\p-jysc shv Aan
sImp-hm-\p Nnthm-sev (Chevolet) F b{-n \-
Xnhw Aan sXm-h-scbpw XpWnsb sNepn sImp-
Ibpw apw sNbvXp. Sn. k`-m kv]m\n-bm-tZ-i-n 31912 t]sc,
] Dbn-tcmsS Xobn-enp sImp. 291450 t]sc AXn-{Iq-c-am-bnp
ZWvUn-nv At\Iw IpSpw-_-sf Cmbva sNbvXp.
1492- mw hjw amp- a m- k - n kv s ]bntZ- i - nse
{InkvXp-cm-Pmhv At\I \qX-\-N--sf Gs-Sp-n. {InkvXp-a-
X-n tNcm--h-cmb ]pcp-j-m, kv{XoI, Ipn-I, hr-
m, GgI, [\-hm-m apX-emb Fm blq--Z-mcpw Pqembv
amk-n-\Iw Znp hnp s]mbvsm--W-sapw t]mIp-tm
s]m, shn apX-emb kzpsf Hn-s\bpw sImp-s]m-
bvqSm Fpw, h-I-N-c-p-I-sftbm ]m{X--sftbm FSp-p-
sIm-p-t]mImw Fpw apw Bbn-cpp Iev]-\. blq-Z-m A{]-
Imcw Fm kzp--sfbpw ssIhnv kztZ-i-p-\np t]mIp-
tm AhnsS Dm-bn-cp--h-cmb At\-I-]m-Xn-cn-am 1_lp-cm-
K-am-bnv hoYn-I-fn \np-sImv blq-Z-mv Hcp-hn-[-nepw
D]-Imcw sNbvXp-t]m-I-cp-sXp {]kw-Kn-p. Sn Pqem-bn-amkw h-
tm Fm-bn-Spw blq-Z-m-cpsS \ne-hn-fn-tLmjwXs Bbn-
cp-p. Ah D-n hnfn-p-I-c-p-sImp t]mIp-tm, D]-
Imcw bmsXmpw Chp sNbvXp-t]m-I-cp-sXv ]nsbpw
Iev]\ ]pd-s-Sp-hn-p. Blm-c-an-m-sXbpw, IpSn-p--Xn\p Pe-
an-m-sX-bpw, At\-Im-bncw P\- acn-p.
1502-mw kwh-cw s^{_p-h-cn-am-k-n kvs]bntZ-iv
CuUn-Xmkv F cmPmhv Xs cmPyv _lp-Im-e-am-bnp
IpSn-]mn-cp--h-cmb Xpep--m-cn {InkvXy-m-cm-Ip-hm Ign-
bnm Fp ]d ap-Xp-ew t] G{]n amk-n-\p-apv
Znp-hnp s]mbvsm--W-sapw t]mIm--hsc sImp-I-f-bp-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
116 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

sapw Ah-cpsS s]m, shn apX-emb bmsXmcp hI-I-sfbpw


FSp-p-sIm-p-t]m-I-cp-sXpw av At\I A\ym-b-N--sf
\nn-pw-sImv Ahsc \mSp-I-S-n--f-p.
6mw \qm-p-h-scbpw Cwo-jp-Im, {InkvXy-cm-bn-n-m-bn-
cpp; FpX-s-bp-a-m, {InkvXy-msc Im tZjy-sp
]pnp kwkm-cn-p-I-bpw-IqSn sNp-am-bn-cp-p. C-s\-bn-cn-p-
tm Cw- n sI v F ev cmPm- h m- b n- c p
GsXs_v F-h ]mco-kvtZ-iv {InkvXy-cm-P-]p-{Xn-bmb
s_Xm F-hsf hnhm-lw-sN-bvXp. Ah hcp-tm Nne ]mXn-
cn-am-sc-qsS sImp-hv Hcp ]n sInv Ahsc AXn
]mnv BZ- c - t hm- S p- I qSn cn- p- I - b pw, Xs {]nb- \ mb
GX_ns\ {InkvXy-\m-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. AXp-tl-Xp-hm-bnv
Ahn-sS-bp P\--sfbpw {InkvXy-m-cm-n. Am-ev Cw-
n \mm_dnbm F tZi-nse cmPmhv ap Fm
cmPm- - m-sc-mfpw _e-hm-\m-bn-cp GX_v F-h\pw Xt-
i-hm-kn-Ifpw {InkvXp-a-X-hn-tcm-[n-I-fp-am-bn-cp--Xn-\m, At\Iw
]mXn-cn-amsc sN F tZi-p-shv sImp-Ib - pw-IqSn sNbvXp.
617-mw kwh-c -
- n Ahs ]nhm-gvNc - m-Pm-hmbn h FUzn
F-h\pw {InkvXp-a-X-hn-tcm-[n-bm-bn-s Ccpp Fnepw
{InkvXy-\mb Sn. sI v tZi-cm-Pm-hns ]p{Xnsb hnhm-lw-sN-bvX-
Xn-\m Ah-fpsS \n--nt]-cn Ah\pw Ahs \n_-
-n t]cn P\-fpw ap--hcpw ]nmew Cw-n
{InkvXp-a-Xs A\p-k-cn-p. Cw-p-tZ-i-n t{]m-m-p-
aXw Dev] - n-bmb DS 1539mw hj-n Bdp hn[n-I Gs-
Sp--s-p. Atm Ahsb A\p-k-cn-m 500 t]sc Pbn-en-
tev Cc-bm-n; At\Iw t]sc Xobn-enpw sImp. Bdm-aXv
FUvthUns Ime-n tPm t]m-dns\ Poh-t\msS
Xobnepw At\Iw t]sc Xqnepw Cp. tacn F dmWn-bpsS
Imev tdma Itm-enm {InkvXy-m t{]m-mp {InkvXy-
m-cn 277 t]sc Xobn-enp sImp. Ah-cn 55 kv{XoIfpw 4
Ipp-fpw Dm-bn-cp-p. -F-en-k-_-v F dmWn-bpsS
Imev ]cn-jvImcw sN-s (F-n-kvtIm-) anj-\m tdma
Itm-enm {InkvXy-mcpw t{]m-mp {InkvXy-mcpw sIm-
s-p. Sn. cp aX--mcpw Hcp-sm-cp- Xfpw aX-
n tNcp-n-sp ]d-bp--hsc A\-p-hm ]mSn-m hn[-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
Iq-sm-e-I 117

n ssIIm-ep-Isf Aan-sn Xobn-enp sImp-Ibpw


Xqn-en-Sp-Ibpw Pbn-en-e-S-bvbpw kzp-sf A]-l-cn-bpw
sNbvXp. CXp-t]mse F{X tZmj- sNbvXp!
Abem-p-{]-tZ-is t{]m-m-p-a-X-n-eps-Sm
tdma Itm-en-m- ]m-Xn-cn-amsc \mSp-I-Snhnp. ]cn-jvI-cn-
-s t{]m-m-p-aX - k
- w-_- a
- mb \S-]S- n-Iv CjvSs
- -Sm
tdma Itm-en--mv A]-cm[w \n-bn-p-Ibpw Pbn-en
hbvp-Ibpw Ap ssaen-\p-ta s]mbvqSm F \n_--\-
sN-bvIbpw sNbvXp. 1694mw kwh--c-n Itm-en-m-a-X--
m X-fpsS Ipn-Isf A\y-tZ-i--fn ]Tn-p--Xn-te--b-
p-IqSm Fpw 1709mw hj-n Itm-en-m-Ip-n-Iv A-
X- - m ]mTw sNmn-sm-Sp-p-IqSm Fpw \n_-\ sNbvXp.
1703mw hj-n Itm-en-m-a-X-n\np t{]m-m-mbn
hcp--hp am{Xta Xs ]nXp-cmn-X-kz-n-\-h-Im-i-apq
Fpw Itm-enm Ipn-Iv bmsXmcp kw_--hp-an-spw
t{]m-m-p-I Itm-en--cm--bm Xs ]nXr-kz-n-\-h-Im-
i-an-spw Itm-en- - m Irjn-bn-Sp \ne-n\p sImSp-p
hcn-bn aqn-semcp `mKw BZmbw In--hn[ta Irjn Cd-
m-hq. A[n-I-am-Zmbw FSp-m AXns\ sXcy-s-Sp-p
t{]m-m-p-Im-c\v B \ne-ns\ Hgn-p-sIm-Sp-p-sIm--W-
sapw, Itm-en--m 5 ]un-e-[nIw hne-]n-Sn-p IpXn-c-
Isf D]-tbm-Kn-p-t]m-I-cp-Xv, Hcp-thf 10 ]uv hne-bp--Xns\
D]-tbm-Kn-p-t]m-bm B hnh-c-ns\ Adn-b-s-Sp-p t{]m-
m-p-a-X-\v B IpXn-csb 5 ]uv hnebvp sImSp-p-sIm-
-W-sapw, kvtImp-em-p-tZ-iv 1670mw hj-n D-c-
hp-Iq-SmsX {]kw-Kn-p-IqSm Fpw N-ap-m-bn. 1674mw hj-n
\ymbw -]-d-bp AUz-t--msc \mSp-I-Sn hnp. 1678 ae-
bn Ccp sFe-amsc hcpn Ah-cpsS CjvSw t]mse
P\-sf sImp-Ibpw tamjvSn-p-Ibpw Xo sImfp-p-Ibpw sNp-
-Xn\v A\p-hmZw sImSp-p. Bbp-[-]m-Wn-I-fmb 8000 sFe-
amsc kvtImvemv hS-p-`m-K-p {Kma-n {]th-in-
np. Ah A{]-Imcw sNv P\--fpsS kzp-sf A]-l-cn-
bpw kv{XoIsf \-I-fmn At\Iw A{I-a-sf sNp-Ibpw
cp-t]sc Hn-p-sIn cp-t]-cp-sSbpw s]cp-hn-c-ep-Isf Hnp
tNp apdpn ac-n sXm-en-Sp-I-bpw, Hcp s]]n-sb

digitized by www.sreyas.in
118 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

P]m-e-b-{]-[m-\n-bpsS hoSn-\-I-p Xhf apX-emb Pp-


\nd Hcp henb ]-n FSpp Xn--f-bp-Ibpw Hcp
kv{XobpsS hnc-ep-Isf hf-sc-t\-cw-hsc Xop-n-sImp NpSp-Ibpw
Cu D]-{Z-h-sf kln-m hln-bmsX Ah Nne Znh-kw-
sImv acn-p-t]m-I-bpw, SIzn-saS F-h A[n-Imcw \S-nb
18 kwh-c -
- n-\Iw {InkvXp-aX
- h
- n-tcm-[n-If
- mb 10220 t]sc sImp-
I-bpw, 97321 Bfp-I-fpsS kzp-sf A]-l-cnv Ahsc Poh-]-
cyw Pbn-en-en-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp. (History of the Inquisition by
Dr. W.H. Rule, Vol.I. Page 150)
ChXs Ne-amI F Znn PqX-aX -
- m-`n-{]m-bs- -
n ]d-bp-p Fp-shv 6000 imkv{X-sf Xobn-en-p- Np-p.
(Drapers Conflict of Religion and Science, page 149). 1481mw hj-
n Bp-eq-jym-bn 4m-aXv t]m]n-Nn-IvSkv F-h-\m \nb-
an--s hnNm-c-W-k-`-m 2000 t]sc Poh-t\msS Xobn-en-p-sIm-
p-Ibpw 17,000 t]v A]-cm-[hpw Poh-]-cyw ZWvU-\hpw hn[n-
bpw sNbvXp. Acn (lw-K-dn) F Znn InkvIm Dssk
F-h ]nIvSmkv Fsmcp hI-msc sIme sNbvXp. P-\n-
tZ-i
- n t{]m-m-p-aX - s Dm-nb eqX F-bm I-
msc Igp-th-p--t]mse Kpcp--m-cmb t]m-msc Fm-h-
scbpw sImp. Ah-cpsS c-n C\n Ftm-gmWv ssI Igp-
Ip--sXp hyk-\n-p. (Spanish Inquisition La Maistre, P.67,
Ed. 1838) (Cu I-i-s\-bmWv hfsc ]cn-jvImcw sNbvX-h
Fp t{]m-m-p-Imcp sImm-Sp--Xv.) Bv _njv Djcn
F t{]m-m-p-a-X-]m-Xncn X\np Xpey-m-cmb 11 _nj-p-
I Is-gp-n Hcp ]{X-n tdma- I-tm-en t]mp-I-
tfmSp a-Im-p-Xp alm-]m-X-I-am-bn-p--Xm-sWv Fgp-Xn-hm-
bn-p. t\mIvkv F t{]m-m-p-{In-kvXy, Itm-en-m-Kp-cp-
-m-scbpw cmP-kv{Xo-sbbpw P\- \n--ambn sIm-W-
sapw Cwojv ]men-sa-p-k-`-mcpw ssZh-a-ln-asb {]kn--
am-p-X- n-tep _em-evmcw sNp-Xp icn-bm-bn-p-s - X-pw,
kvtImvemp ]men-sa-p-Im hn{K-lm-cm-[\ sNp Itm-
en--msc sImp-Xp t{]m-m-p-a-X-\n_--am-sWpw
]dp. (A-m-es ]men-sa-p-Im-cpsS amXn-cn-Isf t\mp-
hn.) Ctm-gs ]men-sa-p-Im C{]-Imcw sNbvhm Xp\n-
bptam? Cs\ A{I-a- sNbvhm Ctm N-aptm?

digitized by www.sreyas.in
Iq-sm-e-I 119

Ctm Cwojv ]men-sap (K-hs-v) F{Xtbm ]cn-jvIm-


c-am-bn-tm-bn. 1550-mw hjw 8m-aXp slnIv a{n-bm-bn-cp
{Kmav\-sc t{]m-mp {InkvXy, Xs aX-n hcm 5
]pcp-j-msc sImp-Ibpw Hcp kv{XobpsS hnc-en F-pWn
Npn XosIm-fp-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. (Students History of England,
Hume, P.291). Bhm, Xm ]cn-]m-e\w sNbvX \mep kwh-
-c-n-\p-n 18,000 t]sc sImp Fp anSp-p-]-d-p. Hcp
hjn 8000 t] Zln-n--s-Sp-Ibpw h[n--s-Sp-Ibpw
sNbvXp. ]mco-kv]--W-n 1172-mw hjw BKv amkw 24-mw
XobXn lnbq-\mS Fv Hcp-hI Bfp-I-fn 1400 t]sc HmSn-
p-sImv cmPmhv Xs Ac-a-\-bnse P\-en Ccp-p-sImv
_mW- { ]- t bmKw sNbv X v Ahsc ]n- I sf sImpw- t ]mse
sImp. ]nsbpw tNcm--hsc ]nSnv \m-bn-sn thZ-\-
bmb b{-n-\-Ip sNepn AhcpsS hmbvI-fn hncn
hmbp IpgIsf XncpIn \ndpn AXnqSn sXm-bn
Cd----hw {Zmm-ckw Ipap-Ip-ans\ Hgnp IjvS-s-Sp-p-
I-bpw, apgp-h\pw \-m-cm-n, AkwJyw A]-am-\-sf sNbvXp.
Xe-ap-X Imhsc 2Ipp-Zq-in-Isf Ipn-s-cpIn t]\m--n-
sImp shn Xobn-en-p. \-hw ]gp-n 3]p-Ip-c-Sp-sImv
Ah-cpsS aqp-Isf ]dn-s-Sp-p-I-f-Ibpw sNbvXp. C{]-Imcw
\S A\ym-b-fpw A{I-a-fpw sIme-]m-X-I-fpw C{X-am-{X-
sap ]d-m Ah-km-\n--bn-. ChnsS hfsc Npcp--am-bnv
Fgp-Xn-b-Xm-Wv. Fnepw {InkvXpaXw C{X-tmfw hn-p-h-
-Xns Imc-W- \-Xnhw sXfn-hm-b-tm. kln-m
hln-bm C-s\-bp lnwk-Isf sNbvXm BcmWp tNcm-
Xn-cn-p-Xv? ac-W-`-b-ap Fm-hcpw tNcp-I-Xs sNpw.
AmsX Ccw aX--sfbpw {InkvXp-a-X-sbpw Bcm-p-
t\mn KpW-tZm-j-sf Adnp {InkvXp-aXw Xs \-sX
k-X-tm-Sp-IqSn bmsXm-cp--cpw B aXs kzoI-cn-n-n-m.
Cu tZis al-Z- o-b F{Xtbm A{I-a - sf sNbvXmWv lnp-
sf Ah-cpsS aX-n tN-Xv. Fnepw {InkvXy-m
sNbvXn-p--Xn e-n-sem-cw-iw-t]mepw BI-bn-. Fm
Cm-e - f
- ntem bqtdm-nepw Ata-cn-b
- nepw ss__nfn\p hntcm-
[-amb `qtKm-f-im-kv{Xw, imkv{Xw, X-im-kv{Xw, KWn-X-im-
kv{Xw, sshZy-imkv{Xw apX-emb hnZy-I \-t]mse A`y-knv
X-imkv{Xw aptJ\ hmkvXhw C-{]-Im-c-sav Adn--Xn-

digitized by www.sreyas.in
120 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

\m {InkvXp-aXw ap aX--fn\nv FgpXn FSp sIp-


I-Y-bm-sWp \n-b-am-b-Xp-sImv ss__n-fn-s\-p-dn-p-m-bn-
cp Zpc-`n-am\w hnp-t]m-Ibpw sNbvIb - m N-sf Gs-Spn
]-]mXw IqSmsX P\-sf cn-p-h-cn-Ibpw AXp-sImv
Bwo-b-K-hsav cmPy-`-c-W-n-eps Fm P\-pw
\ymbw ka-am-bnp e`n-bpw Cuhn[w \mK-cnIw hn-p-h-cp-
tmdpw {InkvXy-m-cpsS Zpm--sfmw kqtcym-Z-b-n-,
lna-IW- - s- f-t- ]mse HmSn-tm-Ibpw apn-es A\ym-b - fpw
lnwk-Ifpw Ctm sNbvhm hln-bm--Xp-sImv ]mXn-cn-am
{Zhyw {]Xy--t`m-K-h-kvXp- Ch-Isf D]-tbm-Knp {InkvXy-
m-cm-p-Ibpw {InkvXp-hn-s\bpw X-X-sbpw \psS Iqp-Im
hniz-kn-m--Xp-sImv XSp-m Ign-bm GtXm henb B]-
n AI-sp he-bp--t]m-sebpw Ah CXns\ Ip hyk-
\nv D]-tZ-in-p--Xm-bnpw hniz-kn-n-p. {InkvXy-m-cm-bm Sn.
B]-p-I-fn\np c-s-Sp-sa--t]m-sebpw {InkvXy-m-cm-b-
h-sc-m-t]cpw c-s]-p-t]m-b-Xm-bnpw \Sn-p-sImv ]mXn-cn-am
tXt]m-sebpw ]mep-t]m-sebpw kwkm-cn-p-Ibpw sNp-p
F-m-sX, Ah-cpsS ASp- \ymbw, Zb apX-emb KpW-
Aev]-sa-n-ep-ap-sp hnNm-cn-m ]mSn-. C\nbpw ]mXn-cn-am
bqtdm-]y-m-cpsS \mK-cn-I-n\pw \oXn-bnepw {InkvXp-a-X-amWv
Imc-W-sap aSn-Iq-SmsX ]d-bp-Xv Hcn-epw icn-b-s-p-n-
tep apIm-Wn A\ym-b-fpw lnwk-I-fpw, \mK-cn-I-n\pw
\oXnpw Imc-W-amb imkv{X- ss__n-fn\p apgp-hn-tcm-[-am-
Ipp Fpw Ah-If - n-cp ]pkvXI- i
- m-eI
- t- fm-Sp-IqSn Xobnp NpSp-
Ibpw AXp-Isf ]Tn--dnhcmb Fm ]mXn-cn-am-tcbpw Pbn-
en Ccp-nbXpw lnwknpsImp sNbvXn-p--Xpw-Xs
kmn-I-fm-Ip-n-tbm?
hnZym-im-e-Ip ]mXn-cn-am {][m-\n-I-fm-bn-cp Imev
Sn. imkv{X-sf ]mTw hbvmsX ss__n-fnse ({In-kvXp-a-X-hn-
j-b-am-b) ]mT-sf am{Xw hbv-bm Sn. imkv{X- Am-
ev ]cn-]m-en-s - -Sm-sX-t]m-Ibpw Szmn-amSv F B lo{_p-
hn Fgp-Xn-bn-cp imkv{X-]p-kvX-I-sf NpSp-Ibpw kv]m\n-
bm-hn imkv{X-sf Xobn-en-Sp-Ibpw Nme-amI F tZiv
6000 imkv{X-]p-kvX-I-sf hn-n-p-sIm-p-h-cp--Xn-tev
Dm-ln--h-cmb 119 imkv{Xn-amsc Pbn-ensm-np sImp-
Ibpw {^mkn ck-hm-Z-im-kv{X-fpw ap imkv{X-fpw

digitized by www.sreyas.in
Iq-sm-e-I 121

]Tn-p-IqSm Fpw, {InkvXp-a-X-hn-tcm-[-amb GXp ]pkvX-I--


sfbpw {InkvXp-a-X-{]-[m-\n-bpsS D-c-hp-Iq-SmsX An-p-IqSm
Fpw D-c-hp-m-bpw 1619-mw hj-n 4]mWn\n F
X-im-kv{Xnsb Zeqk F Znn \mns\ ]dnv sImp-
Ibpw sNbvX-sm. C\nbpw At\-I-ap-v, kabw t]mcm--Xn-
\m \npp.
1. tahn-h-cn {]_-e-\ym-b--sf-smv ]nXm-hv, ]p{X,
]hn-{Xm-mhv Ch ssZh-e- W- a- p-h
- c
- s
- -pw, {InkvXp-
hns ]m]-_-enbpw hnizm-khpw apn-km-[-\-am-I-bn-s-
pw, apn-e--Whpw ]m]n-I \nXy-\-c-Is A\p-`-
hn-p-sa-p-Xpw Aev]w-t]mepw tNcp--h-b-s-pw,
ss__n A{]-am-W-am-sWpw apw \-Xnhw km[n-
-s-n-cn-p-p.
2. C\n Nne ]e Zqj-W--sfbpw B-`m-k-\ym-b--sfbpw
hnfn-s-gp--n-p-sImv CXn-tepw adp-]Sn Fgp-Xn-hn-
Spp Fp-h-cn-In \msap sNpw? Ia-p-hoWp apJw
`qan-bn Xn-bnpw aoi-bn ap-]p-c-n-sp Uop-]-
d-bp--h-cpw, a\-n-sempw hmn-sem-p-am-bnv i-f-n-
\p-thn InSp amd-Sn-p--h-cp-amb Cu Iq-m-tcmSv
Fsms F{X-sbms ]d-m-s-sbm? Cu
Akw-_---sf-sbms Xn-tbv \ymb-am-am-bnp
JWvUnp hyh-l-cnp m]n-pp Fp-h-cn-In B
A`n-{]m-b-n \mapw tNp-sIm-p--Xn-tep Xbm.
3. {InkvXp-aXw C nXn-bn-ep--Xm-sWv CXns\ hmbn-
p--hv Adn-hp-In-pw. AXp-sImv ae-bm-fn-I-fmb
lnp-v CXv Ghpw D]-Im-c-ambn `hn-p-am-dm-I-W-
sa Fs AXym-{Klw k^-e-ambn `hn-p--Xn-tev
kmm ]c-a-in-h-sbpw ]pcm-X-\-a-lm-m--fp-sSbpw
k-\--fp-sSbpw Cu hnj-b-n Ctm Dm-ln-p-
sIm-n-cnp--h-cp-amb Kpcp--m-cp-sSbpw ]qm-\p-{K-
l-s-s B{i-bn-p-sIm-p-p.
4. Atbm lnp--sf, \n Zb-hp-sNbvXv Cu ]pkvX-
Is Nn-k-am-[m-\-tm-Sp-IqSn BZyw XpSn Ah-km-
\w-h-scbpw hmbnp a\-n-em-p-Ibpw CXn ImWn-n-

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122 {InkvXp-a-X-tO-Z\w

p \ymb--fm {InkvXp-aXw tOZn--stm Ctbm


Fp \-Xnhw Nnn-p-t\m-p-Ibpw sNbvhn.
Ah \nsf Ah-cpsS {InkvXp-aX -
- n tNp-X - n-tev
Dm-lnp hp hmZn-p-tm, B hmZ-sf Hsbpw \
{]_-e\ - ym-b
- s
- f-smv JWvUnp hnpw-If
- v ]cn-]q-ssZ-
h-am-bn-cn-p ]c-a-in-hs\ `Pnv kK-Xnsb {]m]n-p--h-cmbn
`hn-n.
C\nbpw ASp--t]mse ImWmw.

Ipdn-p-I
1. _lp-cm-K-am-bnv = AXym-m-Z-am-bnv
2. Ip-Zqin = samp-kqNn
3. ]p-Ip-cSv = sImSn
4. ]mWn\n = bqtdm-nse Hcp `mjm-]-WvUn-X

digitized by www.sreyas.in
123

XII
tZho-am-\-k-]qPm kvtXm{Xw

digitized by www.sreyas.in