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REGIONAL SEMINAR REPORT oN

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


fOR GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS
SEAMEO Regional Centre for Higher Education and Development
5th Floor, Commission on Higher Education Building
328 Sri Ayutthaya Rd., Rajthevee, Bangkok 10400 Thailand
Tel: (66) 0-2644 9856 to 63 Fax: (66) 0-2644 5421
E-mail : rihed@seameo.org http://www.rihed.seameo.org

Published in Thailand by
SEAMEO Regional Centre for Higher Education and Development

First published in January 2005.

Regional Seminar Report on Human Resource Management for Global Competitiveness

Edited by Padoongchart Suwanawongse


Varaporn Bovornsiri

Cover design : Wachareeporn Nilratt

II
PREFACE

With the knowledge based society and globalisation, human resource


management for competitiveness at the global level is of vital importance. In fact, it is a
matter of all concerned regarding how to prepare and manage competent human
resource. SEAMEO RIHED, in collaboration with Association of Southeast Asian
Institutions of Higher Learning (ASAIHL), Southeast Asian Ministers of Education
Organization (SEAMEO) Secretariat, Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of
Education, Thailand, and Council of University Presidents of Thailand, deemed it
appropriate to organise the Regional Seminar on Human Resource Management for
Global Competitiveness.

This regional seminar had a twofold purpose: (1) to create a deeper


understanding of current trends on human resource management for universities and
institutions of higher education among educators, policy makers and other key
stakeholders; and (2) to gain an appreciation of private sector involvement in improving
delivery of quality higher education. The event was organised on 8 December 2004 in
Bangkok, Thailand. This report of the regional seminar aims to disseminate the
information obtained from the seminar to administrators, scholars, and staff of public and
private higher education institutions, schools, private sector, and other stakeholders.

On behalf of SEAMEO RIHED and the Organising Committee I wish to express


my sincere appreciation to the distinguished speakers and their valuable contributions to
the seminar: Professor Dr. -Ing Wardiman Djojonegoro, former Minister of Education,
Indonesia; Professor Dr. Wichit Srisa-an, a Member of the Thai Parliament; Dr.
Krissanapong Kirtikara, President of King Mongkuts University of Technology, Thonburi;
Mr. Andrew McBean, Managing Director of Microsoft Thailand Limited, and Professor Dr.
Chira Hongladarom, Secretary-General of the Foundation for International Human
Resource Development. I also would like to express my sincere thanks to the co-
organisers and all the participants of the seminar.

My special thanks go to Dr. Ninnat Olanvoravuth, Secretary General of ASAIHL


who put forward the idea of this seminar. I also would like to thank Dr. Varaporn
Bovornsiri, and Dr. Praphon Jearakul for their editing service. Furthermore, I wish to
express my appreciation to the following staff members of SEAMEO RIHED: Mrs.
Chompunoot Sawangdee, Mrs. Wachareeporn Nilratt and Mrs. Pichaya Pansawat for
helping prepare the manuscript.

Padoongchart Suwanawongse, Ph. D.


Director
SEAMEO Regional Centre for
Higher Education and Development (RIHED)
January 2005

III
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Preface III

Introduction 1

Welcoming Remarks 2

Opening Address 4

Proceedings of Seminar 7

Meeting the Changing Demand of World of Work: 12


Challenges for Human Resource Management
By Prof. Dr.-Ing Wardiman Djojonegoro

Education for Global Competitiveness 19


By Prof. Dr. Wichit Srisa-an

Human Resources Management Revisited 29


A Thai Reflection and Perspective
By Dr. Krissanapong Kirtikara

University-Business Partnerships: 41
Human Resources for a Global Skills Market
By Mr. Andrew McBean

Synthesis/Summary 46
By Prof. Dr. Chira Hongladarom

Appendix I : Seminar Programme 51

Appendix II : List of Speakers 53

Appendix III : List of Participants and Seminar Organisers 55

IV
INTRODUCTION
As technology advances and globalisation accelerates the pace of change,
todays human resource managers must rethink their organisational roles. In order to stay
ahead of the global competition, it is important for us to learn the new imperatives for
strategic human resource leadership across cultural and national boundaries.

Global competition has forced executives to recognise that they must think
differently in order to succeed by developing an effective global human resource
management system. Todays competitive markets demand organisations with personnel
capable of designing and implementing global strategies to manage cultural diversity. The
human resource management function can help the organisation achieve its primary
strategic goals of reducing the costs of value creation and adding value by better serving
the needs of the stakeholders.

Human resources can be a sustained source of high productivity and competitive


advantage in the global economy. In one study of competitiveness among 326 large
multinationals, the authors found that management of human resources was one of the
weakest capabilities, suggesting that improving the effectiveness of human resource
might have substantial performance benefits, especially in an increasingly multinational,
multicultural and dynamic business environment.

This regional seminar thus attempted to explore human resource development


issues in the context of global competitiveness with focus on the rapidly changing
Southeast Asian environment. The one-day seminar featured key presentations by
eminent speakers from the region and beyond representing leading organisations in
education, international business, and national policy.

Objectives:

The regional seminar aimed:

1) to create a deeper understanding of current trends on human resource


management for universities and institutions of higher education among
educators, policy makers and other key stakeholders;

2) to gain an appreciation of private sector involvement in improving delivery of


quality higher education.

Real-world Benefits:

Beyond the high level academic discussions, participants in the seminar learned
how to implement human resource management strategies in order to compete in the
global arena. The participants had an opportunity to learn best practices, new strategies
with human resource solutions in a stimulating way by discussing current issues,
comparing alternative solutions in order to apply practical lessons to their own
organisations challenges.

Organisers of the Seminar:

Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning (ASAIHL)


Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation (SEAMEO)
SEAMEO Regional Centre for Higher Education and Development (SEAMEO
RIHED)
Council of University Presidents of Thailand
Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Thailand
WELCOMING REMARKS
Mr. Abdul Wahid bin Sulaiman

Prof. Dr. Pavich Tongroach,


Secretary General, Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Thailand

Eminent Speakers and Presenters, led by Prof. Dr. Wardiman of the HABIBIE Centre,
Indonesia

Distinguished Participants,
Colleagues in Education,
Ladies and Gentlemen:

It is both an honour and pleasure for me to welcome a distinguished roster of


delegates, speakers and organisers to this Seminar. I convey the regrets of the
SEAMEO Secretariat Director, Dr. Arief S Sadiman who has to be on an official mission.
Dr. Arief has taken personal charge of this one-day seminar for SEAMEO not only
because of his keen interest in the field of human resource development, but more
importantly, his personal concern over activities being done in cooperation with ASAIHL,
Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Thailand, Council of Universities
of Thailand and SEAMEO RIHED.

While this is a gathering of colleagues and co-workers in education, allow me to


share with you some excerpts from the Preamble of the Charter of the Southeast
Asian Ministers of Education Organisation which underlines the purpose for this one-
day seminar:

The Peoples of Southeast Asia desire to attain the benefits of peace, prosperity
and security through an enlightened citizenry.

We recognise the forces and the challenge of change in the contemporary


world.

We are anxious to provide for constructive direction to these forces of change.

These three lines summarise the importance placed by SEAMEO in a seminar like
this. In wishing to attain peace, prosperity and security, our organisations tirelessly work
within our fields of competence towards developing an enlightened citizenry, not only for
one country but for the Southeast Asian region as a whole.

In todays context, competitiveness is considered at various levels, not only in


terms of a firm, enterprise, country or region, but in individuals as well. We do not
measure our performance in terms of the country or the region, but we use global
standards to be able to thrive in a globalised business environment.

In recognising the forces and challenges of change, we continually scan the


horizon and seek out patterns and trends for development. We constantly seek to
understand and explore emerging concepts and trends. In addition, our Organisations
bring together the leading minds in the academe and other sectors, the stakeholders,
government agencies and private corporations - just as we are doing today.

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Finally, not only do we take time to reflect on these concepts and trends, but we
bring together the various players in order to provide constructive direction to these
forces of change. In todays seminar, not only do we listen to the ideas and experiences
of experts, but from the ideas shared, we endeavour to leave you with a clear purpose
and direction for the succeeding steps to take in your organisations, agencies, business
firms and universities. This is not only a forum for discussion - we hope to catalyse action
and help influence directions of institutions and agencies.

Colleagues, Ladies and Gentlemen:

We feel privileged to work side by side once again with the other organisers in
realising this one-day seminar and in making another contribution in human resource
development in Southeast Asia. On behalf of the organisers, we would like to reiterate
our utmost appreciation to our distinguished speakers and presenters who were able to
be here and share with us their experiences and to welcome you all to this one-day of
learning and sharing ideas on human resource development.

Thank you.

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OPENING ADDRESS

Prof. Dr. Pavich Tongroach

Deputy Director of SEAMEO Secretariat, Mr. Abdul Wahid Bin Sulaiman,


President of Council of University Presidents of Thailand, Prof. Dr. Adulya Viriyvejakul,
Secretary-General of ASAIHL, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ninnat Olanvoravuth,
Director of SEAMEO RIHED, Dr. Padoongchart Suwanawongse,
Distinguished guest speakers and participants,
Ladies and gentlemen,

It is my great pleasure to be present at the gathering of scholars and academics at


the Regional Seminar on Human Resource Management for Global Competitiveness
jointly organised by ASAIHL, SEAMEO, SEAMEO RIHED, Council of University
Presidents of Thailand, and the Commission on Higher Education today. On behalf of the
Royal Thai government and the Commission on Higher Education, I would like to extend
my warm and cordial welcome to all distinguished speakers and participants.

The world is now truly the global village it was once envisaged to be. Countries
have become inter-connected and interdependent and this will continue in the future. At
this crossroad, we have been facing many challenges which have had impact on our lives
and societies. The first challenge is the impact of globalisation. The globalisation
process has brought with it numerous benefits, especially for those countries that have
been able to take advantage of the market liberalisation and technological breakthroughs.
For the less developed countries globalisation has been fraught with difficulties and
seemingly insurmountable challenges, marginalising those less prepared even further.

Our second challenge is the rapid development of information and communication


technology. The world gets much smaller through innovation and discoveries employing
new technologies. E-commerce will operate nationwide in the near future and bring about
benefits to both manufacturers and consumers. However, the instant and almost
unlimited access to information is powerful for those who take advantage of the best of
what is available.

The third movement that I see as another big challenge is trade and investment
liberalisation and facilitation. An open and free trade environment will create
opportunities for increased international investment and trade. This will result in new
avenues and challenges for every kind of enterprise which will allow customers to enjoy
greater choices and better quality products. The targeted goals toward trade and
investment liberalisation and facilitation both in WTO and APEC frameworks, once
realised, will foster mobility of workforce within and across the region.

These challenges have made work more mobile, capable of being performed in
different parts of the world without the need to actually set up physical facilities in other
countries. They also generate the greater demand for human resource management in
order to flourish the countrys comparative advantage based on knowledge, innovation,
skill and productivity. Our new generation, therefore, needs to develop their full potentials
in order to stay competitive in the global market and be able to reap the benefits of
globalisation.

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At regional level, efforts have been made to build the capacity of human resource
to enable them to better serve the new economy and the knowledge-based society. The
projects on APEC Engineer and APEC Architect have reflected the concerns of countries
in Asia and the Pacific for the need to prepare professionals to work productively in an
international environment. Registration of engineers and architects has been targeted
based on the qualifications framework agreed by the participating economies. By so
doing, mobility of engineers and architects across country and region would be facilitated.
The ASEAN University Network Southeast Asia Engineering Education Development
Network or AUN/SEED-Net in short is another example of the joint effort between ASEAN
and Japan to produce qualified engineers to serve ASEANs industry-driven societies.

Thailand has shared her concerns with the rest of the world on the necessity to
produce and develop human resources to well respond to the global challenges. A
number of initiatives have been under way to upgrade the capacity of our workforce.
Emphasis has been put on the production of graduates in sciences and technology and
the niche areas of the country namely Food, Automobiles, Software, Tourism, Fashion,
Graphic Design and Animation, and Furniture. The production of 700 medical science
graduates per year for the period of 10 years is also targeted to respond to the countrys
health care demand.

In addition, the production of 20,000 Ph.D. graduates especially in


Nanotechnology, Bioinformatics and Neuroscience is considered necessary for Thailand
to stay competitive in the world community.

As for students, a number of projects have been implemented to enable them to


become the quality citizens. The Students Volunteer for Community Development Project
aims at allowing university students and faculty to have hands-on experience through
participation in a number of community development programmes with a small allowance
being provided. By working closely with the community, students are well aware of the
problems faced by the community and be able to exercise their critical thinking and come
up with ways and means to solve the problems as well as recommendations on the future
community development plan.

Cooperative education programme has been initiated to foster links between


higher education and the world of work and other parts of the society. The programme
integrates theory and on-the-job training by taking into account trends in the world of work
in economic, business and industrial sectors in order to respond to the requirements of
the labor market. The ultimate goals are to develop entrepreneurial skills and to facilitate
employability of graduates.

Recently, the Commission on Higher Education has pushed forward a project on


University Business Incubator. The project will serve as the driving force for the
establishment of a start up company which could later be developed into spin off
companies. UBI will not only foster university-industry linkages but also equip the
students with entrepreneurial skills. UBI is categorised into key clusters targeted in the
countrys development plan to ensure that the project will make a significant contribution
to the countrys economic competitive capability. Those clusters are Food, Health,
OTOP, Automobiles, Software, Microchips and Electronics, Nanotechnology, Tourism,
Science for Society, Teaching and Learning Modern Technology, Textiles and Fashion,
and Energy.

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Distinguished participants, ladies and gentlemen, as the world is moving toward
the molecular economy, higher education institutions should play a role in helping identify
the challenges brought about by such movement and create the body of knowledge as
well as produce graduates to well respond to the worlds changing demand.

We are all well aware that quality human resource is the key to the countrys
growth and sustainable development. Our mission to produce graduates should therefore
correspond to the countrys development goals taking into account the national
shortcomings and global challenges.

To allow our graduates to make greater contribution to our society, it is imperative


that they are nurtured in the environment which encourages them to exercise their critical
thinking and creativity. R&D is a must if we would like to stay on the competitive edge.
Extensive links with the industry needs to be forged and infrastructure be provided to
create new knowledge and innovation.

To survive in the digital society, our new generations need to catch up with the
advancement of ICT and technologies and have an ability to master those skills. This is
another challenge for higher education institutions to address the issue and help bridge
the digital divide.

Distinguished participants, ladies and gentlemen, success or failure of an


organisation depends much on the leadership of its CEOs. We have seen the failure of
multinational firms resulted from the lack of leadership. Building leadership for our
younger generation should therefore be among our prime responsibilities and concerns.

I have a high hope that this seminar will ignite some thoughts and stimulate new
ideas leading to the desirable ways to manage our human resources wisely and
productively.

May I take this opportunity to express my appreciation to SEAMEO, SEAMEO


RIHED, ASAIHL and the Council of University Presidents of Thailand for organising this
thought provoking event.

On this note, I take great pleasure to declare open the Regional Seminar on
Human Resource Management for Global Competitiveness. I wish you all every success
in your deliberations.

Thank you.

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PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEMINAR

I. Background

The institutional strength of the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education


Organisation (SEAMEO) is its broad functional network of linkage institutions and
organisations covering a variety of interest areas and a broad geographic scope. The
value placed on these networks and linkages is evident in adopting establishment of
national and international linkages as one of the strategic goals for the Organisation. The
operational linkage with the following organisations provided the backdrop to work with
these organisations in developing awareness of and appreciation for human resource
development as a strategic area of interest for key agencies/learning institutions in the
region:

Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning (ASAIHL)


The Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education of Thailand
The Council of University Presidents of Thailand

SEAMEO, through the SEAMEO Secretariat and the SEAMEO Regional Centre
for Higher Education and Development (SEAMEO RIHED) thus served as co-convenors
of the Seminar. The organisations share the concern to address an often articulated
need of Southeast Asian academics and industry leaders for information on current
trends in human resource management.

Global competition is one of the realities executives and enterprises in the region
must recognise. Thus the need for an effective human resource management system that
responds to the emerging globalised environment finds resonance not only among the
practitioners in the private sector but also those in the academe concerned with
professional preparation of future workers.

Thus, the one-day regional seminar was conceived to explore human resource
development issues in the context of global competitiveness with focus on the rapidly
changing Southeast Asian environment.

II. Seminar Overview

Beyond the high-level academic discussions, participants in the seminar were


exposed to current methods for implementing human resource management strategies in
order to compete in the global arena. The seminar thus covered the emerging
development trends, particularly technological change and globalisation as they were
appreciated and managed in government (Thailand and Indonesia) as well as in the
education and corporate sectors. Participants had an opportunity to learn best practices,
new strategies with human resource solutions in a stimulating way by discussing current
issues and comparing alternative solutions in order to apply practical lessons to their
organisations challenges.

The one-day seminar, jointly organised with ASAIHL, the Commission on Higher
Education, Ministry of Education of Thailand, the Council of University Presidents of
Thailand and SEAMEO Regional Centre for Higher Education and Development
(SEAMEO RIHED), featured key presentations by eminent speakers from the region and
beyond representing leading organisations in education, international business, and
national policy.

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The specific aims of the seminar were to:

1. Create a deeper understanding of current trends on human resource


management for universities and institutions of higher education among
educators, policy makers and other key stakeholders; and

2. Enable the participants to gain an appreciation of private sector involvement in


improving delivery of quality higher education.

The seminar brought together some 170 participants from 5 countries


representing universities and institutions of higher learning in Thailand, regional and
international organisations, government agencies and private corporations.

The seminar featured four (4) key presentations by eminent speakers as well as
speeches by representatives of the organisers responsible for convening the seminar.

All sessions were held in plenary, with a single presentation followed by a brief
discussion among the participants. A synthesis of the core presentations was presented
at the end of the seminar.

The detailed programme of the seminar is shown in Appendix I.

III. Opening Formalities

Mr. Abdul Wahid bin Sulaiman, Deputy Director of the SEAMEO Secretariat for
Programme and Marketing made the welcome remarks on behalf of Dr. Arief S Sadiman,
SEAMEO Secretariat Director. In welcoming the participants, recalled the purpose for the
establishment of SEAMEO, one of the seminar organisers, as a regional forum for
cooperation in the areas of education, science and culture. He underlined the key
phrases as enshrined in the Preamble of the SEAMEO Charter, wherein the countries of
Southeast Asia have pledged to work together by (1) recognising the forces and
challenges of change in todays world, (2) working as a forum to provide constructive
direction in the changes taking place, and thus (3) attain the benefits of peace, prosperity
and security through an enlightened citizenry.

The seminar, he emphasised, was one such opportunity to collectively bring


together the leaders to share views and ideas and guide the direction of future
developments in the field of human resource development given the development trends
in the region and beyond.

Prof. Dr. Pavich Tongroach, Secretary General of the Commission on Higher


Education, Ministry of Education of Thailand, was invited to give the Opening Address in
the Seminar, wherein he emphasised the emerging reality of the global village with the
interconnectedness among economies and societies, particularly in Southeast Asia.

Prof. Dr. Pavich reported that Thailand has to manage trends, such as
globalisation, trade liberalisation, the mobility of the workforce, the shifting nature of the
workplace and the locations of work enclaves, among others. As a consequence, the
country has to effectively manage the changing nature in the demands for services and
roles of higher education institutions. He cited the initiatives for managing the shifting
situation, such as the development of university-business incubators, community work to
provide hands-on experience for students, amongst other programmes that are being put
in place.

Expressing hopes for a fruitful exchange of ideas during the seminar, he officially
declared the seminar open.

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IV. Paper Presentations and Synthesis

The regional seminar consisted of four (4) principal presentations:

Meeting the Changing Demand of World of Work: Challenges for Human


Resource Management
Prof. Dr. -Ing Wardiman Djojonegoro
Chairman, Foundation for Human Resource Development in Science and
Technology, The HABIBIE Center, Indonesia and
Former Minister of Education and Culture, Indonesia

Education for Global Competitiveness


Prof. Dr. Wichit Srisa-an, Member of the Parliament
Chairman of the House Committee on Education, and
Executive Vice President of Chulabhorn Research Institute, Thailand

Human Resource Management Revisited - A Thai Reflection and Perspective


Dr. Krissanapong Kirtikara
President, King Mongkuts University of Technology, Thonburi

University-Business Partnerships: Human Resources for a Global Skills Market


Mr. Andrew McBean
Managing Director, Microsoft Thailand Limited

Prof. Dr. Djojonegoro outlined the global context of change as manifested in the
following phenomena noted in Indonesia: (1) changes in the demography and the
composition of the workforce, (2) changes in the work environment, (3) shifting trends in
technology, political environment, the economy, and (4) accelerated developments in
science and technology. Against this background, the presentation focused on
Indonesias initiatives for reform in response to the shifting demands of society and the
world of work. One of the key initiatives launched along these lines was the Match-Link
Programme which was featured as a core mechanism for aligning the services of
education institutions in Indonesia with the needs and concerns of the workplace.

Prof. Dr. Wichit covered Thailands education reforms by first summarising the
broad reform context taking shape in the country. Education was part of an over-all
environment of reform which had its roots in the national political and
bureaucratic/administrative changes adopted in the national development agenda.

The evolving knowledge-based economy and the realisation of current and future
competition faced by the country in key fields animated the reforms in education. Prof.
Dr. Wichit walked the participants through the relationship observed between the
components of the knowledge-based economy, competitiveness and national
development. Education reform was focused on the need to address the following
problems:

Quantitative concerns that relate to access to education and services,


Those that concern quality which translate to relevance of the curriculum,
appropriate learning content and materials, teaching/learning approaches and
management systems, etc.,
Issues concerning efficiency that cover the use of resources and sustainability
of education and training efforts, and
Effectiveness concerns that are associated with the results of education
services.

Reform in higher education served as a driver for the evolution of a knowledge-


based economy with its evident impact on the shifting concerns world of work.

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Dr. Krissanapong Kirtikara, President, King Mongkuts University of Technology in
Thonburi reviewed the transformation of education and manpower in the region over the
past two centuries. Her also presented an analysis of the drive towards modernisation
and industrialisation that countries have embarked upon over the past four decades,
underlining the impacts on human resources, the urban-rural divide, and implications of
certain policies relating to investment and industrialisation.

Dr. Krissanapongs analysis delved deeply with emering relations with China as a
major economic and political force in the region. He later expounded on current thinking
on education and learning as they impact on human resource development, drawing on
the Multiple Intelligences theories and recent advances on studies in brain-based learning
and how they influence human resource development trends.

Mr. Andrew McBean presented current trends opportunity areas for education
development through cooperation with the corporate sector. He cited, as an example, the
recent cooperation between Microsoft Corporation and UNESCO for application of ICT in
furthering Education For All. Mr. McBean presented the case of Microsoft global learning
initiatives such as the Microsoft Academic Alliance Programme as a mechanism for
cooperation to meet the expanding needs and demand for new and innovative education
services.

V. Synthesis and Summary

Prof. Dr. Chira Hongladarom, Secretary General of the Foundation for


International Human Resource Development presented a synthesis of the major issues
and ideas covered during the seminar. Drawing from the issues covered by the different
speakers, he noted that education reform and change could come not only through
change in structure, but they become for meaningful as change pervades the system
through people and peoples behaviour.

He recommended that beyond the one-day seminar, the results, ideas and action
points discussed should be disseminated to a broader audience to sensitise HRD
practitioners and educators as well as policy makers and opinion leaders to the nuances
of education and learning as a means for improving quality of human resources. It was
noted that the current seminar dealt mainly with the supply side, i.e., the education sector.
Human resource development for competitiveness calls for an understanding of the
demand side, and how development with a human face can be made operational.

Adding in his thoughts to those shared by the previous speakers, Prof. Dr. Chira
expounded on his four components of learning (learning methodology, learning
environment, learning opportunities and learning communities) and how they can be
brought together to achieve desired results in education. Building on human resources as
human capital in national development, he further expounded on five (5) further
dimensions of human capital development (innovation, creativity, cultural capital,
emotional capital, and knowledge).

VI. Closing Formalities

Representing the agencies that collaborated to organise the seminar, Assoc. Prof.
Dr. Ninnat Olanvoravuth, Secretary General of the Association of Southeast Asian
Institutions of Higher Learning (ASAIHL) delivered his brief closing remarks. On behalf of
the organisers, he expressed his thanks and appreciation for the contributions of the
speakers who shared their ideas and thoughts on a very important topic. He cited, in
particular, Prof. Dr. Wardiman Djojonegoro who traveled to Bangkok for the seminar.

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The organisers also thanked the participants, particularly those who came from
other countries as well as those who traveled from different provinces and cities in
Thailand. With hopes for a similar support and participation in future seminars and further
action on the action points identified, the ASAIHL Secretary General formally brought the
seminar to a close.

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MEETING THE CHANGING DEMAND OF WORLD OF WORK:
CHALLENGES FOR HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGMENT
Prof. Dr.-Ing Wardiman Djojonegoro

ABSTRACT
The paper discusses the role of Higher Education (HE) in a developing country. First it mentioned the broad aims of
higher education in expanding and improving quality of HE in a country, as well as how to make higher education a
priority for the respective governments.

Subsequently the global trend was considered, where a distinct trend in a


workforce is needed which is based upon knowledge and science and technology, which
will make the role of higher education more important. The close linkages in finance,
economy and politics between countries in a global world poses also new challenges for
higher education.

Problems of implementing these challenges and in catching up through will be


discussed next. Also the difficulties encountered in implementing and accomplishing
these aims.

Lastly some recommended actions for development of higher education is


mentioned, with a short explanation on the policy of link and match in Indonesia.

Introduction

Higher Education Development (HED) is a task that needs constant improvement.


This Seminar, organised by ASAIHL, is a good place to discuss specific problems of
higher education development that are common across the developing world, where over
80 per cent of the worlds population live. The discussion on higher education
development, its aims and potential solution, should be reviewed from different
standpoints: from the public policy maker, the government level, the stakeholders
(Universities, public and private), and the regional community. This meeting could help
transform the dialogue into an action plan that is adapted to each countrys needs.

It is sincerely hoped that this Seminar could be the starting point for higher
education reform, with details on how that reform should be carried out.

This paper discusses the management of higher education in a broad sense:


Political management;
Ministerial level management; and
University level management.

The first part review the general aims of higher education, followed by the
challenges to higher education in the era of globalisation.

Subsequently deliberations on the problems of higher education and the


recommended practical solutions. I have put at the end a short treatise on the link and
match policy in Indonesia, when I was the Minister for Education and Culture.

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General aims of higher education development

The broad aim for higher education development in developing countries is to:
Expand the quantity of higher education and access of population to higher
education,
Improve the quality of higher education,
Make this effort a top government development priority.

In fulfilling this higher education action, the points that should be considered are:

In a global economy, specialists are increasingly in demand in all sectors.


Increase through higher education the number of students with specialised
skills,
Access to higher education from all parts of the population (special
programme for students from disadvantaged backgrounds),
Higher education should be able to generate a body of students with a general
education that
9 Encourages flexibility and innovation. To be able to adapt to the
continuous change of economic and social structures in the fast-
changing world.
9 Besides teaching students the necessary knowledge, also create a
system that make it possible :
 to keep their knowledge up-to-date,
 refresh their skills to conform to the economic environment
changes,
 build a strong system, both at higher education and outside higher
education as an independent entity, to assess, transfer, develop,
and create new knowledge more efficiently and rapidly.
9 Catch up with Science and Technology by
 increasing the higher education in science and technology, and
 increasing the amount and quality of in-country research.

Global World

There is an inevitable trend in the world: it changes fast, and it becomes more
global. These trends are:

Demography and workforce: the existing workforce of today from 16-60 years
old, have had their training from experience and technology of 5 to 40 years ago. The fast
change of the economy necessitates a continuous adaptation of this workforce to cope
with technological and process changes. The problems encountered are:

The huge number of workforce involved ( and to be retrained), and


Change of manufacturing process in the future.

There is a distinct trend in the manufacturing sector changing from a manual


work with low added value to a knowledge base with high added value. In the future
knowledge based industries will be the foundation of economic progress in every country.
It is unimaginable how millions of workforce could be retrained into a knowledge based
process.

13
Another evident tendency is the inevitable trend from manufacturing industries to
service industries. Countries with knowledge based human resources could adapt faster
to this new service industry process.

An outstanding change in the global era is the fact that economic and finance
become regionalised and internationalised. As a result economic and finance are
closely connected between countries, and from regional become international entities.
This will create a unique challenge to each country, as the rise and fall in economics will
be closely interlinked (as the monetary crisis in 1997 -1998 showed to us).

Science and Technology make great leaps. The last twenty years witnessed an
accelerated development of S&T more than the last 100 years. Countries who master
S&T are now at the vanguard of progress, while developing countries have to catch up
not to be left behind. Especially information technology and others like biotechnology
(gene technology) made great jumps forward.

All these changes took place in a very fast manner, and leading to extraordinary
transformation in the way we live and work. In the globalisation era knowledge becomes
an important factor in the economy, in the world of work and in our lives. Consequently
higher education becomes an important factor to realise this know ledge society,
because:

A higher standard (degree) is the basic qualification for many skilled (read:
knowledge based jobs).
National competitiveness is highly dependent on the outcome of higher
education.

Catching up in the Global world, challenges of higher education in the developing


world

Countries in this globalisation era not to be left behind and to catch up with the
world, then needs:

To create through education and training, as fast as possible, a broad based,


skilled, flexible and technology-literate work force,
To utilise the knowledge generated within (the workforce) in activities that yield
the highest economic returns,
To raise the spread (access) of higher education in the countrys economy,
and
To constantly train the workforce into knowledge based mode.

Misperception on the role of higher education in the Global World

As the role of higher education in preparing a country in a global competition


become more important, this will create significant challenges for the developing world.
Unfortunately there is still a certain misperception in these countries concerning higher
education:

Many governments gave to higher education relatively low priority, witnessing


the low funding,
Donors have low interest in funding higher education. An economic analysis
showed that public investment in universities and colleges brings smaller
returns compared to investment in primary and secondary schools, and
A strong belief that higher education aggravates income inequality in the
country.

14
These factors contribute to the fact that the higher education in most developing
countries has great difficulties to develop in the right direction.

Higher education is not given the proper role in preparing the workforce in the
future knowledge era.
Although the number of students keep rising (50% of students live in
developing countries), and a higher quality is demanded, universities are still
under-funded.
Faculties are mostly under-qualified, poorly motivated, and poorly rewarded.
Laboratories are not equipped properly.
Students are badly taught and curricula under-developed.

It can be concluded that

Higher education in many developing countries will need to do hard work:


o to have the attention of policy makers,
o to develop or maintain their position, and
o to catch with the higher education in developed countries.
Currently, in most of the developing world, the promotion for development of
higher education is not fully realised.

Practical actions

In the higher education development there are a number of areas where


immediate, practical action is needed. These include:

Funding:
9 Through a variety of funding: from public, private sector, philanthropy,
and of course from the students.
9 The main aim is to
maximise the financial input of these sources.
to have a consistent and productive public funding.

Managing:

The main problems of higher education in developing countries are:


9 a transparent and accountability of higher education financing,
9 adoption of proven set of principles of good governance,
9 promoting the implementation of better management, and
9 more effective allocation of limited resources.

Assets:
9 consists of both physical and human capital,
9 adopt processes for the more effective use of physical and human
capital.

Curriculum:
9 development of curricula in science and technology, and general
education;
9 development of highly trained specialists and broadly educated
generalists in general economics;
9 flexible curriculum and education system, adapted to the needs of the
world of work (link and match).

15
Science and technology:
9 steps to new technologies to be taken, to connect developing countries
to the global intellectual mainstream.
9 adapt curriculum to the S&T world.

Problems in implementation

The difficulties in implementing and accomplishing these aims are many:

In the political field or level: many competing demands for public money.
In the ministerial level: the needed Action will need creativity and
persistence.
In the strategic planning: A visionary view of what higher education would
achievement or attain.
In the implementation inside higher education: combination of good better
planning and higher standards of management.
Networking with other stakeholders: Combining the stakeholders, public
and private and international higher education community in a coordinated
effort, for potential dominant position and leadership.

Recommended actions for development of higher education

It is advised that
Every country should establish clear goals, to be presented to the policy
makers
9 first is to view the higher education system as a whole, determining
what each part can contribute to the public good.
The goals could be debated at the national level, focusing on
9 the expectations of higher education delivery to the respective country.
9 taking clear account of the challenges of implementing and the future.
The analysis of higher education systems offers the ability to balance strategic
direction with the diversity of higher education systems This diversification is
the result of:
9 to increased demand for higher education, this has brought new
players (especially from the private sector) into the system and
encouraged the appearance off new types of learning institutions,
9 who brought new ideas and motivations into the system,
9 induced alternative sources of funding,
9 make increased competition, and
9 improved quality possible.

Problems encountered

However, this intention could not be materialised if

The diversification continues is unplanned and not focused.


Main (first core) qualities of higher education is not established and developed.
The main qualities are:
1. sufficient autonomy to the universities;
2. governments to provide clear supervision, (but not day-to-day
management);
3. to allowed institutions to develop to their strengths and serve different
needs;
4. competition with other national projects or within the higher education itself
for:

16
funding from public or private funds,
professional faculty staff,
assuring students cooperation,
human and physical capital with other economic activities, and
knowledge and ideas.
5. Promote increased openness,
Create, a learning center for all where facilities computers, libraries,
laboratories are open to any and all students;
Encourage higher education institutions to develop knowledge (and
revenue-) sharing links with business;
Higher education make a regular dialogue with society for a stronger
democracy and resiliency of the economy;
Encourage internationalisation.
6. The higher education market will not voluntarily conform to the system.
Markets are profit oriented and would not take the courses basic
sciences or the humanities, which are also essential for national
development.
These important faculties will be left, unless encouraged by leaders in
education or the government.
7. Governments should develop a new role as supervisors of higher
education. The government could establish the needed parameters, while
specific solutions could be left to the creativity of higher education
professionals.

In would be advisable, that the report could be aimed for wide distribution to the
countrys policy makers. It should raise the awareness, that

Higher education is essential for coping with the globalisation future, and
Higher education is important for the country and should be given priority.

Link and Match Policy

During my tenure as Minister for Education and Culture (1993-1998) of Indonesia,


I initiate the LINK and MATCH policy. Under this policy:

A dialogue is established at the local level between school administrators,


government officials, and industries on the skills adequacy of graduates in
view of work place requirements.

This LINK and MATCH policy is considered extremely important:


In order to provide timely feed back to the school system,
It took a long time to develop properly qualified manpower, and improvements
in our industrial infrastructure, as a result of the use of science and
technology, are taking place very fast.

With respect higher education there is dire need to focus on the question of:
How the graduates of universities MATCH the requirements that employers
have for such graduates.
Educators, who frequently themselves have very limited industrial experience,
need to rethink the basic specifications of the products they deliver.
Employers who are using these products need to be transparent on what
product specifications will best fit their own objectives in establishing their work
force.

17
The need to LINK with each other.

Major impact of LINK and MATCH policy on:

The type of courses, subjects and curricula that students are required to take.
The educators who should have the courage to change the substantive
content of that what is being taught.
The curricula of new generations are not necessarily taught in the same way
that the teachers were taught when they were students.

In short, this principle of LINK and MATCH represents a jolt to a world where
education can easily become a goal in and by itself, oriented towards obtaining
credentials but less focused on job requirements after graduation.

The discussion on LINK and MATCH can easily

Degenerate in a nice discussion of principles, without much recognition of the


real world.
To embark on a process of continuous improvement for higher education,
involving educators and employers, it is essential:
to recognise the status quo of current systems.
to know where to start from, because it is only in the detailed analysis
of the current system that we can find the reasons why we are not
satisfied with the status quo.
In this regard, it is important, that a broad brush national-level type of analysis
might not give the answer to the question of what it is that stands in the way of
every higher education becoming a center of excellence in its own right.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

I am aware that I have covered today a great many issues related to the
challenges of higher education development in general, and higher education
management in particular. I hope however that I have also been able to convey to you the
overall picture of higher education in developing countries, and the need to work hard to
meet these challenges. Much remains to be done and to be catch up in the area of
higher education development in developing countries. We still need more of discussions
like this, not only with the stakeholders themselves, but with the policy makers, decision
makers at the Ministry, and with donors. At this point I am confident that we representing
the developing nations will be able to do so, not only through our own efforts but also
together through organisations like ASAIHL.

Thank you very much.

18
EDUCATION FOR GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS

Prof. Dr. Wichit Srisa-an

Distinguished Participants
Ladies and Gentlemen,

It is a great pleasure to share with you my thought on this topic Education for
Global Competitiveness. I will present the general framework first and then will focus
on strategies and guidelines of higher education reform in Thailand.

1. Thailand in the Decade of Reforms

Ladies and gentlemen,

We are in the era of globalisation. Its process has and will continue to shape the
world. It has created new political, economic and social orders under these rapid
changes, countries and states have to seek both cooperation and competition.
Information and communication technology (ICT) becomes the very important tool
connecting people from different parts of the world. The exchange of date and
information is so rapid and convenient that we feel we live in the borderless world. The
world community is facing two challenges: one is the rapid changes and the other is
intense competition.

Countries around the world have to be prepared for these challenges. They have
to strengthen their abilities for self-reliance and competition. A drastic change in the
name of Reform becomes the urgent national agenda of many countres, including
Thailand. In the past 10 years, Thailand has carried out three major reforms: political,
educational, and bureaucratic.

1.1 Political Reform

This is the most important one because it is the foundation of the other two
reforms. On the 11th of October B.E. 2540 (1997), the Constitution of the Kingdom of
Thailand was enacted. This so called people-version Constitution opened up a new
chapter of history. The Constitutions was drafted by the Constitution Drafting Council
consisting of 99 members elected by the people. This people-elected body utterly
produced a new constitution that truly reflects popular wills on political stability,
democratic principle as well as good governance as new benchmarks for a better society
in which voices of all walks of life will be heard and effectively responded.

1.2 Education Reform

This is the result of the new Constitution. Section 81 stipulates the frameworks for
education reform as follows:

The State shall provide education to achieve knowledge alongside morality,


provide law relating to national education, improve education in harmony with economic
and social change, create and strengthen knowledge and instill right awareness with
regard to politics and a democratic regime of government with the King as Head of the
State, support researches in various sciences, accelerate the development of science
and technology for national development, develop the teaching profession, and promote
local knowledge and national arts and culture.

19
The Constitution called for law relating to national education. The National
Education Act B.E. 2542 (1999) was enacted and became effective on August 20, 1999.
This act sets the framework for education reform of all types at all levels and of the whole
system. As the result of this act, the Ministry of University Affairs and the National
Education Council have been consolidated to form the new Ministry of Education.

1.3 Bureaucratic or Administrative Reform

To modernise the administrative system of government organisations in line with


political reform, Thailand has effectively implemented bureaucratic reform since October
2, 2003. Many Ministries have been restructured and new Ministries have been created.
There are totally 20 Ministries now. Among new Ministries are:

Ministry of Tourism and Sports,


Ministry of Social Development and Human Security,
Ministry of Natural Resource and Environment,
Ministry of Information and Communication Technology,
Ministry of Energy, and
Ministry of Culture.

New ideas and approaches about management such as the concept of Chief
Executive Officer (C.E.O.) Administrative Integration and Result-Based Budgeting are
adopted to enhance efficiency and effectiveness of public administration.

These three major reforms were carried out almost at the same time by the Acts
of the Parliament. It was the joint responsibility of the legislative and administrative
authorities. It has been the national agenda in the last ten years. Therefore, the present
decade, it is the Decade of Reforms for Thailand.

2. The Knowledge Revolution

The modern world is a world of knowledge-based development fundamental


determinants of global competitiveness depend on access, creation, and utilisation of
knowledge. They are also determinants of the level of development. Knowledge is,
therefore, a dividing line and also a gap between advanced countries and developing
countries. As knowledge increases, the gap is widen. Developing countries are lagging
far behind. (See the Table) They need strategies and knowledge management in order to
benefit from knowledge revolution. They have to develop knowledge-based economy
through an access, creation, and use of knowledge. From Knowledge revolution,
developing countries can tap, adapt, and adopt knowledge from abroad. Knowledge
could be created and developed to meet special needs of the country.

Knowledge-based economy consists of the following important components:


(1) Human Resource Development,
(2) Research and Development,
(3) Dynamic Information Infrastructure, and
(4) Science, Technology, Innovation.

Human resource development is required to produce knowledge workers for the


knowledge-based economy. Research and Development is the foundation for access,
creation, and use of knowledge. ICT is needed for easy access and dissemination.
Science, technology and innovation are the sources of new quality products and services.
These components are necessary for the knowledge-based society.

20
Table: Hypothetical status of advanced countries and developing countries regarding the
level of development of knowledge-based economy and the level of
competitiveness

Advanced Countries Developing Countries

Level of Level of Level of Level of


Components
Development Competition Development Competition

Human Resource
Development
Research and Development
Information Infrastructure
Science Technology,
Innovation
High

High
High
High
} Low
L
Low

Low
Low
Low
} Low

The driving force moving these four components is education. But only quality
education can be the driver. Therefore, we need education reform for the development of
knowledge-based society.

3. Education Reform for Development

3.1 Problems

Since the past decade, Thailand has accumulated problems of education for
development that could be classified into four dimensions: quantitative, qualitative,
efficiency, and effectiveness.

On Quantitative

The problems of student number are due to the lack of educational opportunity.
The gap is between the rich and the poor, the advantaged and the disadvantaged, the
rural people and the city people. The direction for reform is to provide life-long education
for all.

On Qualitative

This is concerned with curriculum and instruction. Teaching and learning process
must be reformed. The curriculum must cover not only universal knowledge but also Thai
and local wisdom. Teaching must be student-centred. Rote learning must be replaced
by training in thinking process, analytical, and problem-solving skills. Quality assurance
system, both internal and external, must be implemented. Wherever the students are, in
remote areas or in urban communities, there must be an assurance of quality and
standards.

On Efficiency

In the past, decision-making power was centralised. Future direction is to


decentralise to schools. School-based management and community participation have to
be implemented in order to enhance efficiency.

21
On Effectiveness

The concern is with the cost-effectiveness and the quality of education. Budget
allocation has to be shifted from supply-side to demand-side in order to get higher returns
on investment in education. The most important aspect of effectiveness is the quality of
graduates. In the world of competition and globalisation, we need knowledge workers
and graduates who can function as global citizens. Education must aim at the
development of these desirable abilities.

3.2 Directions

Directions of education reform for development are as follows.

On the Development of Potentiality and Quality of the Thai People.


Important measures include:

(1) Extending compulsory education from six to nine years,


(2) Providing basic educational opportunity for 12 years free of charge,
(3) Providing vocational training and life-long education, and
(4) Reform of teaching and learning and implementing quality assurance .

On Human Resource Development.


Important measures are:
(1) Reform of vocational education, and
(2) Reform of higher education.

Human resource development should aim at producing quality knowledge workers


in sufficient numbers.

On Research and Development.

In order to create knowledge, innovations, and technologies necessary for


knowledge-based society, following measures are important:

(1) Support and strengthen research and development of higher education


institutions, government agencies, and private sector.
(2) Mobilise resources and promote investment in research and development by
using tax exemption as incentives or other measures as appropriate.

4. Strategies and Guidelines for Higher Education Reform in Thailand

Ladies and gentlemen,

Let me focus now on higher education reform in Thailand. Higher education is


most concerned with global competitiveness because it produces knowledge workers,
conducts research, develop innovations, and technologies necessary for the development
of knowledge-based society. Aims and strategies are important in launching the reform.

4.1 Aims of Higher Education Reform

(1) Higher Education as a Driving Force.

Higher education is to serve as a driving force for the development of knowledge-


based society. Higher education is to be a mechanism for national development in all
dimensions: economic, social, political, cultural and environmental. It is also a driving
force for innovations that will lead to national self-reliance and enhancement of global
competitiveness.

22
(2) Higher Education as an Academic Pool.

Higher education is to be the source of knowledge and wisdoms of the Country.


Thai and local wisdoms have to be promoted. Basic, applied, and policy research have to
be supported, disseminated, and used for the improvement of quality of life, community
development, and the development of business, industry, public enterprises, government
agencies, and private sector.

(3) Higher Education as a Producer of Qualified Graduates.

Higher education institutions are to produce qualified graduated to meet the needs
and demands of the society, particularly in the fields of science and technology. In the
globalised era. They are also expected to produce graduates who can function as global
citizens.

(4) Higher Education as an Institution of Good Governance.

The aim is to support institutional autonomy and academic freedom of higher education institutions. University management
must be flexible efficient, effective, and transparent with accountability to and under the supervision of the governing body.

4.2 Strategies for Higher Education Reform

4.2.1 Structural and Administrative Reform.

Followings are necessary measures.


(1) The state makes clear policies, objectives and plans on manpower
requirements, research and service based on analytical studies and policy
research. This will be the framework for higher education development.

(2) State higher education institutions are urged to be autonomous. This is to ensure efficiency, effectiveness, and
flexibility. Specialised higher education institutions remain under the jurisdiction of government agencies
supervising them. The principle of institutional autonomy should be observed by these institutions.

(3) Government supervision will be mostly on the direction of policy, budget


allocation and quality control. Greater emphasis will be placed on follow-
up, assessment, and post auditing.

(4) Promote networking, both vertical an horizontal, of higher education


institutions so that they can collaborate on various programmes and
activities. Regional grouping should be promoted so that higher education
institutions in the area can form a cluster to work for regional development.
Higher education institutions should be classified into deferent types
according to their specific missions and functions, such as degree and
non-degree granting institutions, teaching VS. research universities. This
would allow them to develop into centres of excellence in their own fields.
A group of universities with high potentiality should be developed to join
the rank of World Class University.

4.2.2 Financial Reform.

(1) There should be an agency responsible for setting up the criteria and
recommend budget allocation for state higher education institutions. The
agency should be public autonomous organisation under the supervision
of a committee consisting of eminent persons.
(2) Shift financing of higher education from supply-side financing to demand-
side financing to demand-side financing.

23
(3) Cost-sharing by learners should be implemented with consideration of
appropriateness and justice. The present student loan scheme should be
improved for its efficiency. Income Contingent Loan (ICL) or other
measures for the disadvantaged and specially gifted students should be
considered.

(4) Budget allocation should be based on per head expenditure and distributed
as general subsidies to higher education institutions. Consideration should
be given to missions, productivity, and costs. Performance-Based
Budgeting (PBB) is to be adopted and agreements or contracts are to be
made with higher education institutions in order to receive the budget from
the state.

(5) Promote higher education institutions to mobilise resources from different


sources such as tuition fees, donations and research grants. This would
strengthen their financial integrity.

4.2.3 Manpower Production and Providing Educational Opportunity.

(1) Support higher education institutions, particularly for the selective-


admission institutions, to product graduates in the fields of manpower
shortages and necessary for national development, particularly in science
and technology. The production and development of teaching staff in
science and technology is also a must. Persons with special ability should
be supported and developed to their full potentiality. New fields of studies
necessary for the development of knowledge-based economy such as
Nanotechnology, Bioinformatics, etc., should be developed.

(2) Develop flexible and diversified programmes to meet the needs of various
groups of people. Encourage credit transfer among colleges and
universities.

(3) Provide educational opportunity for informal and non-formal education


through regular and non-regular classes. Programmes should be
responsive to the market needs of people and communities. The state
should oversee only quality and standards.

(4) Use ICT to provide educational opportunities to the people at anytime and
anywhere. This could be done through distance and open education.
Multimedia and E-learning should be used.

4.2.4 Reform of Teaching-Learning and Research

(1) Allocate the budget for building the infrastructure necessary for teaching,
learning and research so that higher education institutions can perform
their functions efficiently and effectively.

(2) Enhance the quality of graduate education up to international standards.


This is a very important mechanism for producing quality research and
creating bodies of knowledge for the development of the society and the
country.
(3) Support basic and applied research in higher education institutions.
Promote the establishment of a specialised research institute, a centre for
policy research, and/or a centre of excellence in the field an institution has

24
the strength and potentiality. The research centre should be: (a) a place
where graduate students can benefit from its research programmes; (b)
linked with business and industry so that research findings can be
disseminated and used; and (c) be financed by partners.

University-industry linkage is weak in developing countries. If we promote


Research and Development in this direction, it will certainly contribute to the development
of knowledge-based society.

(4) Reform the curriculum and instruction. The curricula should aim at the
development of analytical skill, problem-solving ability, creativity,
adaptability, self-reliance, entrepreneurial skill, leadership and social
responsibility. Students should have work-experiences in business and
industry. Students learn to be productive knowledge workers.

4.2.5 Reform of Staff Development System

(1) Develop staff development system for higher education. As knowledge


workers, the staff need continuing staff development programmes. Staff
development institute could be set up for this purpose.
(2) Enhance the quality of graduate education and used this as a mechanism
for recruiting and development of new staff. With scholarships and grants
graduate education could attract new competent personnel into teaching
career.
(3) Support professional networking between and among institutions of higher
learning. This should enhance collaboration in teaching, research, service
and other activities beneficial to the society.
(4) Develop the system of academic promotion suitable to the functions and
missions of higher education institutions. Different ladders could be
considered for different types of functions and institutions. There should
be a mechanism to support, promote, and recognise staff members for
their outstanding achievements.

4.2.6 Reform of Private Participation in the Management and Administration of


Higher Education.

The following measures are necessary.


(1) Support private sector to invest in education in the fields that meet the
needs of the market and the society. Important measures under this
strategy could be: (a) use tax exemption as an incentive: (b) provide low-
interest loans for private higher education institutions; and (c) abolish
unnecessary bureaucratic rules and regulations.
(2) Promote institutional autonomy of private higher education institutions.
Government supervision will mostly be concerned with monitoring,
auditing, quality and standards, the same measures as applied in state
universities.
(3) Promote cooperation and collaboration between state higher education
institutions and outside agencies, both government and private. Support
outside agencies to have roles in monitoring, following-up, auditing, and
assessment of higher education institutions. Incentives such as tax
exemption should be used for donations and other kinds of contribution.
5. The Impact of Thai Higher Education Reform on Knowledge-Based Society and
Global Competitiveness

Ladies and gentlemen,

25
Let me now discuss on the impact of Thai Higher Education Reform.

5.1 The Impact on Knowledge-Based Society

As presented earlier, the components of knowledge-based economy consists of


(a) human resource development, (b) research and development, (c) information
infrastructure, and (d) science, technology and innovation. These four components
depend on the development of higher education.

As shown on Chart 1 and using the Thai experience as an example, one could
see the impact of Thai higher education reform on the knowledge-based economy or
society. Six strategies of reform are considered as inputs. This will result in quality
teaching, research, service and cultural promotion. The outputs of higher education are
qualified knowledge workers, global citizens, knowledge, technology, innovation and
skills. These become important inputs for the knowledge-based society.

Chart 1: Impact of Thai Higher Education Reform on Knowledge-Based Society

Input Process Product Impact


Reform Strategies Knowledge-
Knowledge
Based
Teaching
workers Society
Administrative Research HRD
Reform Global citizen
Service R and D
Financial Reform
Knowledge ICT
Manpower and Cultural
Science
Educational Innovation
Promotion Technology
Opportunity
Technology Innovation
Teaching-Learning
and Research Skills
Reform
Staff Development
Reform
Private Participation
Reform

Higher Education System The Society

5.2 The Impact on Global Competitiveness

According to the IMD World Competitiveness ranking of 60 countries in 2004,


Thailand ranks 29th. This can be explained in terms of the level of development of
knowledge-based society. As the level of knowledge-based society development in
Thailand is low, the level of competitiveness is therefore low too, as shown on point A in
Chart 2.
Chart 2: Relationship between the Level of Development of Knowledge-Based
Society and the Level of Global Competitiveness

High

Level of 26 B
Global A
Competitiveness
This is true when we look at the IMD data which show that education in Thailand
ranks 48th, technology infrastructure 45th, and science infrastructure 55th. These
indicators show the low level of knowledge-based society development. If we want higher
level of competitiveness (point B in the Chart), we have to put more efforts on the
development of knowledge-based economy.

Ladies and gentlemen,

I believe I have shown to you and shared with you how education is important to
global competitiveness. In the case of Thailand, I hope higher education reform will be
successful in moving the level of global competitiveness to the higher level in the near
future.

Thank you.

REFERENCES
1. Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand, B.E. 2540 (1997).

2. National Education Act, B.E. 2542 (1999).

27
3. Office of the Secretariat of the National Education Commission, Ministry of Education,
Thailand, The Proposed Strategies and Guidelines for Higher education Reform,
November 2003.

4. Knowledge for Development, Published for the World Bank, Oxford University Press,
1999.

5. The Brooker Group, Background Papers on Higher education, Prepared for the Asian
Development Bank, September 1999.

6. Constructing Knowledge Societies: New Challenges for Tertiary education. The


World Bank, Washington, D.C., 2002.

7. IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook, 2004.

HUMAN RESOURCES MAMAGEMENT REVISITED A


THAI REFLECTION AND PERSPECTIVE

Dr. Krissanapong Kirtikara

28
Invited paper presented at the Regional Seminar on Human Resources
Management for Global Competitiveness, Bangkok, 8 December 2004.

Summary

The author reviews the transformation of education and manpower of the region
after the European Colonisation period two centuries ago. This is followed by a brief
analysis on the four decades of modernisation and industrialisation covering its impacts
on human resources, the resulting mental and social exclusion of rural and urban people
due to explicit knowledge-oriented schools, and the under-performed vocational and
higher education institutes due to unfavorable policies on overseas investment and
industrialisation. The next part covers thinking on education in a society whereby
agrarian, manufacturing, services and knowledge economies concurrently co-exist.
Competition and cooperation with China, and her manpower are noted. The paper ends
with a call for total human resources development in line with the Theory of Multiple
Intelligence and the recent advances in brain studies.

1. Molding Manpower in the Image of the European : From Farmers with


Tacit Knowledge to Bureaucrats and Technocrats with Explicit
Knowledge

In every society people have been regarded as being instrumental in moving a


society forward, in time of peace and war. Prior to mid 18th century, various kingdoms
preceding the present nation state of Thailand would value their people in terms of
manpower for agricultural production and battles. This is not dissimilar to other countries
in the region and all over the world in the pre industrialisation era. To provide economic
outputs then, few types of knowledge would suffice, for example, knowledge for
agricultural production, arts and crafts. Agricultural production, arts and crafts work
required mainly tacit knowledge, that was context-based, integrated and survival
oriented. Tacit knowledge was passed on despite the so called illiteracy, through oral
tradition within families and communities.

Literacy, notably notational arithmetic and linguistics, would limitedly flourish


within the domains of religious sanctuaries, royalty and noblemen, similar to pre
industrialised Europe.

All this would change in Europe with the Industrial Revolution. Similar changes
occurred in South East Asia with the coming of European colonialism two centuries ago.
With the Industrial Revolution, the expanding commerce and accompanying services, a
new type of knowledge - the explicit knowledge became predominant. In explicit
knowledge, everything is written down as words, equations and formulae. Knowledge
became increasingly notational. Literacy became mandatory. Schools became the new
temple of explicit knowledge, replacing families and communities where tacit knowledge
was imparted and practiced. Certain tacit knowledge became externalised and recorded
as explicit knowledge. Explicit knowledge triumphed over tacit knowledge. Literacy
becomes dominant over knowledge for survival. Education became subject-oriented. The
traditional grounds for training professionals from the medieval time, i.e. merchant guilds,
trades and apprentice schools for various arts and crafts, were transformed into colleges
and universities oriented towards science, engineering and commerce. The temples of
knowledge of the industrialisation era produced technical manpower, a co-requisite with
money, materials and market of any capitalist society.

29
With the coming of the Europeans to South East Asia in the 18th century, a new
form of bureaucratic management and technical manpower were required. They were to
construct and oversee operation of new physical infrastructures. The initial period in the
19th century prior to the First World War saw employment of European experts in fledging
bureaucracy and launching of construction and operation of domestic physical
infrastructures. This was followed by educating elitist few in European institutions of
higher learning. Between the two world wars, professional schools, technical colleges and
universities were rapidly set up in the region. Molding the regional manpower,
bureaucrats and technocrats, in the image of the Europeans was total and complete.

Concurrent with the building up of the bureaucracy and physical infrastruc tures,
broadening of manpower base took place. Compulsory education was introduced and
schools were opened throughout countries. Education was no longer restricted to boys.
Education was neither confined to the realm of religious temples, royalty and noblemen.
School curricular with explicit knowledge orientation along the European were adopted.
Pre-eminence of the US after the Second World War shifted the schools of thinking in
education of the region from Europe to that of US. Those countries in the region with
strong ties to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) and Eastern Europe would
similarly adopt the USSR and the Eastern European way of education.

2. Four Decades of Modernisation and Industrialisation - Impacts on Human


Resources

Peace after the Second World War came with decolonisation in most of the
countries in the region. This occurred quickly within one decade after the war was over.
The process of modernising nations started with countries following market economy.
After European decolonisation some countries unfortunately had to further engage with
war for independence or internal struggle for nearly another two decades. They later
adopted centrally-planned economy for nearly three decades. The first group of nations
has been riding the market economy waves, with the ups of economic crests and the
downs of economic troughs, for four decades. The second group cautiously opened the
countries to the world market, about a decade ago.

2.1 Mental and Social Exclusion by Education

With peace, improved public health and infrastructure came large population
growth. Government expenditures were mainly taken up by education and public health
spending. In most countries of the first group, education budget accounted for about 20%
of a government budget. Rapid expansion of schools took place, even in the remotest
areas. Even though radio broadcasting, and subsequently television, had become wide
spread after the War, radio and television had hardly been tapped for bringing school
programmes to rural children, unlike industrialised countries of vast expand. School
children in South East Asia were thus brought up unfamiliar with educational technology.

In Thailand, prior to the rapid school expansion after the Second World War,
compulsory education took place in schools normally co-located with or were close to
Buddhist temples. Buddhist monks played key role in cultivating moral values in school
children. With the physical separation of schools from temples after the War, monks
understandably played less active education roles. With less prominent role of religious
education and coupled with increasingly secular, explicit knowledge oriented schools,

30
Thai students from rural areas find that formal school education had alienated them from
their roots. What is taught at school is not relevant to rural vocation and for survival.
Education only drives a wedge between themselves and their farming families and
communities.

Resulting from urbanisation and industrialisation, employment could be founded


in cities and towns only. Literacy from schools came with knowledge irrelevant to life and
opportunities in rural areas. Education thus served to accelerate physical desertion of
able-bodies from villages as well as mental alienation of minds. The plight of Thai rural
villages and village children during the past 3-4 decades is not dissimilar to other
countries in the same region with rapid modernisation and industrialisation. Capitals,
cities and industries grew at the expenses of desertion of rice fields, destruction of rural
villages and deterioration of natural resources. The tide has not yet been checked. This
has been happening in countries in the region following either market economy and
centrally planed economy.

Due to restriction of physical infrastructures and social amenities in big cities,


educated people tend to concentrate around urban areas. Good schools and higher
education institutes have thus been localised in cities and are beyond access of village
children. This resulted in segregation of children with different socio-economic on
backgrounds between cities and upcountry. Together with subject-oriented curriculum,
city children have thus been educated within the socio-economic context that is not a
reflection of life and the livelihood of the majority of their fellow countrymen. Education
has inadvertently alienated city students from their real world. Education becomes
socially exclusive. As city children have better access and opportunity to higher
education, they later become white collar workers whereas upcountry children remain in
farms or become blue collar and manual workers. This alienation due to institutionalised
education would have important bearings on educated manpower of subsequent
generation that tends to view and run their countries with city-oriented inclination.

In effect, institutionalised education during the rapid modernisation period has


unintentionally alienated both rural and urban students from their own roots. Economic,
mental and social exclusion have resulted. Literally and figuratively speaking, a bipolar
world has existed in most countries of the region. Countries try to tackle this issue with
limited success.

2.2 Decoupling of Industrialisation with Capacity Building in South East Countries


: Impacts on Competitiveness and Industrial Manpower

After the War, the world became polarised. Some countries in the region were
supported, economic and military-wise, by the US and the Western world, some by
Communist states. Those with ties with the US had their economies becoming market-
driven and linking to world trade. Without technology, capital and market, their countries
were opened to overseas industrial investments in the 1960s, notably from Japan which
has been the economic power horse of the region. Overseas industrial investments
between the 1960s and 1980s were regarded in most countries as a vehicle for
employment of increasing workforce due to population growth after the War. Most of
manufactured goods produced during the following 2-3 decades were initially for import
substitution of domestic markets of the countries in the region that were heavily protected.
Later on, more original equipment manufacturing (OEM) products were exported. In both
circumstances, there was no incentive for overseas investors to undertake research and
technological development. Technologies were acquired in toto from mother companies

31
back home. Manpower was simply cheap labour. Human resources management within
the industrial sector was simply labour force management.

Within countries of the region during that period, there was little government
attempt or intervention, except in Singapore, to couple investment privileges with
strengthening technical education and technological development of the countries. With
Singaporean judicious decisions, investment privileges were contingent on strengthening
Singaporean technical institutions and establishment of specific and high-end
technological training centers with leading multinationals. In addition, upgrading of
technical skills were encouraged and was compulsory for firms with substantial
workforce. Expenses on professional development were tax-deductible. Prior to the
Singaporean undertakings, these similar human resource development and management
mechanisms were successfully employed in East Asia countries. Human resources
development were intertwined and in pace with economic and industrial development.
No overseas investors came to East Asia and Singapore for cheap labour, unlike their
coming to South East Asia. With such strong government intervention, by 1990s East
Asia countries and Singapore had graduated to an upper rung of industrial sophistication
and on to IT-driven services economy. Their universities had joined the world league. The
countries became newly industrialising economies with high caliber manpower, and
reflected in favorable industrial competitive indices. Their human resources were
completely transformed within 2-3 decades, or only one generation. Their industries were
churning out brand name consumer products, mostly electronics and motor- cars for the
South East Asia region and the rest of the world.

On the other hand, without government intervention on making investment


privileges contingent on technological capacity strengthening and human resources
development, countries in South East Asia embarking on industrialisation since 1960s
and 1970s remained bases for manufacturing products that were labour and resource
intensive, limited value added and environmentally polluting. There was hardly any brand
name manufactured products coming out from the region. In the 1980s relocation of less
competitive industries from East Asia countries to South East Asia countries took place.
With improved political climate in China and opening up of Vietnam in 1990s with
cheaper workforce, the competitiveness of South East Asia countries diminished.

After 2-3 decades of industrialisation, countries in East Asia and South East Asia
ended up differently in terms of their competitiveness, including human resources. It is
the view of the author that this has resulted mainly from the policy and degree of
government intervention on industrialisation. For East Asia nations industrialisation was
utilised to strengthen technology capacity and catalyse human resources development.
In South Asia nations, industrialisation was simply tools for labour force employment.
Lessons learned could provide guidelines for countries in the region embarking on
industrialisation.

2.3 Vocational Colleges and Universities as Cradles of Modern Human


Resources Technical Competency vs Knowledge

With weak coupling between industrial investment and privileges and human
resources development, industry and education institutes were separately developed.

32
Vocational education, mostly funded and managed by the public sector, could not keep
pace with emerging production technologies that had become more technology intensive.
Multinationals have their own programmes for pre-service and in-service trainings. They
have good career path for technical manpower and are able to recruit, retrain and retain
their manpower. This leaves most of firms fending for themselves. Job hopping is not
uncommon among employees of small firms.

Generally speaking, in an education world dominated by educationists, no


distinction is made between competency and knowledge. Progressing through schools
requiring passing examinations as a manifestation of possessing knowledge. Vocational
examination in the past tended to follow a familiar school of thoughts that examined
knowledge rather than measuring competency. Moreover, social and economic
recognition of technical skills and competency is low upon comparing with degrees or
papers. This being so, skilled workers in the region are inclined to desert their vocation
later in life for a white collar path. Countries are left with technicians of limited skills. The
exception would, perhaps, be Singapore and multinational companies in the region that
have recognised vocational qualification schemes. Since its industrialisation, Singapore
has her mandatory technical manpower training schemes in place, and has provided
strong incentives for firms, big and small, to constantly upgrade their workforce.

Thailand is an example of a country that values degrees over vocational


competency. After over 40 years of industrialisation, the national technical vocational
qualification scheme- TVQ and a national technical manpower development scheme are
not yet in place. There are no decent career paths for technicians comparable to degree
holders. There are few technicians with few decades of skills, despite 4 decades of
industrialisation. Even prior to the economic crisis in 1997, attempts were made to
rejuvenate the much debated TVQ and promotion of the cooperative education scheme
for vocational students. This was in due recognition of declining international
competitiveness in technical manpower. Cooperation between the Commission on
Vocational Education and the Federation of Thai Industries has led to a resurgence of
dual vocational education schemes whereby vocational students spend time working in
factories as a part of their training. Concrete actions and results are yet to seen.

Universities having been regarded merely as tertiary education institutes produced


graduates as their major outputs with little research work. Ranking of Asian universities
by the magazine Asia Week in 2000 and xxxx University of China in 2004 show how
weak universities in the region are, with the exception of Singapore, using international
yardsticks. How to liberate the immense potential of university human resources is a
Herculean task. It is becoming less tenable for governments the world over to increase
public spending on university systems in the future, considering competing public agenda
such as development of a national health system or improvement of decaying physical
infrastructures. Invigorating universities requires much more than putting more public
money into the system. It requires change in the national and university paradigms. It
dictates an overhaul of management systems. It demands leadership, strong
management and good governance. Leadership provides direction and changes.
Management makes changes possible. Good governance ensures that various
stakeholders are represented and their interests are adequately taken care off. The trinity
of leadership, management and governance - LMG will be a decisive factor in how a
university system will be liberated. University LMG will determine how the potential of its
present human resources, i.e. their academic staff and personnel, will be maximised.
LMG will dictate how the future generation of high-end human resources will be shaped.

During the last decade, rejuvenations of the university system come in various
guises. For example, incorporation or autonomisation of national or state universities has
been one obvious choice. It is done with the hope that with more autonomy potential of
educated academic staff in state universities will be liberated. Autonomous universities
should respond more quickly to the changing world and be more innovative. Malaysia has

33
incorporated all national universities few years ago. Thailand has its 3 new universities,
namely, Suranaree University of Technology, Walailak University and Mae Fah Luang
University, as autonomous universities from the beginning. Incorporation of existing Thai
universities proves a difficult one due to lack of continuous political and bureaucratic
supports. Only one university- King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi has
made a transition in 1998. Oppositions to autonomisation are still registered owing
mainly to ignorance. The first and foremost ignorance is the misunderstanding in the
concept of autonomisation and privatisation. It is perceived that state universities would
be privatised. The second difficulty lies in the change in status of university personnel
from life-long employment as civil servants to contracted university employees. Even with
short operating time, just over 10 years for Suranaree University of Technology and 6
years of autonomy transition for King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi,
experiences have shown that autonomy is a definitely positive factor. Comparing with
universities of similar nature, their graduates are well received by industries. The
universities have attracted more qualified faculty staff. Their academic outputs measured
in terms of publications and patents applications have increased substantially.

Twinning of and students exchange programmes between local universities and


renown universities overseas, mainly English speaking countries such as U.K. or
Australia, is another popular and increasingly predominant approach. The crux of the
matter is that quality of education and research of local universities must be
demonstratively improved in twinning and students exchange. Local universities must not
simply be recruitment offices for overseas universities.

In countries whereby there is a great demand for higher education in comparison


to limited public resources, private colleges and universities and establishment of off-
shore overseas universities would be a natural course. Being countries of large
population and higher education demand, the Philippines, Thailand, and, perhaps,
Vietnam in the future, are where the private sector contributes significantly on higher
education. On the other hand offshore campuses of overseas universities are becoming
common in Malaysia and Singapore. Some overriding concerns of proliferation of private
and overseas universities are quality assurance and consumers protection. It is an area
that SEAMEO countries can compare notes.

Enhancement of students mobility is one measure to invigorate young human


resources in the region. The ASEAN University Network has had limited effects.
Perhaps, countries of ASEAN and SEAMEO need to come up with a region-wide scheme
similar to the ERASMUS scheme of the E.U. of the last decade. One must admit that
universities in the region have been seeking more cooperation with universities outside
the region. Moreover, the region is neither politically nor culturally homogeneous.
Diversities can either serve as rich resources of ingenuities. Diversities can also be
construed as an excuse of political exclusion. With the rise of extremism worldwide and
in some parts of the region, mobility of young people should facilitate better
understanding and appreciation of diversities in the region. If the region is to progress
collectively and in harmony, human resources in the region must be prepared to live, and
capitalise, this diverse South East Asia.

34
3. The Ever Present and Emerging Issues and Implications on Human Resources

3.1 The Four Concurrent Worlds Tacit Knowledge Revisited

Few years ago I gave a presentation on the nature of curriculum for the coming
millennium. I titled my presentation The Third Millennium - Nemesis of Curriculum ? . I
had then hinted at the nature of education and curriculum that I think as being more
relevant to future Thailand. Let me recapitulate what I had then in mind :

In the western world, there is a societal and economic progression on a well


defined linear time line. This time line started with humans transformed from being
hunter-gatherers into settlers and practiced agricultural cultivation. Hence, the agrarian
world with its own set of societal and economic parameters. Throughout time, with our
empowered intellect and increased interactions through travelling and trade, we
accumulated body of knowledge which enabled mass and efficient production. Thus,
born the industrial society over 2 centuries ago. As time progressed, not only crude
trading of physical products or goods were possible, opportunities arose to make the
trade more conducive through the introduction of service products. Examples may be
insurance, shipping, transportation, banking and entertainment. As the industrial sector
grew, so too did the services sector, but at a greater pace. These two sectors coexisted.
Under certain circumstances the dominant economic activities could be those of services,
in the instance of countries such as Switzerland, Hong Kong, and Singapore. We
recognise these countries as the service economies.

As the new millennium dawned, the new economy era or the knowledge based
era is born. The new era is characterised by integration of information and
communication technology (ICT) into production and services activities. The knowledge
we refer to is not knowledge per say, but rather is a potpourri of hardware (embedded
technology), software (knowledgeware), managementware and humanware.

For the case of Thailand, however, we were not opportune to the luxurious
transformation of these four eras in a well defined linear time line, as witnessed in the
western world. But rather, we have in our possession, the entire mixture of the hardware,
software, managementware, and humanware of the four economies, implying that the
four economies are concurrent in Thailand. Rural Thailand is essentially an agrarian
society, big cities are a mixture of industrial and service economies, while Bangkok is
heading towards the new economy on knowledge based society. With this in mind, we
now see that the current education system will encounter difficulties in preparing the
Thais to master the four concurrent world. The traditional curriculum ceases to suffice the
complex requirements, the dynamism and constraints placed upon Thailand.

In the quest to answer to the challenges of the four concurrent worlds, the Thai
solution on education, including curriculum, cannot be merely an adaptation of the
western model, as their transformation progressed linearly. For decades ago, when
Thailand started its modern development path, we adopted without adapting the western
model, devoid of its memory on an agrarian society, and emphasised mainly
industrialisation. Rural Thailand has witnessed the development of physical
infrastructures while its agricultural production capabilities remained weak. This resulted
from the bias in education mindset and its accompanying curriculum towards producing
manpower for industrial and services world, neglecting the manpower for the agrarian
sector. Rural Thailand became sources for cheap labour and natural resources. In our
search for the Thai solution of the new millennium, we must never repeat the same
mistake again.

35
To chart this unknown territory, a community may need a communal curriculum
and a communal roadmap that can be learned collectively. Learning at individual level of
the past millennium, based in schools, will continue in the future, but there needs to be
parallel learning at the community level. Under whose jurisdiction and responsibility will
this be handed to? Moreover, who will be the curriculum developers, the teachers and the
assessors? The new millennium requires progression as well as hierarchy of learning,
right from the individual to the communal and the societal levels.

It was then and is still my belief that to educate and manage future human
resources of a society that the 4 concurrent economies coexist, we need more than an
individualistic approach to learning or training. We have to add communal and societal
dimensions. In one way, the new knowledge will be more tacit in nature, context and
communal based, and tacit in management. For example, to manage or coordinate
people to solve environmental problems at village levels demands more than just explicit
knowledge and explicit management of environmental science and technology. Roles
and participation of individuals, families and communities must be delineated and
promoted. In a sense, a knowledge-based society is tacitly managed and synergistic, a
whole is bigger than a sum. The binding glue is tacit knowledge.

3.2 Notes on Geopolitics

In recent time after the Second World War, South East Asia countries were to
balance between the Western capitalistic world and the Communists block. With the
demise of the USSR, the emergence of the U.S. as the sole superpower, and
globalisation, everything has changed. The meteoric rise of China has both pluses and
minuses to the region. On the plus of the economic side, China is a new growth engine
to the regional economy, in addition to Japan the traditional growth engine since 1960s
when the first wave of industrialisation took place. Moreover, China would be the anchor
of security, replacing the U.S. On the minus side, there is an apocalyptic vision of export
losses. China is backed by cheap and productive labour, a large stock of technical
manpower, huge and diversified industrial sectors, use of industrial policy and freer
access to the markets under the WTO. A similar rise of India is expected to follow in one
decade.

Based on correlation of Chinese and regional export structures of 230 products


over the last decade (1990-2000), big rise in correlation coefficients between 1990 to
2000 were evident. The regional countries are the East Asian countries (Korea, Taiwan
and Hong Kong) and some South East Asian countries (Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia,
the Philippines and Thailand). The rise in correlation coefficients shows that the export
structures are becoming similar. The implication is that the competitive threat from China
is likely to be growing. The most similar in 2000 were those of Taiwan, Hong Kong,
Korea, Thailand, Singapore, the Philippines and Malaysia, in that order. With close
collaboration, however, even when products are comparable, countries could specialise
in differentiated versions. In the same product, countries may complement each other by
performing different functions with an integrated production system.

On an optimistic side, availability of a very large pool of qualified and highly


motivated Chinese could bring the much needed human resources into the region. Some
countries in the region having large Chinese Diaspora, notably Singapore and Thailand,
now have large contingents of Chinese students in their universities. With opened access
policy, social and cultural similarities, these Chinese graduates could become important
technical manpower for Chinese investors in respective countries, similar to Japanese
personnel of the past 3-4 decades.

36
Among ASEAN themselves, there has been talks at the Vientiane Summit in
November 2004 of bringing forward the ASEAN 2020 Vision by 5-10 years. The ASEAN
2020 Vision calls for, inter alias, ASEAN as a single market and complete mobility of
people. This being so, the pattern of human resource mobilisation will be radically
changed. It is too early to contemplate such scenario.

3.3 Man and Multiple Intelligences

I was somewhat bemused when I wrote the article The Third Millennium -
Nemesis of Curriculum? on world famous and erudite people making predictions on the
future. I named one part in the article The New Brave New World. From the following
passages, one sees clearly limitation of predicting the immense human capacity,
ingenuity, their products of technologies and resulting outcomes due to interactions
between man and their outputs. Let me quote some passages from the article :

The New Brave New World

It is ironic that we the people of the last millennium, brought up with the last
century paradigm of learning and the last decade of technology will attempt to describe
and construct the world of the third millennium. Famous, intelligent and learned men in
the last century made predictions that were astronomically off reality. For example,

It will take 600 years to manipulate human reproduction and the body. Aldous
Huxley (circa 1932),

There is no likelihood man can ever tap the power of the atom. Obert Millikan,
Nobel Prize winner of Physics, 1923,

I think there is a world market for maybe five computers. Thomas Watson, 1943,
IBM Chairman,

There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home. Ken Olson,
1977, DEC Chairman,

640 K ought to be enough for anyone. Bill Gate, President and CEO, Microsoft.

J. Lyrette, Key Issues in Technology for Learning and Culture


Technology for Learning and Culture in the APEC Region to 2010

At the end of the last decade, it was recognised that with rapid technological
changes and unpredictable globalisation, the concept of technology manpower planning
with certainty would be less relevant. Moreover, human is regarded as the most
important assets or resources. Hence, there is a shift from the concept of manpower to
human resources, and human resources management. However, the notation of
management of human resources or human beings as resources does not go down well
with humanists and social scientists. It is argued that the whole notation would
downgrade human beings to just tools or resources for economic production. Human is
ultimate and an end in itself. Human is not a ways and means to something. Hence,
human resources management is not acceptable. From the 7th National Economic and
Social Development Plan of Thailand (1992-1996), even before the economic downturn in
1997, the center of all developments is human. But I am not going to argue whether such
term as human resources management is relevant or acceptable or not. What I am going
to argue for is the development or management of the total human capacity.

37
Until the last two decades of the last millennium, intelligence, and subsequent
human performance, was perceived mainly in the domain of psychology, something that
could be inferred from observables and measured through I.Q. testing. Therefore, it is our
proclivity to categorise, or to put in simple boxes, develop, promote and manage people
according to the results of I.Q. test results. This is true at education level, and, to a
certain extent, at employment level. People are expected to perform, and therefore, be
promoted according to their I.Q. All theses are now changing with the advancement of
neuroscience and understanding of intelligence. These have been brought about by a
myriad of factors, namely, improved understanding of neurotransmitters chemicals
secreted and transmitted in brain functions, sophisticated brain probing instrument,
neurosurgery, drugs that operate on specific targets in brains, studies on idiot savants
and geniuses, and biological and genetic foundations of intelligence and emotions.

The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI- Theory) put forward by Howard Gardner
twenty years ago has been accepted, not without challenges in some quarters, as best
describing innate human intelligence on biological foundations. MI Theory provides
groundwork in the development of human capability. It is the view of the author that one
has to recognise the underlying and multiple faceted human intelligences before one can
develop and manage human. Or put it the other way, a human being has to recognise his
own multiple intelligences before he could meaningfully develop and manage himself, as
well as realising his full potential.

The MI Theory has so far been employed mostly in the education world, with
limited attempts made in the human resources management circles.

In the traditional concept, intelligence is defined as the ability to answer items on


tests of intelligence - a unitary view of intelligence. Tests instruments are not intelligence-
fair. They are done through lenses of linguistic and logical mathematical intelligences.
According to the Multiple Intelligences Theory, Howard Gardner defined intelligence as
the ability to solve problems and to fashion products.

To quote Howard Gardners words : Linguistic intelligence is the ability exhibited


superbly by humans, and it is this intelligence that differentiate human beings from other
animals. Logical and mathematical intelligence is logical and mathematical ability, as
well as scientific ability. Linguistic, logical and mathematical intelligence are intelligences
that are most cherished in the modern era. Temples of learning - schools and universities
alike are created to strengthen and perpetuate such intelligences. It is the intelligences
that are most valued by institutionalised education and employment. I.Q. measurement
are biased in favor of linguistic, logical and mathematical intelligence. Therefore, people
measured with high I.Q. will unquestionably succeed in the temples of learning. But this
will not guarantee success in life. Spatial intelligence is the ability to form a mental
model of a spatial world and to be able to maneuver and operate using that model.
Engineers, surgeons, sculptors and painters are examples of those having highly
developed spatial intelligence. Musical intelligence is another category. Bodily-
kinesthetic intelligence is the ability to solve problems or to fashion products using
ones whole body or parts of the body. Athletes, surgeons, dancers exhibits highly
developed bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. Howard Gardner proposed two other forms of
personal intelligences that are not well understood, elusive to study, but of immense
importance. Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to understand people: what
motivates them, how do they work, how to work cooperatively with them. Successful
people and leaders are likely to be individuals with high degree of interpersonal
intelligence. Intrapersonal intelligence is a correlative ability, turned inward. It is a
capacity to form an accurate, veridical model of oneself and to be able to use that model
to operate effectively in life.

38
Howard Gardner thinks of intelligences as raw, biological potentials, which can be
seen in pure form only individuals who are freaks. In almost all people, the intelligences
work together to solve problems, to yield various kind of cultural endstates - vocations
and avocations alike, in his words. It is his view that the purpose of schools should be to
develop intelligences and to help people reach vocational and avocational goals that are
appropriate to their particular spectrum of intelligences. It is his belief that people who
are help to do so feel more engaged and competent, and therefore more inclined to serve
the society in a more constructive way. Howard Gardners view has immense
implications on how children should be schooled and educated, how school systems
should be reformed, and most importantly how teachers should be trained. It is the basis
of the so-called child-centered learning. However, his Multiple Intelligences theory when
put into practice for the working population will radically turn how we develop and manage
our human resources.

Modern studies on brains indicate that even though everyone possess these
multiple intelligences, but there are windows of opportunity in life that particular
intelligences can be best developed. Most of the windows of opportunity are opened
early in life. This is determined by the fact that each intelligence is associated with
various parts of the brain that are developed at different times and with different brain
stimuli. Brain is made by nature to be used. It is the question of use it or lose it. This
has to do with formation of neural networks and synapses between neurons. Thus, a
new field of brain-based learning is born. Teaching and learning of the future would be
done based on evidences on how the brain operates.

The Corollary on post schooling education and training is yet to be unrolled.


Is brain-based development and management of human resources to follow?

Acknowledgements

The author gratefully acknowledges the invaluable assistance of Mr. Surain


Thapanangkul, Dr. Pongchai Athikomratanakul and Dr. Wanna Temsiripoj for their
sourcing of background reading materials.

39
REFERENCES

1. H. Gardner, Frames of Mind : The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, Basic Books, New
York (1983).

2. H. Gardner, Multiple Intelligences : The Theory in Practice, Basic Books, New York
(1983).

3. K. Kirtikara, Roles of the public sector in promotion of research and development


(in Thai), Proceedings of the First Annual Conference of the Thailand
Research Fund, 19-21 November 1994, Pataya.

4. K. Kirtikara, Human Resource Requirements for Food Science and Technology in


the Next Millennium : Perspective from Thailand, Invited paper presented at the 7th
ASEAN Food Conference, 19-22 November 2000, Manila.

5. K. Kirtikara, The Third Millennium - Nemesis of Curriculum?, Invited Paper


presented at the Seminar on Task - Based Learning and Curriculum Innovation,
King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, 2 - 4 May 2001, Bangkok.

6. The European Community, A new partnership with South East Asia,


Communication from The Commission No. COM (2003)399/4.

7. S. Lall and M. Albaladejo, Chinas Competitive Performance : A Threat to East Asian


Manufactured Exports ?, World Development Vol.32, No.9, pp.1441-1466, 2004.

8. K.Kirtikara, Transition From a University Under the Bureaucratic System To an


Autonomous University : Reflections on Concepts And Experience of King
Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, The Center of Excellence (COE)
International Seminar / Eight-Nation Conference on Enhancing Quality and
Building the 21st Century Higher Education System, 3-5 February 2004,
Hiroshima, Japan.

40
UNIVERSITY-BUSINESS PARTNERSHIPS:
HUMAN RESOURCES FOR A GLOBAL SKILLS MARKET
Mr. Andrew McBean

Human Resource Management

Tactics and Tools that support managements efforts to attract, develop


and keep great people.

Yahoo! News

News Results
News Stories Pasties 1-20 of about 212 for Human Resources for Global
Skills
Sort Results by: Relevance 1 Gate

1. HR Hub News for Human resources professionals


HR Hub.com Nov 29 8:30 AM
As business leaders and human resources executives look for ways to
improve productivity, enhance leadership performance and increase
profits a new survey from members of ACP International suggests
investing in employees through leadership coaching is a wise decision.

2. e-TQM College and Dubai Institute Human Resources Development


offers Quality Expert Certification
AME Into-Nov 27 12:01 AM
In an effort to enhance the initiatives of implementing the principles of
Total Quality Management (TQM) region, e-TQM College. Dubai-based
electronic educational in the GCC institution that has pioneered e-learning
in TQM in the Arab world has tied up with Dubai Institute for Human
Resources Management (DIHRD) for the online delivery of content in
Quality Expert Certification which includes.

Forrester Trends 2005


eLearning Web-based learning will experience continued growth
and will begin to differentiate itself from the courseware approach of the
classroom. Blended learning will become an integral part of the daily
workflow, blurring the line between work and learning. eLearning will help
drive business strategy but executives will still require a demonstrable
ROI.

41
Paradigm Shift: Change is happening

The Future of IT Learning


Adaptive
Consultative
Blended
Technology Rich
Life-Long Learning
Robust Partner Ecosystem

The Software Ecosystem

Commercial
Customers
Software
Industry

Education Governments

New Era of Partnership

Education Research Innovation

Long-Term Commitment

42
43
Common University Needs

Training for faculty members/instructors


Teaching materials to conduct classes, labs, and exams
Guidelines on how to teach effectively
Software licenses for instructors and students
Industry accredited certifications
Key focus or differentiation

Example: Microsoft Academic Alliance Programme

A comprehensive programme designed to address common needs and


barriers to adopt new technologies and research collaboration aiming to
establish long-term partnership between Microsoft and universities

Microsoft Research

Founded in 1991
Staff of 700 in over 55 areas
Internationally recognised research teams
Worldwide Research locations:
- Redmond, Washington,
- San Francisco, California
- Cambridge, United Kingdom
- Beijing, Peoples Republic of China
- Mountain View, California

Wide Range Of Activities

Participate in Research Community


- Extensive publication and conference participation
- Professional service
Strong ties with universities
- Joint research projects
Extensive visitor and speaker programme
- Students, faculty, research scientists
- Post-doctoral, sabbaticals, interns

44
45
SYNTHESIS/SUMMARY
Prof. Dr. Chira Hongladaran

QUOTATIONS
Change is fast and unpredictable
We should not respond to change but anticipate
change
Michael Hammer

Globalization must take into account


the impact on people.

ILO committee on globalization and social impact

Globalization with human face.

Bill Clinton
Former President of USA

46
Human resources are the wealth
creation of the present and future.

Lester Thorow

Comparative advantage of countries or


economies depend on
the quality of human resource.

Michael Porter

HR Architecture

Population
Education
Health
Labor force Nutrition
Family

Agriculture,
Industry,
Service, PRODUCTIVE SECTORS
Government Competencies ,
Demand side Supply side

Competitiveness,
COMPETITIVENESS & SUSTAINABILITLY Occupation,
Wage ,
Industrial relation
LIFE AFTER RETIREMENT

47
Human Resources Development Working Group
( HRDWG )

- Education Network (EdNet)


- Capacity Building Network (CBN )
- Labour and Social Protection Network ( LSP )

The theory of 4 L
- Learning Methodology
- Learning Environment
- Learning Opportunities
- Learning Communities

The theory of 8 Ks.


- Human Capital
- Intellectual Capital
- Ethical Capital
- Happiness Capital
- Social Capital
- Sustainability Capital
- Digital Capital
- Talented Capital

48
The theory of new 5 Ks.
- Innovation Capital
- Creativity Capital
- Cultural Capital
- Emotional Capital
- Knowledge Capital

Vision, Mission, Strategies

Vision

Mission

Strategy 1
Strategy 2
Strategy 3

Concept of 3 circles

1. Context

2. Competencies

3. Motivation

49
Competencies
Functional Competency
Organisational Competency
Leadership Competency
Entrepreneurial Competency
Global Competency

50
Appendix I:
Seminar Programme

51
PROGRAMME
0800 - 0900 hrs Registration

0900 - 0945 hrs Opening Ceremony

Welcoming Remarks by
Mr. Abdul Wahid bin Sulaiman,
Deputy Director of SEAMEO Secretariat

Opening Remarks by
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Pavich Tongroach,
Secretary-General, Commission on Higher Education,
Thailand

0945 - 1000 hrs Refreshments

1000 - 1100 hrs Meeting the Changing Demand of World of Work:


Challenges for Human Resource Management by
Prof. Dr. -Ing Wardiman Djojonegoro
Chairman, Foundation for Human Resource Development
in Science and Technology, The HABIBIE Center, Indonesia
The former Minister, Ministry of Education, Indonesia

1100 - 1200 hrs Education for Global Competitiveness by


Prof. Dr. Wichit Srisa-an,
Member of the Parliament,
Chairman of House Committee on Education,
Executive Vice President of Chulabhorn Research Institute

1200 -1300 hrs Lunch

1300 - 1400 hrs Human Resource Management Revisited-A Thai Reflection


and Perspective by
Dr. Krissanapong Kirtikara,
President, King Mongkuts University of Technology,
Thonburi

1400 -1500 hrs University-Business Partnerships: Human Resources for


a Global Skills Market by
Mr. Andrew McBean,
Managing Director, Microsoft (Thailand) Limited

1500 - 1515 hrs Refreshments

1515 - 1600 hrs Synthesis/ Summary by


Prof. Dr. Chira Hongladarom,
Secretary-General,
Foundation for International Human Resource Development

1600 1630 hrs Closing Ceremony


Closing Remarks by
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ninnat Olanvoravuth,
Secretary General, ASAIHL

Moderators: A.M. : Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ninnat Olanvoravuth


P.M. : Dr. Padoongchart Suwananwongse

52
Appendix II:
List of Speakers

53
LIST OF SPEAKERS

1. Prof. Dr.-Ing Wardiman Djojonegoro


Chairman, Foundation for Human Resource Development in
Science and Technology, The HABIBIE Center, Indonesia
The former Minister of Education, Indonesia
The Habibie Center
JI Kemang Selatan No. 98
Jakarta 12560, Indonesia
Tel: (62 21) 781 7211, 780 8120, 7888 6835
Fax: (62 21) 781 7212
Email: wardiman@habibie.net

2. Prof. Dr. Wichit Srisa-an


Member of the Parliament
Chairman of House Committee on Education
Executive Vice President of Chulabhorn Research Institute
Chulabhorn Research Institute
54 Moo 4, Vipavadee Highway
Laksi, Bangkok 10210, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 575 1493
Fax: (66 2) 575 1494
Email: wichit@tubtim.cri.or.th

3. Dr. Krissanapong Kirtikara


President
King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi
Bang Mod, Thungkru
Bangkok 10140, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 427 0039, 427 0059
Fax: (66 2) 427 9860
Email: ikrikara@cc.kmutt.ac.th

4. Mr. Andrew McBean


Managing Director
Microsoft (Thailand) Limited
37th Floor. CRC Tower, All Seasons Place
87/2 Wireless Road, Phatumwan
Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 257 4888
Fax: (66 2) 257 0096
Email: amcbean@microsoft.com

5. Prof. Dr. Chira Hongladarom,


Secretary-General
Foundation for International Human Resource Development
7th Floor, Building 388, Phaholyothin Road
Phayathai, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 619 0512-3
Fax: (66 2) 273 0181
Email: fihrd@bkk.loxinfo.coth, chira8@hotmail.com

54
Appendix III:
List of Participants
and Seminar Organisers

55
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS
INDONESIA
1. Prof. Dr. Putrawan I Made
Director
Graduate School of Education State University of Jakarta
Komp. UNJ (PPS), Rawanangun
Jakarta 13220, Indonesia
Tel: (62 21) 489 7047
Fax: (62 21) 489 7047
Email: putrawan@centrin.net.id

2. Dr. Rafli Zainal


Deputy Director for Academic Affairs
Graduate School of Education State
University of Jakarta
Komp. UNJ (PPS), Rawanangun
Jakarta 13220, Indonesia
Tel: (62 21) 489 7047
Fax: (62 21) 489 7047

THAILAND
Public Universities and Institutions

Burapha University

3. Mrs. Bang-Orn Peukam


Doctoral Student, Faculty of Education
Burapha University
Manager, CSC Technology Services Pty Limited
244/2 Moobaen Summakorn, Soi 21
Ramkamhaeng Road, Sapansoong
Bangkok 10240, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 729 3454
Email: bpeukam@csc.com

4. Mr. Erick Gjerdingen


Lecturer
International College
Burapha University
169 Sansuk, Muang District
Chonburi 20131, Thailand
Tel: (66 38) 745900 ext. 4710
E-mail: egjerdingen@Gmail.com

5. Mr. Gobchai Seancharoen


Doctoral Student, Faculty of Education
Burapha University
Lecturer
Rajabhat Institute Petchburiwittayalongkorn
61/1 Rungsit-Nakornayok, Pathumtani
Bangkok 12170, Thailand
Tel: (66 1) 985 3422
Fax: (66 2) 529 3847
Email: picku@hotmail.com

56
6. Mrs. Hathaikorn Pan-Ngum
Doctoral Student, Faculty of Education
Burapha University
Instructor 2 Level 7
63/149 Moo 10, Theparuk Road
Muang District, Samutprakarn 10270
Thailand
Tel: (66 23) 841 638
Fax: (66 2) 286 8962
Email: Hataikorn_p@yahoo.com

7. Ms. Kanvalai Nontakaew


Lecturer
Business Administration Department
Burapha University
169 Sansuk, Muang Distrit
Chonburi 20131, Thailand
Tel : (66 38) 745 900 ext. 2371
Fax : (66 38) 393 264
Email : kanvalai_non@yahoo.com

8. Ms. Marisa Chaopruttipong


Doctoral Student, Faculty of Education
Burapha University
Consultant, BMC
96/11 Suwintawong Road, Floraville Park City
Bangkok 10530, Thailand
Tel: (66 1) 927 0211
Fax: (66 2) 989 7972
Email: khun_marisa@hotmail.com

9. Mr. Niti Choosawat


Doctoral Student, Faculty of Education
Burapha University
Human Resource Manager
ABB Limited Company
60/162 Moo 1, Kookwang Sub-District
Ladlumkaew District, Pathumthami 12140
Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 976 2827
Email: Niti.choosawat@th.abb.com

10. Mr. Saratid Sakulkoo


Lecturer
International College
Burapha University
169 Sansuk, Muang District
Chonburi 20131, Thailand
Tel: (66 38) 745 900 ext. 4710, 09 245 0794
Email: sararid@buu.ac.th

57
11. Mr. Sermkool Arckarapuneyathorn
Doctoral Student, Faculty of Education
Burapha University
Obstetrician
157/76-77 Banpaew-Prapathon Road,
Thanonkhard Sub-District, Muang District
Nakhonpathom 73000, Thailand
Tel: (66 34) 306 288-9
Email: sermkoola@yahoo.com

12. Ms. Suwattana Thepchit


Lecturer
Burapha University
160/359 Piboonsongkram Road, Muang Distict
Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand
Tel: (66 1) 614 1258
Email: hrm@huso.buu.ac.th

13. Asst. Prof. Patchanee Nontasak


Head, Business Administration Department
Burapha University
169 Sansuk, Muang District
Chonburi 20131, Thailand
Tel : (66 38) 745 900 ext. 2333
Fax : (66 38) 393 264
E-mail : satchane@buu.ac.th

14. Mrs. Prattana Srisook


Doctoral Student, Faculty of Education
Burapha University
57/7 Moo 11, Poochausmingprai Road
Banghausau District, Samuthprakarn 10131
Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 756 6943
Email: prattana_srisook@yahoo.com

15. Mr. Prayat Punongong


Doctoral Student, Faculty of Education
Burapha University
NGO Relations Coordinator, CFBT
482 Moo 10, Banped, Muang District
Khon Kaen 40000, Thailand
Tel: (66 1) 261 9612
Fax: (66 43) 333 673
Email: kkab@loxinfo.co.th

16. Mr. Supot Naksawat


Lecturer
Business Administration Department
Burapha University
169 Sansuk, Muang District
Chonburi 20131, Thailand
Tel : (66 38) 745 900 ext. 2371
Fax : (66 38) 393 264
E-mail : supot n2000@yahoo.com

58
17. Dr. Suriyan Nontasak
Deputy Director
International Graduate Studies Program
Burapha University
169 Sansuk, Chonburi 20131
Thailand
Tel: (66 38) 383 252
Fax: (66 38) 834 498
Email: suriyan@buu.ac.th

18. Mr. Thanongsak Suporn


Doctoral student, Faculty of Education
Burapha University
(Educational Supervisor)
134/1 Pitakphanomkhet Road, Muang District
Mukdahan 49000, Thailand
Tel: (66 4) 261 2959
Email: stporn20@hotmail.com

19. Mrs. Yupa Pongsabutr


Doctoral Student, Faculty of Education
Burapha University
(Administration Manager)
Neo and Associates Co., Ltd
19/23 Royal Nakarin Villa Village
Soi Supapong 1, Srinakarin Road, Nongbon District
Bangkok 12050, Thailand
Tel: (66 1) 309 1130
Fax: (66 2) 748 0291
Email: Neo_house@house@hotmail.com

Chiang Mai University


20. Asst. Prof. Amnat Yousukh
Vice President
Office of the President
Chiang Mai University
Muang District, Chiang Mai 50200
Thailand
Tel : (66 53) 943 661, 943 665
Fax : (66 53) 219 252
E-mail : opxxo004@cmu.chiangmai.ac.th

Chulalongkorn University
21. Mrs. Srisa-Ang Wongthongdee
Lecturer
Public Administration Department
Faculty of Political Science
Chulalongkorn University
Phaya Thai Road, Bangkok 10330
Thailand
Tel : (66 2) 218 7218
Fax : (66 2) 255 2154
Email : wsrisaan@chula.ac.th

59
22. Mr. Tanate Chitsuthipakorn
Doctoral Student
Faculty of Education
Chulalongkorn University
Phaya Thai Road, Bangkok 10330
Thailand
Tel: (66 1) 680 1814
Email: tanate@loxinfo.co.th

Kasetsart University
23. Ms. Siriluk Prasunpangsri
Assistant Dean
Kasetsart University
Chalermpharkiat Sakon Nakhon Province Campus
59 Moo 1, Sakon Nakhon 47000
Thailand
Tel: (66 6) 714 4629
Email: S_pra@hotmail.com

24. Dr. Sornprach Thanisawangyangkura


Vice President for Planning and Development
Kasetsart University Bangkhen Campus
Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900
Thailand

25. Asst. Prof. Dr. Suvimol Tangsujjapoj


Chair, Recreation Program
Department of Physical Education
Faculty of Education
Kasetsart University
Bangkok 10900, Thailand
Tel : (66 2) 942 8671-2
Fax : (66 2) 942 8671-2
Email : tfdusut@ku.ac.th

26. Mr. Watcharapong Intrawong


Assistant Dean
Kasetsart University
Chalermpharkiat Sakon Nakhon Province Campus
59 Moo 1, Sakon Nakhon 47000
Thailand
Tel: (66 1) 050 3101
Email: qai23@yahoo.com

Khon Kaen University


27. Asst. Prof. Chanchai Tanthongviriyakul
Associate Dean for Academic Affairs
Department of Pediatrics
Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University
Mittraphab Road, Muang District
Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
Tel: (66 1) 799 9526
Fax: (66 43) 348 380
Email: chapan@kku.ac.th

60
28. Assoc. Prof. Bowornsilp Chowchuen
Director
Performance Management and Quality Assurance Office
3rd Floor, Academic Center Building
Khon Kaen University
Mittraphab Road, Muang District
Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
Tel : (66 43) 362 103
Fax : (66 43) 362 103
E-mail : bowcho@kku.ac.th

29. Ms. Ounruan Mongkolchai


Leadership of Development and Training
Personnel Division
Khon Kaen University, President Building 2
Mittraphab Road, Muang District
Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
Tel : (66 43) 202 338
Fax : (66 43) 202 338
Email: mounra@kku.ac.th

30. Mr. Chanavit Anusuren


Personal Officer
Personal Division, Khon Kaen University
Mittraphab Road, Muang District
Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
Tel: (66 43) 202 338
Fax: (66 43) 202 338
Email: chaanu@kku.ac.th

King Mongkuts Institute of Technology Ladkrabang


31. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sucheep Suksupath
Vice-President for Academic Affairs and International Affairs
KMITL
Chalong Krung Road, Ladkrabang
Bangkok10520, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 326 4987
Fax: (66 2) 326 4998
Email: kssuchee@kmitl.ac.th

King Mongkuts Institute of Technology North Bangkok


32. Asst. Prof. Chanadda Muankeo
Director, Executive MBA. Program
KMITNB
1518 Pibulsongkram Road, Bangsue District
Bangkok 10800, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 585 8541-8 ext. 3510
Fax: (66 2) 585 8541-8 ext. 3510
Email: cnd@kmitnb.ac.th

33. Dr. Utomporn Phalavonk


Lecturer
KMITNB
1518 Pibulsongkram Road, Bangsue District
Bangkok 10800, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 587 8258
Fax: (66 2) 587 8258
Email: upa@kmitnb.ac.th

61
Mae Fah Luang University
34. Dr. George A. Hickman
Director
International Affairs and Advisor to the President on HRD
Office of the President
Mae Fah Luang University
333 Moo 1, Tasud, Muang District
Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand
Tel: (66 53) 916 026
Fax: (66 53 916 023
Email: ghickman@mfu.ac.th

Mahasarakham University
35. Dr. Wantana Sinsiri
Vice-President for Staff Development
Mahasarakham University
Khamriang Sub-District, Kantarawichai District
Mahasasrakham 44150, Thailand
Tel: (66 43) 754 225
Fax: (66 43) 754 255
Email: wanatan.s@msu.ac.th

Maha Chulalongkorn Rajavidyalaya University


36. P. Suriya Wamedni, Ph.D.
Maha Chulalongkorn Rajavidyalaya University
Wat Mahadhatu, Maharaj Road
Bangkok 10200, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 623 6329, 01 612 8579
Fax: (66 2) 221 6950

Mahamakut Buddhist University


37. Phragrupalad Sampipattanaviriyajarn
Dean of Graduate School
Graduate School
Mahamakut Buddhist University
248 Bavannivet, Phranakorn
Bangkok 10200, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 282 8302
Fax: (66 2) 281 0294

Mahidol University
38. Assoc. Prof. Anongporn Sirikulsathean
Associate Dean for Educational Affairs
Faculty of Dentistry
Mahidol University
6 Yothin Street, Rajthevee District
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 1) 850 9207
Fax: (66 2) 354 8510
Email: dtasr@mahidol.ac.th

62
39. Dr. Chatchai Kunavisakut
Assistant Dean for International Relations
Faculty of Dentistry
Mahidol University
6 Yothin Street, Rajthevee District
Bangkok 10400 Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 644 8644
Fax: (66 2) 644 8656
Email: dtchn@mahidol.ac.th

40. Dr. Duangjai Lexomboon


Assistant Dean for Research Affairs
Faculty of Dentistry
Mahidol University
6 Yothin Street, Rajthevee District
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 644 8644-6 ext. 2414
Fax: (66 2) 384 8510
Email: dtdlx@mahidol.ac.th

41. Asst. Prof. Panjit Chunhabundit


Assistant Dean for International Relations
Faculty of Dentistry
Mahidol University
6 Yothin Street, Rajthevee District
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 644 8644 ext. 4713
Fax: (66 2) 354 8520
Email: dtpch@mahidol.ac.th

42. Asst. Prof. Pattarawadee Leelataweewud


Lecturer
Faculty of Dentistry
Mahidol University
6 Yothin Street, Rajthevee District
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 644 6594 ext. 122
Fax: (66 2) 644 6594
Email: dtple@mahidol.ac.th

43. Dr. Pattiya Jimreivat


Assistant to the President for Domestic and
International Networking Development
Mahidol University
999 Phutamonthon 4 Road, Salaya
Phuthamonthon District, Nokorn Pathom 73170
Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 849 6317
Fax: (66 2) 849 6330

44. Asst. Prof. Sirima Sa-Nguangsin


Faculty of Dentistry
Mahidol University
6 Yothin Street, Rajthevee District
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 644 8644-6 ext. 1415-7
Fax: (66 2) 354 8510
Email: dtssu@mahidol.ac.th

63
45. Assoc. Prof. Siriruk Nakornchai
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Faculty of Dentistry
Mahidol University
6 Yothin Street, Rajthevee District
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 644 6594 ext. 121
Fax: (66 2) 354 8520
Email: dtsnk@mahidol.ac.th

46. Mrs. Siriwon Jitsukummongkol


General Administrative Staff
Faculty of Dentistry
Mahidol University
6 Yothin Street, Rajthevee District
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 354 8491
Fax: (66 2) 354 8510
Email: dtsjs@mahidol.ac.th

47. Assoc. Prof. Sroisiri Thaweboon


Assistant Dean for International Relations and
Assistant Dean for Extramural and Intramural Affairs
Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University
6 Yothin Street, Rajthevee District
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 644 8644-6 ext. 4811-2
Fax: (66 2) 644 8634
Email: dtstw@mahidol.ac.th

48. Dr. Supanee Rassameemasmaung


Lecturer
Faculty of Dentistry
Mahidol University
6 Yothin Street, Rajthevee District
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 644 8644 ext. 3415-7
Fax: (66 2) 644 8644 ext. 3419
Email: dtsrs@mahidol.ac.th

49. Assoc. Prof. Surin Soo-Ampon


Faculty of Dentistry
Mahidol University
6 Yothin Street, Rajthevee District
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 644 8666
Fax: (66 2) 354 8520
Email: dtssa@mahidol.ac.th

50. Prof. Dr. Khunying Suriya Ratanakul


Vice-President for Domestic and International
Networking Development
Mahidol University
999 Phutamonthon 4 Road, Salaya
Phuthamonthon District, Nokorn Pathom 73170
Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 849 6317
Fax: (66 2) 849 6330

64
51. Dr. Suwan Choonharuangdej
Assistant Dean for International Relations
Faculty of Dentistry
Mahidol University
6 Yothin Street, Rajthevee District
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 644 8644-6 ext. 4811-12
Fax: (66 2) 644 8634
Email: suwanchoon@hotmail.com

52. M.L. Theerathavaj Srithavaj


Faculty of Dentistry
Mahidol University
6 Yothin Street, Rajthevee District
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 644 8644 ext. 4020, 1310
Fax: (66 2) 354 8520
Email: dttst@mahidol.ac.th

53. Asst. Prof. Usanee Suthisarnsuntorn


Deputy Dean for Education
Faculty of Tropical Medicine
Mahidol University
420/6 Ratchawithi Road, Rajthevee
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel : (66 2) 354 9149
Fax : (66 2) 354 9150
Email : tmedu@diamond.mahidol.ac.th

54. Assoc. Prof. Waranun Buajeeb


Faculty of Dentistry
Mahidol University
6 Yothin Street, Rajthevee District
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 643 5535
Fax: (66 2) 644 8644 ext. 3419
Email: dtwbj@mahidol.ac.th

55. Asst. Prof. Waraporn Suphadtanaphongs


Deputy Dean for Policy and Human Resource
Faculty of Tropical Medicine
Mahidol University
420/6 Ratchawithi Road, Rajthevee
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel : (66 2) 354 9100
Fax : (66 2) 354 9198
Email : cmwsp@mahidol.ac.th

56. Asst. Prof. Warungkana Chidchuangchai


Lecturer
Faculty of Dentistry
Mahidol University
6 Yothin Street, Rajthevee District
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 644 8644
Fax: (66 2) 246 6910
Email: dtwch@mahidol.ac.th

65
Naresuan University
57. Dr. Samran Tongpaeng
Vice-President for Planning and Development
Office of the President
Naresuan University
Muang, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
Tel: (66 55) 261 085, 01 972 6514
Fax: (66 55) 261 084
Email: samrant@nu.ac.th

National Institute of Development Administration


58. Asst. Prof. Taweesak Suthakavatin
Associate Dean for Administration
School of Public Administration
NIDA
Klong-Chan Sub-District, Bangkapi District
Bangkok 10170, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 727 3858
Fax: (66 2) 375 9164

Prince of Songkla University


59. Mr. Apichath Mahagunta
Doctoral Student
Faculty of Education
Prince of Songkla University, Pattani Campus
Rusamilae Sub-District, Muang District
Pattani 94000 Thailand
Tel : (66 9) 295 4385
Fax : (66 73) 313 532
Email : mapichath@bunga.pn.psu.ac.th

60. Mr. Chawalit Kerdtip


Doctoral Student
Faculty of Education
Prince of Songkla University, Pattani Campus
Rusamilae Sub-District, Muang District
Pattani 94000, Thailand
Tel : (66 73) 893 9685
Email: skysliding@yahoo.com

61. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Choomsak Inrak


Educational Administration Department
Faculty of Education
Prince of Songkla University, Pattani Campus
Rusamilae Sub-District, Muang District
Pattani 94000, Thailand
Tel : (66 73) 313 928-50 ext. 1624
Fax : (66 73) 348 322
Email : Ichoomsa@bunga.pn.psu.ac.th

62. Dr. Gyu-sik Kim


Doctoral Student
Prince of Songkla University, Pattani Campus
Rusamilae Sub-District, Muang District
Pattani 94000, Thailand
Email: rusamilae@hotmail.com

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63. Mr. Jimrern Jittung
Doctoral Student
Prince of Songkla University, Pattani Campus
Rusamilae Sub-District, Muang District
Pattani 94000, Thailand
Tel : (66 9) 760 028
Fax : (66 73)

64. Assoc. Prof. Kriengsak Pattamarakha


Dean, Faculty of Technology and Management
Prince of Songkla University
Surat Thani Campus
Surat Thani 84100, Thailand
Tel: (66 77) 355 453
Fax: (66 77) 355 453
Email: Pkriengs@ratree.psu.ac.th

65. Mrs. Nawal Panakaseng Mangkachi


Doctoral Student
Prince of Songkla University, Pattani Campus
Rusamilae Sub-District, Muang District
Pattani 94000, Thailand
Tel : (66 4) 068 338

66. Mr. Recha Choosuwan


Doctoral Student
Prince of Songkla University, Pattani Campus
Rusamilae Sub-District, Muang District
Pattani 94000, Thailand
Tel : (66 9) 737 3286

67. Asst. Prof. Somkiat Phuangrod


Educational Administration Department
Faculty of Education
Prince of Songkla University, Pattani Campus
Rusamilae Sub-District, Muang District
Pattani 94000, Thailand
Tel : (66 73) 313 930 ext. 1624
Fax : (66 73) 348 322
Email : Psomkiat@hotmail.com

Silpakorn Univeristy
68. Dr. Burin T. Sriwong
Assistant Dean of Business Affairs
Faculty of Pharmacy
Silpakorn University
Nakorn Pathom 73000, Thailand
Tel: (66 1) 981 3909
Fax: (66 34) 255 801
Email: Burin@email.pharm.su.ac.th

Srinakarinwirot University
69. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sirima Pinyoanuntapong
Faculty of Education
Srinakarinwirot University
114 Sukumvit, Wattana
Bangkok 10110, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 664 1000 ext. 5562

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70. Dr. Suchinda Kajonrungsilp
Lecturer
Faculty of Education
Srinakarinwirot University
114 Sukumvit, Wattana
Bangkok 10110, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 664 1000 ext. 5562

71. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yawvapa Tejagupta


Lecturer
Faculty of Education
Srinakarinwirot University
114 Sukumvit, Wattana
Bangkok 10110, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 664 1000 ext. 5562

Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University


72. Asst. Prof. Papavadee Prachaksubhaniti
School of Management Science
Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University
Chaengwatthana Road, Pakkred
Nonthaburi 11120, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 504 8238
Fax: (66 2) 503 3612
Email: papavadee@hotmail.com

Suranaree University of Technology


73. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tassanee Sukosol
Suranaree University of Technology
Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000
Thailand
Tel: (66 44) 223 0000-4, 09 579 8850
Fax: (66 44) 224 017
Email: tassanee@ccs.sut.ac.th

Thaksin University
74. Mr. Aksornprasert Settaprasert
Executive Dean
Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences
Thaksin University
Muang District, Songkhla 90000
Thailand
Tel: (66 74) 311 885 ext. 1002, 1416
Fax: (66 74) 443 972
Email: aksorn50@hotmail.com

75. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Somboon Chitapong


President, Thaksin University
140 Moo 4, Kanchanwanich Road
Khaoroopchang Sub-District
Muang District, Songkhla 90000
Thailand
Tel: (66 1) 897 7355
Fax: (66 74) 443 953

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Thammasat University
76. Mr. Kittipoom Wisessak
Researcher
Human Resources Institute
Thammasat University
2 Prachan Road, Pranakorn District
Bangkok 10200, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 613 3305
Fax: (66 2) 613 3306
Email: ktphri@yahoo.com

77. Mrs. Thanyanop Pongsopon


Secretary for Institute
Human Resources Institute
Thammasat University
2 Prachan Road, Pranakorn District
Bangkok 10200, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 613 3302
Fax: (66 2) 226 5324
Email: kandahri@tu.ac.th

Rajabhat Universities

Rajabhat Chandrakasem University


78. Asst. Prof. Dr. Amara Rattakorn
Vice-President for Academic Affairs
Rajabhat Chandrakasem University
Ratchadapisek Road, Jatujak
Bangkok 10900, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 942 6900-99 ext. 1102
Fax: (66 2) 541 7113
Email: pre@chndra.ac.th

79. Asst. Prof. Kampechara Puriparinya


Senior Lecturer
Rajabhat Chandrakasem University
37/160 Soi Damapongse, Narkniwase Road
Ladproa 71, Ladproa District
Bangkok 10230, Thailand
Tel: (66 1) 821 7603
Email: kampechara@yahoo.com

80. Asst. Prof. Jirawan Plungpongpan


Management Science Faculty
Rajabhat Chandrakasem University
Ratchadapisek Road, Jatujak
Bangkok 10900, Thailand
Tel: (66 1) 626 3876
Fax: (66 2) 2512 2937

Loei Rajabhat University


81. Asst. Prof. Saowapa Sukprasert
Academic Staff of Loei Rajabhat University
Loei Rajabhat University
Loei 42000, Thailand
Tel: (66 42) 835 233-8 ext. 5128
Fax: (66 42) 811 143
Email: saowa@hotmail.com

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Rajabhat Maha Sarakham University
82. Dr. Nitaya Klangchanee
Vice-President for International Relations
Rajabhat Maha Sarakham University
80 Nakornsawan Road, Tambol Talad
Muang District, Mahasarakham 44000
Thailand
Tel: (66 43) 742 624
Fax: (66 43) 722 117
Email: nitaya@rmu.ac.th

83. Assoc. Prof. Saengchan Sriprasert


Rajabhat Maha Sarakham University
80 Nakhonsawan Road, Talam
Muang District, Mahasarakham 44000
Thailand
Tel: (66 1) 954 9042
Fax: (66 43) 372 1621
Email: saengchan@thaiciti.com

84. Mr. Thammanoon Raveepong


Lecturer
Rajabhat Mahasarakham University
80 Nakornsawan Road, Tambol Talad
Muang District, Mahasarakham 44000
Thailand
Tel: (66 5) 289 537, (66 43) 725 436
Fax: (66 43) 722 117
Email: Thammanoon@rmu.ac.th

Nakorn Ratchasima Rajabhat University


85. Ms. Nuchtriya Polpanich
Lecturer
Nakorn Ratchasima Rajabhat University
Suranarayana Rd., Nai Muang
Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 31000
Thailand

86. Mr. Mautea Ritthaisong


Lecturer
Nakorn Ratchasima Rajabhat University
Suranarayana Rd., Nai Muang
Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 31000
Thailand

87. Mr. Metee Keeratoirai


Lecturer
Nakorn Ratchasima Rajabhat University
Suranarayana Rd., Nai Muang
Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 31000
Thailand

88. Ms. Piyamas Surapopisith


Lecturer
Nakorn Ratchasima Rajabhat University
Suranarayana Rd., Nai Muang
Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 31000
Thailand

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Nakornsawan Rajabhat University
89. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Panomporn Puacharearn
Lecturer
Nakornsawan Rajabhat University
Muang District, Nakornsawan 60000
Thailand
Tel: (66 56) 222 341 ext. 2102
Fax: (66 56) 221 554
Email: p_panomporn@hotmail.com

Rajabhat Pibulsongkram University


90. Mr. Sawang Poopatvibul
President
Rajabhat Pibulsongkram University
Muang District, Pitsanulok 65000
Tel: (66 55) 267 110
Fax: (66 550 216 391
Email: rajabhat@pibul z.psru.ac.th

Suan Dusit Rajabhat University


91. Dr. Suwamarn Moungprasert
Education Official
Suan Dusit Rajabhat University
295 Ratchasima Road, Dusit District
Bangkok, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 244 5250
Fax: (66 2) 244 5258
Email: suwamarn@hotmail.com

Phetchabun Rajabhat University


92. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Prueng Chanda
President
Phetchabun Rajabhat University
Saraburi-Lomsak Road, Muang District
Phetchabun 67000, Thailand
Tel: (66 56) 721 583
Fax: (66 56) 722 217

93. Assoc. Prof. Pranee Petkaew


Vice-President for Academic Affairs
Surat Thani Rajabhat University
272 Bandon-Nasan Road, Tambon Kuntalae
Muang District, Surat Thani 84100
Thailand
Tel: (66 77) 355 615
Fax: (66 77) 355 468

Phetchaburi Rajabhat University


94. Asst. Prof. Sornchai Yenprem
Vice-President for Planning and Development
Phetchaburi Rajabhat University
38 Muang District
Phetchaburi 76000, Thailand
Tel : (66 32) 493 280, 01 856 7805, 01 803 4029
Fax: (66 32) 493 280
Email: sornchai@PBRU.ac.th

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Roiet Rajabhat University
95. Asst. Prof. Pramote Benchakarn
Adviser to the President
Roiet Rajabhat University
113 Moo 12, Kohkes, Selapum District
Roiet 45120, Thailand
Tel: (66 43) 544 738-9
Fax: (66 43) 544 744
Email: promoteb@yahoo.com

Surin Rajabhat University


96. Asst. Prof. Kasanachai Phothi-Arsa
President Assistant
Surin Rajabhat University
21 Thepsoontorn Road, Muang District
Surin 32000, Thailand
Tel: (66 1) 790 9590
Fax: (66 44) 521 390

Rajabhat Valaya Alongkorn University


97. Mr. Amnat Munthon
Dean, Faculty of Science and Technology
Rajabhat Valaya Alongkorn University
No. 1, Moo 20, Pahonyothin Road
Klongluang District, Pathumthani 13180
Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 529 0674-7
Fax: (66 2) 529 2580
Email: valaya@ripw.ac.th

98. Asst. Prof. Paiboon Sangkeo


Assistant President
Rajabhat Valaya Alongkorn University
No. 1, Moo 20, Pahonyothin Road
Klongluang District, Pathumthani 13180
Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 529 0674-7
Fax: (66 2) 529 2580
Email: valaya@ripw.ac.th

Rajamangala Institute of Technology


99. Asst. Prof. Chariya Hasitpanitkun
Vice-President for General Affairs
Rajamangala Institute of Technology
Office of the President, Klong 6, Thanyaburi
Pathumthani 12110, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 549 3010-11
Fax: (66 2) 577 5045
Email: Chariya@access.rit.ac.th

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100. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Issaree Hunsacharoonroj
Director
Institute of Research and Development
Rajamangala Institute of Technology
Klong 6, Thanyaburi
Pathumthani 12110, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 549 4681-4
Fax: (66 2) 549 4680
Email: issaree@rit.ac.th

101. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Churairat Duangduen


Vice Chancellor and Dean
Faculty of Science
Rajamangala Institute of Technology
Klong 6, Thanyaburi
Pathumthani 12110, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 549 3599
Fax: (66 2) 577 5046
Email: jurairat@rit.ac.th

102. Asst. Prof. Dr. Supatara Popuang


Head of Office of the President (Main campus)
Rajamangala Institute of Technology
Office of the President Rungsit-Nokhornnayok Road
Patumtani 12110, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 549 4082
Fax: (66 2) 577 2357
Email: Supatara@access.rit.ac.th

Private Universities

Assumption University
103. Dr. Absorn Meesing
Lecturer
Assumption University
Ramkhamheang 24, Huamak
Bangkapi, Bangkok 10240
Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 300 4543-62 ext. 1104

104. Rev. Bro. Anupatt P.Yuttachai


Vice-President for Financial Affairs
Assumption University
682 Ramkhamhaeng Road, Soi 24
Bangkapi, Huamark
Bangkok 10240, Thailand
Tel : (66 2) 300 4543 ext. 3766
Fax : (66 2) 300 4540

105. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Methi Pilanthananond


Dean
Faculty of Education, Assumption University
Ramkhamhaeng 24, Huamak
Bangkapi, Bangkok 10240 Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 300 4553 ext. 3717, 3718
Fax: (66 2) 300 4143
Email: methipil@au.ac.th

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106. Ms. Jhuriza Victores
Student
Assumption University
682 Ramkhamhaeng Road, Soi 24
Bangkapi, Huamark
Bangkok 10240, Thailand
Tel: (66 9) 482 0851
Email: jhuriza@yahoo.com

107. Dr. Vorapot Ruckthum


Lecturer
Assumption University
682 Ramkhamhaeng 24, Huamak
Bangkapi, Bangkok 10240
Tel: (66 2) 300 4543-62 ext. 1104

Dusit Thani College


108. Mr. Pornmit Kulkalyuenyong
Vice-Rector for Academic
Dusit Thani College
902 Moo 6, Srinakarin Road, Nongbon
Pravet District, Bangkok 10250, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 361 7805
Fax: (66 2) 361 7806
Email: pornmit@dtc.ac.th

Huachiew Chalermprakiat University


109. Mr. Pong Chongchit
Director, BBA-International Program
Faculty of Business Administration
Huachiew Chalermprakiat University
18/18 Km. 18, Bang Na-Trad Road
Bang Plee District, Samud Prakarn 10540 Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 312 6300 ext. 1507
Fax: (66 2) 312 6429
Email: pong.c@hcu.ac.th

Kasem Bundit University


110. Mr. Amnuay Aungabsee
Vice-President of Romklao Campus
Kasem Bundit University
1761 Patanakarn Road, Suan Luang
Bangkok 10540, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 904 2222
Fax: (66 2) 904 2200
Email: amuay_auekbu.ac.th

111. Assoc. Prof. Aree Punmanee


Head of Psychology for Human Development Department
Kasem Bundit University
1761 Patanakarn Road, Suan Luang
Bangkok 10250, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 321 6930-9 ext. 1428
Fax: (66 2) 722 4077
Email: aree_pu@kbu.ac.th

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112. Assoc. Prof. Prasarn Malakul
Vice-President for Academic Affairs
Kasem Bundit University
1761 Patanakarn Road, Suan Luang
Bangkok 10250, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 320 2777 ext. 1430
Fax: (66 2) 720 4677

113. Dr. Krissana Bulan


Lecturer
Krirk University
43/1111 Raminthra Road, Bangkhen District
Bangkok 10240, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 552 3500-9
Fax: (66 2) 552 3511

Mission College
114. Asst. Prof. Gail Valentino
Human Resource Director
Mission College
195 Moo 3, Muak Lek
Saraburi 18180, Thailand
Tel: (66 36) 344 777
Fax: (66 36) 344 864
Email: hrdir@missioncollege.edu

North Bangkok College


115. Dr. Pattama Roopsuqankun
Vice-President
North Bangkok College
6/999 Phaholyothin 52, Phaholyothin Road
Saimai, Bangkok , Thaialnd
Tel : (66 2) 972 7200 ext. 320
Fax: (66 2) 972 7751
Email: pattama@northbkk.ac.th

Payap University
116. Ms. Sompit Thongpan
Senior Lecturer
Payap University
Muang District, Chiang Mai 50000
Thailand
Tel: (66 53) 241 255, 01 485 7968
Fax: (66 53) 241 983
Email: thongpan@yahoo.com

Saint Johns University


117. Dr. Suvichakorn Chinapha
Vice-President for Academic Affairs
Saint Johns University
1110/5 Viphavadee Rangsit Road, Jatujak
Bangkok 10900, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 938 7091
Fax: (66 2) 938 7093
Email: johnc@stjohn.ac.th

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Shinawatra University
118. Ms. Sunee Chinchuntra
Vice-President of Administration
Shinawatra University
99 Moo 10, Bangtoey, Samkok District
Pathumthani 12160, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 599 0000 ext. 1165
Fax: (66 2) 599 3350
Email: sunee@shinawatra.ac.th

Siam University
119. Dr. Usanee Charoenpipatpol
Director, Office of International Relations
Siam University
235 Petchkasem Road, Phasicharoen
Bangkok 10160, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 457 0068 ext. 340
Fax: (66 2) 868 6848
Email: usanee@siam.edu

Sripatum University
120. Assoc. Prof. Chari Manisri
Vice-President for Academic and Student Affairs
Sripatum University, Chonburi Campus
Chonburi District, Chonburi 20000
Thailand
Tel: (66 38) 384 374-5
Fax: (66 38) 276 590
Email: chari@east.spu.ac.th

121. Dr. Chinda Tejavanija


Director
Sripatum International College
Sripatum University
61 Phahon Yothin Road, Bang Khen
Bangkok 10900, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 579 1111 ext. 1117
Fax: (66 2) 579 1111 ext. 1432
Email: chinadatc@spu.ac.th

Vongchavalitkul University
122. Ms. Jeerapan Kajornjitjarat
Vongchavalitkul University
Mittraprap-Nongkhai Road, Muang District
Nakhonratchasima 30000, Thailand
Tel: (66 1) 790 4810
Email: jojoba111 2004@yahoo.com

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Commission on Higher Education
123. Ms. Chadarat Singhadechakul
International Cooperation Officer
Bureau of International Cooperation Strategy
Commission on Higher Education
Ministry of Education
328 Si Ayuttahya Road, Ratchathewi
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 664 5913
Fax: (66 2) 354 5570
Email: chada@mua.go.th

124. Mrs. Napaporn Armstrong


Chief under Community Service Promotion Group
Commission on Higher Education
Ministry of Education
328 Si Ayuttahya Road, Ratchathewi
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 354 5539
Fax: (66 2) 354 5582, 02 354 5460

125. Ms. Naree Mitsamphandee


International Cooperation Officer
Bureau of international Cooperation Strategy
Commission on Higher Education
Ministry of Education
328 Si Ayuttahya Road, Ratchathewi
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 664 5613
Fax: (66 2) 354 5570
Email: naree@mua.go.th

126 Dr. Niwat Klin-ngam


Director
Bureau of Networking and Promotional Affairs
Commission on Higher Education
Ministry of Education
328 Si Ayuttahya Road, Ratchathewi
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 354 5572
Fax: (66 2) 354 5607
Email: niwat@mua.go.th

127. Ms. Nuanwan Tohthong


International Cooperation Officer
Bureau of International Cooperation Strategy
Commission on Higher Education
Ministry of Education
328 Si Ayuttahya Road, Ratchathewi
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 664 5913
Fax: (66 2) 354 5570

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128. Mr. Pichate Urairong
Bureau of Policy and Planning
Commission on Higher Education
Ministry of Education
328 Si Ayuttahya Road, Ratchathewi
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 354 5500
Fax: (66 2) 354 5600

129. Ms. Siriporn Wiriyaukradecha


International Cooperation Officer
Bureau of International Cooperation Strategy
Commission on Higher Education
Ministry of Education
328 Si Ayuttahya Road, Ratchathewi
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 354 5613
Fax: (66 2) 354 5570
Email: wsisw@thaimail.org

Schools and International Schools


Lampang College of Commerce and Technology
130. Mrs. Olin Jiwasantikarn
Director, Human Resource Center
Lampang College of Commerce and Technology
173 Phaholyothin Road, Muang District
Lampang 52100, Thailand
Tel: (66 54) 352 400 ext. 173
Fax: (66 54) 251 208
Email: olin@lcct.ac.th

131. Mrs. Pauangthong Wangraj


Assistance Director of Quality
Lampang College of Commerce and Technology
173 Phaholyothin Road, Muang District
Lampang 52100, Thailand
Tel: (66 09) 838 7311
Fax: (66 54) 255 715
Email: jojo@lcct.ac.th

132. Mrs. Sumitra Kitikanun


Head, Japanese Language Center
Lampang College of Commerce and Technology
173 Phaholyothin Road, Muang District
Lampang 52100, Thailand
Tel: (66 54) 352 400 ext. 121
Fax: (66 54) 251 209
Email: Sumitra@lcct.ac.th

133. Ms. Suwattana Hankitiwat


Director of Quality
Lampang College of Commerce and Technology
173 Phaholyothin Road, Muang District
Lampang 52100, Thailand
Tel: (66 06) 657 9210
Fax: (66 54) 251 209
Email: suwattana@lcct.ac.th

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134. Ms. Tehpee Manowong
Director of Business Faculty
Lampang College of Commerce and Technology
173 Phaholyothin Road, Muang District
Lampang 52100, Thailand
Tel: (66 54) 352 400 ext. 139, 01 425 1208
Fax: (66 54) 251 209
Email: Tehpee@lcct.ac.th

Niva International School


135. Mr. Eduard Dingemanse
Head, IT Department / IT instructor
Niva International School
2537 Soi Ladprao, 101 Klongchan
Bangkapi 10240, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 948 4605-9
Email: eddievictor@yahoo.com

136. Mrs. Julien Ferrandon


Teacher
Niva International School
2537 Soi Ladprao, 101 Klongchan
Bangkapi 10240, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 948 4605-9
Email: jferrandon@hotmail.com

St. Andrews International School


137. Mrs. Swarnalata Nalk
Teacher
St. Andrews International School
7-D Prestige Towers B.
Sukhumvit Soi 23, Bangkok 10110
Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 261 7249
Email: kwan_lata@hotmail.com

Phyathai School
138. Ms. Oraporn Yamsopa
Head of Academic Section
Phyathai School
306 Sri Ayuthaya Road, Rajathewee
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 7) 098 4609, (66 2) 354 5280
Fax: (66 2) 354 5251
Email: oraporny@hotmail.com

Sunthonphu Pittaya Secondary School


139. Mr. Surapong Ngamsom
Director
Sunthonphu Pittaya Secondary School
Krum Sub-District, Klaeng District
Rayong 21190, Thailand
Tel: (66 38) 657 658
Fax: (66 38) 657 658
Email: surapongngamsom@yahoo.com

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Companies and Others
140. Asst. Prof. Anucha Chintakanand
Adviser, Senate Standing Committee on Public Participation
Chairman
KTIBJ Leasing Co. Ltd.
Tel: (66 1) 808 5114,
KTIBJ Tel: (66 2) 651 8120, 252 9620
Fax: (66 2) 254 6118
Email: ofr@panrcgroup.com

141. Ms. Kantima Lerlertyuttiham


Human Resources Director
Microsoft (Thailand) Ltd.
37th Floor CRC Tower, All Seasons Place
87/2 Wireless Road, Phatumwan
Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 257 4803
Fax: (66 2) 257 0098
Email: kantimal@microsoft.com

142. Mrs. Kuntaya Manakul


Vice-President
Thailand Insurance Institute
3354/32 Manorom Building (10th Floor)
Rama 4 Road, Klongton, Klongtoey
Bangkok 10110, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 671 7440-1
Fax: (66 2) 671 7427
Email: K. lutaya@tiins.com

143. Ms. Lanchakorn Kongsakul


General Manager
Perfect Solution Asia Co., Ltd
947/31, 7th Floor, 1 Bang Na Complex Building Office Tower
Moo12, Bang Na Trad Road, Bang Na District
Bangkok 10240, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 398 8553 ext. 25
Fax: (66 2) 361 8578
Email: Lanchakorn@perfectsolutionasia.com

144. Mr. Montien Veerothai


Executive Director
Toyata Academy Thailand
Toyota Motor Thailand Co., Ltd
186/1 Moo 1, Old Railway Road
Tombol Samrongtai, Phra Pradaeng District
Samut Prakarn 10130, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 386 1503
Fax: (66 2) 386 1632
Email: mveeroth@toyota.co.th

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145. Mrs. Phandhida Sucharittanonta
Personnel Manager
Grand Hyatt Erawan Bangkok
494 Ploenchit Road, Lumpini
Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 254 1234 ext. 3009
Fax: (66 2) 254 6307
Email: phandhida.sucharittanonta@hyattintl.com

146. Ms. Shubhada More


Student
Assumption University
55/1201 Ekamai 12
Sukumvit Road, Bangkok, Thailand
Tel: (66 6) 540 4871
Email: shubhada1204@yahoo.com

147. Mr. Xuwat Wongchotewattana


Director of Human Resources
Grand Hyatt Erawan Bangkok
494 Ploenchit Road, Lumpini
Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 254 1234 ext. 3007
Fax: (66 2) 254 6307
Email: xuwat.wongchotewattana@hyattintl.com

148. Mr. Prakai Cholahan


ACAP Advisory
International Human Resources Institute

149. Ms. Jitlada Leeyakas


Researcher
Foundation for International Human Resource Development

150. Mr. Jarognsak Pornkunanupap


Researcher
Foundation for International Human Resource Development

International Organisations

Thailand-U.S. Educational Foundation (Fulbright)


151. Ms. Porntip Kanjananiyot
Executive Director
Thailand-U.S. Educational Foundation (Fulbright)
Thai Wah Tower 1
21/5 South Sathorn Road, Bangkok 10120
Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 285 0581-2
Fax: (66 2) 285 0583
Email: ptk@fulbrightthai.org

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UNESCO Bangkok
152. Prof. Dr. Molly N. N. Lee
Programme Specialist in Higher and
Distance Education
UNESCO Bangkok Asia-Pacific Regional
Bureau for Education
Mom Luang Pin Malakul Centenary Building
920 Sukhumvit Road
Bangkok 10110, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 391 0577
Fax: (66 2) 391 0866
Email: m.lee@unescobkk.org

Seminar Organisers

ASAIHL
153. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ninnat Olanvoravuth
Secretary General
Association of Southeast Asian Institutions
of Higher Learning
Office of ASAIHL, Jamjuree 1 Building
Chulalongkorn University
Bangkok 10330 Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 251 6966
Fax: (66 2) 253 7909
Email: ninnat99@hotmail.com

154. Mrs. Pranee Disbanchong


Association of Southeast Asian Institutions
of Higher Learning
Office of ASAIHL, Jamjuree 1 Building
Chulalongkorn University
Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 251 6966
Fax: (66 2) 253 7909

Commission on Higher Education


155. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Pavich Tongroach
Secretary-General
Commission on Higher Education
Ministry of Education
328 Si Ayutthaya Road
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 245 8928
Fax: (66 2) 245 8636

Council of University Presidents of Thailand


156. Prof. Dr. Adulya Viriyavejakul
Chair, CUPT
Council of University President of Thailand
Office of Secretariat
Jamjulee 1 Building, Chulalongkorn University
Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 218 3202, 02 218 3206
Fax: (66 2) 216 1259

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157. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Channarong Pornrungroj
Secretary-General
Office of Secretariat
Council of University President of Thailand
Jamjulee 1 Building, Chulalongkorn University
Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 218 3202, 02 218 3206
Fax: (66 2) 216 1259

158. Dr. Somsuke Terapigittra


Deputy Secretary-General
Office of Secretariat
Council of University President of Thailand
Jamjulee 1 Building, Chulalongkorn University
Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 218 3202, 02 218 3206
Fax: (66 2) 216 1259

159. Ms. Supawan Klaythongkum


Officer
Office of Secretariat
Council of University President of Thailand
Jamjulee 1 Building, Chulalongkorn University
Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 218 3202, 02 218 3206
Fax: (66 2) 216 1259

160. Ms. Thippawan Jirathamwasin


Officer
Office of Secretariat
Council of University President of Thailand
Jamjulee 1 Building, Chulalongkorn University
Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 218 3202, 02 218 3206
Fax: (66 2) 216 1259

SEAMEO RIHED
161. Dr. Padoongchart Suwanawongse
Director
SEAMEO RIHED
c/o Commission on Higher Education Building
5th Floor, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road
Rajathvee, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 644 9856-63 ext. 108
Fax: (66 2) 644 5421
Email: padoong@uni.net.th

162. Dr. Varaporn Bovornsiri


Consultant
SEAMEO RIHED
c/o Commission on Higher Education Building
5th Floor, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road
Rajathvee, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 644 9856-63 ext. 105
Fax: (66 2) 644 5421
Email: rihed@seamor.org

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163. Dr. Praphon Jearakul
Consultant
SEAMEO RIHED
c/o Commission on Higher Education Building
5th Floor, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road
Rajathvee, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 644 9856-63 ext. 103
Fax: (66 2) 644 5421
Email: rihed@seamor.org

SEAMEO Secretariat
164. Dr. Arief S. Sadiman
Director
SEAMEO Secretariat
4th Floor, Mom Luang Pin Malakul Centenary Building
920 Sukhumvit Road
Bangkok 10110, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 391 0144
Fax: (66 2) 381 2587

165. Mr. Addul Wahid bin Sulaiman


Deputy Director (Programme and Marketing)
SEAMEO Secretariat
4th Floor, Mom Luang Pin Malakul Centenary Building
920 Sukhumvit Road
Bangkok 10110, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 391 0144
Fax: (66 2) 381 2587

166. Dr. M.R. Rujaya Abhakorn


Deputy Director
SEAMEO Secretariat
4th Floor, Mom Luang Pin Malakul Centenary Building
920 Sukhumvit Road
Bangkok 10110, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 391 0144
Fax: (66 2) 381 2587

167. Dr. Mardhatillah Mardjohan


Programme Officer (Evaluation)
SEAMEO Secretariat
4th Floor, Mom Luang Pin Malakul Centenary Building
920 Sukhumvit Road
Bangkok 10110, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 391 0144
Fax: (66 2) 381 2587

168. Mr. Benito E Benoza


Programme Officer (Development)
SEAMEO Secretariat
4th Floor, Mom Luang Pin Malakul Centenary Building
920 Sukhumvit Road
Bangkok 10110, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 391 0144
Fax: (66 2) 381 2587

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169. Ms. Piyapa Su-angavatin
SEAMEO Secretariat
4th Floor, Mom Luang Pin Malakul Centenary Building
920 Sukhumvit Road
Bangkok 10110, Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 391 0144 ext. 106
Fax: (66 2) 381 2587

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