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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

The future of the Filipino children, as cited by Magsino (2009), is marred

by various forms of uncertainties considering the critical conditions of the

Philippine socio-economic and political situations. While the rich become richer

and the poor, poorer it is evident that there is a growing need to minimize or

control the rising unequal distribution of wealth and opportunities for success

among the Filipino constituents, from which the children are greatly affected.

Premised on the foregoing, education is deemed one of the best ways to

neutralize the growing inequality and make the Filipino way of life less conducive

to poverty threats and its multifarious effects on the individual, the family and

society as a whole.

Nevertheless, education itself is undergoing transitions and adaptations to

modern technology and to that of globalization which creates inevitable problems

that imply the need for effective teaching in all levels from pre-elementary to post

tertiary. The dynamic forces and agents of change make obsolete the previous

variables deemed effective in the past. Hence, the teaching of different subject

areas also undergoes various changes at one time or another in response to

curriculum modifications set and implemented by educational authorities.


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Philippine basic education has been undergoing series of changes,

modifications and improvement in the curriculum areas. Changes within the

educational system have been constantly implemented by the Department of

Education to adopt the Philippine educational system to the needs and demands

of globalization. These were experienced by the elementary and secondary

teachers, especially of public schools. Some of these changes were manifested

in curriculum programs and activities, which include the use of different

approaches and teaching strategies such as the Cooperative Learning strategy,

the Four Pronged Approach, UBD in the secondary level and the change of the

time allotment in the teaching of different subject areas, and lately the inclusions

of the use of both English and the Mother Tongue as the medium of instruction,

of which was included the Double Exposure in Mathematics. This program was

included in the implementation of the Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual

Education (MTB-MLE). And most recently, the implementation of K to 12 initiated

in the school year 2012-2013 was considered the most astounding among the

series of changes in the Philippine educational system.

From these experiences, it seems that there is an endless change in the

educational system until the desired goal of attaining quality education is

reached. It doesnt mean however, that the implementation of changes should

remain unaccounted. Rather, they should be evaluated in terms of the outcomes

manifested in the performance of the students to determine their effectiveness

and those of the teachers. Measurement of educational outcomes, as one of the


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areas of research, should be reported to the district or school division for

appropriate actions aimed at improving to further extent the programs

implemented. Ideally, these outcomes could be more reliable after a considerable

period of time has lapsed. Three to five years after implementation, the program

should be evaluated to gather reliable data on its extent of effectiveness. For the

mean time, the only research that could be conducted currently about this K to 12

Program is its implementation and the reactions of people toward the same.

Along the cited changes are challenges associated with, and attributable

to, the transition period wherein issues, concerns and reactions ranging from

positive to negative were met by both school heads and teachers from

stakeholders which include students, parents and community folks. The

foregoing situations necessitate urgent solutions and actions to erase negative

implications on the minds of the masses.

Hardy (2010) argued that the increasingly rapid rate of change in schools

has exacerbated a trend towards individualistic, de-contextualized and passive

learning initiatives as part of teachers work. The provision of opportunities for

genuine teacher learning is therefore difficult to achieve in schooling contexts

because of work intensification within schools and schooling systems. These

pressures militate against teachers reflecting upon their teaching, resulting in the

substitution of intellectual creativity with cultures of compliance.

Based on the foregoing discussions, the researcher was prompted to

conceptualize and conduct a study on the extent of implementation of the K to 12


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Program particularly in selected schools in Lucban , Quezon, along with the

issues, concerns and reactions of parents and the community on this

implementation. This study hopes to provide an objective evaluation of the

variables included in the study for the purpose of synchronizing both positive and

negative issues and concerns and enlighten the minds of the masses on the

genuine purpose of the implementation of the said program despite the glaring

reality that it connotes additional expenses on the part of the parents, and a

longer time period of schooling on the part of the students.

Background of the Study

K-12 Education Plan was published on October 5, 2010, Dep Ed

Discussion Paper (2010 ) . This is part of President Benigno Noy Noy Aquino

IIIs Educational Reform Program. The P-Noy Administration believes that adding

more years to basic education in the Philippines could help solve the problem of

unemployment, keep up global standards, and help Filipino students to have

more time to choose the career that best suits their skills.

As of 2010 Luistro averred that the K-12 Basic Education plan is said to be

the answer to add one more year on both primary and secondary levels plus

kindergarten. Though the opinion and reaction of the public are divided, some

are not. Among the main issues that relate to the K-12 program are the financial

capacity of parents, the number of schools and classrooms, the number of

teachers, even the availability of books and other school supplies. Though,
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DepEd also stated that the government will basically shoulder most of the

education cost.

The enhanced K-12 Basic Education Program is said to be an answer to

the countrys educational reform. This matter is being discussed anywhere by

educators and stuns anyone who hears this new proposal. School administrators

are even bothered on new things to be considered for the programs

implementation.

In Lucban, Quezon, particularly in the schools where the study was

conducted, there were issues encountered and concerns to be attended by

teachers and school heads along the implementation of K to 12 Program. As a

teacher in one of these schools, the researcher herself felt the need to reconcile

both positive and negative issues hurled at most by the students, the parents and

even by other teachers. This situation prompted the researcher to conduct a

study relative to these issues and concerns on the implementation of K to 12

which is now a law signed by the incumbent President Aquino.

Theoretical Framework

This study is anchored on Thorndikes law of readiness which Magsino

(2009) stressed that learning considers the readiness of the learner so that it

could be more lasting and more effective. Sharma and Sharma (2006) also

emphasized that readiness include all those preparatory adjustments which

immediately precede the activity. Reminding the learner of his past experiences;
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mental preparation for the understanding of new things , diverting his attention

towards the subject to be learned, changing the environment to suit the learning

are all included in the readiness. This law relates with the topic of the present

study which is on the readiness of the teachers and the schools in the

implementation of K to 12 curriculum program. Likewise, this level of readiness

could account for the quality of learning that pupils/students gain and it could also

be used as reference to predict future outcomes.

Supportive to the law of readiness is the resource-based theory of Wright,

et al. (2006) which highlighted the unique contribution of human, organizational

and physical resources possessed by the organization. As the organization

acquires additional resources, unique synergies occur between its new and

existing resources and because each organization already possess a distinct

combination of human, organizational and physical resources, the particular type

of synergies that occur will differ from one organization to another.

The situation of the different schools in Lucban, Quezon may be the

concrete manifestations of the foregoing theory. Each of them may be having

organizational structure and possessing more or less the same human and

physical resources which are some of the inputs of the study; but they may differ

in the utilization of these resources and in acquiring additional ones; such that

the synergy between the existing resources and those that are added and the

manner by which they are utilized become the determinant of the readiness of
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the teachers and the schools in the implementation of K to 12 curriculum

program.

And as Hostede pointed out (in Lumbera 2011), the success of an

organization is determined by its implementation of program and projects which

should not be carried out for the sake of performing them, but have to be

cautiously and properly controlled, manipulated and directed for the results to

become satisfactory or in conformity with objectives.

Other important determinants of the effectiveness of an organization and

contribute to the accomplishment of its goals, and affect its performance, as

affirmed by Rusmini Ku Ahmad ( 2008), include school internal elements such

as: teachers commitment, competencies and expertise that includes teachers

judgment of flexibility, adaptability, innovations and the quality of learning and

teaching and job satisfaction. He further stated that instructional leadership,

characteristic of the leader, and the teachers profound knowledge in content and

pedagogical will give impact to the school effectiveness and achievement.

Problems and needs are continuously a matter of concern of many

organizations of which the school system is no exception. And confronting the

problems resolutely and meeting the needs enthusiastically may transform them

into the determinant of success for any educational endeavor. In this respect,

organizational leadership and fellowship should come into the picture for an

organization to survive, compete, lead and flourish in this increasingly

competitive and fast changing environment.


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Conceptual Framework

This study was premised from the concept that the implementation of a

new educational program requires an assessment of the extent of its

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT


Respondents Profile
Age
Gender Gathering of
Educational Attainment
Conceptual and
Length of Service
Research Literature
Readiness of the
Schools in the
Implementation of K to Formulation, Validation
12 Program Significant/Non-
and Administration of
significant difference
Curriculum Research Instrument between the
Adjustment
assessment of the
School Plant
and Facilities Analysis and public and private
Administration school teachers:
Interpretation of Data
and Management
through the Use of Readiness of the
Readiness of the Statistical Tools
Schools
Teachers Readiness of the
Teaching Teachers
Competencies Testing of Research Problems in the
Teaching Strategies Hypotheses Implementation of K to
Instructional Materials 12
Problems
Encountered in the
Implementation of K to
12

Feedback

Figure 1. Research Paradigm


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Implementation and the issues and concerns that go along with it for the purpose

of determining the current status of affairs relative to such implementation to

arrive at a further decision and action aimed at to enhance further what was

started. Hence, the foregoing paradigm presents the variables of the study and

the processes through which it was conducted using the systems approach with

the input, process and output.

The input frame houses the following input or independent variables:

respondents profile in terms of age, gender, educational attainment and length of

service; extent of readiness of the schools in the implementation of K to 12 in

terms of curriculum adjustment, school plant and facilities and administration and

management; teachers readiness in terms of teaching competencies, teaching

strategies and instructional materials. Along with these are the problems

encountered in the implementation of k to 12.

The process frame indicates the steps by which the study was conducted.

These steps are as follow: gathering of conceptual and research literature,

formulation, validation and administration of research instrument; analysis and

interpretation of data through the use of statistical tools; and the testing of

research hypotheses.

The output frame indicates the outcomes or dependent variables of the

study which include the following: significant/non-significant difference between

the assessments of the public and private school teachers on school readiness,

teachers readiness and problems encountered in the implementation of K to 12.


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Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to determine the readiness of the teachers on the

implementation of K to 12 Program in selected private and public schools in

Lucban ,Quezon. More specifically, it sought answers to the following questions:

1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1. age;

1.2. gender;

1.3. educational attainment; and

1.4. length of service?

2. To what extent is the readiness of the selected private and public

secondary schools in the implementation of K to 12 Program in terms of:

2.1. curriculum;

2.2. school plant and facilities; and

2.3. administration and management?

3. To what extent is the readiness of the teachers in the selected private

and public schools in the implementation of K to 12 Program in terms of:

3.1. teaching competencies;

3.2 teaching strategies; and

3.3 instructional materials?

4. What are the problems encountered in the implementation of K to 12

Program, as assessed by the respondents?


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5. Is there a significant difference between the assessment of the public

and private school teachers on the readiness of the schools and teachers in the

implementation of K to 12 program?

Hypothesis

The following null hypothesis was tested in this study: There is no

significant difference between the public and private school teachers

assessments of the following research variables: schools readiness, teachers

readiness and problems encountered in the implementation of K to 12.

Scope and Limitations of the Study

The topics of this study include only the extent of implementation of K to

12 Program in selected private and public schools in Lucban, Quezon, in terms of

school and teachers readiness.

The variables that comprise school readiness are curriculum adjustment,

school plant and facilities, and administration and management; while those of

teachers readiness are teaching competencies, teaching strategies and

instructional materials.

The respondents of the study were 68 teachers from public schools and

40 teachers from private schools in Lucban, Quezon. On the other hand, the time

frame covered the school year 2013-2014.


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The treatment of data was delimited to the interpretation of the

perceptions of the respondents along the items provided in a researchers-made

questionnaire on the previously cited topics.

Significance of the Study

This study is deemed significant to the Department of Education, the

schools, administrators, teachers, parents and students, along with the

government and non-government organizations.

Department of Education. This study is a manifestation of the extent of

implementation of K to 12 in some private and public schools where this study

was conducted. This information may be used as a feedback of the compliance

of the schools used in this study, relative to such new curriculum.

Parents. This study will voice out their concerns on the additional

expenses they would incur in educating their children.

Schools. The information they may get from this study may be used as

reference on the implementation of K to 12, along with the issues and concerns

the school heads and the teachers encountered on such implementation.

School Administrators. This study may also reflect the same issues and

concerns they encounter along the implementation of K to 12 from which they

may gather ideas on how to synchronize the predicaments of the parents and

their position as the implementers of the new program.


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Students. Their predicaments may be revealed in this study so that

concerned authorities may become aware.

Teachers. This study teaches them to demonstrate innovativeness by

seeking further professional growth and development that would enhance to

further extent their competencies deemed essential in coping with the new trends

in the educational setting.

Definition of Terms

To facilitate the readers understanding of the contents of this study, the

researcher included the operational and conceptual definition of the following

terms:

Administration and Management. This variable as used in this study,

pertains to the modification of the functions of the school heads as an effect of

the change from the old to the new curriculum.

Curriculum adjustment . In this study, the term refers to the new set of

activities and trends integrated in the implementation of the K to 12 program.

Implementation of K to 12 Program. In this study, the term applies only

to the selected schools private and public high schools in Lucban, Quezon.

Instructional Materials. This signifies the new set of teaching materials

and aids directed to attain the goals of the K to 12 Curriculum Program.

Issues and Concerns. The term covers only the items enumerated in the

research instrument as perceived by the respondents of the study. Majority of the


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items include ideas that reflect the predicaments of the parents for the additional

burden in terms of time and financial expenses to be incurred for the additional

two years of basic education from 10 to 12 years.

K to 12 Program. As defined by Cruz (2010), refers to the most recently

implemented basic education curriculum signed into a law by the incumbent

President Benigno Aquino III through Republic Act 10533. The Filipino students

are required to undergo one year in Kindergarten, six years in primary school,

four years in junior high school and two years in senior high school.

School Plant and Facilities. It suggests school buildings, furniture and

fixtures, along with the tools and equipment in them to cope with the demands of

the K to 12 Curriculum Program.

School Readiness . As applied in this study, signifies the capability of the

schools to provide better facilities, school buildings, tools, equipment and

instructional materials and aids.

Teacher Readiness. As used in this research, the term implies the

competencies of the teachers to cope with the needs and demands of the K to 12

Curriculum Program.

Teaching Competencies. It denotes knowledge, skills, and attitude of

teachers in the use of different teaching strategies, instructional materials and in

managing the classroom for better and more effective pupils learning.

Teaching Strategies. This signifies changes in the use of teaching

strategies to adapt to the requirements of the new curriculum, K to 12.


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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents a review and summary of literature and studies

related to K to 12 curriculum enhancement and development, along with

conceptual framework, research hypothesis and operational and conceptual

definition of terms.

Foreign Literature

Tan ( 2011) in his writings, discussed and pointed out important details

about k to 12 . He enumerated the four phases of the K to 12 Program as

follows: Phase I refers to Laying the Foundations, the goal of which is to finally

implement the universal kindergarten (offered since on S.Y. 20112012), and

the "development of the (entire) program"; Phase II is that of Modeling and

Migration aimed to promote the enactment of the basic education law, to finally

start of the phased implementation of the new curriculum for Grades 1 to 4 and 7

to 10, and for the modeling of the senior high school; Phase III is Complete

Migration, the goal of which is to finally implement the Grades 11 and 12 or

the senior high school, and to signal the end of migration to the new educational

system; and Phase IV is that of Completion of the Reform aimed to complete the

implementation of K to 12 education system. However, during the new


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educational cycle, from 2016 to 2018, college enrollment could slow down

because of the entrance of the lower-year students to the new educational

Dinham and Scott (2008) caution against false dichotomies in education

that can militate against effective leadership decisions and that often reflect

polarizing ideologies in education. For the school leader, a sensitivity to the

pressures that are or can be exerted by the policy context and an awareness of

the distortions that may be forced on the schools program as a result seem to be

important imperatives in getting the balance right.

Drawing on a review of good practices in teacher professional learning,

Webster-Wright (2009) concluded that quality professional development must

integrate theory with practice, enabling teachers to make ongoing decisions

about their classroom practice within the context of deeply understood relevant

theory. It therefore engages with teachers as thinking professionals, as

intellectual workers, rather than treating them as technicians who merely need to

be taught what to do and then subjected to compliance measures to ensure that

they do it. In any final analysis, true teacher professional learning is human,

social and relational. Teachers, like students, need time to learn and people from

whom to learn. A wide range of possible strategies provide options for learning.

The challenge for school leaders is to bring these together in a meaningful way.

Fullan (2008) stressed that teachers of today and tomorrow need to

do much more learning on the job, or in parallel with it where they can constantly
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test out, refine, and get feedback on the improvements they make. They need

access to other colleagues in order to learn from them.

In San Diego City Schools a professional development system is aligned

with standards, curricula, and implementation guidelines. It recognizes that

effective professional development must be focused on the schools themselves

and based on daily classroom practice. It provides training and support for

instructional leaders, school principals, school-based peer coach/staff developers

and teachers. This training includes regular seminars, school visits by

instructional leaders, and cross-school visitations by principals to each other's

schools. The schools believe that effective professional development must be

focused on the schools themselves and based in daily classroom practice (San

Diego Institute for Learning, URFMP25SchoolPrograms.pdf).

A major theme in the constructivist theoretical framework of Bruner is that

learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts

based upon their current/past knowledge. The learner selects and transforms

information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive

structure to do so. Cognitive structure provides meaning and organization to

experiences and allows the individual to "go beyond the information given".

(http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~mryder/itc_data/constructivism.html, retrieved June

2013) As far as instruction is concerned, the instructor should try and encourage

students to discover principles by themselves. The instructor and student should

engage in an active dialog (i.e., Socratic learning). The task of the instructor is to
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translate information to be learned into a format appropriate to the learner's

current state of understanding. Curriculum should be organized in a spiral

manner so that the student continually builds upon what they have already

learned (http://www.infed.org/thinkers/bruner.htm retrieved May, 2013).

Bruner states that a theory of instruction should address four major

aspects: (1) predisposition towards learning, (2) the ways in which a body of

knowledge can be structured so that it can be most readily grasped by the

learner, (3) the most effective sequences in which to present material, and (4) the

nature and pacing of rewards and punishments. Good methods for structuring

knowledge should result in simplifying, generating new propositions, and

increasing the manipulation of information

(http://www.infed.org/thinkers/bruner.htm retrieved May 2013).

According to Scanduras (2007) Structural Learning Theory, what is

learned are rules which consist of a domain, range, and procedure. There may

be alternative rule sets for any given class of tasks. Problem solving may be

facilitated when higher order rules are used, i.e., rules that generate new rules.

Higher order rules account for creative behavior (unanticipated outcomes) as well

as the ability to solve complex problems by making it possible to generate (learn)

new rules.

Unlike information processing theories which often assume more complex

control mechanisms and production rules, structural learning theory postulates a

single, goal-switching control mechanism with minimal assumptions about the


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processor and allows more complex rule structures. Structural learning theory

also assumes that "working memory" holds both rules and data (i.e., rules which

do not act on other rules); the memory load associated with a task depends upon

the rule(s) used for the task at hand (Scandura, 2007).

Structural analysis is a methodology for identifying the rules to be learned

for a given topic or class of tasks and breaking them done into their atomic

components. The major steps in structural analysis are: selecting a

representative sample of problems, identifying a solution rule for each problem,

converting each solution rule into a higher order problem whose solutions is that

rule, identifying a higher order solution rule for solving the new problems,

eliminating redundant solution rules from the rule set and noticing that steps 3

and 4 are essentially the same as steps 1 and 2, and continue the process

iteratively with each newly-identified set of solution rules. The result of repeatedly

identifying higher order rules, and eliminating redundant rules, is a succession of

rule sets, each consisting of rules which are simpler individually but collectively

more powerful than the ones before (Scandura, 2007).

Structural learning prescribes teaching the simplest solution path for a

problem and then teaching more complex paths until the entire rule has been

mastered. The theory proposes that we should teach as many higher-order rules

as possible as replacements for lower order rules. The theory also suggests a

strategy for individualizing instruction by analyzing which rules a student has/has


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not mastered and teaching only the rules, or portions thereof, that have not been

mastered (Scandura,2007

The following are the principles underlying this theory: whenever possible,

teach higher order rules that can be used to derive lower order rules, teach the

simplest solution path first and then teach more complex paths or rule sets, rules

must be composed of the minimum capabilities possessed by the learners

(http://www.scandura.com/Articles/SLT%20Status-Perspectives.PDF Retrieved

May 2013 ).

The citation of Par & Le Maistre (2008) relates with the functions

considered a part of everyday life. They averred that knowledge of basic skills

may be considered important for the successful transition of students into the

workplace. Technical skills may also be required for specific jobs, but there are

some additional skills, often coined soft skills, that are necessary for bridging the

gap between book knowledge and work application.

As Sullivan (2011) points out, more attention needs to be paid to

developing students abilities to work adaptively that is to be able to apply what

they have previously learnt in answering non-routine questions and that this in

turn has implications for the curriculum and associated pedagogies.

Meanwhile, supervision and utilization of instructions provide

access to worthwhile and challenging learning in a way which takes into account

the needs and aspirations of a wide range of students. While respecting the

influence of the individual teacher on student learning, the fundamental question


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identified in enabling teacher learning is that of how leaders work with their staff

(Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2011).

Consequently, Robinson and Timperley (2009) observed five key areas for

leadership roles. These include the following: providing educational direction/goal

setting; ensuring strategic alignment; creating a community for improved student

success; engaging in productive problem talk; and selecting and developing

smart tools.

Harris (2008) averred that the school heads awareness of and sensitivity

to the contexts in which they employ their own value systems and authenticity as

professional educators and their approaches to supporting the professional

development of staff, are unquestionably the cornerstones of teacher

professional learning in each school. Who coordinates and resources whole-

school professional development, and how, are insights into the culture of the

school. Collegial cultures opt for cooperative planning teams as a basis for

distributed forms of leadership. While decisions taken here result in a formal and

resourced program of professional development, the essence of true professional

learning resides more in the interrelationships and social networks that form

among teachers within and beyond the school.

Sullivan (2011) framed a new theory of enhancing teaching through using

research-informed strategies. This theory asserts that the enhancement

procedure starts from a review of assessment results which include both the

previous student learning outcomes and the test items in which they excelled,
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fared moderately or failed. From a review of test results at different levels

(national down to school or even classroom level) is manifested the range of

student responses to different test items which will serve as basis for curriculum

modifications. Sullivan pointed out the need to develop students abilities to work

adaptively that is, enabling them to apply previous learning to current and

relevant situations.

Further, Turner (2010) cited the importance of strategic competence in

guiding students to effectively recognize, formulate and solve problems. This skill

is characterized as selecting or devising a plan or strategy to use mathematics to

solve problems arising from a task or context, as well as guiding its

implementation.

In planning and programming, Hughes (2009) stressed that an effective

learning environment is one in which students and teachers interact in ways that

allow students to have an opportunity to maximize how much they learn. There

are a variety of ways in which students and teachers interact in a learning

environment. Some interactions result in student learning; however, others have

very little effect on student learning. Classroom discussions, teacher and student

initiated questions, cooperative group work, peer tutoring and a host of other

feedback systems such as assignments, examinations and electronic response

systems such as the personal response system (PRS) and the personal data

assistant (PDA) are instructional strategies that provide a measure of two-way

communication in which information about what is taught and what is learned is


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exchanged between two people. On the other hand, there are instructional

strategies in which students sit passively in classrooms where there is one-way

communication from teacher to students.

Mazur (2009) suggested that a modification of traditional lectures is one

way to incorporate active learning in the classroom. An example is that of

allowing students to consolidate their notes by pausing three times for two

minutes each during a 60-minute lecture. This technique aims to provide the

students time to reflect on what they have written so that they will learn much

more information.

Moreover, Anthony and Walshaw (2009) argued it is critical that teachers

use worthwhile tasks which is interpreted to mean they are meaningful and

relevant to the students. Implementing this principle will present challenges for

some teachers and these strategies can effectively be the focus of teacher

learning.

Hughes (2009) alleged, that the use of interactive assessment strategies

along with interactive instructional strategies in order to enhance student learning

makes good educational sense. In fact, the two are inextricably linked to one

another. The definition formative assessment, for example, contains many

actions that students and teachers can take independently and collaboratively

during the instructional process. The actions of the students and teachers

produce feedback that is used to make adjustments either in teaching, in learning

or in both and thereby, create successful interactive learning environments.


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Assessment interactions between students and teachers occur when

teachers gather information about student learning. Such information help

students better understand concepts and principles and apply knowledge, not

just learn facts. This type of assessment interaction referred to as formative

assessment is defined as follows: Formative assessment is a process used by

teachers and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust

ongoing teaching and learning to improve students achievement of intended

instructional outcomes (Council of Chief School State Officers, 2008). It is clear

from this definition that formative assessment is a process. It is a process that

may employ tests or various other types of assessments, but it may also employ

interactive instructional strategies such as classroom discussions, assignments,

homework, quizzes, projects, investigations, electronic response systems or oral

questions to gauge and improve student learning.

Even when teachers employ interactive assessment strategies such as

assignments or examinations to determine what and how much students have

learned, care must be taken so that these strategies are effective in improving

student learning. One reason that care must be taken is because the feedback to

students from teachers is often delayed that is, the feedback to students does

not occur during the instruction. When students respond to questions on an

assignment or examination, they may not get feedback for several days or

weeks. Thus, by the time they receive feedback, they may have moved on to

learning new content. If understanding of the new content is dependent on


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understanding of the old content, and if there were misunderstandings of the

old content that were not addressed immediately when it was presented, then

the cumulative effect of misunderstandings coupled with no corrective feedback

could put students at risk of underperformance or even failure. A second reason

is that students generally focus on doing what is necessary to get the highest

grade possible on an assignment. Strategies used by students in this context

may result in very little learning. Should either of the above scenarios exist, the

goal of improved student learning would be compromised (Hughes, 2009).

Callingham (2010) reiterated that assessment is regarded as more than

the task or method used to collect data about students. It includes the process of

drawing inferences from the data collected and acting on those judgments in

effective ways.

Silver, et al. (2009) stressed that the making of a literate citizenry will not

happen by chance or overnight. Without an instructional focus on teaching for

understanding, students are at risk of viewing lessons as a collection of rules and

procedures to be memorized, regurgitated and eventually forgotten. Teaching for

understanding, on the other hand, engages students more fully in the learning

process by making use of interactive assessment and teaching strategies.

Sullivan (2011) clearly articulates the research and rationale

underpinning six key principles that he argues underpin effective teaching. One

of his principles is about the importance of sharing with students the goals of the

lessons. There is now no doubting that learning is improved when learners


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explicitly engage in thinking about what they are learning.

Drawing on a review of good practices in teacher professional

learning, Webster-Wright (2009) concluded that quality professional development

must integrate theory with practice, enabling teachers to make ongoing decisions

about their classroom practice within the context of deeply understood relevant

theory. It therefore engages with teachers as thinking professionals, as

intellectual workers, rather than treating them as technicians who merely need to

be taught what to do and then subjected to compliance measures to ensure that

they do it. In any final analysis, true teacher professional learning is human,

social and relational. Teachers, like students, need time to learn and people from

whom to learn. A wide range of possible strategies provide options for learning.

The challenge for school leaders is to bring these together in a meaningful way.

On monitoring students participation, Kelchtermans, Piot & Ballet (2011)

suggested the use of daily drills and frequent diagnostic exercises to determine

their strengths and weaknesses. These activities also serve as a means of

evaluating their performance. Further, an analysis of their performance,

specifically on written examinations, may be used as basis or feedback to decide

the need for integrating or modifying teaching strategies that would help improve

future results.

Relative to the concept of accountability in enhancing instruction is what

Hardy, et al. (2010) emphasized in their conviction that school leaders composed

of school heads and teachers need to foster conditions most conducive to


27

genuine student learning. The extent to which education authorities enable or

inhibit this kind of learning in their policy documents is determined through setting

professional teaching standards and school leadership from which emanate the

frameworks for teacher professional development and career path progression.

Taplin (2008) cited that it is the responsibility of schools to impart values

education in teaching. There is growing pressure for all teachers to become

teachers of values, through modeling, discussing and critiquing values-related

issues. Increasing numbers of individuals need to be able to think for themselves

in a constantly changing environment, particularly as technology is making larger

quantities of information easier to access and to manipulate. They also need to

be able to adapt to unfamiliar or unpredictable situations more easily than people

needed to in the past. Teaching encompasses skills and functions which are a

part of everyday life.

Zevenbergen and Zevenbergen (2009) were critical of emphases in

curricular content that is irrelevant in workplaces; they also argued that such

consideration of work demands has implications for the ways that lesson content

is taught. They proposed that a greater emphasis on estimation, problem solving

and reasoning, and a lesser emphasis on the development of procedural skills

would assist in an increase in the relevance of learning to the workplace.

Fink (2010) added the issue of career stage progression implicit in

statements of professional teaching standards. Teachers do have different needs

at different stages of their careers. The needs of new teachers are substantively
28

different from those of mid career teachers and from those in leadership roles. All

contend nonetheless with cycles of aspiration, preparation, induction,

development, stagnation and renewal. Some would also add that there are

generational issues with which to attend in the preferred learning styles and

career aspirations that separate the Baby Boomers from Generation X and

Generation Y.

The concept of school readiness, according to Rafoth, Buchenauer,

Crissman and Halko (2012), typically refers to the childs attainment of a certain

set of emotional, behavioral, and cognitive skills needed to learn, work, and

function successfully in school. Unfortunately, this common philosophy of ready

for school places an undue burden on children by expecting them to meet the

expectations of school. A more constructive way to consider school readiness is

to remove the expectations from the child and place those expectations onto the

schools and the families. Young children have wide ranging needs and require

support in preparing them for the high standards of learning they will face in

elementary school.

High (2012) cited that school readiness includes the readiness of the

individual child, the schools readiness for children, and the ability of the family

and community to support optimal early child development. It is the responsibility

of schools to be ready for all children at all levels of readiness. Childrens

readiness should become an outcome measure for community-based programs,

rather than an exclusion criterion at the beginning of the formal educational


29

experience.

Porter (2008) stressed that school readiness is not just an attribute of

children, but also comprises the educational, social, family and personal

resources that support their success at school. The following child attributes

imply school readiness: good physical health, including being well nourished and

having the physical stamina to last a school day; general cognitive skills such as

literacy and numeracy; effective communication skills, both to comprehend

instructions and to communicate personal needs; an enthusiastic and curious

learning style, reflected in interest and engagement in the world, attention to

directions, persistence, working independently; listening to and following

instructions; working independently and staying on task; social and emotional

competencies: spanning the ability to regulate emotion and behavior,

interpersonal skills to participate cooperatively and interact pro-socially with

peers and teachers, and ability to separate from parents.

As posited by Griffin (2008), in an attempt to address the difference in the

school readiness of certain groups of children, some policymakers advocate the

provision of kindergarten. Proponents of kindergarten argue that the time in these

programs can be used to increase pupils readiness at the rst grade and

beyond. They also point to studies that show academic benets of kindergarten

participation through the end of the rst grade.


30

Foreign Studies

The study of Odugu (2011) argues that understanding education language

policy in multilingual societies requires multiple shifting theoretical lenses that

map onto the actual policy processes.

On one hand, by promoting cultural identity and instilling values of justice

as fairness, mother-language education minimizes the conditions of inequities

that fuel social and political conflicts, thereby installing the defenses of peace in

the minds of men. On the other, the ecological needs of linguistic-cultural

diversity an extension of the logic of biodiversity demands mother-language

education as an end in itself. Both the instrumental and the self-contained goals

coincide in pursuit of multilingual ELPs. Third, recent growth in immigration and

the restructuring of nation-states by processes associated with globalization

create cross-cultural encounters, which signal new waves and forms of

multilingualism that invite revisions of language policies in education. While the

meaning and conditions of globalization continue to unfold, we witness greater

academic evidential consensus supporting mother-language education and

multilingual education, increased resource commitment by national and

international agencies, stronger vigilance against language marginalization and

amplified grassroots participation in policy making, and yet continued

ambivalence or outright resistance to ELP changes in India and Nigeria. The

study reveals that contestations about ELPs persist partly due to pervasive lack

of shared understanding about the implications of mother-language education


31

and multilingual education and misconceptions about ELP processes.

In a case study on Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL), Sears

& Hersh (2008) found out that contextual teaching enables learning in which

students employ their academic understandings and abilities in a variety of in-

and out-of-school contexts to solve simulated or real world problems, both alone

and with others. Activities in which teachers use contextual teaching strategies

help students make connections with their roles and responsibilities as family

members, citizens, students, and workers. Learning through and in these kinds of

activities is commonly characterized as problem based, self-regulated, occurring

in a variety of contexts including the community and work sites, involving teams

or learning groups, and responsive to a host of diverse learners needs and

interests. Further, contextual teaching and learning emphasizes higher-level

thinking, knowledge transfer, and the collection, analysis, and synthesis of

information from multiple sources and viewpoints. CTL includes authentic

assessment, which is derived from multiple sources, ongoing, and blended with

instruction.

Cheung and Slavin (2011) reported that on the 2009 National Assessment

of Educational Progress only 17% of eighth graders eligible for free lunch scored

at proficient or better, while 45% of middle class students scored this well. Among

African American students, only 12% scored proficient or better, and the

percentages were 17% for Hispanics and 18% for American Indians, compared
32

to 44% for Whites and 54% for Asian-Americans. All of these scores have been

improving over time, but the gaps remain.

Similarly, two recent reviews by Slavin and his colleagues (Slavin & Lake,

2008; Slavin et al., 2009) found a modest effect size of +0.19 for elementary

schools and a small effect size of +0.10 for secondary schools in relation to

computer-based teaching. The study set a minimum of 12-week duration,

evidence of initial equivalence between the treatment and control group, and a

minimum of two teachers in each group to avoid possible confounding of

treatment effect with teacher effect. It also included a total of 38 educational

technology studies in their elementary review and 38 in a secondary review.

Further, Li & Ma (2010) examined the impact of computer technology on

mathematics achievement. A total of 41 primary studies were included in their

review. The findings provide promising evidence in enhancing mathematics

achievement in K-12 classrooms, with an effect size of +0.28.

In contrast to the findings of previous reviews, both the Dynarski (2008)

and Campuzzano (2009) studies found minimal effects of various types of

education technology applications (e.g., Cognitive Tutor, PLATO, Larson Pre-

Algebra) on math achievement. These two studies are particularly important not

only because of their size and use of random assignment, but also because they

assess modern, widely used forms of CAI, unlike many studies of earlier

technology.
33

Nwaocha (2010) collected 82 surveys on the student preference of

multimedia presentation as opposed to traditional instruction in Mathematics for

high school students. The survey instrument presented a 5-point Likert scale with

students rating 17 statements associated with acceptance of the presentation.

Throughout the term the students had experienced two types of presentation

methods during the lecture period. The teacher would alternate the presentation

method every other unit. The class teacher distributed the survey to the students

on resumption for the term, again at midterm and once again at the end of the

term. The results of the study indicated that students prefer multimedia

presentation to the traditional classroom instructional method.

Recent research, according to McCulla (2011) points to the

absolute primacy to teachers professional growth through social networks in

education and the informal mentoring relationships that often result. This is of

particular importance in succession from one career stage to the next. It is

through gaining access to these professional networks that informal mentoring

relationships are formed, which is just as important as the content of professional

development programs. Some of the conditions that can be seen to enable

teacher professional growth and career path progression might be summarized

as follows: to be identified by school leaders as having leadership potential, to be

nudged forward to experience aspects of leadership roles, to be given

opportunities to lead both within the school and beyond, to be supported in

gaining access to professional networks locally and beyond the school, to be


34

supported and mentored in adopting leadership responsibilities, and to

experience aspects of formal leadership roles as the basis of capacity.

The educational research of Alzoubi and Rahman ( 2011) supports the

foregoing . In this study, they concluded that teachers training programs are

necessary in order to upgrade the teachers skills, knowledge and performance.

Likewise , it is to enable them to be more effective and innovative.

Local Literature

The Philippine Online Chronicles (2011) cited in one of its articles that K to

12 has been met with criticism from youth and student groups, teachers, parents

and the academic community. The DepEd, for its part, appears determined to

enact the program with its proposed budget catering mostly to preparing the

grounds for its eventual implementation. The article also stressed that it is

arguably one of the most drastic and controversial programs of the Aquino

administration.

In the same article, the DepEd argues that the K-12 program will be the

solution to yearly basic education woes and the deteriorating quality of education.

Critics, however, counteract that the education crisis needs to be addressed

more fundamentally and adding more school years would only exacerbate the

situation.

Further, the following counter-arguments were presented in the

same article: First, K to 12 will solve the annual growing number of out-of-
35

school youth. Students and parents, however complain that it would be an

added burden to poor families. While public education is free, a political youth

group estimates that a student would still need an average of P20,000 per school

year to cover transportation, food, school supplies and other schooling expenses.

Also, based on the latest Family Income and Expenditure Survey, families

prioritize spending for food and other basic needs over their childrens school

needs. Two more years for basic education would inevitably translate to higher

dropout rate.

Second, the K-12 will address low achievement scores and poor

academic performance of elementary and high school students. DepEd says that

the poor quality of basic education is reflected in the low achievement scores of

students. Results of the TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and

Science Study), however, negate the connection of the number of years to the

performance of students. According to results of the TIMSS, the length of

schooling does not necessarily mean better scores. In fact, some countries with

the same or shorter school cycle garnered the highest scores while those

implementing the K-12 model or more years of schooling got lower scores.

Third, the DepEd has enough resources to implement the K-12.

Interestingly, countries whose students got high scores in the TIMSS were the

ones whose governments allotted high public spending for education. Despite

nominal increases in the total education budget, the government has been

spending less per capita on education. The real spending per capita per day
36

dropped to P6.85 in 2009. From 2001 to 2009, educations portion in the national

budget has steadily decreased. This pales in comparison to neighboring

countries Malaysia, 7.4 percent and Thailand, 4 percent. It is also lower than

the four percent average for all countries that were included in the World

Education Indicators in 2006. The country is also lagging behind its Asian

counterparts in public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public

spending.

According to Anakbayan spokesperson Charisse Banez, Even if you

combine the DepEd and SUCs (state college and universities) budgets, it will

only equal to three percent of the GDP, a far cry from the six percent GDFP-

amount advocated by the United Nations. Former Education secretary Mona

Valisno stated in a separated study that DepEd needs at least P100 billion to fully

address the shortage of 93,599 classrooms and 134,400 seats and P63 million

for textbooks and scholarships.

Proponents of the program allude to the experience of St. Marys Sagada

a school implementing K-12 that has been topping the National Achievement

Test in Mountain Province. However, aside from the K-12, the school also has a

1:20 teacher to student ratio and is not suffering any sort of shortage in faculty or

facilities.

Fourth, the K-12 will open doors for more jobs for the youth,

even without a college diploma. DepEd says that a K-12 program will improve

the chances for youth employment as it is aimed to improve technical-vocational


37

skills through focusing on arts, aquaculture and agriculture, among others. The

K-12, it further states, will ensure that students graduating at the age of 18 will

have jobs, thus making them employable even without a college degree.

However, critics are quick to note that the Philippines, that has a

predominantly young population, also has the highest overall unemployment rate

in East Asia and the Pacific Region. According to World Bank study, the country

also has the highest youth unemployment rate. Young Filipino workers are twice

as likely to be unemployed than those in older age groups as they figure in the

annual average of at least 300,000 new graduates that add up to the labor force.

The Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) reported in 2008 that

50 percent of the unemployed 2.7 million nationwide were aged 15 to 24. Of

these, 461,000 or 35 percent had college degrees while about 700,000

unemployed youth either finished high school or at least reached undergraduate

levels. Therefore, the persistent high unemployment rates, may not be

necessarily linked with the present 10-year cycle but instead with the countrys

existing economic system and the governments job generation policies.

Fifth, Filipino graduates will be automatically recognized as

professionals abroad. In the present 10-year cycle, the DepEd argues, the

quality of education is reflected in the inadequate preparation of high school

graduates for the world of work or entrepreneurship or higher education.

What the K-12 program aims to achieve, therefore, is to reinforce cheap

semi-skilled labor for the global market. With young workers, mostly semi-skilled
38

and unskilled workers now making up an estimated 10.7 percent of the total

Filipino labor migrant population, it comes as no surprise then that the

government is now programming its youth to servicing needs of the global

market.

Labor migration, however, has resulted in the brain drain of Filipino skilled

workers and professionals. Ironically, while the DepEd and the government

mouths a so-called professionalization of the young labor force in foreign

markets, their significance to domestic development and nation-building is sadly

being undervalued at the expense of providing cheap labor under the guise of

providing employment.

While proponents and advocates hail the K-12 model as the saving

grace of youth unemployment, critics argue that it will only aggravate the

countrys dependence on labor export and the inflow of remittances that do not

necessarily contribute to substantive and sustainable nation-building.

Lastly, the DepEd justifies the K-12 model by saying that the

present short basic education program affects the human development of

Filipino students. Ultimately, regardless of whichever model, what the youth

and country direly needs is for the development and establishment of an

education system that caters to the needs of the Filipino youth and the society in

general The article concluded that the crisis of the Philippine education

system, in all levels, is stemmed not on the superficial, in this case the number of

schooling years, but rather on the conditions and foundation on which it subsists.
39

Unless the government addresses in earnest poor public spending, high costs of

schooling, the predominance of a colonial curriculum, lack of transparency and

accountability amid widespread corruption within the sector and the development

of the countrys science and technology for domestic development, all efforts will

remain on the surface.

Republic Act 10533 signed by the incumbent President Benigno Aquino III

aims to restructure basic education in the country by requiring Filipino students to

undergo one year in Kindergarten, six years in primary school, four years in

junior high school and two years in senior high school. Present during the signing

were House Speaker Feliciano Belmonte Jr., Education chief Bro. Armin Luistro,

and senators and House members who authored the legislation. The legislation

also provides for a mother-tongue, multi-lingual approach to instruction to

facilitate the early learning process of students. Teachers will be required to use

a regions mother tongue as medium of instruction from Grades 1 to 3.

Some groups, such as the progressive youth group Anakbayan, however

expressed concerns on the signing of the K to 12, saying the additional two years

in basic education may just worsen the country's educational woes.

Vencer Crisostomo, Anakbayan national chairperson, said the newly

signed law will bring additional burden to parents and students who do not have

funds for school expenses, which may further lead to higher drop-out rates. The

K-12, unlike what Aquino is promising, is not a solution to education and

employment woes. Instead, it will further worsen and deepen the problems,. He
40

likewise said that the K to 12 program will also mean the government's

"abandonment of tertiary education," since students who finish the program may

already choose to work instead of going to college. The K-12 aims to create

cheaper, more exploitable labor. The program is to make sure more semi-

skilled youths enter the labor force as early as 18 years old, which will make the

unemployment problem worse,( Press Release, May 3, 2013).

Luistro, for his part, said the K to 12 program will not bring additional costs

to Filipino parents and students, since the government will fund public schools for

the two more years in basic education. He added that his agency is currently

coordinating with the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) to discuss the

possibility of shortening college education in the country once the K to 12

program goes on full implementation in 2016. Luistro also said that the K to 12

program will not discourage students from pursuing tertiary education (Press

Release, May 3, 2013).

Meanwhile, during the Nov. 10 episode of Pagtuki, Dinampo ( 2012),

head of the Curriculum and Learning Management Division of Department of

Education in Central Visayas (DepEd-7), said that some elementary and

secondary teachers have already underwent divisional, regional and national

trainings for the K to 12 program. The school administrators who have

undergone trainings will share their knowledge to fellow teachers in their division.
41

In the K to12 program, the DepEd official further stated, teachers are

provided guides aligned to the new system. But teachers can modify these

modules to fit the needs of their students. She also mentioned that consultations

were made with the local government units and non-government organizations

on the K to 12. The education expert also pointed out that providing quality

education cannot be done by schools alone, but partnership is a must. She

further stressed that the goal of the K to 12 is communicative competence.

However, further researches and studies are needed to address certain problems

in the new education system. According to her also , another important task

along with the introduction of k-12 is to capacitate the teachers to become

efficient in the delivery of the lessons.

In his MINI CRITIQUE column that appears in The Philippine Star, October

14, 2010, Isagani Cruz summarized the pros and cons on the K + 12 debate. The

PROS included the following: enhancing the quality of basic education in the

Philippines is urgent and critical; the poor quality of basic education is reflected in

the low achievement scores of Filipino students, one reason of which is

inadequate instructional time; international test results consistently show Filipino

students lagging way behind practically everybody else in the world; the

congested curriculum partly explains the present state of education since 12

years of education were crammed into 10 years; this quality of education is

reflected in the inadequate preparation of high school graduates for the world of

work or entrepreneurship or higher education; most high school graduates are


42

too young to enter the labor force; the current (now previous) system also

reinforces the misperception that basic education is just a preparatory step for

higher education; the short duration of the basic education program also puts the

millions of OFWs, especially the professionals, and those who intend to study

abroad, at a disadvantage; and the short basic education program affects the

human development of the Filipino children.

On the other hand, the CONS are as follow: parents have to shell out

more money for the education of their children; the government does not have

the money to pay for two more years of free education, since it does not even

have the money to fully support 10 years in terms of classrooms, furniture and

equipment, qualified teachers and error-free textbooks; we can do in 10 years

what everyone else in the world takes 12 years to do, as sustained by the

acceptance of Filipinos in prestigious graduate schools even with only ten years

basic education; as far as the curriculum is concerned, DepEd should fix the

current (now previous) subjects instead of adding new ones since the problem is

the content and not the length of basic education reflecting the concept that we

need better instead of more education; a high school diploma will not get

anybody anywhere, because business firms will not hire fresh high school

graduates; every family dreams of having a child graduate from college; while

students are stuck in Grades 11 and 12, colleges and universities will have no

freshmen for two years thus a financial disaster for many private higher

education institutions; and the drop-out rate will increase because of the two
43

extra years (http://www.philstar.com retrieved April 2013).

An excerpt from (http://cianeko.hubpages.com retrieved April 2013 )

stated the following: The implementation of the K- 12 education plan in the

Philippine Basic Education Curriculum is the key to our nations development.

Though the government will face many problems in the long run of the

implementation of the program, there really is a need to implement it because the

enhancement of the quality of our education is very urgent and critical.

Implementation of K to 12 enables students to get sufficient instructional time to

do subject- related tasks which makes them more prepared and well- trained on

that subject area. With the new curriculum, senior high school students can

choose a field that they are good at and that they are interested in. As a result,

they will be equipped with the skills needed for a specific job even without a

college degree. At the age of 18, the age when they graduate from high school,

they will be employable and competitive already. Finally, with K- 12, Filipino

graduates will be automatically recognized as professionals abroad because we

are following the international education standard as practiced by all nations.

There will be no need to study again and spend more money in order to qualify to

their standards. With this, Filipino professionals who aspire to work abroad will

not find a hard time in getting jobs in line with their chosen field and will be able

to help their families more in the Philippines as well as the countrys economy

with their remittances, property buying, and creation of businesses.

Meanwhile, an except from


44

http://www.mindanews.com, retrieved August 2012 verified the launching of a

partnership between Australia and the Philippines aimed to raise the quality of

education in the Philippines by investing in research to support the

implementation of the Department of Educations (DepEd) Kindergarten to 12

Program. Australian Ambassador to the Philippines Bill Tweddell, Department of

Education Secretary Bro. Armin Luistro, and Commission on Higher Education

Commissioner Dr Cynthia Bautista led the opening of the Assessment Curriculum

and Technology Research Centre (ACTRC), a partnership of the University of the

Philippines (UP) College of Education and the University of Melbournes

Assessment Research Centre

Villafania (2012) averred that the implementation of K to 12 was also

marked with many challenges, particularly in terms of infrastructure as many

schools have not yet completed repairs. In fact, the Department of Education

(DepEd) said that it still needs additional 50,000 classrooms and about 1.3

million chairs. Some schools also lack enough teachers especially in high school

to accommodate the extra load of students entering Grade 7 this year. DepEd

also stressed that it needs an additional 74,000 teachers. On the other hand, the

DepEd has already implemented a number of training programs for teachers. For

the new Grade 1 curriculum, DepEd has trained over 3,000 people composed of

1,545 Grade 7 trainers and 1,478 elementary trainers, who will comprise the

national core of trainers on the K+12 curriculum. In addition, the education

agency also finished a training program for some 73,655 Grade 1 teachers and
45

70,227 Grade 7 teachers from public schools who will teach the initial K+12

curriculum.

Educational reform in the Philippines, if we may call it that, is being

primarily driven by an effort to meet standards of education in the global world

where our graduates with only ten years of elementary education, no matter the

quality of their knowledge through their engineering and nursing degrees, were

disadvantaged. That is why both public and private schools in the Philippines, the

latter through the leadership of the COCOPEA already embarked on the K-12

reform, even though this is still in the process of being legislated. The global

world with its unforgiving agenda wont let us wait. That is also why there has

been much discussion, sometimes passionate debate, about quality assurance.

The outcomes of our schools and HEIs must be quality outcomes. And so our

Commission on Higher Education has proposed its Outcomes and Typology

Based Quality Assurance (OTBQA) Proposal. Implementing urgent reforms in

collaboration with national government, however, should not allow us to forget

fundamental mission-commitments we have to transformative education (Tabora,

2012).

The governments K-12 program is a much-needed change for the

countrys education system. Through this program, people may expect better-

trained citizens who could be competitive with the knowledge and skills of people

trained abroad (De los Santos, 2012).

Before the Implementation of the K-12 program began, the Philippines is


46

one of the very few countries remaining that provide only ten years of basic

education, six years in elementary and four years secondary. This short period

makes it difficult for Filipinos to be competitive with countries like Japan or Korea,

that have at least 12 years of basic education under their belt. In most cases, the

extra years spent in basic education should enable students to tackle subjects

like mathematics and science in more details, instead of the rushed manner used

in the old education system.

People can also expect that the new K-12 system will produce graduates

who are more prepared for college education. The program is expected to

provide a clear view of which career they would take. This may lead to less drop-

outs, and more chances of success in graduating from whatever course they

choose.

The K-12 system is not without its critics. Some people say that it is not

the number of years that should be increased, but the quality of instruction that

the students receive. In a way, adding a few years to basic education can still

provide the quality that students need.

Now on its first year of implementation, the K-12 program is not without

challenges, but it is an endeavor worth pursuing if we truly intend to improve the

Philippine education system. By investing more time and resources in our

education, we can expect our graduates to become competitive in the global

business arena, and bring more success that would contribute towards building

our nation (De los Santos, 2012).


47

DepEd Order No. 74, which supplants the 35-year-old BEP, takes effect in

preschool education on June 2010. Asserting that the lessons and findings of

various local initiatives and international studies in basic education have

validated the superiority of the use of the learners mother tongue or first

language in improving learning outcomes and promoting Education for All, Order

No. 74 institutionalizes Mother Tongue-Based MLEthat is, the use of more than

two languages for literacy and instructionas a fundamental policy and program

in the whole stretch of formal education, including preschool.

Under this framework, the learners first language (L1) will be used as the

primary medium of instruction from preschool to at least Grade 3, and as the

main vehicle to teach understanding and mastery of all subject areas like Math,

Science, Makabayan, and language subjects like Filipino and English. Moreover,

the mother tongue as a subject and as a language of teaching and learning will

be introduced in Grade 1 for conceptual understanding, while additional

languages such as Filipino, English, and other local or foreign languages are to

be introduced as separate subjects no earlier than Grade 2.

Nolasco (in mothertongue@yahoo.com, 2012) cited 21 reasons why

Filipino children learn better while using their Mother Tongue. These include the

following excerpts from his primer.

Multilingual Education (MLE) is the use of more than two languages for

literacy and instruction. It starts from where the learners are, and from what they

already know. This means learning to read and write in their first language or L1,
48

and also teaching subjects like mathematics, science, health and social studies

in the L1. The first language or L1 is defined by UNESCO as the language that a

person (a) has learned first; (b) identifies with or is identified as a native speaker

of by others; (c) knows best; or (d) uses most. Any language which is not an L1 is

a second language (L2) or a third language (L3) in this primer.

What the constitution is to a state, the curriculum is to an

educational institution. The issues, problems and prospects of an educational

institution are intimately intertwined with those of the curriculum. In fact, the

curriculum can be viewed as the very heart of all educational systems. Thus,

curriculum decisions are essentially crucial to the tasks involved in education

(Bauzon, 2006).

Cabrera (2011) stated that school principals are the primary shapers of

school culture because they connect on a daily basis with other teachers, their

students, and with parents. The diverse perspectives on instructional practices

gained from students and parents provide teachers with rich, ongoing feedback.

No school can improve unless it has a culture that supports improvement,

collaboration, and a shared vision for what it wants to achieve. An evaluation

system that focuses on collaboration among teachers and principals, reflective

practices among teachers, and students learning will have a positive effect upon

a schools culture.

The following citations excerpted from mothertongue@yahoo.com

(2012) relates with the some of the features of K to 12 Curriculum Program.


49

The important tasks in formulating a community-based MLE

program include the following: conducting preliminary research, mobilizing

resources and developing linkages, recruiting and training staff, developing a

writing system, developing curriculum and instructional materials, developing

literature, evaluating the program and documenting progress, and coordinating

the program.

Conducting preliminary research involves collecting information that will be

used to plan and implement the program, like language attitudes and uses in the

community, the communitys goals, needs and problems, and resources for the

program. Mobilizing resources and developing linkages involves encouraging a

sense of ownership for the program among the stakeholders and encouraging

people to work together to support the program.

Recruiting and training staff involves identifying the people that will be

needed for the program, identifying the qualifications they will need, recruiting

them and providing initial and on-going training for them. Developing a writing

system involves identifying the symbols that will form the writing system, or

adapting an existing one, which is acceptable to the majority of stakeholders and

which promotes ongoing reading and writing in the language.

Developing curriculum and instructional materials involves identifying the

teaching methods that will be used, developing teachers guides, and planning

the content of the lessons in the local languages. Developing literature involves

writing, illustrating, editing, testing, producing and distributing a variety of graded


50

materials in the local language that are interesting to the readers.

Evaluating the program and documenting progress involves assessing the

program and the learners progress regularly to find out if the program is serving

the needs of the community and if you are achieving the programs objectives. It

also involves keeping records of the planning and implementing process and of

the learners progress. Coordinating the program involves obtaining and

allocating funds, keeping records, writing reports, and ensuring that staff care is

supervised and supported.

Local Studies

In his study, Tullao (2007) indicated that there is a need to upgrade human

resources through various forms of investment in human capital in order to reap

the benefits of an expanded global trade in services,. This upgrading process is

intended not only to protect Filipino professionals from foreign competition but

more importantly to build a strong human resource infrastructure in the light of a

globalized trading environment. Specifically, the readiness to compete

internationally should be viewed in terms of the ability of local professionals to

meet the standards and human resource requirements of foreign as well as

domestic companies.

On the other hand , Magno (2013) cited that teachers are one of the key

elements in any school and effective teaching is one of the key propellers for

school improvement. This review is concerned with how to define a teachers


51

effectiveness and what makes an effective teacher. It draws out implications for

policymakers in education and for improving classroom practice.

Furthermore, the study of Dejarme ( 2008) suggested that in order for

schools and universities to cope with new innovations, they should keep at pace

with the tempo of societal changes and technological progress. The schools of

today should participate in the educational and social revolution. Thus, the

curriculum in Philippine schools today has to be geared to the rapid societal

changes and the new responsibilities for the new breed of Filipinos. The three

most important sectors of society that give direct input to the improvement of the

curriculum are the academe (institutions), the government, and the industries

(both public and private companies).

In PASCN Discussion Paper, Tullao ( 2000, retrieved, May

2013),emphasized different perfectives/ views on the readiness of professionals

to compete internationally - First, the facility of Filipinos to work abroad and

compete with foreign professionals with similar skills and competence. Second,

the ability of professionals to compete with foreign professionals entering the

local economy. The third perspective is focused on the ability of professionals to

meet the standards and human resource requirements of foreign enterprises as

well as domestic companies in their use of various services.

The first and second views are premised on the need to improve human

resources in order to prepare Filipino professionals for foreign competition here

and abroad within a liberalized global market for services. The third perspective,
52

on the other hand, prepares professionals as an investment in human capital as

part of expanding the infrastructure of the economy. Such preparation will have

the effect of making local professionals competitive here and abroad plus making

the Philippines an attractive site for foreign investment because of the quality of

professional services. In effect the country does not prepare its professionals

merely to protect them from foreign competition but more so to build a strong

human resource infrastructure.

Maligaya (2007) conducted a study on co-curricular activities in

Mathematics V and VI as complement to the Mathematics curricular program for

improving achievement. Certainly, students gained experiences from participating

in co-curricular activities. Hence, it was found out that in order to improve

students performance in co-curricular activities, holding or conducting contests

and competitions in Mathematics must be fully exercised.

Furthermore, it was concluded that implementing co-curricular in

Mathematics helps enhance students learning.

The study recommended that school heads and teachers must help one

another to equip their students learning in co-curricular activities and other

related undertakings that will help improve their performance.

Dinglasan (2007) found out the effectiveness of a variety of methodologies

in teaching Mathematics in two Science High Schools in the Division of Lipa City.

These methods include the inductive, deductive, discussion, discovery and


53

integrated. In support to these findings, the use of printed and audio-visual

materials was also effective, but that of community resources was only

moderately effective. Corollary to these findings was the very satisfactory

performance of the students as reflected in their quizzes, recitation, assignment,

periodical test and projects. Hence, a highly significant relationship was revealed

between the effectiveness of teaching methodologies and the students academic

performance reflected in their grades.

The same study concluded that the use of teaching methods is

complemented by that of instructional materials, but also dependent on the

nature of the learners, the teachers personal and professional qualities and the

classroom climate.

The study of Famatigan (2009) revealed a highly significant relationship

between the effectiveness of theory-based instructional strategies and its effects

on the students academic performance based on the increase in their grade

point average, as reflected by computed multiple r value of 0.969, r square of

0.939, adjusted r square of 0.929, standard error of 0.901, all of which exceeded

the critical r value of 0.834 at 0.01 level of significance, based on six degrees of

freedom. Based on the findings, an instructional model of theory-based

instructional strategies adapted to the needs, interests and abilities of the

students was designed.

Valencia (2007) concluded in her study that the students of Canossa

Schools in Region IV A revealed a satisfactory performance in Mathematics


54

based on the mean results of placement, pre and post tests. There was an

improvement from the pre-test to post test. The standard deviations indicate a

close dispersal of the individual scores, particularly from the pre-test to post test.

She accounted this finding to the teachers skills and competencies in the use of

various teaching strategies and instructional materials. She concluded further

that there is a highly significant association between academic performance and

the teachers use of various teaching strategies and instructional materials.

The study of Cortiguerra (2011) found out a highly significant relationship

between the extent by which values were integrated in the teaching of

Mathematics in the primary level and the extent of effectiveness of theory-based

instructional methods/strategies, as evidenced by a computed r square value of

0.6336 which exceeded 0.6226, the critical r value at 0.01 level of significance

based on 14 degrees of freedom.

Katigbak (2011) concluded that the use of teaching methods is generally

effective in teaching, but its effectiveness depends much on the nature of the

learners, the difficulty of the lesson, the availability and adequacy of instructional

materials, the teachers professional qualities and the classroom climate. While

instructional materials facilitate, accelerate and make learning experiences more

concrete, meaningful and enjoyable, the students level of performance is still

affected by the effectiveness of the teacher and the teaching methods. It is

measured through varied teacher-made tests.


55

In Valenzuelas study (2011) the enhancement of the teaching of

Mathematics was triggered by the use of different teaching strategies and

instructional materials suited to the capability level of the Grade Two students.

She concluded that variation in the use of both teaching strategies and

instructional materials motivates students, maximizes their class participation and

improves their academic performance. Further, she suggested the use of more

innovative strategies and technological tools as that of using a computer in the

presentation of lessons to strengthen the students awareness of the wonders of

modern technology.

The study of Cabrera (2011) dwelt on the importance of training for

teachers professional growth and development, which in turn, enhances

instruction. More specifically, her study found out that school based training

conducted by the DepEd contributed much in the teachers development of

further competencies which they may use in their performance of instructional

functions.

In terms of training for teachers professional development, the same

researcher cited the following tips designed to make training sessions more

successful: Experienced, enthusiastic mentors make excellent trainers. Consider

bringing experienced mentors together in a mentor panel to share their

experiences with the trainees and stimulate discussion. To keep the program

interesting, trainers should not lecture at length but should use a variety of

learning techniques such as role playing, slides and films, and training manuals.
56

The training sessions should help the new mentors enhance their skills, as well

as learn new ones. During the practice sessions, new mentors should receive

feedback on how they are doing. The training site should be pleasant, conducive

to learning, and centrally located; refreshments should be provided. At the end of

the sessions, the mentors should complete a course evaluation form. This will

help the program evaluate the training process and determine ways in which it

could be improved.

According to a study released by former Deputy Education Minister

Abraham I. Felipe and Fund for Assistance to Private Education (FAPE)

Executive Director Carolina C. Porio, as cited in Philippine Online Chronicles

(2011), the DepEds arguments relative to K to 12 are impressionistic and

erroneous because there is no clear correlation between the length of schooling

and students performance. The said study shows that fourth graders from

Australia had respectable TIMSS scores despite having only one year of pre-

schooling, while Morocco (two years of pre-school), Norway (three years) and

Armenia and Slovenia (both four years) had lower scores than Australia. South

Korea, which has the same length of basic education cycle as the Philippines,

was among the top performers in the TIMSS, while those with longer pre-

schooling (Ghana, Morocco, Botswana and Saudi Arabia, three years) had lower

test scores.

In the high school level, Singapore which also has a four-year high school

cycle, got the highest score. Ironically, the Philippines got a lower score together
57

with countries that have longer high school cycles like South Africa, Chile,

Palestine, Morocco and Saudi Arabia.

The study of Vergara (2013) relates with the implementation of K to 12.

His study delved with the implementation of double exposure for the Grade Three

pupils of Tanauan East District which employed the use of both Mother Tongue

and English alternately as media of instruction. The findings of the study revealed

that such new program was implemented to a very great extent in the schools

covered by the study.

The study of Region 4B (Mindoro, Marinduque, Romblon and Palawan) as

presented by Giron and Lim (2009) manifested improvement on the

achievements in Mathematics of Grades I to III pupils all over the region as a

result of the implementation of Double Exposure in Mathematics with the Mother

Tongue as the first language of instruction. This finding indicates the

effectiveness of the use of Mother Tongue.

Synthesis of the Reviewed Literature and Studies

As a whole, the foregoing literature and studies were supportive of the

variables used in this study, which include the following: the readiness of the

schools in the implementation of K to 12 Curriculum Program in terms of

curriculum adjustment, school plant and facilities, instructional materials and

administration and management; readiness of the teachers in terms of teaching

competencies, application of teaching strategies, utilization of instructional


58

materials and adjustment procedures; issues and concerns in the implementation

of K to 12 Program; and the effects of these issues and concerns. More of the

related studies were not directly focused on K to 12, but they reflected the other

variables within the study.

Literature and studies that give details and K to 12 were excerpted in the

following citations: Republic Act 10533 signed by the incumbent President

Benigno Aquino III, Villafania (2012), Tabora (2012), De los Santos (2012), and

excerpts from http://cianeko.hubpages.com, mothertongue@yahoo.com,

http://en.wikipedia.org http://www.mindanews.com ( 2012).

On the concepts related to the readiness of the schools, the following

sources could be accounted: Rafoth, Buchenauer, Crissman and Halko (2012)

High (2012) Porter (2008) Griffin (2008), along with Cheung and Slavin (2011).

Meanwhile, the concepts related to curriculum adjustment were found in

the citations of Zevenbergen and Zevenbergen (2009), Bauzon (2006), DepEd

Order No. 74 (2010), Vergara (2013) and Giron and Lim (2009).

There was no direct citation about school plant and facilities since it is,

through common sense, understood that these variables are intertwined with the

educational process and deemed a significant part. However, the said variables,

along with instructional materials, were included as a part of the issues and

concerns related to K to 12.


59

On administration and management, the citations of Cabrera (2011)

Hughes (2009), Harris (2008), Robinson and Timperley (2009), along with the

Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority (2011) are deemed related.

On the other hand, the concepts associated with the readiness of the

teachers can be found from the following excerpted sources:

http://www.scandura.com/Articles/SLT%20Status-Perspectives.PDF, San Diego

Institute for Learning, http://www.infed.org/thinkers/bruner.htm, Cabrera (2011),

http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~mryder/itc_data/constructivism.html and Fullan

(2008).

On teaching competencies, the citations of McCulla (2011), Fink (2010),

Hardy, et al. (2010), Valencia (2007), Webster-Wright (2009), Sullivan (2011),

Callingham (2010) and Turner (2010) were inclusive.

Further, those related to the application of teaching strategies were

indicated from the following sources: Dinglasan (2007), Famatigan (2009),

Katigbak (2011), Cortiguerra (2011), Kelchtermans, Piot & Ballet (2011), Anthony

and Walshaw (2009) and Valenzuela (2011). Valenzuelas study also focused on

the use of different instructional materials.

Moreover, concepts related to adjustment procedures were found in the

citations of Nolasco (2012), Maligaya (2007), Nwaocha (2010), Li & Ma (2010),

Dynarski (2008), Campuzzano (2009), Slavin & Lake, (2008), Slavin et al.,

(2009), Sears & Hersh (2008), Odugu (2011), Taplin (2008), Silver, et al. (2009),

Hughes (2009), Mazur (2009) and Par & Le Maistre (2008).


60

On the issues and concerns in the implementation of K to 12 Program, the

citations of Luistro (2013), Cruz (2010), Crisostomo (2013), Felipe and Porio

(2011), http://www.philstar.com, and those from The Philippine Online Chronicles

(2011) were directly related.

Hence, the variables of the study were strengthened through the

presentation of the literatures and studies from both foreign and local sources

which were earlier presented.


61

Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the different procedures utilized in conducting this

study.

Research Design

The descriptive method of research was used in conducting this study

since it aims to describe the extent of school and teachers readiness, along with

the problems encountered in the implementation of K to 12.

Garcia (2010) cited that descriptive research aims to describe

systematically, functionally, accurately and objectively a situation, problem or

phenomena.

Calmorin and Calmorin (2003) cited that descriptive research focuses at

the present condition, the purpose of which is to find new truth. Descriptive

research is also valuable in providing facts on which scientific judgments may be

based.

Population and Sample Size

Table 1, given in the next page presents the population and sample size

and the venue of the study which covered some selected private and public

secondary schools in Lucban , Quezon. These schools include the following:

Lucban Academy from which 24 respondents participated and Banahaw View


62

Academy Inc., of which 16 respondents were taken and Southern Luzon State

University Laboratory High School from which 10 respondents took part of this

study , and Paaralang Sekondarya ng Lucban or PSL where out of 68 total

population, 58 teachers were derived and served as respondents.

Table 1

Population and Sample Size

Schools Population Sample Size


LA 24 24
BVA 16 16
SLSU Laboratory High 10 10
PS L 68 58
Total 128 108

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE USED

The simple random sampling through a fish bowl technique was used in

this study to minimize the number of teacher-respondents to a manageable one.

Hence, a total of 108 respondents were selected: 68 from public schools and 40

from private schools.

Description of Respondents

There are four groups of teachers ( two from private and two from public high

school) that composed the respondents. The first two groups from private are
63

as follow: Lucban Academy was founded on May 15, 1947. It is the first non-

sectarian school in Lucban ,Quezon and is counted as one of the best private

schools in town , having been awarded as the over-all champion in the 2013

Town Meet and granted top places in the usual Division Press Con ;

The second school from private is the Banahaw View Academy, which

started its operation in1998, is the only Seventh Day Adventist high school in

the province of Quezon . The school was awarded most discipline and most

healthy and clean school in 2010. It also received gold in cultural dance and

Bible quiz bee, and silver in semaphore in the 2013 North Philippine Union

Conference- wide Camp of the Seventh day Adventists .

The other two groups from public are as follow: Southern Luzon State

University Laboratory High School and Paaralang Sekondarya ng Lucban.

Southern Luzon State University, Laboratory High School is situated along

Quezon Avenue, Lucban , Quezon . while Paaralang Sekondarya ng Lucban or

PSL is situated along the public highways connecting Luisiana , Laguna and

Lucban , Question . This school was formally opened on June 10 1991 and was

officially included in the list of secondary schools Dep-Ed Division of Quezon in

2005. It was awarded 2011 Brigada Eskwela School Best Implementer, regional

level.

Instrumentation
64

A researchers made questionnaire was designed personally by the

researcher. It was used as the primary data gathering instrument with focus on

school readiness in terms of curriculum adjustment, school plant and facilities

and administration and management; teachers readiness in terms of teaching

competencies, teaching strategies and instructional materials; along with the

problems encountered in the implementation of K to 12.

The instrument underwent content validation by three experts in the field

of thesis writing. Then, a trial run of the instrument was conducted to 10 teachers

of a school not covered by the study. They were not included as actual

respondents but were used only for validation purposes to determine whether the

contents of the questionnaire are comprehensible and reliable.

. The result of the trial survey was analyzed and interpreted through the use

of Split-Half method in association with Pearson Product Movement Correlation

and Spearman Brown Formula. Revisions were noted to improve the phrasing of

the questionnaire items before the instrument was finally administered to the

actual respondents of the study.

Data Gathering Procedure

All data pertinent to the topics of this study were gathered personally by

the researcher. Secondary data were gathered from news items , books , and

from the Internet. While the primary data were gathered from the filled-up
65

questionnaire administered to the respondents of the schools covered in this

study.

Statistical Treatment of Data

For a clearer interpretation of the data gathered from the survey

questionnaire, the researcher used the following statistical procedures:

1. Simple Percentage. This statistics was used in describing the

demographic profile of the respondents in terms of age, gender, educational

attainment and length of service.

The formula for computing this statistics is as follows:

P = F / N (100)

Where: P = computed percent

F = Frequency for each class or category

N = Total number of respondents

100 = constant multiplier to change the decimal into percentage value

2. Weighted Mean. This procedure was used to measure the extent by

which the respondents assessed the given research variables, which include

schools and teachers readiness and problems encountered in the

implementation of K to 12.

The formula for computing this statistics is as follows:

WM = FW / N
66

Where:

WM = Computed Weighted Mean

= Summation symbol

F = Frequency for each option

W = Assigned weight

N = Total number of frequencies

The following scale was used in interpreting the computed weighted mean.

Weight Scale/Range Description Code


5 4.21 5.0 Very Great Extent VGE
4 3.41 4.20 Great Extent GE
3 2.61 3.40 Moderate Extent ME
2 1.81 2.60 Little Extent LE
1 1.00 1.80 Very Little Extent VLE
The formula for computing the scale interval is as follows:

SI = UL LL / N

Where: SI = Scale Interval; UL = Upper Limit; LL = Lower Limit (in

reference to assigned weights); and N = total number of assigned weights.

3. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. This statistics was

used to validate the research instrument, the formula of which follows:

NXY (X) (Y)

= {NX (X)} { NY (Y)}


67

4. Spearman Brown Formula. This statistics was used to validate the

research instrument, particularly in transforming computed Pearson r to

coefficient of reliability.

The formula for computing this statistics is as follows:

S = 2(roe) / 1 + roe

Where: roe = computed correlation coefficient

5. t Test. This method was used to test the null hypothesis of no

significant difference between the assessment of the teachers from public

schools and that of the teachers from private schools.

The formula for computing this statistics is as follows:

X1 X 2

t= Sp (1/N1 + 1/N2)

Where: T = Computed T Value

X1 = Greater Mean

X2 = Smaller Mean

N1 = Number of Cases in Variable 1

N2 = Number of Cases in Variable 2

Sp = Pooled Variance; or

S1 (N1 1) + S2 (N2 1)
N1 + N2 2
68

Where: S1 and S2 = Standard Deviations of Variables 1 and 2; or

S= ( X x)
N

To interpret the computed T value, the researcher will set the level of

significance at 0.01 and/or 0.05 level of significance for two-tailed or non-

directional test, with N1 + N2 2 degrees of freedom.

The conditions set in decision-making are as follow:

1. Accept Ho if computed T is less than tabular T; and,

2. Reject Ho if computed T is equal to or greater than tabular T.

NOTE: The computer was used in this comparison to minimize the

possibility of human error with the calculator.

Chapter 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA


69

This chapter shows data in tabular form supported with corresponding

analysis and interpretation.

1. The Profile of the Respondents in terms of demographic variables

Table 2

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of


Age

Age Frequency Percentage


21 30 27 25
31 40 19 17.59
41 50 37 34.26
51 60 25 23.15
Total 108 100
Mean Age = 41.06

Table 2 shows the age profile of the respondents, with age group 41 50

posts the highest frequency of 37 or 34.26 percent of the total 108 respondents.

The other age groups posted the following frequencies: 27 or 25 percent

for age group 21 30; 25 or 23.15 percent for that of 51 to 60; and 19 or 17.59 in

for age group 31 40.

The other age groups posted the following frequencies: 27 or 25 percent

for age group 21 30; 25 or 23.15 percent for that of 51 to 60; and 19 or 17.59 in

for age group 31 40.


70

As a whole, the respondents are in their middle age period, as sustained

by a mean age of 41, more specifically early middle age period. This finding

sustains the reliability of the information gathered from the respondents,

considering their age status. Further, the variation in the frequencies of the

different age groups is a strong indicator that the different age groups were

represented in the sample.

Table 3

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of


Gender

Gender Frequency Percentage


Male 40 37.04
Female 68 62.96
Total 108 100

Table 3 manifests the frequency distribution of the respondents in terms of

gender, with 68 or 62.96 percent female and 40 or 37.04 male .This finding

clearly indicates that there are more female than male teachers.

Table 4 below, indicates the respondents profile in terms of educational

attainment. With those who have units in M.A. posts the highest frequency of 51

Table 4

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents


in Terms of Educational Attainment

Educational Attainment Frequency Percentage


Bachelors Degree 37 34.26
71

With units in MA 51 47.22


MA Degree 13 12.04
With units in Doctorate 7 6.48
Total 108 100

or 47.22 percent .Thirty seven or 34.26 percent finished bachelors degree in

teaching, while 13 or 12.04 percent are holders of masters degree. Finally,

seven or 6.48 have units in doctorate.

The above findings indicate that the respondents are all educationally

qualified, but there is still a need for most of them to grow more professionally

through finishing at least a masters degree.

In the next page is Table 5 that shows the frequency distribution of the

respondents in terms of length of service. The highest frequency of 41 or 37.96

percent was garnered by those who have 1 10 years of service in teaching,

while the group with 11 20 years of service posted a frequency of 35 or 32.41

percent .Finally, those with the longest range of 21 30 years in service

comprising 32 or 29.63 percent of the total respondents.

Table 5

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of


Length of Service

Years in Service Frequency Percentage


1 10 41 37.96
11 20 35 32.41
21 30 32 29.63
Total 108 100
72

These findings indicate that the respondents have sufficient experience in

teaching considering the length of service they have rendered in their profession.

It implies further that they have been nailed to such noble aspiration of serving

the youth through molding them into citizens of good value when they grow up.

2. Extent of Readiness of private and public schools in the

implementation of K to 12 program.

As provided in the next page, Table 6 shows the aggregate assessment of

the respondents on the readiness of their schools in the implementation of K to

12 curriculum program in terms of curriculum adjustment, with a composite mean

of 3.78 indicating great extent, as observed on all the listed indicators.

The items pertaining to those of analyzing and interpreting more

objectively the new challenges ahead as an offshoot of the new curriculum and

pursuing innovative activities to strengthen the goals of the new curriculum.

Table 6

School Readiness in the Implementation of K to 12 Curriculum Program in


Terms of Curriculum Adjustment

Curriculum Adjustment WM VI
The school manifests ability to:
1. design alternative courses of action to adjust itself
3.58 GE
to the demands of k to 12 Curriculum Program
2. set schedule of activities aimed to attain goals of K
3.68 GE
to 12 Curriculum Program
3. avail of the required guides and list of possible
3.80 GE
references to help improve the curriculum.
4. design action plan aimed to improve curriculum
3.77 GE
activities relevant to the needs of globalization.
73

5. analyze and interpret more objectively the new


challenges ahead as an offshoot of the new 3.92 GE
curriculum.
6. pursue innovative activities to strengthen the
3.92 GE
goals of the new curriculum.
Composite Mean 3.78 GE
Legend: WM = weighted mean; VI = verbal interpretation ; GE= great extent

obtained the highest and equal weighted mean of 3.92.

These findings indicate the teachers awareness of the new challenges

and changes brought about by the implementation of K to 12. This implies their

effective choice and utilization of the approaches and teaching strategies

designed to mobilize the teaching-learning process for the attainment of the

goals of the new curriculum.

Meanwhile, that of availing the required guides and list of possible

references to help improve the curriculum provides with a weighted mean of

3.80.

Another inevitable effect of the implementation of K to 12 is that of the

procurement of new set of instructional materials deemed essential in carrying

out the curriculum goals and objectives. This situation is an implication of the

cited finding.

The item of designing action plan aimed to improve curriculum activities

relevant to the needs of globalization, reveals a weighted mean of 3.77 while

that of setting schedule of activities aimed to attain the goals of K to 12

Curriculum Program , gives a weighted mean of 3.68.


74

In terms of designing alternative courses of action to adjust itself to the

demands of K to 12 Curriculum Program, states the lowest weighted mean of

3.58.

The above cited findings imply that the attainment of the new curriculums

goals and objectives necessitates a plan of action designed to suit the curriculum

activities to the desired improvement in the quality of basic education in the

Philippines.

As a whole, the findings generally point out great extent readiness of the

subject schools in the implementation of K to 12, as sustained by both composite

means and individual weighted means on all the listed items pertaining to

curriculum adjustment.

The foregoing findings and implications lend support to the citation of

Taplin (2008) , that the schools, through the school head and the teachers, need

to be able to think for themselves in a constantly changing environment,

particularly as technology is making larger quantities of information easier to

access and to manipulate. They also need to be able to adapt to unfamiliar or

unpredictable situations more easily than people needed to in the past.

Further, Zevenbergen and Zevenbergen (2009) were critical of emphases

in curricular content that is irrelevant in workplaces; they also argued that such

consideration of work demands has implications for the ways that lesson content

is taught.
75

Table 7 shown in the next page, manifests the assessment of the

respondents on the readiness of their schools in the implementation of K to 12

curriculum program in terms of school plant and facilities, with a composite mean

of 3.75 indicating great extent, likewise posted on all the cited indicators.

The first item, that of planning for expansion schemes designed to

accommodate the widest possible increase in school population posts the lowest

weighted mean of 3.6. While the sixth item, that of making wise use of all school

resources to cope with demands of expansion scheme indicates the highest

weighted mean of 3.87 .

Truly and indeed, the effects of additional two years of basic

education inevitably require additional classrooms and buildings for expansion.

Hence, the schools, through their school heads and teachers manifested

awareness on the wise use of all available resources to cope with the current

demands.

The item, that of accommodating the increasing number of

pupils/students through gradually setting up the stage for the cited expansion

scheme gets a weighted mean of 3.67.

On the other hand, the item of improving the facilities designed to make

Table 7
76

School Readiness in the Implementation of K to 12 Curriculum


Program in Terms of School Plant and Facilities

School Plant and Facilities WM VI


The school manifests ability to:
1. plan for expansion schemes designed to accommodate
3.6 GE
the widest possible increase in school population.
2. persuade the authorities and other stakeholders to
contribute a part in the widening or expansion schemes 3.76 GE
resulting from the implementation of K to 12 program.
3. accommodate the increasing number of pupils
/students through gradually setting up the stage for the 3.67 GE
cited expansion scheme.
4. Improve the facilities designed to make convenient the
3.84 GE
teaching-learning process. in infrastructural projects.
5. apply the values of frugality, along with economy, in
infrastructural projects. 3.76 GE

6. make wise use of all school resources to cope with


demands of expansion scheme 3.87 GE

Composite Mean 3.75 GE


Legend: WM = weighted mean; VI = verbal interpretation ; GE= great extent

convenient the teaching-learning process obtains a weighted mean of 3.84, while

both the items, that of persuading the authorities and other stakeholders to

contribute a part in the widening or expansion schemes resulting from the

implementation of K to 12 program and applying the values of frugality, along

with economy, in infrastructural projects reveal a weighted mean of 3.76.

The cited findings imply the significance of school plant and facilities in the

implementation of K to 12 to accommodate the constantly increasing school

population, much more in the next years to come when the cited curriculum

reaches its period of completion at 2016 and 2017 when there shall have been

both Grades 11 and 12. The secondary schools are the ones affected by this
77

implementation and they need additional classrooms, buildings and facilities, but

just the same, the elementary schools are also beset with problems that may be

encountered during the period of adjustment. The new curriculum necessitates

more modern facilities that would suit the demands of globalization in the new

millennium.

The Philippine Online Chronicles (2011) cited that the DepEd has enough

resources to implement the K-12. Further, De los Santos (2012) stressed that by

investing more time and resources in our education, we can expect our

graduates to become competitive in the global business arena, and bring more

success that would contribute towards building our nation.

Furthermore, Porter (2008) stressed that school readiness is not just an

attribute of children, but also comprises the educational, social, family and

personal resources that support their success at school.

In contrast, however, to the cited theoretical supports to the schools

readiness in terms of the adequacy of school plant and facilities, Villafania (2012)

averred that the implementation of K to 12 was also marked with many

challenges, particularly in terms of infrastructure as many schools have not yet

completed repairs. In fact, the Department of Education (DepEd) said that it still

needs additional 50,000 classrooms and about 1.3 million chairs.

Table 8 that comes in the next page provides the assessment of the

respondents on the readiness of their schools in the implementation of K to 12

curriculum program in terms of administration and management. The composite


78

mean of 4.03 corresponding to great extent interpretation, is manifested on all

the listed indicators.

The same weighted mean of 4.16 are posted on the following items:

looking forward to further strengthening and improvement of the administration,

as well as management and keeping abreast of the more current trends in

administration and management.

The cited findings indicate the school heads awareness of the need to

strengthen and improve their performance of administrative and management

functions to cope with the current trends and demands of the new curriculum.

In item that of conforming to principles of management of change obtains

a weighted mean of 4.07.

Table 8

School Readiness in the Implementation of K to 12 Curriculum Program in


Terms of Administration and Management

Administration and Management WM VI


The school manifests ability to:
1. adopt more innovative management practices
3.96 GE
relevant to the demands of the new curriculum.
2. manage wisely and effectively all its resources. 3.94 GE
3. perform administrative and management functions
3.86 GE
suited to the needs of the new curriculum.
4. conform to principles of management of change 4.07 GE
5. look forward to further strengthening and
improvement of the administration, as well as 4.16 GE
management
6. keep abreast of the more current trends in
4.16 GE
administration and management.
Composite Mean 4.03 GE
Legend: WM = weighted mean; VI = verbal interpretation ; GE= great extent
79

This finding coheres with one of the functions of the school head which is

that of managing change, as there is a change from the old to the new

curriculum.

Meanwhile, that of adopting more innovative management practices

relevant to the demands of the new curriculum gets a weighted mean of 3.96 .

Correspondingly, the cited finding reflects the implementation of more

innovative management practices which will suit the attainment of the goals of

the new curriculum.

The item, that of managing wisely and effectively all its resources. posts a

weighted mean of 3.94 .

This finding relates with the school heads wise and effective use of all its

resources which include human, material, technological, financial and community

resources to adapt to the demands of the new curriculum.

The item, that of performing administrative and management functions

suited to the needs of the new curriculum ,gains a weighted mean of 3.86.

This finding indicates generally the school heads performance of both

administrative and management functions designed to contribute to the

attainment of the goals of the new curriculum.

As a whole, the cited findings and implications imply the great extent

readiness of the schools in the implementation of K to 12 in terms of


80

administration and management. This implies the effectiveness of the school

heads in their performance of functions.

In relation to the cited findings and implications, the citation of Robinson

and Timperley (2009) observed five key areas for leadership roles. These include

the following: providing educational direction/goal setting; ensuring strategic

alignment; creating a community for improved student success; engaging in

productive problem talk; and selecting and developing smart tools.

Further support to the foregoing findings was what Harris (2008) averred,

the school heads awareness of and sensitivity to the contexts in which they

employ their own value systems and authenticity as professional educators.

3. Extent of Readiness of Teachers of private and public schools in

the implementation of K to 12 program.

Table 9 that follows presents the assessment of the respondents on the

teachers readiness in the implementation of K to 12 curriculum in terms of

Table 9

Teachers Readiness in the Implementation of K to 12 Curriculum Program


in Terms of Teaching Competencies

Teaching Competencies WM VI
The teachers:
1. use varied types of teaching strategies designed
4.04 GE
to suit the needs of the new curriculum.
2. employ more innovative techniques such as 4.09 GE
81

portfolio to make learning more output base.


3. keep abreast of the modern techniques of
4.18 GE
teaching, particularly the use of multi-media.
4. make use of every possible resource to improve
themselves professionally, most particularly in 4.11 GE
terms of instruction.
5. utilize more reliable assessment tools and
4.16 GE
techniques to evaluate the pupils performance.
6. enhance teaching through using research-
4.07 GE
informed strategies.
Composite Mean 4.11 GE
Legend: WM = weighted mean; VI = verbal interpretation ; GE= great extent

teaching competencies. With a composite mean of 4.11 corresponding to great

extent interpretation, likewise manifested on all the listed indicators.

The highest weighted mean of 4.18 is noted on the item, that of keeping

abreast of the modern techniques of teaching, particularly the use of multi-media.

This finding is a clear indication of the teachers awareness of the utilization of

multi-media in teaching, which corresponds to the inclusion of the subject,

Educational Technology in teacher education courses, as implemented by the

Commission on Higher Education. Hence, the modern teacher uses multi-media

technology such as computer and the like, to facilitate and make more

meaningful and relevant the teaching-learning process.

The item, that of utilizing more reliable assessment tools and techniques

to evaluate the pupils performance, obtains a weighted mean of 4.16, while that

of making use of every possible resource to improve themselves professionally,

most particularly in terms of instruction, gets a weighted mean of 4.11, whereas


82

the item, that of employing more innovative techniques such as portfolio to make

learning more output base, posts a weighted mean of 4.09.

These findings relate with the new trends in educational measurement and

evaluation, which is now termed as assessment of student learning, which

emphasizes the use of authentic assessment and portfolio, along with rating

scales to describe the pupils/students academic performance. Further, the

second of the cited findings relates with the teachers professional growth and

development which can be pursued through further education and training.

Hence, many teachers nowadays enroll in graduate schools and attend various

trainings and seminars to cope with the demands of the new curriculum and that

of the attainment of quality education.

Hughes (2009) alleged, that the use of interactive assessment strategies

along with interactive instructional strategies in order to enhance student learning

makes good educational sense.

That of enhancing teaching through using research-informed strategies

obtained a weighted mean of 4.07, while 4.04 for item , that of using varied types

of teaching strategies designed to suit the needs of the new curriculum. Both

findings pointed out the use of teaching strategies which, on the other hand,

reflects the teachers instructional competencies. Sullivan (2011) framed a new

theory of enhancing teaching through using research-informed strategies.

In totality, the cited findings revealed great extent readiness of the

teachers in the implementation of K to 12 which implies also their awareness of


83

the demands of the new curriculum in terms of their instructional competencies.

Hence, as Turner (2010) cited, strategic competence is important in guiding

students to effectively recognize, formulate and solve problems. Further, Mazur

(2009) suggested that a modification of traditional lectures is one way to

incorporate active learning in the classroom. Moreover, Anthony and Walshaw

(2009) argued it is critical that teachers use worthwhile tasks which is

interpreted to mean they are meaningful and relevant to the students.

Table 10 below, reflects the assessment of the respondents on the

teachers readiness in the implementation of K to 12 curriculum program in terms

of teaching strategies, with a composite mean of 4.33 corresponding to very

great extent interpretation.

Five of the listed indicators fall within the very great extent scale, the

highest of which is on the item , that of giving clear and specific directions and

Table10

Teachers Readiness in the Implementation of K to 12 Curriculum Program


in Terms of Teaching Strategies

Teaching Strategies WM VI
The teachers:
1. employ effective motivational techniques to sustain
4.20 GE
pupils interest in the lessons
2. present lessons logically and sequentially and
4.34 VGE
supports them with concrete examples
3. phrase simple questions that encourage pupils
4.35 VGE
participation
4. give detailed and redundant explanations for
4.32 VGE
difficult points
5. direct discussion effectively and allow pupils to 4.34 VGE
84

participate in the discussion


6. give clear and specific directions and emphasize
the values to be internalized during learning 4.45 VGE
activities
Composite Mean 4.33 VGE
Legend: WM = weighted mean; VI = verbal interpretation ; VGE= very great extent; GE=great

extent

emphasizing the values to be internalized during learning activities, with a

weighted mean of 4.45. This finding could have emanated from the teachers

frequent and repetitive explanation of the directions on what the pupils/students

ought to do during varied classroom activities. They ensure that every direction

stated or uttered in relation to the performance of an activity would be understood

clearly by the pupils/students.

The item, that of phrasing simple questions that encourage pupils

participation, reveals a weighted mean of 4.35. It should be noted that the

Socratic method necessitates asking questions and the cited finding shows that

teachers do their best in making the questions as simple and clear as possible to

ensure that pupils understand what is being asked and to enable them to cope

with the lesson. The same finding also recommends that questions during class

discussion must be made simple so that the maximum number of pupils will be

encouraged to participate.

Meanwhile, that of presenting lessons logically and sequentially and

supporting them with concrete examples indicates a weighted mean of 4.34. This

finding signifies a part of the teaching-learning process whereby the teacher


85

follows the strategy of starting from the most simple to the more complex and

from concrete examples to abstraction and generalization.

Item number 4 , that of directing discussion effectively and allowing pupils

to participate in the discussion, comes with a weighted mean of 4.34, while 4.32

for that of giving detailed and redundant explanations for difficult points. The cited

findings correspond to that part of the lesson whereby the teacher uses the

strategy of ensuring the pupils understanding of the previously presented lesson

through effective explanation of its details and repeating more often those that

seem to be difficult.

Finally, that of employing effective motivational techniques to sustain

pupils interest in the lessons gets a weighted mean of 4.20 interpreted as great

extent. This finding stresses that motivation is an important part in the process of

delivering instruction, specifically in terms of tickling the interests of the pupils

and enable their maximum participation in classroom activities designed to

develop their varied competencies.

As a whole, the cited findings and implications reflect the teachers

extensive utilization of varied teaching strategies to facilitate transfer of learning

and enable the pupils maximum participation in classroom activities. This

connotes an interactive learning process from which the values of unity,

cooperation and camaraderie are gradually but instinctively developed between

and among the teacher and the pupils.


86

In relation to the foregoing findings and implications, the study of Katigbak

(2011) concluded that the use of teaching methods is generally effective in

teaching, but its effectiveness depends much on the nature of the learners, the

difficulty of the lesson, the availability and adequacy of instructional materials, the

teachers professional qualities and the classroom climate.

Further, the study of Valenzuela (2011) also averred that the enhancement

of teaching was triggered by the use of different teaching strategies and

instructional materials suited to the capability level of the students. She

concluded that variation in the use of both teaching strategies and instructional

materials motivates students, maximizes their class participation and improves

their academic performance.

Table 11 that follows, specifies the assessment of the respondents on the

teachers readiness in the implementation of K to 12 curriculum program in terms

of instructional materials. With a composite mean of 4.13 interpreted as great

extent.

Table 11

Teachers Readiness in the Implementation of K to 12 Curriculum Program


in Terms of Instructional Materials

Instructional Materials WM DI
The teachers:
1. select instructional materials based on their
4.24 VGE
suitability to attain the objectives of the lesson
2. use instructional materials to motivate and
4.28 VGE
sustain the varied interests of the pupils
3. select instructional materials that are consistent 4.16 GE
87

with pupils capabilities and learning styles


4. use mock-ups, realia, models, dioramas and
exhibits 3.86 GE
to expedite the teaching-learning process
5. prepare aids such as rulers and templates to
4.07 GE
save time and improve the quality of work
6. adapt teaching techniques to the selected
4.16 GE
instructional materials
Composite Mean 4.13 GE
Legend: WM = weighted mean; VI = verbal interpretation ; VGE= very great extent;
GE= great extent

Despite the over-all interpretation of great extent, two indicators manage

to qualify for the higher very great extent interpretation. These are as follow:

using instructional materials to motivate and sustain the varied interests of the

pupils, with a weighted mean of 4.28 and selecting instructional materials based

on their suitability to attain the objectives of the lesson, with a weighted mean of

4.24. These findings point out the motivational function of the utilization of

instructional materials, of which choice and adaptability to the pupils capabilities,

needs and interests are considered essential.

The remaining indicators are interpreted as great extent. These include

the following: selecting instructional materials that are consistent with pupils

capabilities and learning styles and adapting teaching techniques to the selected

instructional materials, with similar weighted mean of 4.16 in rank 3.5; preparing

aids such as rulers and templates to save time and improve the quality of work,

with a weighted mean of 4.07; and using mock-ups, realia, models, dioramas and
88

exhibits to expedite the teaching-learning process, with the lowest weighted

mean of 3.86 .

The cited findings stress that the respondents make wise use of

instructional materials to attain the lesson objectives and make learning more

meaningful and enjoyable for the pupils. It should also be noted that the effective

use of instructional materials requires careful attention to planning, selecting, and

utilization. Teachers should be familiar with wide range of audio-visual, printed

and other resources available for classroom use, and then fit these materials in

their instructional plan when appropriate. Classroom physical facilities also need

to be considered when selecting and using these materials. It is useful to look at

the trends in media and technology to have a perspective on what media will

likely be of great use in the future.

The findings also imply that the effectiveness of instructional materials

depends much on the frequency and appropriateness by which they are used in

the teaching-learning process.

As a whole, the findings reveal the great extent readiness of the teachers

in terms of the choice and use of instructional materials fitted and contributory to

the attainment of the goals and objectives of the K to 12 curriculum for the further

development of the pupils varied competencies and prepare them for the current

demands of globalization in the new millennium.

Supportive to the foregoing findings and implications were the studies

depicting the use of instructional materials in the teaching-learning process for


89

the enhancement of instruction, transfer of learning and pupils development of

varied competencies.

Valencia (2007) concluded in her study that the students of Canossa

Schools in Region IV A revealed a satisfactory performance in Mathematics and

this could be accounted to the teachers effective utilization of both teaching

strategies and instructional materials.

The study of Dinglasan (2007) also attributed the use of printed and audio-

visual materials, along with different teaching strategies, as the factors for the

very satisfactory performance of the students as reflected in their quizzes,

recitation, assignment, periodical test and projects.

Further, the study of Katigbak (2011) cited that instructional materials

facilitate, accelerate and make learning experiences more concrete, meaningful

and enjoyable.

4. Problems encountered in the implementation of the K to 12

program.

Table 12 on the next page, shows data on the respondents assessment of

the nature and extent of problems encountered in the implementation of K to 12,

with a composite mean of 3.02 indicating moderate extent, likewise observed on

all the cited indicators.


90

In rank one, a weighted mean of 3.34 was posted on the following

indicator: the implementation of the program is a drastic move and only a few

elite groups were consulted, while a great majority of the parents were not asked

whether they can afford to support their childrens educational expenses for

another two years in high school.

The moderate extent finding on the cited indicator and in all others as well

supports the implied description that the respondents can manage whatever

issue and concern on the implementation of K to 12. Indeed, opinions of the

public and of the teachers vary, but what is most important is that the teachers

Table 12

Problems Encountered in the Implementation of K to 12 Curriculum

Problems Encountered WM VI
1. The program is unfair to parents especially
3.22 ME
those who are not economically stable.
2. It will rather add burden to the already suffering
3.07 ME
Filipinos.
3. It deprives the poor students the chance to avail
2.98 ME
of college education.
4. The implementation of the program is a drastic
move and only a few elite groups were
consulted, while a great majority of the parents
3.34 ME
were not asked whether they can afford to
support their childrens educational expenses for
another two years in high school.
5. It is not the solution to the problems of the
Filipinos, but that of the eradication of graft and 3.26 ME
corruption in the government.
6. The educational law signed by the President is
2.94 ME
oppressive rather than impressive.
7. The implementation of the program bypassed 2.98 ME
the parents rights to express their economic
predicaments over the two years additional
burden of supporting the basic education of their
91

children.
8. It is a treacherous act against the parents which
rather manifest an act characteristic of 2.85 ME
dictatorship and not of democracy.
9. Its implementation created the notion that laws
are not always meant to govern peoples lives
2.74 ME
into order but rather add chaos and poverty to
peoples lives.
10. Its implementation demonstrated that the elite
and powerful groups think merely with their 2.86 ME
heads and not with their hearts.
Composite Mean 3.02 ME
Legend: WM = weighted mean; VI = verbal interpretation ; ME = moderate extent

respondents assessment of the extent of problems encountered. When a

variable in research is perceived as moderate, it applies to a concept that

moderateness in everything is better than being great in one thing but not in

others. Further, it connotes that when applied to problems, moderateness may

mean that problems are not so serious.

More specifically, the concurrent issues aired through the website relate

with some of the problems cited in this study. The Philippine Online Chronicles

(2011) cited in one of its articles that K to 12 has been met with criticism from

youth and student groups, teachers, parents and the academic community. The

DepEd, for its part, appears determined to enact the program with its proposed

budget catering mostly to preparing the grounds for its eventual implementation.

The article also stressed that it is arguably one of the most drastic and

controversial programs of the Aquino administration.

In rank two, another issue assessed by the respondents pointed out that K

to 12 is not the solution to the problems of the Filipinos, but that of the
92

eradication of graft and corruption in the government, with a weighted mean of

3.26. This finding, although to a moderate extent, can be considered a reality as

there are a lot of reports about graft and corruption in the government as those of

the tried and convicted politicians, the most recent of which is the pork barrel

issue.

the item stating that the program is unfair to parents especially those who

are not economically stable posted a weighted mean of 3.22 . From the

standpoint of additional expenses on the part of the parents, the cited issue has

enough truth in it, although the defense of the authorities is that it will improve the

quality of education and that of the graduates.

Whereas the statement citing that it will rather add burden to the already

suffering Filipinos got a weighted mean of 3.07. Considering the calamities

experienced by the Filipinos, along with the constant increase in the prices of

commodities, the cited concern is probably true. However, this and all the other

challenges arising from the implementation of K to 12 could be gradually

overcome through unity and hard work. This finding finds support from the

statement of Vencer Crisostomo, Anakbayan national chairperson, who said that

the newly signed law will bring additional burden to parents and students who do

not have funds for school expenses (Philippine Online Chronicles, 2011).

A weighted mean of 2.98 was posted on the item stating that k-12

deprives the poor students the chance to avail of college education. This finding

could happen, considering that the poor ones could hardly send their children to
93

four years of high school education and much more for six years. With the same

weighted mean was the item which states that the implementation of the program

bypassed the parents rights to express their economic predicaments over the

two years additional burden of supporting the basic education of their children.

This finding is an issue of great concern since the truth behind its implementation

is that it did not pass a legal referendum but only the authorities drastically

implemented the plan without resorting to such legality. To the authorities,

perhaps they believe that what they implement is legal as they are the lawmakers

and implementers. However, there must be due consideration provided to the

parents in the form of subsidies or aids for the additional two years of education

for their children despite the expected and pronounced improvement that the

program will create on the educational system and on the graduates of K to 12.

The issue could only be settled when the right time comes; that is, when the

product of the new curriculum will have entered the work areas here and abroad.

The item pertaining to the issue that the educational law signed by the

President is oppressive rather than impressive obtained a weighted mean of

2.94. From one point of view, the moderate extent accorded to this finding may

mean that it is both impressive and oppressive although it is still early to decide

which of the two variables has more truth.

In rank eight, the statement that its implementation demonstrated that the

elite and powerful groups think merely with their heads and not with their hearts
94

posted a weighted mean of 2.86. This implies a rather negative connotation

although it could be true.

While the item stating that it is a treacherous act against the parents

which rather manifest an act characteristic of dictatorship and not of democracy

got a weighted mean of 2.85. This finding is controversial in nature. Hence, it

should not be discussed at length.

Finally , the item which states that its implementation created the notion

that laws are not always meant to govern peoples lives into order but rather add

chaos and poverty to peoples lives got the least was a weighted mean of 2.74 .

Although there is probably an element of truth in the statement, the issue cannot

be decided upon or discussed at length as it is also controversial.

As a whole, the moderate extent assessment of the respondents implies

that the problems encountered are manageable but care should be observed in

the treatment of the problems or issues. All the foregoing statements should

rather remain as challenges that must be met and not problems that should

trouble the DepEd and the people. There are naturally pros and cons associated

with the cited issues and prejudice may mean wrong treatment of the issues.

What is considerable is to let the issues pass till judgment day when the products

of K to 12 will have proven their range of competencies through their

productiveness in the work place and in society.

In his MINI CRITIQUE column that appears in The Philippine Star, October

14, 2010, Isagani Cruz summarized the pros and cons on the K + 12 debate. The
95

PROS included that of enhancing the quality of basic education, while the CONS

is summarized as that of the additional financial burdens both on the part of the

parents and the government. Along with this is the foresight of an increase in

drop-out rate because of the additional two years in basic education

(http://www.philstar.com retrieved 2013).

5. Significant Difference on the assessment of the readiness

between private and public schools and teachers and the

problems encountered by the respondents.

Table 13 given in the next page , shows the comparison between the

readiness of the public and private schools in the implementation of K to 12. In

Table 13

Comparison between the Readiness of the Public and


Private Schools in the Implementation of K to 12

Composite Mean Com-


Critical
Variables puted Description Decision
Public Private t
t
Curriculum 2.571
Adjustment
3.70 3.86 2.704 Significant Reject Ho
at 0.05
School Plant 2.571
and Facilities
3.64 3.86 3.102 Significant Reject Ho
at 0.05
Administration
4.032 Highly
and 3.82 4.23 5.822 Reject Ho
Management at 0.01 Significant

terms of administration and management, the comparison revealed a highly

significant difference as sustained by a computed T value of 5.822 which

exceeded the critical T value of 4.032 at 0.01. Further, significant differences


96

were noted in the areas of curriculum adjustment and school plant and facilities,

as confirmed by respective computed T values of 2.704 and 3.102 both of which

exceeded the critical T value of 2.571 at 0.05 level. In all three areas, the null

hypothesis was rejected.

In detail, the higher composite means were noted from the assessment of

the teachers from private schools compared to that of the public schools. This

finding is quite reasonable since the student population in the public schools is

generally greater than that in the private schools. In effect, the greater the

population the more difficult is the process of administration and management

and vice versa. It also redounds to curriculum adjustment and school plant and

facilities. Hence, the private schools can adjust more easily and in a shorter

period than do the public schools in terms of the changes and challenges brought

up by the implementation of K to 12.

Table 14 below, manifests the comparison between the readiness of the

teachers from public and private schools in the implementation of K to 12.

Table 14

Comparison between the Readiness of the Teachers of Public and Private


Schools in the Implementation of K to 12

Composite Mean Com-


Critical
Variables puted Description Decision
Public Private t
t
Teaching 2.571 Not Accept
Competencies
4.03 4.19 1.673
at 0.05 Significant Ho
97

Teaching 4.032 Highly


Strategies
4.17 4.50 8.302 Reject Ho
at 0.01 Significant
Instructional 4.032 Highly
Materials
4.36 3.90 6.244 Reject Ho
at 0.01 Significant

In terms of teaching competencies, no significant difference existed from

the comparison. This finding was revealed by a computed T value of 1.673 which

did not exceed the critical T value of 2.571 at 0.05 level. Hence, the null

hypothesis in this area of comparison was accepted.

On the other hand, highly significant differences existed between the

assessment of the public and private school teachers in the areas of teaching

strategies and instructional materials, as sustained by respective computed T

values of 8.302 and 6.244, both of which exceeded the critical T value of 4.032 at

0.01 level. These findings resulted into the rejection of the null hypothesis in the

said areas of comparison. The assessment of the public school teachers in terms

of instructional materials was greater than that of the private school teachers,

while opposite in terms of their assessment on teaching strategies. But despite

these differences, what is more important is their confirmation of their

considerable extent of readiness in the implementation of K to 12. This implies

their resourcefulness, as the teachers should be.

Table 15 given in the next page, provides the summarized result of the

comparison between the assessments of the teachers from private and public

schools on the problems and issues they encountered in the implementation of K

to 12.
98

The assessment of the teachers from public schools was greater than that

of their counterpart from private schools, as sustained by a higher composite

mean of 3.31 compared to that of 2.74. This finding resulted into a highly

Table 15

Comparison between the Problems Encountered by Public and


Private Schools in the Implementation of K to 12

Composite Mean Com-


Critical
Variable puted Description Decision
Public Private t
t
Problems 3.250 Highly
Encountered
3.31 2.74 8.052 Reject Ho
at 0.01 Significant

significant difference, as reflected by a computed T value of 8.052, which

exceeded the critical T value of 3.250 at 0.01 level. Hence, the null hypothesis

associated with this area of comparison was rejected. This finding further means

that the gravity of problems encountered by the public school teachers exceeded

that of the private schools, which may be attributable to the situation wherein

many of the parents and students from public schools could be very vocal in their

complaints against the additional expenses for the added two years of basic

education; whereas, the parents of students from private schools can afford such

additional expenses.
99

Chapter 5

SUMMARY , FINDINGS , CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary , findings, and conclusions taken from

the results of the study. It also provides recommendations drawn from the

conclusions which are deemed important .

Summary

This study aimed to determine the extent of readiness on the

implementation of K to 12 Program in selected public and private schools in the

Municipality of Lucban, Quezon.

More specifically, it sought answers to the following questions:

What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of: age; gender;

educational attainment; and length of service, to what extent is the readiness of

the selected private and public secondary schools in the implementation of K to

12 Program in terms of: curriculum adjustment school plant and facilities; and

administration and management, to what extent is the readiness of the teachers


100

in the selected private and public schools in the implementation of K to 12

Program in terms of teaching competencies. teaching strategies, and

instructional materials , what are the problems encountered in the

implementation of K to 12 Program, as assessed by the respondents, and Is

there a significant difference between the assessment of the public and private

school teachers on the cited research variables.

To find answers to the foregoing questions, the researcher conducted a

survey using the descriptive method of research with the questionnaire as the

primary data gathering instrument which was validated and administered to 68

public school teachers and 40 private school teachers. The data gathered from

these respondents were analyzed and interpreted through Simple Percentage for

their demographic profile; Weighted Mean for their assessments on school and

teachers readiness and problems encountered in the implementation of K to 12;

and t - test for the testing of hypothesis of difference between the assessments of

the two groups of respondents on the main variables which include school and

teachers readiness and problems encountered in the implementation of K to 12.

Findings

The data were analyzed and the following findings were formulated in

accordance with the specific questions given under the statement of the problem:

1. The respondents are, generally, in their early middle age period, as

sustained by a mean age of 41, with the highest frequency of 37 or 34.26


101

percent garnered by the age group 41 50. As far as gender is

concerned , sixty-eight or 62.96 percent of the respondents are female,

while 40 or 37.04 percent comprise the male group. In terms of highest

educational attainment, fifty-one or 47.22 percent of the respondents have

units in M.A; 37 or 34.26 percent have just finished the bachelors degree

in teaching; 13 or 12.04 percent are holders of masters degree and seven

or 6.48 percent have units in doctorate. As regards with length of service,

forty-one or 37.96 percent of the respondents claimed to have 1 10

years of service in teaching, while the group with 11 20 years of service

posted a frequency of 35 or 32.41 percent and those with the longest

range of 21 30 years in service comprised 32 or 29.63 percent of the

total respondents.

2. The school readiness in terms of curriculum adjustment was assessed by

the respondents to a great extent, as sustained by a composite mean of

3.78. In terms of school plant and facilities, the schools readiness was

likewise measured to a great extent, as confirmed by a composite mean of

3.75.In terms of administration and management, the schools readiness

in the implementation of K to 12 was also assessed by the respondents to

a great extent, as supported by a composite mean of 4.03.

3. The teachers readiness as regards with teaching competencies in the

implementation of K to 12 was fixed to a great extent, as indicated by a

composite mean of 4.11.Whereas, as regards with teaching strategies, the


102

respondents assessed their readiness to a very great extent, as sustained

by a composite mean of 4.33. Finally, the teachers readiness in the

implementation of K to 12 in terms of their utilization of instructional

materials was measured to a great extent, as reflected by a composite

mean of 4.13.

4. All the listed problems were assessed by the respondents to a moderate

extent, as evidenced by a composite mean of 3.02. This implies that the

gravity of the problems is moderate; hence, manageable.

5. As regards with the school readiness in terms of administration and

management, the comparison revealed a highly significant difference as

sustained by a computed T value of 5.822 which exceeded the critical T

value of 4.032 at 0.01. Further, significant differences were noted in the

areas of curriculum adjustment and school plant and facilities, as

confirmed by respective computed T values of 2.704 and 3.102 both of

which exceeded the critical T value of 2.571 at 0.05 level. In all three

areas, the null hypothesis was rejected. In detail, the higher composite

means were noted from the assessment of the teachers from private

schools compared to that of the public schools. As far as the teachers

readiness, in terms of teaching competencies is concerned there was no

significant difference existed from the comparison. This finding was

revealed by a computed T value of 1.673 which did not exceed the critical

T value of 2.571 at 0.05 level. Hence, the null hypothesis in this area of
103

comparison was accepted. On the other hand, highly significant

differences existed between the assessment of the public and private

school teachers in the areas of teaching strategies and instructional

materials, as sustained by respective computed T values of 8.302 and

6.244, both of which exceeded the critical T value of 4.032 at 0.01 level.

These findings resulted into the rejection of the null hypothesis in the said

areas of comparison. The assessment of the public school teachers in

terms of instructional materials was greater than that of the private school

teachers, while opposite in terms of their assessment on teaching

strategies. In relation to problems encountered, the assessment of the

teachers from public schools was greater than that of their counterpart

from private schools, as sustained by a higher composite mean of 3.31

compared to that of 2.74. This finding resulted into a highly significant

difference, as reflected by a computed T value of 8.052, which exceeded

the critical T value of 3.250 at 0.01 level. Hence, the null hypothesis

associated with this area of comparison was rejected.

Conclusions

From the summarized findings, the following conclusions were drawn:

1. The respondents are, generally, in their early middle age period, majority

of whom are female, educationally qualified and experienced.


104

2. The schools are adequately prepared in the implementation of K to 12 in

terms of curriculum adjustment, school plant and facilities and

administration and management. .

3. The teachers are likewise adequately prepared in the implementation of K

to 12 in terms of teaching competencies, teaching strategies and

instructional materials.

4. The problems the teachers encountered in the implementation of K to 12

are of average gravity and they are manageable.

5. There is a considerable variation in the readiness of the private and public

schools, as well as the readiness of their respective teachers and this is

most attributable to the different settings and conditions in the two groups

of schools.

Recommendations

From the drawn conclusions, the following recommendations are hereby

directed and forwarded

1. The teacher-respondents who have not yet finished their masters degree

should consider the option of pursuing it, not merely for promotion but

more so for their professional growth and development . Thus, making

themselves more passionate, committed and dedicated to the calling they

are into.
105

2. The schools should maintain and even bring to a higher level their

readiness in the implementation of K to 12 through adopting more

innovative trends, improving their facilities and preparing themselves for

globalization through utilization of multimedia.

3. The teachers should also maintain and strengthen further their readiness

in the implementation of K to 12 through attending more in-service training

and seminars related to K to 12. They should also be more resourceful

and creative by keeping themselves abreast of the current educational

trends.

4. The school heads should iron out the differences from among their

teachers in terms of their assessment of the schools, and teachers

readiness on the implementation of k to 12 program , so that they could

work in unison for the attainment of the goals of the said curriculum.

5. Teachers and school heads should find enough time conferring with

parents by institutionalizing a program where a regular orientation, and

consultation not only with the students but also with other stakeholders,

particularly the parents ( eg., during HSA meetings, forums) , so that the

former may know their problems related to the implementation of K to 12

and that they may provide assistance for the parents and their children.

This move will empower the parents and will have them realize their

significant role as partners of the school in furthering and meeting quality


106

education for the students. Likewise, this will further strengthen school-

community relationship.

6. Similar study should be undertaken utilizing the same instruments and

methodologies but in different setting and bigger samples.

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APPENDIX A

Curriculum Vitae

EMELITA APOLINARIO LACORTE


16 Zurbano St., Lucban, Quezon
Mobile no. 09333141800
Email address: myccaella@yahoo.com

PERSONAL INFORMATION
Age: 48 years old
Date of Birth: January 06, 1966
Civil Status: Married
Citizenship: Filipino

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
GRADUATE STUDIES Master in Educational Management
Polytechnic University of the Philippines- Open
University
Graduate School
(June 2011- present)
114

TERTIARY Bachelor of Science in Education Major in English


Lipa City Colleges
Lipa City , ( March 1991)
Orator of the Year

SECONDARY Philippine Union College Academy


Puting Kahoy, Silang, Cavite
Consistent Deans lister
( 1986 )

ELEMENTARY Palawan Adventist Elemetary School


Tacras, Narra, Palawan
Graduated Salutatorian ( 1979)

WORK EXPERIENCE

2001 11 English Teacher/ School Paper Adviser


2011-2012 English teacher/ School Paper Adviser/ Second Year
Coordinator/ Mentor
2013- present Vice Principal/ English Teacher G7- Third year
2008( March April) Acting Principal
2007-2009 Assistant Principal
Banahaw View Academy, Inc.
Brgy.Tinamnan, Lucban Quezon

1998 2000 Instructor/ OIC -Directress


Micro Genesis Computer School
Tayabas-Mauban, Quezon

1996 1997 Instructor


Lipa City Colleges
Lipa City, Batangas

1993 1995 Instructor


Medical Center Educational Institute, Inc.
Red- V, Lucena City

1992-1993 Mataas Na Kahoy National High School


Mataas Na Kahoy, Batangas

1991 1992 Philippine Christian Academy


Lipa City
115

TRAININGS AND PROGRAMS ATTENDED

May 2012 FAPE INSET on K - 12 Curriculum Program


January 2012 Seminar Workshop on Campus Journalism
October 2011 Test Construction Training
May 2-4, 2011 FAPE INSET on UBD
May 25-26, 2010 QUEPRESSA INSET on Drafting of Unified Learning
Competencies in Different subject areas
May 2009 FAPE-ESC/EVS INSET on 2010 SEC and UBD
January 16-18, 2008 DepEd INSET for School Administrators
January 2008 Seminar on the Administration of National Career
Assessment Examination
May 2008 INSET for 3rd year High School Teachers
May 23, 2008 INSET SEMINAR/ WORKSHOP on Creating a
Syllabus
May 2007 INSET Seminar on FAPEs Learning Packages
May 2003 Certificate on ESL , Teaching English as a Second
Language
SouthVille , Las Pinas

ELIGIBILITY Licensure Examination for Teachers


August 2001

CHARACTER REFERENCES
Dr. Linda Platero
Dean College of Education
Lipa City Colleges
Lipa City

Dr. Basilio Balayong


Principal
Lipa Adventist Academy
Bugtong, Lipa City

Dr. Oscar Baldovino


School board chairman
LAES- BVA, Lucban, Quezon

Mr. Isabelo Susada


Principal
116

Banahaw View Academy


Tinamnan, Lucban, Quezon