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Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment

Technologies

October 8, 2014

Presented by:
Dwain R. Wilson, M.Sc.E, P.Eng.
Presentation Outline
Introduction of ADI Systems Inc.

o Our experience and capabilities

Why consider on-site wastewater treatment?

Comparison of anaerobic and aerobic treatment

Biogas resulting from anaerobic digestion

o Treatment and utilization

Anaerobic technologies:
o ADI-BVF reactor o ADI-CSTR o ADI-UASB

o ADI-Hybrid o ADI-AnMBR o ADI-ECSB


Snapshot of ADI Systems
Parent company ADI Group Inc. founded in 1945

Offices in Canada, USA, Australia, New Zealand and Brazil

Industrial wastewater treatment for medium-to-high strength


COD, TSS concentrations

Anaerobic, aerobic, and biogas treatment/utilization


technologies

215+ installations in 35+ countries worldwide


Why Consider On-Site Wastewater Treatment
Increasingly strict environmental regulations

Tougher penalties for improper


disposal

Higher surcharges for off-site disposal

More demand for green products from


consumers

Public perception odor, noise, pollution

Increased production puts strain on existing facilities


Industrial Wastewater Treatment for
a Wide Variety of Industries

Food and beverage Biofuels

Pharmaceutical and chemical Breweries

Pulp and paper Distilleries


Anaerobic Treatment

Organic material CO2 + CH4 + H2O + bacterial cells

Very little energy is required, only for mixing and contact

Methane is produced yielding energy

Sludge yield is much less than aerobic


Anaerobic Treatment
Aerobic Treatment

Organic material + O2 CO2 + H2O + bacterial cells


Supplying oxygen is energy intensive

Sludge yield is significant


Aerobic Wastewater Treatment
Comparison between
Aerobic and Anaerobic Treatment
Aerobic Anaerobic

Conditions Conditions
Preferably after pre-clarification Also without pre-settling
Best for wastewater with lower Only for medium and high
concentration concentrated wastewaters
Rather cold wastewater Warm wastewater (>20C)

Process Process
Low effluent values can be Low effluent values only with
attained additional aerobic polishing
Simultaneous N & P removal No significant N or P removal
possible Very small excess sludge
High excess sludge production production
Comparison between
Aerobic and Anaerobic Treatment
Aerobic Anaerobic

Byproducts Byproducts
A lot of excess sludge Valuable biogas

Operation Operation
High: Low:
Aeration (power) Low power consumption
Nutrients (N & P) No or little nutrients
Sludge disposal No or little excess sludge
Anaerobic Pathway

Fat, Oil and


Carbohydrates Proteins
Grease

Hydrolysis
Amino Acids & Long Chain Fatty
Sugars Acids
Acidogenesis

Intermediates
Propionic, Butyric, Lactic,

Acetogenesis

Acetic Acid Hydrogen


Methanogenesis

Methane
Simplified Anaerobic Pathway
Bucket Brigade
RWW 1. Solubilized/Simpler 2. Volatile Acids 3. Methane

1. Hydrolisis
2. Acidogenisis/Acetogenisis
3. Methanogenisis

Acidogens are robust (growth, pH, temp)


Methanogens are sensi ve (growth, pH, temp)
Anaerobic Basics

Effluent
CO2
Methane
Sludge
Input

Organics in Anaerobic Aerobic


Wastewater Treatment Treatment
Types of Anaerobic Reactors
High rate ECSB: L = 16 to 24
Intermediate rate UASB: L = 8 to 10
Hybrid: L = 6 to 10
Moderate rate Contact: L = 2 to 5
AnMBR: L = 2 to 8
Low rate BVF: L = 0.5 to 2

Process selection depends on type of wastewater, operating conditions, site


constraints, ease of operation, and economics
Note: L is COD loading expressed as kg COD/m3/d applied to the reactor
Fundamental Anaerobic
Operating Requirements

Substrate and Biomass Contact

Decouple Solids Residence Time (SRT) from Hydraulic


Residence Time (HRT)

Maintain Suitable Environmental Operating Conditions


Benefits of Anaerobic Treatment
Efficient means of waste
treatment and volatile solids
conversion/reduction

Sustainable green value

Energy recovery through biogas


generation - 0.35m of methane
gas per kg of COD removed

Savings in electrical energy -


70-90% reduction in electrical
power consumption compared to
aerobic treatment
Benefits of Anaerobic Treatment (cont)

Sludge handling and disposal - Significant savings in amounts and cost

Robust and stable - Can handle shock flows and loadings

Ability to handle high-strength wastes - No waste is too strong

Lower nutrient requirements - Can be significant with some WW

Stripping of VOCs - problem is eliminated


Biogas Treatment and Utilization
Biogas is a natural by-product of the anaerobic digestion process

Biogas is an economical green energy source, offering


savings and reducing a plants carbon footprint
ADI Systems
Anaerobic Treatment Technologies

Type L ADI-BVF Type S ADI-BVF ADI-Hybrid

ADI-AnMBR CSTR UASB ECSB


Low-rate Anaerobic
Schematic of ADI-BVF Reactor
Biogas Effluent
Variable
conduit Floating insulated structure
level
membrane cover
Effluent
Biogas Scum layer
negative Baffle(s)
pressure Clarification zone
Primary reaction
zone
Mixer(s)

Sludge level varies


Distribution system
Feed

RANS (sludge recycle)


WANS
(waste)
SREC (supernatant recycle)
ADI-BVF Reactor
Low-rate sludge blanket process

Typical COD loading rates: 0.3-3.0 kg/m3.d

Ideal for a wide range of wastewaters

Typical HRTs: 7 to 14 days

Very stable operations

Range of operating temperatures: 20 to 40 C

Very long SRT reduced sludge disposal costs

COD removals can be >90%

Handles wastes with high TSS and FOG concentrations


Moderate-rate Anaerobic
Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor
Biogas
Sludge Recycle

Solids
Influent Effluent
CSTR Separation
(centrifuge, DAF, clarifier)

Waste Sludge
Anaerobic Membrane Bio-Reactor
Biogas

Sludge Recycle

Influent AnMBR Basin Permeate


CSTR (in-situ membranes)

Waste Sludge
Membrane Cartridge
Nozzle

Membrane Panel

Spacer
Membrane Sheet

Microstructure

Effective Area: 8.6 ft2/pc (0.8 m2/pc)


ADI-AnMBR
Ideal for high-strength waste streams containing high influent COD and TSS
concentrations and FOG
Complete-mix anaerobic reactor coupled with membrane filtration
Uses physical membrane barrier to perform solids/liquid/gas separation and
reactor biomass retention
Decouples SRT and HRT (solids and liquid residence time)
Produces effluent with much lower BOD and TSS concentrations compared to
conventional anaerobic technologies
Maximizes biogas production potential
Does not require granular sludge which can de-granulate and is not always
readily available
Intermediate-rate Anaerobic
Schematic of ADI-Hybrid Reactor
Biogas Geomembrane cover
collection

Effluent
Media Zone

Sludge
Blanket
WANS
Influent
WANS
ADI-Hybrid Reactor
Intermediate rate process

Typically used in petro-chemical industry

Combination of UASB and UFF reactors

Lower portion (UASB) is typically 30 to 70% of reactor volume, and


flocculent and/or granular sludge develops there

The type of sludge that develops is not important

Upper portion (UFF) is typically 30 to 70% of reactive volume; the media is


a mix of cross and vertical flow type and provides extensive surface area

Media is an effective gas-liquids-solids separator


(Ultra)High-rate Anaerobic
Essential Requirements for Successful Operation
of an Ultra-HR Anaerobic Reactor
1. Granular sludge (biomass) development
2. Sludge retention
Ultra-HR Technology Comparison

Biothane EGSB Paques IC ADI ECSB


Biogas Biogas
Biogas

Effluent

Effluent

Influent Influent Influent


ADI-ECSB (External Circulation Sludge Bed)
Ultra-high rate technology
Developed by HydroThane STP and under license by ADI Systems in
North America and case-by-case elsewhere
Granular sludge bed anaerobic technology
Ideal for warm, soluble wastewaters (can not tolerate FOG/TDS/TSS)
Higher organic loading rates than earlier generation systems
100% GLSS coverage
Two sets of GLSSs results in better solids retention and lower effluent
TSS
System allows for taller reactors, reducing overall footprint
ADI-ECSB Reactor
Thank you!

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