You are on page 1of 162

Copyright 1966-2014 John T.

Neer
Bookmarks provided

-:''--- . l ~ ~-4.Hl ~~ .

lt-.t~cn<Hv TO I...:~C1\)lU..S oiV ~~MA11lfiL. J"~cl.""'''i'"t..5


of -yi&n~ E:E:t'l.r ""c, & fJ 7 StcS

z. S e rl e.s 1+-I'Pro.,: t HlrnO,J


3 Me."flttoJ~ 8-f- Pt..{..fere.vrr tftnnCP )A I nrur-A:nNP 'IO

-1 /-to(( OIV HeThod.S of 1 "'Tt-e::.rkrro,J \Cf


5 s OLVI.., ~ D t.f-11111~ ( "TECJ,flltf...5 jZ.,
c,o M. p t t ,c t--1. u M b t rs ;3t(
Fvh'lcT1otJ.> of ft COMfH.f l}tr~rll'bl.E-S 'I'/
N VM .e.rtc,,AL. l VliE:CP~A'no.J so
ocffereffl1fll.. GJfctLArofL 53
f.{(..Ao fL Pvncno/IJ s Sf,
C:--ff'OtVbVnftL l YlTE-(pflA-l5 G'r'
~ ess tL -fv V\CflO,JS 7v
H t IV.,o& of 5Teeft.Sl P~SC;-J;1T 8-o
1\l e v M tH1 '.s F u n cit o r\.L..--- ~6

<!1rVI tfA-n Ill & fu ttl C. rtON 5> 8?S'


Fot~~o fl./ DlSTr"rbt!T"'Ol'l 9D
6- .A-M r1 1\- F c.tll\ c.T1 0 #J 9S'
BCTA- FV n c., o/1..1 9h
;._ EG.e-111 &vt Pot...yNo11.tlll...5 ?~
tOtJf'l~ SE-f'l~:> /Ok>

~ollrte< Tflh'l~.fil rMS It$"'


pcff(revt711tL cCfcHt-710N5 13!
sot.,VtfA(o tvtT-~fl.AL e-tfvf'fflONS (3"
CAL euLV$ ~f t/MtkrtotJS l 3(1
MltTfC te.S I Y3
MA'lYrr Thtorr & sotllt"'l; PDLfffnJMtc J.toc..t.cvt.,5 'YT-

Hearing Feynman lecture in person on the math-physics is a good preparation for this lecture. The
lecture "Relation of Mathematics to physics" can be found at:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M9ZYEb0Vf8U

Anothere related lecture worth hearing is:


Mathematician versus Physicist

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=obCjODeoLVw
LEcTuRE I

/NTRJlD IJCf10N /() T11 L. cnJJ(f:S ON


M 1'\TH E'.Mf\-Ttc.Al 'T c c..H />.II Q Oe)
of
EN~INEERI N C:t 1\Nl) PHYSIC.S

T odll'i' b~<TINS A. t-lt- vJ tt-ffe of LtCIVi~tS l'hJD TlHS TlH- W<:- WII.L
"DI5Cu.:)S ThE: subsea at MmEMA1lc.f\L 1'1 tmo1>s of E:'NC:r-INc~"v" /hiJD
'i>h't'.)tC.S. Wt wtl.l.. bE; 'DI.Sc.uS~IIJ.Cr Sod.. IO'PitS AS C."OI-'tPLE-X
1\lon\"'ON t
VE--c.TOr~ I
lttv~of5 1 uftflQ\J.) Si'HIAL tvtJC.1)0JJS LJI(t i)ESSL
..fu._,l,.'l10MS INitt<.. h COM- l'tboUi IN r.>oJI) 1.11\lf-1\-(' ?robL~"~S,.fo~.>nE-R..1Y'ftr.JS-Ji>n-r5,
A-No s eR., c s.

01J.r prl)bl~ 1~ t.>oT To $='or lnnt\T: ThE- ?h'i'~IC.S c>f A &lutJv PrObLE-t1
b\)T fi\Thtr 1'0 APi>LY USE..fvL MA1hC:MffnC..I)L TE:c..hNIQUf.S IIJ .SOLVIJ-1(,-
ThE RE;~I)t.nN~ ~u~o~s. A~ 51\Jc."' ovr e-l.fi>rTS wiLL tJ oT bE-
OirGcT:1) Tow~d CTE-NC-fr'ILI:tiN<J- our res<PL1S TOft '8Y'O/l1> CLftSS af
'Problft"'S bui r~tr 70 'j)ftY /l1701noi\IS TO C:t-<'Nh/J IJ-S?c-q.s o-f Thf
~
'Prublb-\ IN qucSTioAI Tht FU'ST fhll> tnnMOSJ l'ASK bf...fof't vS I.SIO

i-or,..l)l.~Tt; 1'\'N r\?Ptu)OJ""'Atf t:c;>ufl"riOI'I Wl-tJC.l-t co,,rrlh11S Th- 'Ph'!'llc.j


ANd whl(..lo\ I! A 1-1 b~ 1'\?Pro]OJ ~l"t7f;l'l' St~t.v f;J>. IT 1~ IMPorT'ftlJT 7b ft?PrE:ulf1(;
!hAT wE- 1\-c"- NoT S1ttVttJ<T .f-or The E-xl\c7 /INSWE-11.. buT oi\!L.'f for
AN ih'Prcnc,HA-TELV raerhT A-NSwER. "'ln1s f'J\I)ST be Kti>T '"" MINI) 1\S
we Pro&YE:~~ ~ "Lw"'l'~ fE-Mc-M bet- ThE 1\U=.IJrAc.V at Tht. r.:>E:StrE;-1) &.iSwf:R.

WE: ALL KNOw how 1'0 ~OLVE' Tht S 1t-11' L ~ C(LIA-\>V'I\Tic. f:<?IJffllON'

xl.. + 't)( -t 1 =o
AlllO V"f: ShOfJLt) lo..~ow ~Ow'"TO SOLW; ThE: (.vbrc. E.qvfrnO,..,

x?~ "t 3"/t.l.. t X - I =0


bUT how bo ~ E- .saLVe fo ..- X (::d \IC.tJ Th~ EqiJ ATlO)J

e)' = cosx ~

-
~-"'--

I.
Tl-lr;~e- SMPt EXltMPt.f=~ CPnJ bE: C!rifC:rorl1:.f;O FIS f\ SE:I o-f E:.'ftJffnOJ.J5
wh1c.h ~r~ ~

(Z.) quA'Dff\T 1<- " '' ,.


At.lo (3) ALL Tht-RE=-S.I wtitc.h Art- NOI\I lTtVJf)L.
IT I~ lhc lh1rd c.Alfr<TOr'l' Whlc.l-1 ltJTE":rcn) lht ..-,OST St)o.ICC" I~ Tnt-
ReAL WOt'LO I'ILL The 'PrObLc;t"' Ali.C ~~ IN IT.

LET TAKE. /hi ex 1\-MPt. E of fl CUb I c. t"q u lff)o ~ /tNt> Stc how
VJ~ MICr~l SOLVE:- IT. &IVE-N The C.ub1c. wl,tc..h WE WriT" 1\S,
..!... - ~X
1 -t xl.
W- WILL SOl.Vf n b'l' ThE- lYIAL AJJd f;Y'f'Or H6ThoO. If 1l,1S
MeThOd &IV(:~ <..>S lhE riC::rhT t\"N$wff-<7rE?l"T/ Tht-r- I~ JJO""fhHJU""
Wr"OtJ(r WITh l:vr!Tl~Cr l>O..VN SOMe NUMbER~ IJJ Tht- "ProcE-sS'.
ThtS cioE.~N'T ft-9H~~~ A COLiiJOH. l.l\(,; IT IS Slc.K TO ThliJK lhtrf
II IS .

l..t order 1'0 HtLP us ~ol.ve- Thf: t-QU1mOM WE- WltL ttJuftJT
SOM~ wAY~ 70 ttJC.Rt:ASE. OOil :ffiC.IhH.y I~ Ctut-SS\tJCrlld: ANSWe-R.
Lf:T~ Th&N -fort-'\ A 7"AbLE: of Vlh~E;S ..foR. X. J
1"\,e- Lffl hAtJD
Sit>~ CJi- 'lh~ E.-qvt'\"nOtJ I}-N1) ThE:- RtErh"T /hso WE- WILL COMi>uT-
Th~ 1) 1 ff E<E-Al C. f: b ~'1'"'-> E:-t'I\J Th E; TW 0 &I 0 E5 . ThE fo L L 0 v.J I~ e,. STE:-P.S
/fRf:- =fA K ~ N
STi> X L.H.S tkff
LJ-1 S - RMS
I TR'( X :: 0 0 I ooo . 000 J,IJUO

l..TI-\trr 'DI'bN'T wOrK~-rr'i x: 1 o.so z.oo - 1.sao


3.Jl..f\T '011)1\l'T wOt'l<.. hl'\f-1" b\JT
W~ 1'\-1'~ D N f: t'JhE;-1" S I'D~ of Th~
/tNS We r. WE; M 1 C,..Y.T (ru (;-~ ~ 'J1... t-
/t'N.SWE;r LIE--S .~of ThE: WAY bt-1WE-hi
0 lt1'l ~ \ .so lE'T'l TY' 1 X:: 5
.s .e> J, 00 -.zoo
I
ll W(;n: C,..E;1Jl N <r bt-T"T{;1" IY''i' ~:: .4 -t . 9 90 +.ool..
S. SINC.E; 1)-\E: l:>l+ft.r~c.E; IN 3 JTNI) 4
~ ON ~,.l"'E-r S 1Dt- Tht RM.Swf-R..o+
hJT~rPoi.AT bE;"TWE-Wl"hE;M I 1.( . A-: 1.6,t=.ZI
Z.
So J't'y X: .424 .4"l.~ . 8'1 8 ,001

ANb NOw wf- hf\V(; Tht- .t}-Nswt-R. TO lttJ Acc.uftl-C'r' crf 0


.I /o. So
"iv\\~ MtThoo IS PY't-11'( Ac.c.urATG /h.ld IS bE:nt-r ThlhJ fl ...,AC.hiNE
ht'-W~t; lT c~'l G--v65.S W~1\T 1"0 ~ NCXT.

2..
---------~- --

~~~~ 1"1t.Thoo o.f INTeK.PoLATION worK.~ wELL Wh{;N n. l:>HE-i~t-t.Jct


~"TWE-f-tJ ThE- ""TWO .Sid~S $ Jht- {((uffl)Ot-1 (OM{; OOI TO bE: -t ftND - ,

WhtN. ThAT nfrPPE-NS ~oiJ clhJ 1 tJTt-t~t>ot.flTE. lhJo e:ro /l(:rf\aJJ. 0~-.Jc
woro of C/hmON J..I:V-R_ U.S(: C':rr"ft'Ph PflP~ 1T li I~ FJL wAYS
I

ThEff f'n~ TWo MOR.(;- MThoo~ WhtC.h. f}-R(; 1-'\0f"E ltPProVrtATE:


of HAthtl-lc lhAt4 b'l' kthl.o J Tht-"f A-RE: Th; t'1t:ThoD of- ITf;RffnthJ
1\"Nd 1
NE:W"l'ON ~ M~oo. The IT.>EA I~ lO wriT: '"j),E E-<;>vttno,J I'}S

XouT I
=
'- I-t )( IN
1.

WheRE' you Now Tr'l AN )( 111 VI\LU ~I E. ' (r Xu..t=O ttNd f, l-Id
Xol.\1 j Tha.J 'PLVCr ~,.. VA LIJ~ bAc.K. tiJ ,t;TC.

sr~p .x,r-~ X ovT


I 0 .&i)
z.. .s . ~
'-....- 3 . ~ . 'Ill
~ . 'i 3 ' .4Z~

HYCU wf\NT A L Ol of f\ccvtrtct ThE


""i"hrs.. 1"'\ (; Th 0 j) " ".s
IN A-t-Jsw~

trn E--rror w~ac.h l)Hr~sfS Mv<."' ~-'Or~ SLowLY Thlhl The pre-vtous
Malhod. At.so fou ~ttv~ TO bt- CflP-.t:-1-ut.. Jh{)T 'ThE- e9vffflolol
IS Wr'ITrf:l.l IN'Th.E; RIU.hT ..forM OThE-t'WI.S- 7"- /tlJSIIVcil WOtJ 1 , -
CoN\IfR<T. To ~how Th1S Sot.vc- ~r x,.,
X,tot ~

fz.L. - I

HilKE:- A- mbt.f;- /l"NJ) S71'tR.1' (;VI}t.VfrnNCr

XIJ.J X OIJT
t) .s
.s o.o
0 00

J
To .St~ vJn'i J)q;; ~ISW-It. IS "0\Vc-R&-INC,.. L.ET s s~ bS"itTU'l-

x.,., :. XTI~.IH: t . '"'

XT : r-r-:,
1 Ur-
J -1 ::
[
~XT t 11-.)
E ~?t\N I) IIJ <r we; "- f\V ~ )'.o - Eu..,
8ToJ
so ~AI
ouT ~ - .1... f,,.,
8 Xol
fo\A.T IS Th~ G-V'-1\jf;(' lhAN lWICt- Tht ~V'I'Of" IN .)0 ~f

A-N~wt-1' I~ \)IVEr(rtN(r

NfM.fT'ON '.S t1 t'Th OD


'The- r-JtwTo!-1 .51
ME;ThOl) R.t-qul~(;-SIAIR.ITINCJ- ThE; fuN<.llOtJ 11'-1 Thf

-f ex> : o I j,

_L - Z.}C :o
1-I.Xl.

c. Lo~ f; TO ThE: 1\-tJS, w C.X. w rln A G--u E;.s s sA'(


)
X I The-N
H ')C .) rlN cl AL~ 0 f' ( X.) I rJ Th I 5 c. f\ s (;
-t '()<) ~ Z.f. - 2
07.x~t 1lx)
N t-i-T Try vJ ouL 1) bt
X1- = x, - {ex,)
f'C>'d
,'Z..
TR.'( XI :.o Th E J.( f (,X t.) .: D - Y1. :
ANd x,_.,. . 5 - .1-
'Z,.&"'
ThtS lf;C.h t-.1 I Cj'Oc 1>0 E:.SN 1T 'R.E:q vi it. f- 1-1 II c h I tJTE l.L I CYCt-1 C.&- til S 0 ll
I~ <;-rbtr) for Pr C.. OMP iJT ~ll . llH fu\1~\/JEit w I L.l ALW itY S C.O NV ~C:rt
f:?.C.Ei'T W~ Pr ftw r-Prrt- E",XI}MPLfS. How~~ ThiS MtThot> RE:-qvtrE-J
E'VALvA-'fC.N<r 'SOTh -f(X) frNd -f'C~). 1'(7\) t-11\''7' b~ hf)Yd "J1)

C'\)""'PVTE; /fNJ Difhc.~L"T n:> tvftLVffi'1),

Lf
PRO bL Et'l I SOL VI:; e
-x
= cosx TO J ;;,/o

A ward Ot.l COtiiPt..-'X 'K..ooTS. t..f 'lou. MI\"D- ft 1"11ST8Kt fu.IO


DfDtJ'"t"l)O 1\-\(; 'Probt.E:M R.t&hT or l'ol.l DIOI\I'T E-xP~CT Tht
"Ph'( S1(.~ R I(,. II\ j Th ~ r 0'1)T.S C...OM Pl.~
J'o fl N 0 C.0 M Pt. flO R.o Dn
H t\ '( b Eo
You kt1VE; -ro .Solv~ TWO ~qvrtnorJ..S ttJ 1-. UNI<.NOwNs.--rnts
CftN be- 'OOt\ic b V lYle- SttM6- 'PVOC..-1)1Jf- IJ-.S OIJTl.IIVt-1> bt- for~.
G-IVE-N .f(X,YJ ~o II"Nd 3CX,'f}:::o fnJd ~~SA
-fup.)tmON of- X lf 10llbL~~f,\j Sl.lb.)fTTVT~ B~C.K lr-ITO OrJf:
of Tht -qutmON$.

SERlE'S
W t- Wt1-NT TO '0 ft'\ l.. ~AI\ T"' ThE:- Pru b L ~ of ~IJM M tJ <r s CR.rc.s .
The-R.& frt"E- lOTS. of Wl\"1{.) To 1:>0 IT,I Th~ e-MtE:.ST wil'l' HNOl.VE-5
A'Don.l(:r '"ThE. t-.IVI1bt1'~. 1)\IS 1-'lrl-Y SJYtK~ 'l'o~ A-s odd St~C.t 'fov. M~~
l-\-fW;-b~hJ.1l\1J.(,-'~i PI LoT Qi ~\..fu'PM~Thot> of .SIJMMI~Cr Sf"Rt(;--S
w\oH<.h You. ~1\V~ 1\LL fw(:n)1TCN Yov. chi of CovR~~ 'TTV TO t'?fMOt/Cf
Tht- /ti-I.Swe-r '"" SOMt SP-t-ttAL ut~E-~ ~bAd l\,lff I~ 6-oOD .Sot1t-nH~.
Tor XI\"MPL~ IT IS q~J\T- v~~iv l. "10 KtJow "1\.,AT

\t )(~ T Xt. + X ~ -t = I-)<


J_
ON(- I K-NOW l'hRT ~~RIE;) I <.ltN d E-1\ L w ll'n 1"'\0ft. t.DMp!.HJITel)
Sf-rlrC::> svc."" AS
IT C\ co~9 i' a.. t coS t.9 7 C\.} c.0~39 t- .... ::::;: 'Z
F1rsT 1cAlli sv b ~nT\JT.f .fo<' c.o~ e,

co) e = 'R. e'


'9
= e
c'9
r e
-,e
~

1-r 11...Qe
, e
-t Yt. ete
- .:e
-+ Yt. a. e
l. - z:~ () + -
'h~ ( I -t cL e , e t a.. 1.. e H ., + --) -t
'It.. ( 1 t Cl e-' e -t u. l. e - t ,tJ
+ -- ) =
-z..' I
9
-
- -
I Ll-- c..co.se -t ~ 4.Su.J 9 T
1- c. cO)Q .., ..... a~GI
~
( 1- u.e ' ) 2, ( ,. Gl. t059)t t (f.\)UII6)L (. tC..(,OSf1} L+(G<S/Iu@j'"'

J- 0.. U)S6)
t..
I - Z'-\ '-C1~9 -t 0.
A KI\IOWL f-OC:r- of co""' PtbC ~ r-J UM bt1Z s Is vt-R'( 1H PoK..TJ'lJJT
I\.1 S I M P l. '{ I ~ 6- C:r ;;-0 t'\ c-T r I C. S -R 1(;- S . ll KE W I l'i E: IT I S 1 t1 P 0 r Tlnf"f

TO bE: 'A b L(:- TO eXTOl 0 Ot-.1 c Mr""' lJ l A -ro HOr c ftpp ll CftT /Ou, E;. 6-

ThE: Set'!~) I_ y. + )(.1.-:x'..,. .-- -= )


lt)C
I{ I t-J o w h 1\-v e- f\- 1-lf: w 'Pro b L f1.1 v..ilf::-r t I w t'I1VT 'Th t .S v 1"'\
of Th c S (""YI E;)
1-1 + xl. .- xt + ---- -= sc,.J
'L 3 if
\f Tht NvKbE;"("~ \tJ 1\o\c- lH:'MO"MINf\1\)r A-1-E::. 1-11\..~ NUMb~~ 1 c.fh.J
Su H Th t S f:f" IE- S b 111 1"0 1:>0 ~ frl \ l-1 c;;1) 10 tto W 1"t)
K. NOW
1)\ f-'t-l OJTHlrc.. ftN 0 \ NleCr-r f\TE- S ~1.1 ;- S. U tJn L I <TtT Th t The
S:-R\~ ,~ t\" torY\ \ 1\~c.o~~ ~~~. l N The;- eftS~ ~be>v
I wfrt.JT 10 e:r-~T r\1:) o+ ?.. I 1..
J I
4 I -- . lo '"De Th'l'tJ
'D\f.f'E-JeNf) m- Wllh f~'Pcc.T rr-o ( WR.T) )(

1- ,ct +1(3- x'~ + -= _l


l~j

_,
It)(
-= d
d)(
[ -;. Sc ~) J
X Sc;q ~ ~ CI -+X ) + Cot.~} 11hJT
To f1 Nd Tl-'1 t- c..o 1\l ~ 'f'fr1\.l T l t"l X= o "" t-t.1 X :SU<) .:o o
so C. ~ o ft"N b I H'Tlv f
.SCX) ~ l ~(I-IX)
)<

Sui' Po~~ W t'lltK.E- uP 'j\,e- SE:H. I &S

X + X' t x3 x_Lf -r = T Cl')


t
'i 9 Jfo

A-Nd w~ w fi"NT ;o fuJ d TCX). 'B'( l> I ft t"RWI I fl-T 11\.1 (,-
1-t X
'2.-
+
~
~t.
+ X)
3 - T - .. ::: T I (.X)

fr-o~ 1h t- C..ltSC"" Prbov e

T' C X) ::: - ..l


J.
h L I - ,x)
tJow We htW= ib INlE-C:rV'~'Tf,

TO<)~ ): - t ~('-(jld(l
-U
Svbs.nl\JT' \- '1 ~ e Thhl
-I.{

) ~~ e - I
-
TC. I') - - u e dl( dt.t !A.
- -I.A.
-:.
u.
I -e
So 1\fit;-r ALL bur ~rt<. WE. f'rrt:: ~TUC...l( wt'"T"h ~ lt.rf-c,..t'I\L
Whtc,h W:: hA-vE.- TO LooK. uP ltJ 1\-'""N\bL..

ThE:- ONL'( O~C\1... rE-c..ot:trsc- it> SoLVIJJCr lht j)RE-VIOUS ProbLCr-1


15 TO ftcld \.I'P Tht.- ~Ut-'\ bE:-RS. l'vlffr ~OO~t)~ UHt"i'l buT bt:l,.H.-vc-
ME:-T\1\e-r&- IS t..toThtNG- wro~v- wt"'Jh 1T. we- ~AvE Jl.,ftJ
Fo-r I c. I)
1
/~ + '""
1 :::
i /Lf t -t

i .Z.So -+.Ill
ANt> w G h Av 6- Th =- l'ttJ s I.V (;-(- TO 1 o 1o 1\- c.c u n'l c. Y. \ CrhJ Aon uP ThE:
S~lfS MOf"t fi\"PIOL'I lf CON~\DE-R,. Tht 3"ERI~S I
f"'ll. .
"'.:I
o. . c- wk'f TO 1")- -1\'1 Th' s '5 E-1' 1~ 's u K. t- The: 'FrO n, noN o f- A
Lol of f'E;C.n'tlJ&LE:-S of '/1- INTE-<:r-R IN Wlt>Th ANd CO~Sidf:it
A CotJTIN U 1}1"\ of VAL U. f;) . l'f I

0 \ 3 5
Nclt- '"jn{; ~owE-It INT&c,.rlfllON Llt"\IT tS
ThE:- MldtJLE- 90S 1110t.l of- ThE:- L..ll'S7 J~TE-f\)f)L J""'TK e-t-.1. L E1 MG c0 M p ttrE
'lh~ A cc. v r PrL '( o-f 'ThIS ft"'Pf>t"""/(1/V\ ttri oN t.~..i'il-\ ThE:- C. rod - sr 1
I. l OtJ L \'

J,
't T-Y' M)
w
+ l
2.1. ..
)t'h ~
J('L
-
- L<.So + .1. ::
/. bSo
z'h. i..:1'00 0 11:>
I "/o At..rEft"dp

)}~~
It- L
-t- 1 .... d;o J, 3b I -+ I J,~Lp
~1. ,3L
?Ct..
::.
X 'I z.,
:::-

1\-M~ -rn~ IJ~T Tell'-'\ I .5 L:> NllTE; t =,l'i z.s 57 Jl/ Z.8S7
'"Cx_7
clx
I t 11.. t. + 1/3 1.. t YLfl. +
~
)~7~ ~t.

1..j<j
7.
= I + '1 -t 7- I. + )()
'-)<
)m (I-X)

-tm.( x
el' :i xt + --- _,. II."
-, 2 ~
)!

= -t
I'.
-t
Z.! n.
~

n'
co~)(
= l - x'l.
+
xq ... ~
-t (- 1)
ll i\ ~.,
!.. '. 4! (2.11) :
SIN l ...
- X - x3 + xs - 0 0
+ ( _ I ) lo\i I 'X'-'J,J
l\ 3! 5,1 (?.."Y~-1)
(l+.x')

I + s (X ) :. "f. - ~3 I ~ 5 - I

3 s
t I tJ D I - }'3 ... 'Is - 'I 1 -t-

CALL s -- I t '1'1 + 'J C) -t 1


/lto -+ 'hs t - -

+\1~.11) ) -t 'I~ + '/7.. s -t I -:.[odd J.J v t-1 b r1L


I8 I

sv..., - \
'Z.~
-t 1..
3'1
.} }_
'} ',
+ -- -

5 v""" + -t
J
t -- , ::::..

~I~ 3 14
' I l.

8
e -'1- ; -'j. -t x't -
-z.. -b
x3 +

co~~ = - -;..l..
-z. + zA - x4 +-

_.., X- ~1..
e- y.. ~ c..o~ x t -- - -
1..

+ 1- ::. 0

t' 7-l. - ~ +- I ) ::. 0


& 1.

= fex)

~ l.. (. '/. + 4) - I 1... 'f. 't l.lj =0

-)'q.)-:.
-
11. ( y. - l.)
Xt~
3"'l.t-~f'.-11..=0

L ItS
0
4 I S

lrY ~,::1

r-.1.= ' - .!.1 = ,_ 3.~ - -z.~l


5

'1--3 =- -z.~ - ~8
I ~B

9.
LECTURE 3

~'I ETt-Jo D .S of l) t.ffE'RWT '"TIN Cr


AJoJ T.>
INicCrRA-TI NC,.

CO""PLIC.t\TE-0 fu~CTION~. 5vPPOSc vN:; hAVe Th(:- hJI'JC.TION ~

'13
-f (X) = ( l-tx1.) l )-.x
( I -tc.a)X) /t. X l.

AlJc:i wt- w/h.lT f'cx). HERE-'~ w"hi\T You. no:

STEP

( It ')(t) ''3 s..,'"'


3
( I 1- Co:) X ) 11..
) Y\X
X,l..
[ of l)Er tv ATlV &- of T Er'M.S
1
2.. S'Tf\TT U 1-f+ E;, r e-t-.>TI f\n N <.r- -f f\C.TOr o ~ t; AT A Tlt1 f

by fH"ST WI'ITINCr- t)OWr-1 !hE E/fPOI'IE-Nf


I
ThE-r.J
lt..l Tht- '])40o-NOMIIVI\TOr wrtTE Th .futJC.TIOI'J ThAT IS
b~ttJY... O\fftrE-NnATE.'J) 1
I~ ThE- MUMEri\TOt' p'-'T ThE-
d E-rtVIti)VE- of Thf fvi\Jc.not-1. IT &o-S t..tt<E- ThiS
r
(l+~l.) ''3
( 1 +cosx) h.
3
;(.l'\ :X
.Xl. [
.J.. __!::;!,
3 (It y.l.)
oc:rv 4nvE:
T 1. YJ'.
hj.
- J (-.1)~ l(
2. ( 11' COSX)
- z ~ 1
1
f:~poN!:NT
1
Whi\T I~ b~;rJ(; chttt.rt.vllf\'TfD

ThE- rE-ASoJoJ WAY Th1~ Tf-c.tt-tJIQITE: wOrt(,) C~ b~ t~Pl.AI~~O rJc,.oprou.st.Y


b~.o~.T" QUITE: Stfo'\pLV 11 IS ltS.Soc.tATE:J) WITh ThE- dE-rtvllnvf- of LO(,.ftrtlnM.
l t I h" V f;. Th(;- fv ~ C.T I 0 t.l

I w ftNd -[ I ( )

t b dv -t c
v o)C w

- d)'

ID
usc- ThiS TfC.hlquc. evf:'r'f ilf"'lE; I ht:\V c TO D1ff E: R.1\lTJtHE
l:Vt-JJ W~f-t.J tr I~ A- 51MPL~ fvMC..TIOtJ Lll<.

.f'(x) -= xl.. ( 2'X - l )


1-t)C I +X
l)o ,:r 1hr\T wAY becA-vsE: 1 CftN tJtv{;-r f"b"ltMbCR The rul.c for
odf-erhJTif\"111-J(r Th~ pr-ouvc.T of TWO fu.JVcnoJJ 1.c ~

~ dV _ dV
~v) = v
I U
= _g_ (
v u v
ih,s n tThoc of u,ff E:-Rt-tJT Wfl r-J (r 15 )JOT l>ISC..US~E:-0 IN VC,<Y
MAl-lY "BooKs bvr 1 R(cot'lt'lE-tUt> You. L e AR.N How TO USt rT
bE:-CihJ~~ 1r I~ QVIT VALUAblE,

r'l ET 11 00 .S of It--ITt; e:r-r ATI 0 r-.1

T~tV"E:- ARt StvtrAL wt\Ys IN Whtc.li COMPLIC-1\TtO lt.!Tt<:rrf\LS


Ct\N bt;- evt\LvATEOj ThEY ARC.:

o '. B 'I s u b .) t -wn o tJ o+ v ~ 1fl b ~ej


('l.) 1 NTE CrY lrnol\1 b'r' ?1\R.T S
(3). B'{ cOHPL.cX v1tnAbL5

II I~ 1)-.E; t-"\O.ST 'Powf-r..f.lL t-'\E:Thod -for h~dLit-t<r C.,OMp\..IC.ItTtn


1\o.IftC:r.,. ALS.

ThE: .sv41SnTUTIOtJ whlc..h l WILL b t- Mf\KIN(T, wktc..h I


PRE;SVt'IC 'I" o V ALL K..I'J 0 IN IS
,; e
e = cos e + i .s 1t-1 e
ONE of ll\~ Svi\..Dti'-!Cr ~L.OC.K.$ W~qc.H r-1:-E:;O

INfo r Hl\11 Ot..\:

1 o
00
e
-GI.X d
x -=- -Q..I

II.
Thr;. h~T -K>r CO:> bX I

Th~

_l =
rt-l'\"('rAN<:rttJ6-
r wt C:rE;T

i )[ e -(o.-,'b)x T e- (o.+ iblx Jclx

}e - (SoME:;'Jh JIJ c,..J'l(


dy. :::
So~"'~(Jnt,.,Cr

W (:; h J\'V(:- ThA-T

~~i b J
a.
1 -- lz.
1
[ Q. - i b
+ = o.}- + b2.

ONE: f\.IOTt ThAT Tht 5 T c C.ttNI Q 1J : A L~O wor- K.S ON lh (:; t~de{INITE
IMTE.C:rrAL A-~ Wtl.L 1 1, l.

)o:l e _.,, (.o:, b x d~

We: wtLL ofTE-N TIMES ttA"E- TO -nlf.fR.EJVTt5\Tc ut-.~dfrtThE:


lt-~TI;-c,-"('f\L Sl~tJ '"BE:~R.E: <:re:-11\N<:r- The: tNT~&-~ftN!) 1~rro Ft forH lhAt
Wt;- cJh..l e-1\-SII..Y \~E:&v-/tTc. The CTE.NfR AL fort-~Vt..A ~f\T wt
IN m,l\ TO \LSE: I S

The- 5 I"" p lE-ST c.I'\St: \S Whf: N x, 1\Nc:l XL 1\1{; -ft )(tO VI\LlJt-S
trno t>o ~or bE:-P e-p..~n ON~- v~rlf~blE:- oc. IN Thl~ c"s c-
d_I
d~
-=.
i l ~k.fo,,qdx] x,
, X1.
- )~. C)-+ex,~) Q-~
dx
'~'-~The 0~~ Cf\~t;- whE-.N The LIMITS of tl\lT t e:s rA-n oN 'D(;P~O

op.J rJ... we- ~frYe- ThAT

d I - ~ x,<~) [ a +(x,o() 1" -f ( )( 4Coc:.)) d X1. Co(} fc,, <Jl d;:,qJ .Jx
dot x.c.~) Jot d-~

I-=- :
+.l
~l.

LtKWI~f;

S1NC.f:- WC: trr~ wott<..IIJCT WITh Mf:ThOO~ oT t11\Thi:'Mft"TICS wE:


IN!Th>l T'O l..tftft-.1 1'0 ~PftNQ 01.11<.. ~fl.V Kf\IOwLtD()o-f '")'C) Nbv Problft1S.
~uppo~E;- I G-t\v(;- VOu. ThE; foLtO~~JitJCr JHIE;<:r-..-At. '10 t"Vt\l.Ut\'TC

d,x

VJ h ft T w 0 I) L. t> 'Y 0 I) t> 0 ~ wt ~L I TY' 'I' puTT' ..., (r 0( I tJ Th t


SINE- -hJ~JC.T)OtJ So ThAT

I (rt..) :::.

I' (a(} ::. ~DO') L x c.osxot.." Jd;< :. )ooo c..a.s ti.X dx

Ut...li:>rTI)tJf\'itlY wE CJlN'T Evt\LVf\Tt; ThE- L~ST JJIJTtC:r'fA-L &lt-IC.c Tht-


-fu,..,c.nOM C..OS o<X IS O.SCJLLI\"TOKY WITh h cf..ro f\Vt-rtl<Tc Vflt..llf.
LET's lr'f A 1nffcrb-fl" -NI'-lc.nON

r :'-
~; e -Col.}(
-
SIN
X
bx clx

dT
db
-- ): e
-Cl.?t
~~~bl'
_J(
d,x ::
ret>
)\) e-~ c..osbx dx -::: Q
o.t.+bl.
Thbl a.
I :::.
) C(. t..+bl..
c:lb ':: -t 111\l - ..!!CL +C.

13.
So f ttJfl Ll.. '( we- h ltV Eo ThAT

-tC.

b=o wh1c.h IMj>Ll~!) c::.o. we 1ft'(:-


TO fiN1) ) c)lb s-..!..!ikx d)( tf wE: l~T Cl= 0
X
d,. = -flh-l - 8::) =- 71'
l..

b '0

~ = o. &rrtPh\C.ALLY ThE.- +v"'cnol\.1 LooK..S Llt'.E-

+!
L
t------
:I.( b)

-----i -'IT1.

'DELTA- FUNC.TIO~S

\N(;;. TrieD TO fVALUAT& THe llJT~C:rf"l ~; cos~x dx: lbJd


CotJC.LlJOfO Thf'\-1 IT wAS tt.ldEitrMttJf\tJT. l'-'tS IS tJOI ST'f'IC.TI.~ 'lYV
bf;d\ UJt- \IIJ ~ C. IT to.t v t\ L v t\T- Th E: IIJ T f; C:r r1l L TO bt

IN ht.K.E: ~(f) 1) CI\Llt~ f\ dEL TR furvcnof'l. 1h C. oN C. t-PT of f\


detrA fut.JC.110I'J \S ~UITE: u~E:-h.>L tt-1 'PhYSICS 1\)Jd ~crefor(:- woRT._

dts c.v ~Sl NCr t-te-Rt.

1)..1\IOLV ES A st-qiJtNtt- o.f fu,.,c.no~s


C..ttHf;~ t- 0 A ~ovT A 'PO tNT f\ND who~c 1\-r-f\ 6 <.yuALS 1.JI.HTY. 'Tn~T IS
Th wldn.. 1~ ProporT\OtJ"L TO X fu.ld '"'E: t+E: 1 <rh T IN V ;1".SE: L'(

?r-oPO~IlOtJA-L To ~ , Ito~ Th(; LIMIT

E-1\ C.E:-\,T 1\T X ::.o Thert IT h~S 1}-N uNITY


I J

/
ThE- C:rE-NE:fAL ForMuLA -for. The; OE.t:TA .furvc.no~ 1.S

L: ~ oq ~ex- a.) d X = .f (a.)

ftt4 f~ 1\-'fw\Pt..~ Lt-T f (X) =- X'1. ThE-N I

reo
1-o.> Xt ~ <."- "-) dx ~
SOHf- IP-\torTI'nJI ProPERTIE-S of. Tht- 1>t."'T1\
hU....\CT10N Prre Th~ ..foLLOWINGJ. I

~ .flx) c'CX-C\.)dx = --f'Ca..)


Tht d E-Ytv t\'11 V ~ of.. ThE; d ~ LTA f-vt-J c. TlO 1'-l LvO KS

<5 ca.x) ~ j_ ~ex:)


I Cll

We Cfh..l &f'ISIL'( 'Prove ~C~it)::. J. -6 IX)


ICI.I ;
b'i HUL11PL'(IM{r by A-rv lfrbllYI'fr'l' nJI\HTION cp()Cj

fb.ld 1h t1J I tJ TE- Cr V" A-n tJ Cr

) cpl X) <) c X) J X : j_ Jr ~CX}d()')d)C-::. 1 cpco)


/CA.I ICA.I

<5 'c- ") =- ~ '<. x)


X'<Sex) ::.o
X <5 X ) : - ~ (,I\)
I (

6 ( c~l) :: _l_ 6 (!\-~")


0 8' CXo)
)tJ lh prl)b Lf"' Let) CO:i f3 x c:li' .: lj' ~C(Jl lhJd. ST"r'fl/6-hT..forwRrcl
wA'l 10 tVI\LUAT:- ThE;- INTt-b-N\'t" IS To C:.OMP\JT~ Tht- JIVdE:-hNITf-

VflLVE- \ l <:LJ~~y. d)C :: ..i 5 '"4f'J'f.}L ::: Slt-4[1l Jh.Jd ltT l ->co SeT
Jo ~ o ~
Srt-I~L ::.o :)JI-Ice +-or- 1\"LL PhY~tc...AL .S'fjTE-MS StN (H wiLL fVt?J7UI\-t.t..Y
1)ftMP O(.(T.

15
To P roblE: M .5t:T de

--::>

nrK crENn A-TIN C:r


00
s I ( W\) - -\ X ,Qu.J 'M)t' cl,x-
Jo 1-~"X ...

II (CX)
S ( ~) :. - Jo -1-+.X'l,...
t--loW hr'Nt- buLlT Pt 1'oLY1JOMIAL 1.._110 1l1E }'luMt:Y"ffi"'OR.. bY
D\-\-tti'e-NTtAnt-~er. By ADOINCr 1 1 tJ~\cle The S s,c,.,.., I h,we-
\~ (t+x1..) c..as""''X dx:: Scwq-s''Cr\1\)
j ... -z-;-;)(1.)

~h\c.~ bE:-c..oME:S Th~ f.oLLOII\Jt~6- otfttR-10TiflL E-qvf\TIOJ.I

S II( n-\ ) -Scm)::.. \


-11 oC)y\)

To SoLve- ThE- Otrtt-1"C?vTtPrL E::quttnotJ ~Ot.l hflv& TO br-ctt-~< The


R e <r1 ON of hi' '"'To TWo 'Pit1ls J m '- o 1\N c:1 m >o

sl eM) - sc""'' -::.'()


'' WI <:. 0 5 '' ( W\0\) - ) ( ...-.) -:. 0

1hc ~oL~..rnotJ 10 The E-qvft'T)OIIJS Are


fot- M >o S t tlf\) -:.. A e""' ... ~ e-""
M -"-'.
'" W\ t..o so"') :.. c. e 1't>e
W e- do~' T KP-> ow w"'- AT A 1 'B 1 C. 1 fhoJ b "D f}- R ; 'Sb 1'0 CXJ -forTh E-R
we- usEo ~E.
hftve:- 10 ~c~l -fu.Nc.notJ 10 Rtlff'IC- The- -rwo
Reer1otJS. Tnts Shows 'r'ove. how c...o~PL.IC.IIT-1) ThE;~~ twre-ermnol\l.s
Cm..t &ET.

'
fEYt-1 Mt\N Or-.1 Tl'l& 1)tfrOR'f of QUft'RKS

lOdAY Mrt'l' h ftvG- dtS>C..OII(;-(~0 A fv,ucl ,.,..,fy.ll'AL rHtrnO.J-1 Ship


bt:-TW (;-~ SPit.~ STWT\~nc.s f\"Nd q \J frfK. Th ~oR 'f. T htR(:- hA~ bH~I

A C.Ot.lT\~VI).Hr ~rT TO TY'f TO rttf)Tc be~ -ftr-MI /h..ld ~oSE:


S"PitJ STft1'l~1lC.S \f\.1 Qut17JT\1M MHhn-NtC.S. i='HM; mT IST\C.S ~fli'iS ThAf
SPIN 11... Pf\"nlC.\..~')
1
l>ON"T L..IK~ TO "l!>E; I ).I Th~ ~ ~& ~TttTE-. W\,)\.f
~o'S~ 5'Nt1l~n C.S ( ~o.>otJS ) Ll KE:- TO 1?>~ IN Th~ S ltM E: STitTt. j Th~SE-
trre: ThE:- INTe G-Y"Ih. SPIN Pfttil c. L..t-) L l K (;- 'Phon>,._,S,

Now qvA-fK.S ArJd 1h~ren.c.ft"LI.'< sr'"'' 'h. Pttrnc.L!.Lut~tE=-t-


qvft'f"l\s ~Mt\ l<.t- vp The- fvi'J~ftMeN'i'ftL "ftmct..t-5 1 E,J. 6LE:CTYOtJ5
-;>roTOtJS. So-ppo~~dL't tts ~Puv '11- Pl'tr'ncL.tS ~- ObE:'f .f.t-rMi
S1W'f\snc.S. 'Pl"OT'OJI.lS \o\,t)W't'\1~ .:S-E:M TO hltv- qutK.S w\..tc..h Oo-';'
~ o SE:- ~'f'fiTl sn c.S .
NOI.V belltv~ 1"'-1\-T 1\L\.. ~t- A-91tr'Et-.11 ltNOI'-1/1l1E-~ ltJ ~ultf'l(
"'WrY ClhJ bE: E:XPLI\HJE-0 \t We CONSide-R. ~ufrr'KS TO 8E
P\f.Cf:') of- HAlTE-r Wt~ Si>IN 11-L. ~A1 Obt'f ~OS& Sll\'TISncS,
fR 0 bt. H 5

(U
~:
evA' LV ATE: (.
.S ltJ X dx
)(1...

(2) 5tH> l.V d


~; e
- 0,.
-e
-by
d(J - tn (oyb)
~

r) C,.\VC"~
)~
e_ 4-z.d
~
:::..
fril~
.f I t-l f.)
)~~ ~L e-~ldo -- .
~

ttl ~T ~ PvT Cl \"" T'O Inc- hrsT 5 1he-N 'D1 ff e:-ret.JTttne

--- (4), F\ND 5o~ e- p,y.1..- oy,l(l


d~

lS) , '? ('O \IE:'


s_: e
_o,.'ly."t
c...o:;,b ~ df( ~ ,.fi,
z.o..
b\.
e-ia.\..

18
I -= ( (clv~ ex X~ dX
) xz_
d T CrJJ ::
) ~s &1'\.X z..d )( = ~ ~ z..
d~

) 4X'- '''~:r'- dx = - 4 T (,o


('

7 '
d"-I (f) 1 1 I Co<) =o
d ./" '
t 2. U:l- c .J. ~ ,,: :
I Co<)= e _l ) ~ + '


ll.
C>
'-- cos z
IUL) :: fa.., f e....~'- Jd

I'( o.l ~ r-31. e_...J'L d:J =


d :L(O..)
I C. CA.)

..
~ WI\7-JT ;o Po 11.!1 OuT T'nAT L E:-ftrNIN(r ThE- TriCKS. o-f t.f}L C vL.vS IS

q..u1TE;- lt-'\~,.'11\1-IT bc-CI\c:t.SE WITh A- few TY'ItK..S. VuO C:..f\lJ. ~Oi,..V: 1\LMOST 1\tJ'(

~OL.Vflb\..c Pi'Ob\..(:11. BlAT '/01) Will NEE-0 mE: HElP of A I'JvMbc-1' of


Ke-'i lt-.ITE:<:rfAL f,--oM whlc.\.-. ALL 'lhf; o'J'hcr~ f\1'(;- c:lEnvltbLE. tOI"
=-;t.tMPlc$ IN 'PI-f"C~~ ifr'8L of INTE:e:,.f~LS Ot-~L'I' A covPL.: of ThE
'0--f /.1-)ITE: lt.liE-&t ALS Cfl'Nt.IOT ~ Qulc.I(L 'I SoLVf:-0, The 'TWO w h1 c..H
I \-\1\'V!C- -h>ot-~d l'nffl RE:-q1.>1t'~ S'PeC.1AL 1~&E-NVI1Y ftrf: Tht- toL.LOWl~~.

At-Jd
L: e-x d x
l.
:. $

~~ X d;c = lil.
~t.~h"/.

"
0

11'1 t-10.ST of- The: de.fu.~,r&- It\.ll E- ()- r II l~ I N -;:>I E:-f'C.~ ThEY cftN b
S0(.VE-!> b'l' \J.SJtJCr St-vE<f}L TcCI'NI(.\)UC"S ~oc.\.. ft.S INTE-<>r'l\'l)ON b'i' P/tr"TS,
:>l)b51)'N 'Tl01V 6f- tJfrf It\- bl ;- S tTNd d rf.f. {;( -NT I f\r I tJ (r utJd 8'- Th f:. I ~Te& r f\ L
StC,.M IN ThE': f-J( 1\-MPL.~S lt-boi)T tT 1~ ofTE:-t<l PossbLc TO sDLVE::-
'Jht- JN7cu--rAL '
LE-TS WCr K. Th~ Sc..ONO

IN1'E&f'l\ L ou.T.

e"- e-"
Wt- hJtVt': 1\\1\T
)~ ~
S11\lklC
d,x J
$\Jb STITVTe. -5or SIWhX
z
A-t-Id 'f' t':ft'Yr thl~ E -x
): ~e X d"
1 - e-2.'f.
Sll"'-E': we: C..f\1-1 ~1)\..E: ThE:. ltJT &c,.fl\110 N of e-x ll-\e- MorE: w~ l,flv
ThE: b~rrf::~ oft we; wiLL bt, Thus JC 'Pfll\ld The: of=t.lb ""'rJATor f\S

l.. )oCb 'X e_.,. d)t + ~~ ~ e-l"f. dl(. .... . ..


1\low we- ~ 'hould v-E:K &1"\beR. ThAI

."----
-\ ....
o(

I ')
X dJC

Now I htn>-pE.N -ro Kl.lov..> ~f\T ThE: Sti\E:;~


tnJc! hAs VhN bE:- Svt"'lM&--o
Pt V~\.VE:. o.f ltJB, 1-f '(oo doN'T KNOW "'A-T VOIJ. Prn:- S.OrT of
STU<.\(. ~ul If 'I' OIJ ON L 't' W-I\1VTE:-d ThC= fu.JSw E-r "1\) 1\ (..,OU P L t 0 .f-
d E:;ct Mf\ L 'P 1. Ac..e; ~ )l o u w o o l d J u ST ft1> o s o M <:; 7 c-rt"\ ~ 1U 1
ex Pl. fr\ JJf: o b E-.foRc . Th U.) v.> E:- h t)"v E:- Th ~ I
- 111.
4

1 ~\,)e:.-&E.~T 'lou Tr'f 1'0 worK cuT The dc--hl-ltTE- /JIJTC:-<TTf\l<:. G-tVt-N JiJ
'PIE;-rC.t ( Pf{&-e. ~1.) bE:-cr'lvSt- '!IOU nftv:- f\LL ThE; r-lH.E-~Sf\ry 11>0L~.

SOLVINC:r INTE.<:rrAL~ USUJCl- Dtfft:.RE-NTI"L t=qvAnor-JS

't xl..
I h~t> U.OlT6l l'tS ff\ v- f\.S W1'111 N er The 11\.lTcC:rri\L AS. F\ t>t+.f-c-r~nAl
EquttnON

St "') - S '' ( "') = ) ~ co>""h


To S.OLV(; 'Thl~ E:qufft)OtJ I c~ -f, tJ{) " %>r-MuLt1 ltJ ft becK.. Whl C..l-j
SAYS lhrtT ThE: ~OLUTlCN "{1:) 1'\,E; ~ul\"nON

d~ - ~
:. ~(I()
dAL
~~ &t\lt"IY by

'jK et: .ftt) Jt


t CX)
e-~~ x e t 1Lt} d+
r
-x
~ = - e tAe .,.set"X
-Ol)

W ~trt- v.; (; hf'<V :- "TV\ A-T

~ :: s X =W\ fpld f = - if~c.~)

'/..0
\~E- MA"Y 5PE=C.lJL~Tf 11'\h'f 5tM) COI\IT1t1tJS f{ dcl.TJ!\ fvN<..'j10kl
b~T ""' & ~N -ceo- ThAT , f 1r D 1o 'TS ~cC...OMc:l t>~n v 1\n v c
r-E;-AL.I

w o v l.cl bt A- h o ,.. r' b L c h .uJ c..no r-L c..o 1\.ll'ftH.ll 1u C>- 1hc- 5 E;-Co Nd. oe:- n u ATliiE-
of 1\ d~LTA- h>Nc.:not-1. Thu~ w~ AY-t;- L.t-0 TO bE.L.\(;vE- Th~7 ~'em)
COtJ11ht-1S ~ de:LT"t\- fvt-)c:notJ. \-f- Th\~ wE:r<::- Tht- c.ftSE:- ThE:- f1rST
dt-nv~tnvt- vvouLd ~ c.op..~T'AiiJ A .JvMP o'R.. STe-P cttfn.Je-e. Th.vs
Wf- HI\V 11'-lTt&rl'ltE: OYER A Jvi-1P. Thlfl ME;f\113S ""AT SC.IIWI) nt\S
A K\NK. IN tT. T~E: 1WO SLoPe-~ 'Dtff~;R b'f A f"J\c;roR. of 11'.
IT I~ NOW Kl\low~ ThAT JN ThE: tJE:It:rhborl,ood o+
.f~dA"n"O N fo-r :su~. \ bE:;;t.O KE:)

~
11
(M) ::: - Tf ~(lh)
J - c.
"L = c-11
5 (..M) = -'It W\ .lCM.) -+ C..MI\ + 1)
NoTE: ThAT f>t) m --:. oo SC.W\) C..ON C..Lvd E: fo. =0
J1Nd. LtK(;WI~c fi.S W\ -J -ro StMII) -"? o so l) =o . Uo TO Th t
s 'f ""' M E:Tr IC. AL c.l) trr A-c.Tcr of S l W\) we- hfrVc ThAT 1!> = -C. Th 1J s
WE: C..f\11.1 WRIIE: +o..- W\ ? 0 l3 e.-"" 1\"Nd for M '- o 13 e+..,.... SINCe
I

~d ~e'~-"" WE;- GrTN & Vf)l, U 1\-Tc U S lt,H_'"t

-II..
- ~e ~,.o

-t ~ e"""' ""'40

s" 8 e"' ~ )'O

.q~ e . . "" WI .C 0

Of' s" :: - '-~ 6C.~)


bi.AT s~~ -- -1\Cs(lo'l.o\1
50 ~-= n1..
1-\l..ld Wf;. hPtvf

~00 --
c.os M.J{
I 1" ,._.,_
sc~) - 11-e
'2.-
-1""'1

QE:l)

AI
ThE. ilf'.ST INTE:Cl-V"'f}L WILL 6-11/c Tht- VftLV(; -Ti 1.f. The INTHn"ttTIOIV

11-oM - aN-f,r->,1'1' 10 lVI c..orJ"TftuJ~ Th~ dul'"ft- fur-.t<.noJJ OO'). lf 1T t>O~N'I

11'\~t-.1 lht- St::<-ot-10 \l'lTE.:f:>rAL WIL.L GrillE- ThE: Vf\LVE- -1(. WE C/I"N wrtTE
ThE:: IV
SC m) = - 1\' e-'" j (. m) "1' lf e,., ( 1 - J ch\ 1 ) -t Ae- "' + 13 e 1M
ttfrc Th- -h>r->cnot-~ .1Cml IS l>t-<hNE-Q ftS The- ST-Y tvNt.norJ
J(lo\) , __ _ _ _ __

ThuS
s (~) : : - re -llo\

Sc ~~ -= -+ne ... + Ae-"''Be"" t


lobo -h.JrT'I-\e-r IT IS t-1~<:.:~5 /l"r't TO +"'"" o At\l-11> s . '6 y s 'f M t1 e:n'( of c.os ,N
.fvt-~unot-~ ~r r\1\ boTh wE. hfo(l.le 'ThflT A A~ 13 MOSJ bt- E-~i'uAL.
T't\EtJ 1-\- WE: LET 'WI -':>eo lnc C..051 NE: IN Rl\1' 1 DL.'( 05CI LL ffl R Y W 1-ttCH

Now 1tJ \'nE: R fhl&& of m 1: o , 1. . w hE-r c- S c. ... 1 :=. o Wf:. tt1tVc-


'The 'brHE:fE:N1tt\L E- QvtmONS ~

_..,
_..,
sc M.) :. S 11 ( M \ _, S cm ) -:: . Ce "' t D e .for \')'\ < Q
\tJt ~1\VE: th~;; 'Pf'obLtM at fiTiiN(r T'Ylt:>~ TW 0 SOL.UT10i'J.5 T00-E:T\-\I.S-R frT rn=O.
Tht~ \S c.OMI'-'IOI\ILV cdtlet> A 'aoul\ldm-'\' VI\ LV t -rrobLH-1. J\lor\f\l.LY
ThE St f\"f~ 1'1\vC:r~ T TO ThE: ':>TUc.H';J'JT TO be;- (\>u IT- 'Dt ff,c..v LT bll"t 7l'\ t
del.Tl\- fu!Vt.TIO...S R~SOLVE:-~ ALL af Tne- we-R.c! COrJdtTIO~S de-vE-t..OPE--0
bv Th.e:- ~c..ttE-~. ~OTh Tht- dcLTft- tvNc.Tlot-t Pp.icl sn:'P .fvtJc..T\ON settvc-
io TE- L.l uS W"~ fi1\YP~~S b(;-1W ~E-N lh: TW 0 Rfr~IO...,S.
-Cl'i -b~
e 'J - e d
~ (t
W f- cJhU Crt;-T Th ~ Ft t-.>5 IIIJ E;t" It t-.1 U M b:;-r of w A't ~ boT NOT; If
vvon<.. WI~ Th~ .f,r.sr e-4.
WE; INT.-d\L )
d
do Wf:- crrt..~

d 1-ff E:1"'E-N'll t\TE: W RT Q ~ld G-E;T

dI ~ 1
dO..
= 0...

So

To ~ VAlv f\1 E Tnt- c..<ll'l~TfrrJT W& NEKO l'O e V1\LV f(T E- ThE: IIVT6-rf}L.
AI otJE: seT of 0.. fuVd b v fH.. u c~. NoTE- 1f Q-::. b wt hftvE J o.sT
\
00
0 d"~ L. u.Aao Theretore- I -=-0 tft..ld C = +~b. Thu.s
)o ~ ::. --a ro : :. 0

I = ~ b;a..,

ObSE:rV; TV!~I W& c..f\1\l'T T1\t<..E:- ThE. LOWt"f LIMIT The of


lf'Ht:-6-Yftl }: e -~~ d~ .SIN C..e ThE- vllLuc bLOWS UP LO~A-f"tThMtCfltL.'(

lt-1 Th(; LIMIT, ~\.lS TO G-E;T ft f\l'l!'ft;- 1.,11-'\IT LE-T 0 bE;- f<=j)l..f\(.eD

b 'I' e f\1.ld. TRKf:- Th~ I., I MIT, ThE-re:fort;

Tht; ~-o~uM~ EN.r&H-1<' IN l"'E:-r"f. Are A- c...vr-Jous Thti\.IC,... wh1c.h you.


MA '{ i r ~ 1'0 Oe--f\\1-.

\ wi\Nr TO POitJ\ OI.IT ftNd Uhmo~ YOu NOT"TO bE:- SLoPPY


Wl'l\\ 1'\.e- lOI'J'5'f'fnJTS of JNTf;O"rf\"11 0 N. I r-.1 'Tht- U\St- Whff"f
) SPLIT of- The;. ,,,rrt:;-<:r'flTL 11'110

( ~ e- '1.~ d - r e bt
d~
Q.:)

J\) - d J i) -

~ (1
Th t 11\.\TE-c:irftn oN C:r I v ~ S

-kCA t-~ +kb- a:>


~d. '(o(.( cf\1\l c.A-~u~LL'I' SobJY1\cr our The; JWO l'l-ht..~IT\E-.5 n> ~tvt o.
Th\~ tS bfl-d t\-t.td ve-ry ILLE..&ITII"tfrT&.

l3
---- ---- - - - -

To ~how yo\J w 11 ItT c.,~


-- fhQ.> I hfrv t-
~~ e -} da;C{ 2
0
1rf 0...
Wh~t-\E::VE;.f 'fov.. Trfu.J)-MHM LIM IT~ v,H\1<-h C:rO TO 00 I(OU c!h-1 (:rf:;l

Jt-.1 TY'OlJbt..c, ~c b~l bE::-T IS 11:> '"?OT . f\-1-ld t<..H:P ThE- LIMITS
J-INIIE: ThE;-1-l , \'OU C-/h-.l C.Ofw\~1Mf;- ThE- rltJ.SW~ So IT 'DOES t-JOT '0-P'frJO

o t-.~1-- . I 1-l Th (:; ft bo v E: C..A-S E w hE- r e- w c- ~ ~~ d: a.. O LeT


-'\ I
e._oJ
~

As P.. ruLE- ~~VhbJ GK> lr.rou u--h fr 'ProblE:-M ThEr -hrsT TlH~
\ ~ usu'ftt..V< qun-e- SL.OPPY , NuT PF'N JUG- ft11tN'TlotJ -ro St&tJSJ
Pi \s 1
.fA-c-Tt>~ of 2. ETC.. The- rQ'tSotJ 1~ lhAT t--'10 rt of11J Th thJ
NOT tW -h v-S I frY l)f'O tTC. h Lff\-d~ \U fr df:-1) cl e-N J & 0 I h tl'VE; li>
RE-Trerr--r- 'TO tilJoThe-r ~T. It \ StE: I t1tJih-Vt' httvG- I+ W~t'TI>
Tht- frt.J<sw6' ' Tht1\l G-o bA--c\( ver'( c.tn'E-fvLL'1 'PvTnt.Jer 11-1 ALL The
6--o r r (;(.T -h\C:TO rs 1 Jt-rJcl (:,.- r 1Nd - G- r 11'-1 d - C:r r t t-A cl ,

I Me-AlnOI\Jh:l Jhro/1 Wh~ AN. lt-.\I&G--rftl lS. SOL\fffbLt Th-rf.


Ptr~ fl. IOU cl\.\fE-re-tJI Wft:YS 1'0 worK. n ovT. Tb Show You.
w~A-T \ t--'e-frN co"'s\d..e-t AG-1t1rJ 1\-\c:; Jl\li~Tc ( 1b c.oSM-o.)C J~.
A. ) 0 I+)Ct
lV\1~ TIMe- WILL !<.ILL "J"nE;- "ProbLEM wiTh IT

tSLe-n CTt- ~~ Mtr. S uy Pose-- wE;- K.N-w l'ni\T

lhe-N. I C.t\N Sub~nTUI- /'rN lt.lT~ItL ttJTO fht I~TE:;(rr(j(, for


A P lE-e. t-- vJ h' cY\ l s h trrd TO h JtNd LE. t:hlP~LL '( The rc-SuL n/\1&
lt-..llfrC:r'rl\L \~ ~\.t"Y" 70 SOLve. ThvS
~ ~ e - t co~ x t dt ::
0 -
l+')(l,..
1\.low d.otJ'T be- frrJ ll)IOT f\-1-l 111..\IE;G-v-;:rr-ES- W RT t +1rST b~l'tU.S:
't'ou WILL b(:- rtb-hl bA-CtJ.. Whtrf:- you SWTE:-D tfoM, 5ubsTITOTE-
~r
c.os 'f. t cos l!\1\ "'K. = { [ cos ( ~-tt) ~ + c.o S CWI - t ) Y- J
00
)
0
cos X.x dx = Tr ~cx.J

'(~v... ~f\-V ;-- TQ bE:- c.~L hH(::: \f wt- 11'\"K( tv\ -to be Er Y"Ei\"TE:r Tn fh..l 0
'"fh;)...1 wf: T'Pt 1(: ~( W\ -t) fr/Vd G-E=I
-til\
) c)o:>
c.o.S 1\o\)C
d.)( :: .n: e Voo'\ "> 0
l -t~"L 2..

We- c.ttf'l Tr'l' 1\-NOTht;-r J-'1.(;-~0c:l V~fN(r SE-1'"1 t-S t-l<.Pftl.lSIOt-1 1 ll

c.~" d )( ~
I +)Ct.. j
l cos ~ ~t ( I - ~ "l.. +x. q - Xr.. t ,x 8 + - - ) d,x.
= 11 ~Cw.) -t rr~"(W\) -+ rr~'~~' (w.J t ---

tJow ~\S \~ tr Mt-SS ITNc:l ,,~SlOP A-Nc:l Tr'l' f}"No'l'Yit-t' ~e-Thod.


f+ow&y-- '(Ou.. C.ouLd. PrE;)) Ol'J USINCr- Th~ d t.f+E:-rtf\111ftl OPff"t}TOf"

tJow '( ou ~r\-vE;- ~ SOLV.f

(I- n'1..) sc~ 1 ~ n ~ (~ J


or
s(""'> - s" CK1J =- n
~L""-J
R..1 c,. n1 blf<. K wh.ert- 't" o~..t ~ 11tfTcd froM,

:zs
S'now

):' StNX1.dl' ::
) OQO c..osxl.d)(. ~
.l{
1.. L

)voo d)C
xT-tcL4
'::> -rr..[i
4-a.3

) i:llt I"L.
~(IJ~'J,) d1- = 11 1- 117...
"l,

) 01 h(.lt)C} dy. -- I1 ~L.


I +')( t.
e
) uli''- X SIM)'
l.
-- 1{1...
I -t C.o~ f.
Z[
So"k ~~)( d)( -::
*[l + ~ ( fi. - 1)]

}000 o..y. d --
~
1 + e Y:
'f -11
Sal-la.U

): $\~h<iv)C
.S I t-1 h, )C
d,x :::. .L ..(- "")1..1 cy'L
z...
LE~TU.RE- 5

SOLV IN 6-- 'D~IJ-1 ITE I MT c C:r fl\ L $

l... cl L IKt- TO C:ro ov t- r .so,_,~ o-f Th t ? rt> b l ~MS I 1\5516-NcD


LI'\SI TIME: ~a toll. CfhJ G-E:-T 1\ fe-E: l tt'O w l Cro ftbouT s.oLUIN(r
~t-St c!t-hNITt- IIV""tE;<:rri\LS

I=

I ~Ave:- 1)d\T

Q~ 1 =
\

Now I h "" ~ TO h. 1\"\1 ~ 1'l-\ {; sq u A r~ rooT at Pl.US /Tric::l MJJI.ILI.S l.,

To (ri T r. lhJ d -r-:. , n11 M< E A C.OMPL{;f( C.li"'C.I..t fh-.1 d G- E-T Th f


AS
H'(PilTE-N v~c-
-n :.
fi
I
't
fi.
L
I

= -
fi
I
(1 +d
.
G = fi. -
I
I I (I- ~)
fi_
~

rr
i =

I\IO'TE; 1), AT Th t- i '.S cffrJC.E:L e - 0 o oT so I h II'1J e The; ;\ic.rftl


roOTS of 17 th-.td Fi ~ If I h ~d Tltl<b\1 The- NE;Crl\i)uc-
nro 1> w-o ut.d h ftV E- cro-tt"e.> l"h t ,.uru !V(r &~ 1\NS w ;-('" - IT wOtJ LcJ
kftV&- bE-~ \Mf\&lJ..lE'=r'(,
SuPPo5&
j~Tl: C:d'A L

NoT& I t 'tH f f e-r E-NT\ ATE. f(~) W~i

f(m) I e GYe;-T

F 1 v(~) -t F'C.Yh} = ~~ C.O.S-mx d)C ::. rf~C~)


The .fuNCTlON f(l"\ l 1<; S V f"\t'\-TY"tC..Al S 1"--C.~ Tht 'ITh dcflvflTIVc
o1 r ~ v fH. ~ 1"' ~ N E;;C:rl\"n v E;- of ITS E; t.-{ A 1v r-H n '() JIJ v.> J, , ' "'
l-\f\ ~ Th ~ c h A-r~ TE;- r 1~
0(. .....
FCI4'\)::: e
~E=~ Tht- d \-Hff"tvVnAL -quf\1101') U-1 u es A~ ThE:- N"O"T s cA.~,=- I ,
Th, ':> c-q u rtn otJ l't"A- ~ fo v r r ITO,...) l'lf'ISIN<r- ho~ Th quttJrrtnl 0\.l.=tc..':

~' ~ f.i_( I+~) d..l.::: j_ ( ' -C:) :: ..!. Lt.. -1)


h.. fi.
of Th~ SO\.IJTIOtJ
f=(MI\) ::. A eoe.'~ .,. T c.. e ~l"-'

obS~f'll~d ~AT /\"~ W\ _, c:o F C."-') <:>houLd f\-P?roAtH 0 )


A A-N'D 'B =o :l""IhE;-rwt~~ Tht fvrv<=nON ?Pt.OO~~. Now WE:-

wn1c.~ ctt-N b~ r~w .. , nr.r-~ IH

F(~) = E'- W.fii. [ c I 0.0 s ""'lfi. -f "0 Is I tJ .....I (i]


INhE:('~ C' r\'t\lc:l f.)' hthff ")1) b~ f"4\L WhE::t'E: C. lhJJ)'l::> C.OvLc:l b~

C.OM\'lle-)'.vJ~ fJOw ~t\"V~ TO h~d Z. r~L C.ONSif\1\TTS. Wk-N lt\ <.o


wt- h A'VE; 1), AT r= (I'll\ I :. e t ""/fl. ( c. 1 co~ 'M[ r.,_ - 0 Is 11-l '''''/(;. ) Th (;
Di:"vrA FutJc.TION MIJSI rE;ti\TE.-1) Tht-bt- TWo v/\tu~s of F c.~.
Wt- KNOw lh.f\T ThE- 4lh l)e-rl uiiTIUE- C.oi\.ITfhNS fr t>~LTR fVJJCTI0#-1
Tl'\u~ 'ln'-" 1)~\~tTTl\)E-5 6-IVEi V~ FO<.>f" -qvt\410"-i TO hr..ad Z.

-\I.M\:: tC-M) f '(W\)~ J


t'(~MJ
I
f ''(Wt} = f I' (-ft\j
-s: "'(+0 l - F ,., c-ol =rr "l"ht J U l1 j'l (7 IV l7~ US ThE:- <5 -h> JJ (1)0JJ
'
1) f-V' IV fm\1,.
F"1 ~SI TY'i IN T; CT '(" n t-.l ~ 1!>'( P f\"Y'T~

{'i. X C.O~;< ch : . ) ). ~o T )'. d )C


Jo SIN)'.

Nw I'M ST\)c.l(.. +!-ow 'Ql) I INTt:C:rrt\lc )(. U)T X~ I dot-l'T l'.~ow, We-t..l,
I 1Y'1' 1\C::rnll'-l. I couLd E.)(Pti-1Jd bt S~,~~ ft-Nc::l I.UTE;-C':sl"t\Te TrM
bv TE;-rM. Tr-f!T ~ t\ htLLvvlt wi\V 1'0 rvJV f\ rtt,\..ro#Jt>. Sv 1,pose
I Ht\~t:- Thf' ft>LlOWII\Hr observl\1101'-l ThftT

Tht-N
2.1\ .:.. ) Olth. [ ~(.:iiNX} t"~CL.O~)C} J d_x
COM biN~
-:. ~:~~ ~ (-<~~X t..o~)() d_): ~ ~ \)ll'1\. [ ~ (i 4 ~ 1..>') j c(~
A~ 'If

z.A =~>~ t~ tr ;- ~lf/1.


~ ~ ( /,)lM ~J(. ) d~

= -n
\..
~ 7.. -+ 1:It ~ (tl"" J
1.J'o d I'

T1
2.A ;: -{~1.-+ ~() Jw.. (1)1..~, a) ~
~
tJow In& 1~n-Cr0\L \~ JusT TWI(.f The- 01\J~

w1Th so
(.. ~ ::. - .!!
1..
~ l. + ..!. (z. f\ )
1..
-""> A= -iT~L
1.

or

'J..9
,k ( I t.X) dx
(lt,X~)

L n 'S 5~ b sn !I.)Tt:; X .: T"'frN y s 1N c. E: K!'lo w Th 11r

d,x ~ _i_t_ :..,. ch =d y


~o~t1 ~~~~

~ (~
~<) ~ )M c~'l' -t-SIN'f) Jy - ~\) h Cc.osY)cly
f\boifr The INn-e:rr1rnotJ LIMII Ttj~, So.
I dtMil T'i'

C.o ~ '( -t ~ ' )..\ '( ::. n c.o 5 ( y - lt/'i}


I.L) TWO $1Nf w frV.~ C..ftt-1 ~c;; C.OMbiN.b:l p\l'T"' oN~ SIN~ Wtfvf:.

r ~ )l)"ft/~ ~ h d'l -+ \:'~ _k fOS(~-t)l dy - s:l~ ~CoS'( dj


If 1f- ::- lTJtj - '( Tht:N Th{;- L h-.;:)T nv o JNTt;;.~v-AL~ .Sc.JbTYf\C.T t>vT ..
A-l'l~ W : h ft VE:

I-=- ir~fi. ::::, lf h z.


1 8

L(;;T ME: I t-1 T E: C:r r ftl &


l.t )\~INj
1
(. lrC..o5 X)
cl;< =T

T~ ):It X.~ INX


I t-<..oSl X
J,)( -t- illrrr., 1\ s li'Jlt
I -r-t.o.Sz)C
~,..

so~L( rr - t) s "" t d'j'


1-r-c...Q)tt
Th&-l't
.s '"-1 'f dr Ti"l.
l:::. ) olf. 11
1-rco.s~r
-
~

.30
~ow

E:J\ pfP'}d bY ~E-n G-.l

s:
I
-1.J( -3~ -4)(
l.- ewr. (e-..,.- e ~ e. -e + --- ) d)'

- -I +- J.
J
-= s ca..)
-= -1-
I
C\.. Z,.-Q J-Q ~ -'l

Thts LA-ST s~nE=-s &,~~ 11;) 1::>~ svMME:'J) fn'-'d IT 1S t\loT 't-1\S~
lo uo. The fh\J~w E;-r 1".>

s (0...) ;:: _!.\'


SINilCl.

1' t L h t\V'E:- 1'0 c.o ME:- bAc..K. 1\-Nd show You how TO s IJ M Th5

Th\ ~ Pro~ LE:; M tS .:S?tof Th t- ~ 1\-H c.l f\S.S A 5


s' S IN 0..)1: d)C
o ,SINh X
-)(
NOT6- 1f svbsnTVT; SIN~ X ::: e"- e
z.
r~
~ ~ I>,,.,., ( e- ) ch
--1.)'
l - e
-h ->r-
::. 'Z.. ~~ ov\1\~)\c e-rt- .fe -+ e. + --- )

~lei uo w l U5c ""-~ ~CT Tr-AT


dl\
~:
-P)(
S 1t--1 ~x e ~_1!.
~ '1 +f "'

s ("-.) :. l_Cl [ t ---1


00

;:. z.v. [
V\ ::. I

31
&-i:CTvRE 5
'PR06LE-M S

SIN')( d.)\ ::. -~1


TJ' (1-e
)( 'Al.-ta.l) '2.. tl....

de
U..i" b c.o~o

- 3fT
}b

d~ r( (tCL+bJ
1
(X 2 -tbt.)CA i-CL'Ljl.
l.4. 3 b(Cvt-b 3
)

-~
= n. ( ' t- "") e
i

s '"' l'\..X cl ~ ~ rr(e


~
-IJ
1
('51 r-lh X j (It )( )
-
(e""-1)e
n-
Ll ~ ( ct- 2etc c\)se -to. 'I.) d,x = ~nh~ tf- c...)' c
t"'t ~c. ~+- C\. '- c.

): c.os It)( d,c


( I - Z.~ COS ~ ffi. t.)
- 11 Q. t.
~\..
X "\. -- - I
ll'l orde;.,.. 'TO ~Ol.V&- Thl~ e~utrnoN. l\ Wr'\'5 Jl,lt-Ck)S/tRY
11:1 \ N V E-N T ThE;- ~ 'i' M ~oL i Wh I C. h 1S d ~ .f I 1\J (;- d AS h It VI tJ (:r
Th~ lV\lpE;- f' T"l ThA-T i 1... =- ... I. W ITh l)o\1 S d e;f,)'.) 1nQ JJ i Tho.t
~Al.IN&l..\' E;-NOIJC'r~ 10 ..Sf(Tl~fV 1\Ll. ThE; bi\'SIC.. fll(:r(;-bt'"t\IC.
~fl..frl\o~Sh\PS. For E:/\ 1\-MPL t-1\Jl nPLlC./t-noM wouLd C:riVt
~ )1. . ) 't. t.)
(.it I. :: ('l.l ; L/(L' =. -~
O'f"'
' '2. ~ 1
-= L -tU. t. -t t : - I - Z. - f

Th I.A ) w h E;-r.l hfrV E:: 1\ C..I::>M PLE-x t-.liJt-\bt-1" M frt>E: UP Of /hJ


lk 1\ CrttJ E-f ~ tr-,.Jci R~L PrHtT ~uc.h fr~ o...t b~ w\.t~rt-
CA. fnJcl b trrE: f'Gt)\. Cfo.J M~LT1PLY ItS foLLOvJ),
.
Ls T ~ ~ ) ( 7 +2. , ) = 35 t ~I -z.' - ~ = z_ 9 t 3 I t
N\.U\. nP\.'t II'J (, fh.Jd Ai>OII\J(r C.OMPL.C!' tJVt"'bE-t'$ 6-IUtS 1\ 1'-lt-W
(..OM $) l,~ t)\1 M \) (;-1'

'0\V\D\t-\C,..... "TwO C..oM.Pl.t:x. tJIJMbE:-itS INVOL.V:-.) TA...:.INCr


ThG- C..OKPL~ Cot-lJUG-frT&- of- ThE; d~f'.lOM\tJt\Tor- 1\Nd H\Jt.nGJLVINCr
\0 P 1\l.l cl.. b o '\TlH'\ . E . &
7 + 2.~
6-r~.:
-
( 5 - .3 ~)
LS-3~)
(. 7 1Z.i )(5- 3~J
.)i.j
=

Th f- L.\) M P L~ C..OtJJOG-~ jS, o bT1flN(;cl


...
)r.E. .s \(,-tJ s () ~ 2...

S v PPO~G. vv e. W f\1'-ll''E.-1) =~X,' 50 1.. V ~d. Tb DO In IS


L f:T X = Cvt bi Tlf\C:;N I n ~v ~ ( o.....-r b , }t. .:: ,: A-1--ld
O...l...t z.,~bt.' -b1.: L vJnlc.h 6-\\IE;;~ "TWO E;-q uftnON~ C\.1.-bt.;O

A-rJ~ Z.o..b ::. l. dtJ& \'UOT l~ ct~ b The-N 0....::. Yfi. ::b. Tnv5
;t.. (.It~) . StNC.~ CL =- -b lS ftLSo ft YOQT " \.)Tor--.

~E: f\-M.frhNc,- lh\N\r 1':\-'ooJT co~PL~ tJil"''bE:r~ ihft1 ONL~


IN&- d~:hN&-~ i wE"; 14E:\/E;-'{ \t\frV& ~ ~t\"K&- 1\l-.)OThf;f S\Ml\.R( dE-flNfJIOtJ.
w f- \1\. fr\1 E;- 0 \') eN. E:; ~ 1h & 0-e-o <t_ 1l:> 1\-- w\To LE:; M &1.\J W 0 rcLd.
L EC.TUR E "
C. oM PL E:. )( N U M"'BE R S

LA~I 'TtME w~ .::)TArTE:;c:l TO i1lLK. f\-bovT COMPI.fl(


I\.1VMbE-~'S. IT ts c.oNII~I'Jt~l whe-IV wo,-t<tt-J(,.. wtn.. coMPI.E:,c

NVMb~1'S ( C.H.) To 1>RA-w It- D/1\&-f'I\-M. ThE: 'Pl/t"NE ThE-f'J


rE-P r E-5 fNTS Th~ rffi I. ~d I M 1\-~ I~ ITf 'r" P ltT'I of Th E- C. 1'<1. I AJ ThE
"DIACr~lt'M ThA-T .f,llow5 WE: ht1v~ f"~'>f"tSENTt--0 ThE- <;~ftAI.
c. t<l~ 0.. + bi.

REAL AXIS

AN'( C.N Th~ c..w bE- f'~'('E-SE-1\11~0 As fl POit-11 IN ThE- C.OMPI.E-x'


pL. AN~ A-N d Lo C. A j t I> b 'I' Th f Co 01'c:ll ~ J'tf"c') 0. lt'Nd b . Ir I s
oh~ nt-'\~ t..O 1\l 1/ ...r~ N ltlloiT TO ('fPRESE-i'IT ThE- C.~. IJ'J 'POLAR.

cooacl HJ ATe. NoiA-'no rJ. If wE: LE-T

Cl :: tt. c.o s G b = f'LSJI'J9

rt -:: ..(o..t+bz. wE:: hA- v ~ loc.ATE 0


Tht SA,_,- 'POI~T b'l' ftiU 1\-Nb-1.{; e f.r 0 M Th E- f'E-11 L ~IS It JIJ d
A Lei'IC:r"T'k n.J froM The- or l(::rlt-1.

\~h~...t TWO C. tJ. S


G-Eo""E-Tl"'ICt\l SIC::rN\hC..ANCE- of Th\S oPe-..-~noJJ ThY"Ooe,.h ThE:
"'D 11\ CT Y' ,_,.., Te- c. h t-l l q \J E- .
1M
b,)-b ~- -- ~ ---- --- ~ - lt'Z.

Th I S t> I 1\ (:r f"I\-M S ~0 "" ~ T)\ lif Tht Two C.tJ's A-dd JuST
L I 1( II H. TOf' ~ fl C coe-d 11116- 10 "'fhE-
W\o\C:N Two C.)o.I~S /rr~ MUl.TlPLtf..D TOC,:,-ThE-2. ,.,~
R.E-5U\.TJNC:r 'PY'OD\)CT IS hore- Otfftc..IJLT TO SEE- EVE-N DtfH:rr',M
MAn cALLY. s\) ppo!:>E hi\"~ Two c. I'J.'s
(!,-: C-t ~d. If MIJLllrl.'(

Le:T'S wO't'K.. T l-\6- 'f"t"l)c:hJc.T OvT US lt-.IC:r 'PO 1.1'\r c.oor-d ltJ.l\T~So

Q( ,. I o<.l ( COS0ad C SIN 61"')

~E;- 'Pt"Od \lC.T I~

o<..[!>, lot~ I [ c.osef'lc.o~e-< -Sr..lSo~.StNGfl t ,(s,,.l9r.-co_geo< 1'SIN9.cco.sf>f'$))

US IN<r Th~ TY'IC:r. I d E:-rJT\ TV wE; h f\v'G

(/-.~ -: ~~~\ l C..O~ ( St~. +9~) -t c: SIN ( $-' + ef3)]

T~ e-r~tE: The- New LE-tJC:r~ \S I d..~ I 1\-Nd Th~ ftNG-le IS Thf


SUM of Tn~ TWO OV"IG-1~1\L fo-IG-L&~. You ShouLd ).loncE .-f
I hA-vE- A C.N. 1\-Md tJ\IJLTtPL'I' 11 b~ 1. ThE NuMbt-r or
..., e-c:roC" \ ~ r ol"ftT D 9o c:1 e- ()-refS 0 l1cJLTii>L't' ll'l(r- A {'.N. b'l' -I
S U'\ Pl.\' c. h ttN (,. E;S IT<) VA-LVE;. b'!' 18 0 0

we -rz l)S I NCr


=.
N1:1w f lt<ld ThE. G-EO Yl E:Tr IUH Pro Pf;-1-T t-S
~
o-f c.a..~s ~U')'"l df:!;.Ct" I bE D. l{'l -(7 ::.X ThE-N X l . ih E: c. N.
)( ]'S Trtct-t 1\ NVM bE-t" wh1 c...h h lt<i~ lJN l l L -~IC:rTh
I .

~~"S -/o..ttt;1- = I lh-ld Q= b So Q. -:


1
/ri. P,N d 1
X " 7r
r1. t lr-'
rl.

x-::. ....!. + ...! ~ oi co ~r s E- we- h lh/E- 'lh~ ,_. e-ertJnve


ri. ri. -----+-----~---- ~e
t'ObT WH "j., L1~~ '"' ThE om t-r QUA-lH"A-NT, The- ct.v : Yr.a.
1 1
l),A-1 The i'E;ScJ t.i tS {rl. '1 /fi (. IS ThE- .ffi<-T "ThAT We

35
Now "'Thi\T vv~ /t1'(; Gt- E::TT I f\1 C:r S Mft-P..T AT WOfi<.IN(r

w\1\-. C'. t-I'S L.. (; T IY'f }0 so\. v E:

-
~ (. = 2
If WE: Cub~ ~OTh Sld~S JnE;-N wE- h frVE: x3 = - l. Now
WE:- t-J~E:c:l It J-l~Hb.- f' Whe-N roTATE 'D u- h 3
Th ro l.l E:: quAL. /trJe:rL.l:S
(;E:I~ US "tO -t, Wh IC.~ ~~ AT e=Z7o'D. Thos e; 3 = 90 ..
IW h1 c.h M.& A rJS 0 JJ &- ro-oT IS ~o 1T~E:L f, j\low o
~

inE;f"E; fr("c lWCJ OThC;-1" f'O"'TS W'-\\C.h WE" hftVE


TO '"Fitld. How AbovT f\ddlt-.16- 3b0 -to 1..10";
~oruv eNd v~ w he-r~ 1 ST'ft"f"Tt:.D buT
t..low Wht-tV I cL1 .VIdE:- bY 3 fJC:rft1N I G-E;T '" 1,73~'210~, -1.

Thu'E> ANOTn&-r 1\0"'0T tS AT A 9 /ttVCTLc of '2.10.


To fll'-ld tTS@IL. C.OMPOf\1-tJTS 'Drl\"w A l>iPrC::rrt\/'1
Th& L-r->~Th HVST VNITY so ThE- IMitG-IJ")/t('(

'?1\-f'i IS - :>1rJ 3o" (I) = - 1/-z. , ThiS Mf\ K~ ~ Th {;


Re-1\l Ptrrl F-i/.., =- ..fi /'- ~u:) we- hftVE- -I
/b.JOThE:-f' rooT
X= - -f3 1,
'1.
'Z. z.
To C ht-<...1<.. ~IS h~'J5 w t--f' CUb& IT 1-f
'( 0 u C:r ~ 1 - i - 'l 01) w l L ~
I
.,
ro-o,- To f1~d .so LE:T's ltD'D ltl'lo'ThE:r to 630 .
WE:- &-E.T '} ~o Now D 1 u 1 ell t-Jer b 'f 3
&-er '330. T'hu<i> ThE: olnE:-r rooT

X ' :: - f3/1.. _,. ~';-z..


T ~us. w t- h i\V E:- f.o v J\lci Th t- "3 c u b~ ro-oI 'So c> f -t .
1\.1 UM b ~r ti-A' S 3 C.v b f;-

roo""t~. Col\1~\d. 6-r, 8 IT n liS 2.. ITS ONE. (.Vbt-- ro-oT.


To fiNd ~~ oTher 2 1\.IOTl C.E;- ThE; LE;N(T~ ot ThE;

e.l'.i. MV~T be 't /tJ..I d A:ftol WhE-N 1 T~ ~6-t..E MOTLI Pl. I f-l)

bltc.K to 0 ". Th \J s 3 ~0 I3 ::: JL 0 .::l I s ThE:


"\
Po s 1 no !V of o ~Eo- o~ (;-r f'o oT. The co Po,..,ewTS
H

ARe- -1 Ar-~cl ijf3 . To fu.Jd T'n~ 3tsl YboT wt- 1)-cJJ z


tl-rJOl"}\~ 3"o dwtdE b'( 3 rtrJd 6-E:T '2.~10, ThE:- o'J}.b'
<f'ooT 'S - t - ,;/( . 1f wt- ftdd J&o 4
1\-6-1111"1 wf:
e:,-E;r 2- ftU..J\-111-\ SO ThA-T's fl-L.l Th t rot>T5.
As A &E:-Ntf"f\L ro-oT lT ~s Po~s 1 bt.e; TO TftKE: frN't
I t-.1 I - u- f f\ L r o-o T o f ft C..O M P 1.. X o f r E+\ L J..l V M be r Tl, e-
WlLL liE; ON f'Adi~ Loc.IJTf:.D b't c:l1 \/Jd 11-1 &
""Y1 -&quilL PftriS 1
L IJ<t- Pr Pl-C.f: of PIE. .C:r
'llo
0.. Tht- f"OOTS frrt LOC.flT~D E-VE;-r"'l 3bO/b
fu'ovt-~c:\. ""~ IJ~11'"V c.lr(L,. The"( fo..-~ Th- sPot<.~5 oi A
H ~t\(TO M

1f o l'lC Th c 0 Th f" l1"""frt-l d y ov vJ frNT Th e Ti Th r oo'l


of- A 1\.1 u t-'1 b E-r
1
'f ou ll- r~ ouT of LtJc.K bf:-c..I\-IJ)E.- Thf-Y'E-
frrE;- ltN I tJ I 4( ;_ll T E- tv v 1"'\ b t- r of ThE: H.

worK I} ~I+'-
ordt-r To o vT 'PI""ObLE-M Lll<c wf:

Wll.L
'"' NH:D TO KNOW ThE.- Prodv c..r o-f c.o~e -t iS IIIlO ~cl

cos~ -t.:Al~'f' If W(f; l. E:T Re -= c..o~e -t '-'S1NfJ A-Nd R~ =


~"? -r~~IM~, Tht:YV wo\l l. .L...,' r IT be;- ""\ c.(; 1f Th(;- p.,-~> du l. T
W~f'(; .JU~T R. 9 R<f = Rei'~.

To s f:-f:- 1 + wE: c. ihJ Pro 1ft ~ IJ c. h 11- Thtorf+'\ l f:-T s dt-f >N ~
R t 0 b t (. 0 sI t i s I ~ll w h' c. h I s (i p t-r f ~ c.T L 'l 6-0"0 cl c.o M p L E-X
'&.
NOfw\bE-rJ,,L R..:.~qo-ti(.e4t), Now R v..>ovl..d e-cyuAL cos~H..o..;.~.

/h-Id 11-1 &-e.J{;Y~L 1T koLds ThA-T for 1'\Ni f'f:AL n R,: eosnn'Sit-~1'\,
Now ~f The- l)..E:-ore-rv~ ho LeiS fhVd Re R~ = R $ 1'1() 1).,~
Nu~lo~r R Jo.tiJST hE:- S.oME:- sor-1 o-f tvl'ld ftME:-N; A-l. rooT -h--oH
Wh1c.~ ALL t.lvMI:>E-rJ cflriJ be=- n'\-KE-1\.1. IJI.ldE-E:-cl Th1S 1\JrtJ~ our To bE;
'fht- Cl\~t-.
,. e ,e
WhfrT 1 w~rNT TO ?rovE; 1~ ThAI Ro;l' ~ Ce') ':! e .
To do Th 1\T COIIo)~'dE-r (R e'l~'~ )""' -= R9 -= (c.o<&e/N+ t.''::>/1-le)N ) N

~d ll\-r'CT~ ,, . 10 I 10 9
00
lE-T N be- Vti' 't Cr I
10 If WE
IIVY'ITE l'V\~ SIMf: COSI"-'E- SE-riE-S pJSidE- ThE- ~ M-N The-s E.S Th -JI ThE:
'
~N\.
1
LEAd I Ill u- TE;-fM S /trf::- J -t ,; EfN - t . 1)., E: /tJ'L TffM .5
WILL .lrop ouT A~ N ~ L~&-&, WE- h It'll G- ThE-N 1'0 TA K(;-
o-f ( I t i e;N t. n\)s hAs ofE:N e~TflbLIShe-o
TO bE:.
k ( -f ~ )N - el(
N ">GO

'e Re
J~ ( t ig;,..,) = e' :
N --:.oo

37
fiJ
To A-NSwer Th~ ttNoTh~~ wAY 1-f 'R 9 =(F')
qot~noN
Wir~Af IS F ~ W- J(tJOW Thfl7 R 9 R-e by TI-lt: ri)LC =
.f.o-r Tfh<..tl\1~ C.OMPI.t)C. C.ON.l'-'C:rltTES. The-N 11 ,...,\JST bt TY'vt; ThAT

( F.:e) ( (Ff'e) ~ I
(;. )"';1
Thu. S !=' 0 f' lh 1~ TD tTOl. 1> F = F 'Ill ~o F ~J~VST b(: Rei\L.
h nJt'N ~ o vT ThAT f = J...? l - ---

F Acr ThAT
C6s e t ,; sINe
IS ONE- of ThE MOST R ;-1-1 f\-r I< f\~L t eq 0 ffl)()l\)~ IN. ft L L. of
M""Tnt- Mt\11CS- IT IS NOT lbJ: MosT r-1-'11'\-t"Kilbl..E- E:qoftTIO,J. IT
IS "i"h1S E:quA"norJ.i Thtt-T 7Vft-JS ft bo'l lt.JTO fl MftJJ ~ A- STUdtNI
itJ1'o A MttTht-Htrn<.ll-1\J. IT IS 1*: It Uff'"f dtL.16-hThlL llu#.J(r,
BUT Tht- MOST rE:-Mfrt'"KftbLE -klV'MIJL/l lfJ f\LL of H/lThfM,JlCS-(
b~ A- Sot--1Ev0hf}T ~vbJ-c..nvc- E:;Vf\Lv/tTIOJ\.1 ) IS

[e.:~ T 1 = o I Feynman loved this equation

Th\ ~ ~v /hiO.N CO~T1\-IN S Al.l. ~E; E:-S St-Nnfl L f\C.l)OtJ~ of


M~t'M A11C.S P l.0~ Al.L ThE. t<. ~ 'f ~ "?,..., bo L s J 11 0 I e.J ~, J 11 I 1\'TJ~
ThE::: t"q VA I. I 'N S I E;nv . ThE; 0 P{;-("f'rt) 0 Jl.l S I ~I V 0 L. V E;- cl A-RE; f\ d ~ I Tl 0 IJ
HUL.T\Pl\<..fr'r\01\.1 frtJlJ 11tt<.1NC,. X PONCtJ-tJTiftt.S. IT IN\JDt...vc-s
tJ.OT otJL f'(;Al. rJIJMbt-rS bvT II-1A6'"1N/tr't' )JVMbcR.. IN EN&l.ISI-I
nus Sf\'i.S Tht!T e'rr:: - I . Tht~ I.S A C.l)riO\J~ f-flc.T
bH A \1 H \T C lhJ b t- I N r~ ? f rTE-d A~ S It 'I' I N (r
.
or (Z3) ' x-1
Slt-\tl.ArL'( e~ 11 ". = -t I Oi~ ThAT ( Stllo)l ~ .,. I . "'i'l..us ThE
;_Th f=M~owc-r of at"t>l'tno.VA-L NIJMbt-rS C./tNPr"'tlvc.t- r~L
NIJM b~R.S - A- MOST Cvi'l OIJS fAcT o+ c.aMpl..t-x NIJM bE-RS!

I 5 ho1.H. A 'PO U..IT 0 UT n, AT .!.{j ~ 5 4o /

Why would the ith root of 1 produce 546?? Maybe this is the right answer
instead of "42" as suggested in the Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy!

38
The- C::rE:tJC1"1tL r:orMOt.lt fOR. TAKIN6- ThE: c..oMPt.fl<
Pow i f of- 1'1- c.o M P ~ ~ )(. IV V M bE:- R. I S
l:~
el W h E; 'f" f;- .l_ I = 0.. t b ~ {t,J d ~ 1. :. C 'f d'
, Q
1-f l 1 " fl. e
W~ \ c.h S \ M Pt. I E--~ TO
n.:.. e c, e rz,
c1,
e
-ad

Now Thl~ forMI.II.A- IS ALt'\0~\ vtJc:lt-rST1\rJdl\bl.; E;XC.t-PT wnilT


d et: ':I flch. t-'1 ctmA 1. 11. 1s J u ST A L trJ CTTh Th t:f"c-fof'f: I hIt II E-
ft ,h == (n. d) i '::. ( ll.R. c.J j\.)11,., b ~r ) rttl~t-D -ro (tb 'PowE-R. 1-f I
lei n.d = e* w ~E:v-t- t .= d ..Q.y. n... Th~ {_e t) l = e ,; ::: cost -t c.'..o~t.
A~ ltrV E )\ftM PL t;- FIN[) i.- z.i . A-c..<.o r d 1"-! <r It> ThE- forM u 1. A

l
.-z,
:: e
-zik.~
::. e
-z, t'-""' . ,. ,;( ~~ + z.n1f)]
: e - z, [ o + , L "'h t- Z11Tt)] -=- e 11 ~4.., rt

W~ rJ t"XT vJ A rJT 11> CO.._,~ I c:!. cR.. Tft1<. I N Cr Th C' 1..0 Crlf1"1i},f1
of. A c.oMi' L f: X. tJ VM b-r , J. t., )')<\ c (A.tb ,"). To f1~'>d ouT' wh11T
Th,~ I So l E;T s d HIIH:
) 'n ( Cl.. -t b , ) : X 1' , 'I
Th E. ...I T"V\ 1~ I ~ E-q () 1 1J Jl' L f-N T TO
'II
e "' e ' ' -= e '~' ( c.~ v t i .o""' 'f )

X
a. -=e c.os v
b = e" ,s,.JY

Ft' oM w ~ l c..~ w ~ o bm 1J...l ...fa.t -r b'l. -= ex


~I d '{ ~ b fa.. . 1lw~ w t- hAVE

~ ( 0.. t b i ) :: ;t.n 0"bl.. -t- l tfnV- bla...

~ ( !l e '" } ::: ~ !L t "e


SIMC(: G cA-N bt ftf\J'/ vllLOt;- (ffK.h'D!'f4E-fiN6- b'i Zii},fl COHPLE,x
MvM.bfR hilS JtJflNtT~I..'r' Mftl\l'l' Loer-A-TJThMS d ,ff8'tt->6- fro,_... &t-c.h.
oTh-(Z b'i l"''ol..T1Pl6S o+ Z.lfi.

39
ON E ~TrA T rEliT af T FIKIN(7 Th E- l. 0 (7 of co MPL fX
1\.l u 1'1 b c-t ~ IS Th ItT W If: C. 11-r\J N 0w T'R I< t- ...,.., (;- LO ~ of ll
N t- c,. A 1 IIJ <:- ~~ u M lo ~ r , ~ . d

)""h (-1) ;; c.'rt

h ( l ) -:- 1v.. -1 Ol.t" I\. -t ( f ftrV-


1
'/ 0 : 4 0 -t l i ft-N-' > ":

-:: i 11j?,...

LE-1'5 ?of'SIJE:- The- ld(:,tl- o-+ C.N'S +ur/hE-1~ AJ'.td S:.E-~


If v.Jc C.A-~ 6-1 Ve- 1'"1 tfhV I NCr- TO ThE- S'f M bOLS SIN ( ~-t3t)
Or C:reNE-fllLL'i' .SIN?; where .:C. tS 1\N'f COMPI.\';t\ NIJMbt-tt.
Sur?o.s~ w~ ..JU5T Toot< for fftJTh ThAT
, 1;
e ""' LO S ::Z: -t L S I ~I :t
W h c'i" :- 't M 1't "{ b <S- C.O M P L E-x 0r n: ll (. Th E-N W f. c A tJ S 0 LV E-

StN =l. c.os. ~ =


~i ~

ThE: ltV \1;-r'St TY"t 6- f~t.rcnovS c..ft-,.J ALSo be: de--h.N~o It

w : c.o s ?;- The: ~ ::. co:s-' LJ


Lti<.EWi.S<= +o" 'JnE- SltJt.. SvppoS.f=- wE- w~MT ThE- INvt-rsc-
TfrrJ (T(.-tJ \ I I, t .

W HI (. ~ I M P Lt E;-j
i; ~ -/.fn.J w
'"T1I-N C'::r1.>1
i W - ~w)
t; = (e - e
i ( e'w i- e.-wJ
e t<w _, _..,
e l.'w t I

ThE- tJ I A-K t ~ v- L.o ~ s

E~Pot\.\t-l\JTif\l..~ Prn: rEALt:r' ..S\t-.\t-5 A-Nd cru11-1E5 /hJd /M Th~ coMpLE-X


f\lllMbE-R- 6'(STf=-M Th&'( AR.f; liE-d CLOSE:L'(' JOCrcTh~R.
l~i's C::r<l br\-c-)( 1\-Ncl l'fti(E;- A CLOSE-R. LOOK AT
COS(X-tt"Y). E-x'PftTJdltJ~ 001 WE:- <>-E:T

L 'i) t
e -'(e ~x
,. ( )C. i- - L' ( )C L''(
~(~TtY) ~ e
~__
e__________ -t't -c.')(
- -t e e
2.

:: e( :e
'(. . -y) co~x ;- C: (
'( -'t)
e ~e SIIJX

IT IS .SOM6-JlMt.S C.OMVENIEtJT l>E-f ltJE ThE- NE-W tvt-JCllONS


'f -y
e 'f -e -'i
S\t4hY ::
- ~
co5"' '{ = e +e
)J

c.h Arf: cA l t f d hv Pc:-t bot.IC. ~urJcnot..~s. ThE:-'f c~t-J


L.Vh1
ALIff' rv ATe. vt ~c- d ~+IJ\)E;-d A-5

cosh 't -:. c.osciY)


J
= i

c -t d , l.
6) c -t cl ,
c CA. -r b L. ) = (n e
C\ ~ I b ~ I C. "" I d -:: - I /1. = -{i E) : 'rfJ q
l = ( -r,_ e.z'l1J4 )C-tcl~ = (fi. e'Yf/q)C. (fi e'.Tflq)d~.
~
_r:::; (
11. cos rr;y + ~. S1N '~~'Jq
)
( f2. dL' e -dTrjl.{) .
-= .fi Ce. +rr/q t 2.1\'n) ( C 0& T(/ 'f t ,51 t-1 rif4 ) (-fi) ch
Now d {.
= rt Co~ i t L, SIN t

.,~ L-
c.-o ~ 11 1y + c.o s c- ~ fi ) + i (s ,..1 "' ~ + o .;.... (- k
t t 1.1'111'
t-= 11.e Ji,))]
-11.. e.
'~~t ~, 't 2. "1\ 1i
[ c,os(lfJq - ~ n) + t,' () ""-'( 11/q ~)A,. {i,) 7

42.
CoNTOUR INTE.GRftTIOtJ
FliNC110 NS of A COMPLEX VIT~ Jflbl.E

NOw /..1\Z~ TO ifiLK PtbovT 1\ MorE; ~c-N~f)l. 5dJbJ~cJ

Thl\-r of Tht- Pro ~Hilt-~ o+ f-urJ~no~tS wh.1c..h CQN'Nhl\l C.OMP&.JC

'llt~l AbLE~. w 11-L d~ AI. WI'Jh fv N Cl)O/V.S of- The- n'P~

w::. t(.=z;) w h (';1" IC- r. '{TrJd. w ~e- boTh t.o M i) LK ('.llJMbE-rSCCII}


PrN. 1::1< r\"J'ii p L E; H\{Tt-1.1 bE;
::: ~l.. c= x+iY
ihE:N W = U-t L'+/ 15
""'
de-sc.rlbA-bl~ IN Tf;fM~ of )( 1\-1-Jd V
s I"'' (~ =t; '1..;:.. L }( 'L - "f l. ) "'" '2. L. X '( . Th hJ w e- h ltV e- Th AT
0:.. 'J.' t- '{ 1.. fn,ld v : :. 'L1. '(

ANoThe-r f-tft'I"'Pt.~ of w~ fL?;J 1S

W=-
I
-'T ,: 'l;

A-tJc:l 'TO f\Nd u 11-rJd v l h A-11\E:. TO re- wrIT& w ~~

w :::. -
= (I -'f)+i.JC.
I (I- 'I') - '. )(
= (1-'(l~tXl...
11-iC)(tC'f)

O'f"' lJ -:.. _2_:j' lttJd v :.


- 'f}X t )\'\.
(1-'(1) + "'l. (I - 1.

s~~ of
'lou.
.f l)rJc. no""
~-N
IS , Tht'I'T
..fv f\J CliO 1'1 oi
A COMPL.t'1<.
~
~vHbE-1

rEijL v 1\'1"1 1\- b L c.) .


It c.o M PL.f,(

lT IS hA-rd TO ?lol W b&c...AuSE: .for ~vH''i =l;

w'v" c,h rE:-q <.n("~~ 'Z- f E-fi"L u tt-r 1ft b L~ 10 LC Ut'ft IT Th E1~t-

ftf'f:: 1, Y"~l. Vlt-rdrbL:-S 11-.J Thf: W 'PL)Ih.J6. Thvs vJf 1.-\1}11

A -f1>u't" d\1-'\Q\1~101'\lAL Mf\1'PIN<:r.

A,.-. 0 1n E:-f f:JC 1\-1"'1 p LE:- of w-=- fcc) I~ ThE- ..f.v.vcTio ,..t
w::- t.* wh ~r e vvE- w f'nJT "'"'J"hE:- c..o '"M fJ i E?<: eo/\JJIJ CTATE of =t.
nu.l~ +
u. t l v : ( Xt C: Y) :: X - L''/
4 ~ X Al"d v ~ -Y
)( t-i 'I'
w:: e ! = e

u:::. elt c.o~"f V ::o e~ SIN'f


So .f-ftR WE; hf\'VEt.)'l SrtiD TOO Huc..H ftbouT The &-cNf:R.flL
Pro?~'Tif') of A COMPLE-X fuiJcnOtJ. ThE-~& 1~ A- 'Dtffcr&JC.t
bc-TW-t"N c.ernh~ fvtJC:J)Ot-IS. ~"- Th:- <:L,ffE1E-JIJC hA~ TO do w11"h
WhE-The-r... th t- -h.> Jl.) CT\0 N I~
fnU t\\.'i TIc. 0,. Jl-10 T. A-tJ frrJ fi-L 'iT I C.
-fv....t C'J\0 1-1 ~AS 1\--.~ Pro ?e-rT'r ~A'T JT C.fh.l b ~ c:hHtrtJ,1nftTE'D.
1hfiT t-'\-lttJ.S ThAT u ~cl V ttl& t-IOT AR.bnrtsr't A-Nd ht\V
ft S.P{;C.II\L 'P ro9t:rT'{ ~AT Thc-'1' CoMe- froM ThE SftM; -hJrJC:JlOl-1.

Sot"'E- h.HJCilONS ME- NOT tnV ll'l.VTlC:.. toR. JN.S.'TftlVc.&- whAT


IS The- clE-'r\Vffi\JE- D~OT6- Tfti<.JN6
of c* ( Whti"E- *
Thf- c.oM pl.tJC <:.OpJJ lH~ 1\"rE- . H-ow do ~ o u d \'Hr=:K.f'Nn ltit- ITrJ
oPe-rttrlo,v L.tKf- ThltT? SoMfThi~UCo nusr bE- ThE:- M#(\T7~R.
Le:T'S Dt-fltvE- ThE:- l)E-rtv/tT)vf- 1\S
r- 'C=t) ~ )~ f ('l-t-A:C)- fc~)
ll ~ --:> 0 ~\}

/hv ci ~ lt\i Tr 'f Th t- fu 1\J c.'11 o IV '2 'tJ


~ ( l) :: c ~ = ( X + i 'r') -= * ( X - t.' 'I')

g'L:CJ:.. )~
CJ 4J -/o
whe-rE- Ac- ~ Ax _,at. ThuS
g'{t;):: _,e~ (Llt).,y _ )~ llx -i.4't
() 4~-~o A.C 4.Jitl~y Ax. -t,;ll'i'
iJ -'? 0
U.q~ l. 1~11 {)~1f;Uc:L~ QI\J ~t YI'\-Tio o-f 4X/A'(. IT JS EITnfrlt
tl OR -j . Th~~for~ "flo\{; Ll M\T l)~a..lci~ 01\1 tk>w Th~ 0
1s In' PRo A-c.. \-I & l> . AN fuJ f\-\. 'l'1lc. fvN c.110 tJ I.S utfl t.l ~ J 1JJ Tnt
l.l H \T A$ AJ _, 0 froM /UJ'i D1 R. E. C.lloN 1 e '-. I f W: <1l.
Thf; f' : 2J or

It-\ ordt-r- for tt- rNNc.notJ 11) bt- ltN~L.'i'n'- 1T Musr


.J 1\T\S fY A c. Rt rb<.to 1\l c.trlJLE:d Th t- cnvc. h 't' - R 1 E-M ttN c r, ,..~ ~ ,f)
L~l 'S Uffl v t- ThE- c. rt TE-l<.. I A ~r w ,_ -h 1::} Wht-rt- Th t-
ri;f~L thud. IMA-G>I._,{:-(''f 'PITrn of- iN flit- (:,JVt-tJ b'( (.{::-
~- u L )t , v) fhJ d v -=- v ( xI 'f ) R ~ PE- cn v ~ 1. 1'.

L.JS
EX P~ lkJb o VT ThE:- 1) fi<.llJfh\U E;-

f 1
( c) :: ~ VV CJ-t4j) - WCJJ
A)C -t~~'i' -~o .A}
-= 4 [u c. x-r 47\ '7'-Hl'i') -r ". vo.-tAJ\, -r-t A0] - L uc.,., n + .. ~_! ,o]
A~ ..... ,. A';"
Ax~~~) t A't ~"/<}y -t c.: Jvfox AX -t (. a~~'i' il'i

Now n> Tht J.\)M. b Ph'tSIC..l~>r~ Who l)oE-~tJ'T &Jv - fl


~I\-YI tJ f\ \vo U T fl\ .. L Th 1S t-1 ~ t-t--1 frn <:..:) h t- M ttV c. o t-1 E- A-C ro S 5
Th~E- 1 tJ Ft Probe..~ ThfJT ~~q~t~E-5
frNft\..'(nC. C.fiTtf'tA-S
SoL:vltJ~ 1\- urH&f;tJnitL E:-C(vfhlotJ. H-!s ProbLE-M f'rlA't' hlh/E::
Tht-- 'P rt>Pt-rTY Th ftT
~ - ~v fhJ cl ~ ::: - ~
07- - d-~ ~~ o)(.
ThIS \ 'b frCCUftll .. Y fr -fu l)l..\..1 COM t-101\l co~d 111 o tJ ~ r tf- I
t:>1f+t-r E-1\J"t'rf\-Tt-- Ab/h ~ fry.) d. E-Lt M t )\l ITT~ V \ I h fr\J ~ Th f}-T ()
~kn~-h E;-~ ~'l.v -t- d-tv ::. o
a,/(1.. ad\.
ThIS> 1~ ~E.- No ""blt"\tNStON/1-L lft}>LA<.I#TN
\T lA){) u L c:l b E-
~\J ~"10
-t-_ d-l.u
-r - ~o
o)l.1.. a. L cb 1..

probLtM OOE;-5 !VOl Jc-pWl) Otu a Th t-t0 The- S OL.UT/OrJ


T~ d. rth
W\JJ TO c bii'Tl 1\l.

me- Cd o c. h ';" --1 E. M 1tJV Cr ITE: r If) h tT~ A1\J IN Tff t;-$Tl N G
~fOM-ll'"IC-1\L '&lb~lf-JCITNCt:. If Pr MtTpp11v~ IS Mttdt- tt-bovT
Jo The- d{;-('IVIT'J)v't- o+ if'ht-dvrJc..Tl."JV IS shrVNK. /tJ MA~iVtT\JdE-d
ANd.. f'OTI\1 Eo- ci lh 1"'0'1) (c. ~ So H {; frlJ G, t, c..
Now I'd t.IK.&- T'O 'DlSC-Q.s.S lt-.JTt.<::>rftno~
(.()MP\..~ 'Pt.fftJE-. $cJppo~~ I WlfNT 1"'b &e
f.ror-1 I TO ?.. ONe- Wft'( IS TO 6-o ftL..ON'O
-r-ffK.ItJ0 Vf;-1'{ 5 MA\..L ST&PS. I I t. 'IV

)~ fc.:c.) d :c ::. Z.. f( ~.- J A:e~


\Jc- wouLd. WY I H:- ~IS A-S }

~ [ucx~,Y~) -t ~.'vcx:,-r~)][_ .Ay.,tl4'f,:]


WhE-re I tv Th t- 11\l K- b f f\ L w & \N"Ou \... d Tt'iK t- iht re-f\-l...
'P PrrT s I \ t .I
s 11 l) d )C - v d '(
lVow w~~T D-TC-I'MitJf;..S Tht;- Rc-\.frnvt=- Slcc of clx h1Jd
d. '1 ~ 0 N L i ThE- C V Rv - \ f 1"'n ~ INTI:-(:) ~IHl t) 1\J I~ M ftt) c-
o II f:f flU\ ff-E-c t'NT 'Pff}""h I Th E-N 1"' f- ftN S w er W 0 '-' L d otJ L I'
'D ~ 6V d. 0 N lh c- eN "b 'P"U I tJT s J f ( 3\.. ) - F ( ~ .) . T'n 15 I s A
co tJ SE-q Qq_;ct- o+- F be:- 11V& f'nJ f\ LYTIC..
If W t- IV oW h fnl E:- TW 0 S ~ P1'tR f\1&- ?ffn\~ '5=iw e;- W
PD \~~ \ tnJ d. 'L

IT t"\OR. E:- <beN t-f'f\L. R~ u l. T . Is


o..c..x,-rJ d~ t-bc)(,'f)dY = S (- ~~ ~~~)d~Jy
' Cl.rt-1}
~~~ 15 c.ALL;'0 SJOI{E:S. \..~IN. ftN ~~pLE- IS

~ t=)( d1< +Fii dy .. \


JG.N."-
( ~Vr _JJ;J dxdv
!.!__..__d :J I

C.urL F

47
L~1'S TIV .SO He- 'PfobLtM.S INVuL,VItvG COMPL{;I(
INT&eov--ATIO~.

L eT w =- ~ 1. U. = X1.- 't 1. lhvd v =- 1." r'

): U cl ~ - v d~ ' ) ( V - v) d X = f: - ZX
1
J;< : f
j\)ow Lt-1':> Tf\'
PrbooT f\ C.lfC.LE:

de
t:

\N ::.. J. ::: ?\- ~ '( ll :'. ~ \} ':. - '(


Xt~i x~_,.{l. "'1.+'1'z. ' ~t"'
\f wE:- C.hfrtV~{:; Vf\nftbLc~ ThE- 'PIObL.t;-1Vl W\l.~
~E- A L I rr L (:- t-fhs.1 ~. Thf!r I~ Lt-T = 0.. e , e . J
a , s tt- c..ol\) .s1"1'\"Nr rft'J. v.s fhV d. e l s u ttr1 ft'b 1...' .
Th~ c:l~ ~ 2 v... e ~G- de Alvd

s d~
2:-
- ~ c.' o. e L~ oo
t
o. e ~ e:-
z.:n (.
~oT&-- Th\$ re.-~ut..l lt-JdE-PE-NT
IS Tht- t"'ftdiOS. Tn1S o+
RE-SULT IS VE-r"( INPor'N\-NT'. \1 ~t}-Y~ 1f Tht:- I).)T(:b(/tl.
CorVIfntJ~ f\- .SitvG:VL.Irf"aT'i Tht- VfH.. vc- o+ The- INTt;(Off)L..
1~ -z.:rt i. . If Th e-r~ ft-r'E- rvo s' 1tJ <::> u L lh-1 rye-~ ~ e-rJ '"J"'ht-
C.t..o.st--<i INTE-~f"AL 1~ 0.

) dr-"t: :: .J/"' J ~ - kJ 1.. - n 2.1\ t-

w'n E:- V' E:- Y\ T E; LL ~ \..-. ow M 1)-1\) 't 11 t1E:~ 'f o v vO rtf'O lJ IV d.

LtT I s l'f'i ~ cl 1: . L E-1TI t.) <:> t- =- c.. e , e


j :z:-1.
\ c: e- c.'G d s __ i ( d ,. ( d
; a.. - et J cos " - ~ J .!,) ~e- e ::: o
-=- 0 fo r V\ -=- I IVT&-0 t-r
=-z.nc: '' n = -1

48
L ers '1dO ONE:- ~OR.& PRobLeM

)..~
dx
~-:
-L -.: -- d-:t-
I -t X\.. l-t =t ,_
LIN~
- L. to -t 1..
'""'

-L -tL

L~
)L,~< t
)y,e - 0
WE:- ON\...'( t-tfuJ ;- 1'0 worK. OuT "Th~ s f:1V't l (lrC.Lf- TU
GE;-T :t Thu I)
c: L e Le
=0 ~
L.

vJhtrr WEJ\.11 W'l'orv&? We-t,t


1
ItT ~ ~ ~- jhE- -hlr,JC.:TlorJ IS
Noi f\NALY11c.. Thvs 1/Vt- ~tED Tht- 1~1-brfH. lh"OuNd J =t

I::
NoM E:R.I <:A L I t-ATE Crt"f}T 10 N
TR. A- P t l: 0 I 0 AL fT1I..I d S I M P S 0 t-! R. \l l E-

Svpro~e- we- "'ccd Thf:- Ul\ Lv E; ot thE; INTcc,.rA L. of


ThE- futJc.no~J ' .f-t'ot-1 0 io 1. Of c..o11rSE- wE- S ho11Ld ALL
ttX~

A bl.f:- TO TI\N~ l ~ :: TAN I : ~

i31.1T suppo!>G- we 1.\JE;-f'E:-fi.I'T ~o doN 'r how 10


JI\ITE:e:.~I\TE; WhitT du We d0 ~ wtH' IS "TO -e,r(:~K -'P

Th t jtJTt:fU A" I.. ,~,. 0 I Sfl'f I 4 E-(j> .; A 1.. P ftr"T:. lh-lc:L evALUATe ThE: -fu Nc.,Ot-1
T
cc. ~) ,_ ..L
1-t~:L
4"1'"
n
E:-ft c..j... POl tJT, j. Z..

X f t l')

0 1.0

~If -HI
'h .so
o 'I~ 'h. 'I~ 1
1f'l "1
I .5
Th~ Trl'rP &. o 11:> AI. 't'UI.E: TE;I.l.S

A~ 1 [ ~ f ( 0) t .f ('/~) 1' f( 'lz. J i' .f P/'1) + Ih t (I)]

Whe1' A1. :: JNn.rv fll.. wldll.

A= V.q L '/1..(1} + -9~ -r .a+"~'" -t ft.C'tz.J1


: .18ZB
SuJC.E; TO ex.trc.T #hJ~W6-ft IS .16'03'i ThE- Tft\Pc~OJDAL ~0l.E
0
IS ..:>oT ~o ~Ad. IT I~ IN e:rror b'f l..~S~ ThA-JJ 1
h. /o.

,~ A-NoTheR- 1-'lt-Thod .Wr ~I\ L ~f\'nJ,Kr ~E i\-RE- A a~dett.


ANd ThAT lrJUOLuc- lhe st M p..s oN Rut.e. T~ E: s1 r-tpsclrJ

A= .)

for ThE; JC 1\"1"1 ?L~ ~ bo v ~

A.,= ,'c..LI 11
1 -tLf:l'~~,, t" '-~80 -t ~"'"'i + 11>5]-. 78.S33
Tnc rc-:)vL r 1~ A-~Ac 1rJ~;,L.'[' Prc.cvrATE. . IT 1s E-rror b 'l OIJ t.. Y
1tJ

I Pl\fT IN fr hvl-id fed.. Thov:)fD,}cl. IV\1S I~ S'hV&ft"JH)Nf\t. A-ccui\Ac.'t'


fer otJI..Y S ?OttJT~ 'SPI\c.EO E:Vt:-r'i .z.s '-'C.R..C"M~11. S1t1p.SoJ.~ 1 S

RU\."- 1~ vf:;('i Powt-r-h!l. ANd Sho1.11..cl. bE; U'Sf:cl -tor ,..,osl


CALC.v~ATIO._::IS> w\.qc.h frlc l)lffic.vt.T 'TO I~C,ft\Tc /h-Id '(l:-T

w'n,c.h .-e:qv\f"E- Ac..cvrAc.'!'.

A':> /pJo~Er X.lt'Mi> LE tIN d


)ol )-,. (I tX) dx = A
I-t X1.

l e4 th : ; ~
X I t J<' J'l-1 (. I t X} ..R'h (lt)C)
I "t~"
0 l.o 0 0 ,001:)

yq , ~~I .l8b~& ~ 0,198 .1~1

'h .so '40 5'17 , o,S 07 t.oi4


3f~ '{:,~ .53357 t o.S32. 3. zz.g
I . )
/
61')315 1.3 8 s I . 38.5
L ~~ 9
A: I ( (..Ljl~) ~ .5'35
I'-

l..t Jh1S e-)01\MPl.: hi\Vt- ~hOvJtJ Thffl 11'1ST~J of Tr'f 1/ll(r 'Ttl tt-l~br"/TTE'
/'r htW"d fv ~ (.TION IT IS ""U c.h E1tS I ffi.
,
to j u.sT WOrt<. OUT SO Me-

VP!Lvf~ b~ kft'rJc::l 1"'-e-N tJ~E:- .SIMPSONS fOI..E: 11) 6-T TisE frJJSCAJ-R

~ h'"'"' Prc.cvrtrc'l. ~'""rsol\l ~ r\1LE:- wtL.l. warK ~f" fh.t:-to.sr It'LL.


AP P t..1 c.ff11 o t-15 W h - rE- ~c. c. v f"l'\ c t' LE:S.s Th lhJ I Pltfi" 1IV I 0 tS
dt-Stre-d. h WILL tJOT WOrK. w&-.t-N ~~- ltJTE;(:..ntrJd htT5 f\
POl.E: .or wh~ ThE- I~TE;~;, rf\Toot-1 LIMIT ?r01)1JCE-,S lrJFINIT'I'J J,[
So' ~ d .x ONt /f'I<.IZ ,<frOuNcl ~~~ P rob LE;M 1s 10 PHforM A

PE-r l1HbA1lO!V fhVIH'l~\~ fl-bovT Th(: 1Y'Ovbl.E:-- POINT. \tJ Tht- C/T.St ot

W(;- h ltv f:- TY'o u b (. (:- A7 X =I

Ca.) k C1-E J t.
(2:- f ,_ -1-z...
f o hrsT or c:l e-r we htrv;

For trcc..urftc,.Y 'Pur?o&~s The- error 1 JJ ThE; .SIHBON rvtE-


rE5uvr IS e:,,ve;tJ b-t ~ ~ 7.h, 5 t 'vex)
JSO

51
CorJ~Ic:le-R. Th~ uJT& ~ r f\l
)~ e -o.x d,(

"whAT IS I~ uAUH.~ WE:t..L,I\"PPI.'r'lr..lb ~IMPSON~ ruLE: /,.J

S'f~ Ps u f wE- wo IJLd h A I) E; fhJ fl-r'E-A WhiC.h D~Pe-Nd.S

O).l ThE:- VAL u~ of 0.. J I(,

\'II HL, Thf:- 1rJT~'=>fl\ L 1~ <;>u 1 TE; t frS.l" TC V/Hu ATt A-Nd I) JU.S1 'fa_,
"fkus we 'nAu~ ~AT NCO.) "" /o... =
1 1
/3 [ I -t ~ e- "' -t 1. e "'"' t 4 e }'\ t - J
IV~ se-nE:~ ctnJ bE- w R ITG-tU A-s
~ [ I -t
4 e.-CI.
I- e-t~
-t ~ e . zq_
1- e-z.q,
J
\ nfiV'i;. ThE Vf\L\JE:- o-f Th~ 1r-JTE-~rf\"[.'

VAL. vc-~ oi a.. I IV ~ J J 11'1 0 t-.1 1).. E:- TY"fl p {;~C)I 0 ft L

a. o...
IYITP~~aoAL
N to..) CA. C. N (CA.)
5 I Mp.So 1'1
e I-t E fi1- It E ~Bo
,5 1. Ot I I . O'tro 31
,lo'l31S I. o ljo I. 0"0 I 2..
\ 'oo ', oS 1. J. uo 1./9
I. 155
'' ~8b3 J, 0 "' 7
1..3olS I 'I o 7 I, o ~3

tJoTE:- .for 0..:: "-,3 J 1.38'- ll'Nd 1..~0 The Jvr-Jc:not-J IS dt"oppatJ&-
"DovJI'V b'l' It .f.Ac.ror af l, 4, lhJd... 10 rl:~PE-c.nvtl.'t IN ONE
e or 2.77.-. IT IS tNc.r~dlbLE- lvdll The- S1MP.SON r"iJLf
Pt~:es~uE;-) 'n1 C:. ht A-c.c.u~.J\C.'( E vtru 10 0..-=- I. '3 St,3

5Z
OPERATOR I 1)

foR. ~E-fThol\l~ whtC.h 1\RE- NoT frPPftil..ENT I'd 1..11<.-- ro Tt\LK.


Aboui T~(; o ,fh-rnvnf\L OPE-rATofl ,1) , frtJd SC)HE- of ITS ProP~TIE-.5.
Cct.l51 d ~ fu,., c.n o ~ f c. x)
Th f: fhJd. crs d e-r ottn" e- t ' cx) 1 n, bJ
fC;O::: d .fcx)..:: l)f(x). 0 hitS MI\N~ prcPE-RnE-J wh1c.h
'Pf:-f'M\T d;< liS Mfh\llPULI'tl/OrJ fts frrJ f\(..6-bf'~IC. :>~MbOL..
'For ~:><AM PL.E:- i'Ol) fcx) ~ -f "Cx.} .::. 1)' fC.X). f}Lso
(1+ (.\) -rt)'l )fC.X) ~ tU<) -t Lt 1CX) 1' {' 1(X)
( I -t 1) ) 1. f ( X)
\
Now LC"T~ fn.K. whi\T ..L fu.{D {D ,.., eTtN. IN- M f}-'( Gue-ss
0
ThAT Yo IS r E; L ATE: c:l TO II'JT~ '=> t"' A'TJo tJ fl1Jd 1'n A-T
_, t
5)C c. ThE:- ~ lfhVI of liJT~6rttiJON
u=o -::.. t C. IS
<-OIV
NOT d thtJtd.
\M oTn~ wor-d~ lf u-' o ? E-f" 1\ T~ S ON fc.x:) Tho.4 IT ? rod ocS
FLX). To 'Prov&- l'vqs MULTI PLY Thfo\.ICr~ b '( "D, 1.l,

1) ( -5 f CXJ) = 1) F(X) = 1 ex)


The- squ~ reoT oPe-rtn1H 1~ 'Dt-f1111ed A5
-(o [ -{D f C XJ j .::. f 1
(X)

The oPE-~AToR ell.D IS ONE of P ~nc.o t..l'lR. IMPORTfhJC.E


ftNd \S l) E;1, IV c d. 1-v bt
e v.. '[) f'-,x) ==- -fc ~ 1'" a..)
eo..o 1:) Tl1v.) C..A\..l.E=-1> A Trl\tJS\..PrfOit SINCE: 1T MOIJ~S X +o
){-tO... The E:JC.PotJE-NTlftL oPe-rAn:>~ ~it-S. The- ProPer-,-~ Ti-tAT
e bO e o.o :: e '"--tb)'() To pro 1J E: T h1 S

e bO e Q.l) fc.x) = e <.C4.rblD fc.x)


e bo fc XrC\.) = -f ( x-tb"Tv..)
~ fC.X-t<Atb) :: fCX-tb-t-CA..)

53.
eo..Dftx) ~ ( I+<A:o-ta.."/.,o" -t<A.Jo' + .--)fcx)
z::, 0
-3' I

"fJfo c.ft-tJ 0~ t- Th t- 0 tftt-rCNnfH. 0-f"l \Jt- .S IMPSON Rvl.c .

s:
TO Tv\E;
leT -l (X)= fc.xJdx. ~f.- wlh.JT Th!: j ltJT(;~:>rAL IP At"~h
-fo ~vAL "i'l-lt- foL(.Owlr-JCr
Itx+z!) ~ TCx) t- u..fUcJ -t bfl~-rh) t c_f(,x-tz~) -t~
lfJc- fJE::td TO c.. -h IV d 0.. J b I 1\'N d for- Th I~ TO b~ Tf"\JE;. Th IJ.S
w~ IJto-~cl To '-XPI\'rVd IcX"Tl..h} FTS ft Powf:-r se-r,c-s uJ ia. .
.TCr.-th) -I Cx~~) ::: c.,. tCx- .t..) -r b fCX~ t c..f(X"T~} tf
"'I'cx) hL .I"C)'.) -r }..") I' 11 ..L cx-ld:::
.l: (X) -t t"
-1- -,
~.
(X) -

'l. h.['(>~.) -t '- 'h} I (X ) -t l~s Ivcx) t- .~~ - (a. t( X)


tb 't C.)
s.
Ill

(.,
tJo w I 1
( .1\) :: fCX) .IIIl (X J =- f"Cx)
-r ( h(). - h c.} f 'ex)
e7(..
I I
f M\J~r MATe.~ Tht-r~t"E- C..h.:: CA...t"bi'C. -f
"'0.. hc "::1:: _, 0,. =c 1'
3
1:: =: h 2. 0.. -7 (A. :::. .h til
3 J
h- ~ ~~
I~ h ( I, 4, 1)
3
\.ls1rJ<r lh~ "DrH~&Jl1AL OP&Rf\'TOR.. NOif\llON we- ctPJ
VJOfK 0\JT Th~ /fYPf"OXIMffllON'

f (X t b. h) ~ o....fC,C-t.-.) + bfCxJ -t- c fC~<-rhJt~fCxtz..i-.)

e :. a.e-\. 0 -t-b +Ce-th1) + de'l.~O


POWE:T S~lc) ttNd HIYTCh1N Cr T-~HS
- 3/z.. h J) 3/t. " '!) - 'IL ~ D + 'I~ k D
I ':! ~e -tde. rbe -tCe
a.. -:: d fhJd b=C.
::: (.Ck. 00S h ( 3;2, h 0) + "b CO,:) h J, D) c ''"
-- L..q
[J t ( 3;2--hD)l.. + (Jtz..hD)~] -r ~b (1-t- c~v)-t..rUhJ.O]YJ
\IJ(;- WI\-NT '-"-tl.b= I
~
0...-:: 1- b
z." '1.. 7..'-/ J
~ o.. }e -t ~ b ~ =o -? b = 'ih~.o
f (.)< ) ~ - fc_ .f C~ t-J/l.. h) 'T 9ju. f ( X7 h(2..)
vJE- 1-\hiJ~ Tt\l.Kb:4 ltboi)T ~E- "Dtfh.re-NTif'IL oPef'"l\101':. "'D
5o tJoc.v LE-T ....,- Show '?ov ~Ofo'IE:- o.f iT) HJTHf-~7),.,(T
propf-,..Ttc-~. It httvE- -hJN,T10).l G(X) T\--lt-r-1 The ll'JIJff'SE-

oPE;rAn>r u- wori<.IN(T oN IT WILL yt"'ODOC~ TJ..E- ,,ude-h~H


, tJ T E- "" ... h L sx ac().,.} d 1.{ I , (. J

""D _, dC7q :: 5" OUt} J Ll


f:-,otlf;1Vdt,.,er Th1.s tc:IE-It f,r~t:r- ThE- ~E:;c.o,.rd INTcc,.rftL of (jC,(J
'"1)-z QtX) =, 5 x (X -c.c.J (/'-1..<} dl.l

=
dv
uV/.X )x
= X )(JLV)dV

wE:- f1,.rcf we- c~ PE-r-hrH l't l>oontE: tJ1f.C..T~TION bt


I ~VIE-~ rAn OM Now l}us d-A CI\?J bt <:.-Nt-r IlL' "l.td

d(
Ill- I
~
1)-ll dt)Cj I
n! )
(
( X - LA} IJ) d IJ
Thus lJ)IJI)<r Th\S hri-1\)LA W- CAN
Tht oPE-.,. f)TIO tJ
-'h.
'0

~f co 1\JS 1'fhJ1
rtS~L T IS 1-'1 OSf

55
Sop ro~~ fr p ru b l E 1-1 IAJ h I C. h IN V" LVC"d Th(:
-y'
F \IN c. noN rc.xJ e d'r'. Well , <?ov wo r.J 1 1 ~cT ffi r
Trv ..,er "Nl C:uAt.vi\-TE:; 1 ht'::> I'Jdt-f,....,,yc- 1~T"'E-v.r~L. It 'I'Dv
cttrJ'T lt-IT-U.rf\TE.- tT whftT DO "fOil do WI~ 1T? Ni>ThiNerf.
'
WfLL 1
~JoT qutT(;- t->oThtr.>t:J-. OThE:-1S. hf}vE- 'iYHd 11> lNTC"CrV"ItTE.
11 ArJcl c;.oNt 1'0 ft LoT of l"roublE- oonver so . The-re- fti'E- oThe-r
fv).)cnorvs ~IMlftr 11> The- It 1-::>ovt wh 1ch p, fE d tfuHc:l fl5 Jf'!IE-crriiLS
(n-Jd 1'15 suc.l-. h~E- The- "ProPt-r'fV of C/h""t<'I'C)IJ<r ThE- fvNc.Tlo.V OoTSidf
o-f ThE tvOr1'1AL Clft55 of -NII)l110tJ.S
1
N'll, :~j>OtuftJT1ft0 1 lOcn'tf(fhMS,..

Tt IC,..o tJ 0 ME-TriC. I fh.)d Tr fuJ.s (..E-Nd lblT AL -fu Nt n 0 1\>S . DtJL 'l lfoJ'TE; c.:,.fiYi' 0 ~

h~ 1r-t~ 1'fOr<:-rTI' of -rt\K\~C,. A -N)Jt110J'I Ool of ThE ,_arHflL


cL~- UtffE('t-tJTI~tTioN wiLL ~oT "PO Th~ Tr1c..K.

~ !')tTl 0 IV S I, 1i\ vf- C. OVI ~ up f1' -<;> \J b\.>Tl V


~ 0 Pt o P l ~ h IN E- ~ o IV t- 1\'> t'1 loT of 1Yl>\J b U 10 t'1 ~ KE:- v p R
sIT o+ Tqtt bLE-5 w k' ~ k A..IS. '""' tVftL~A-n~-Jer The tu,.HJloJ'of.
\="o t"" ~ f\-'t.A P l - F ( X) 1S cALl Ed The- ~ rrot" -fv !V 110 tJ of X
tlN d \ S '0 E-ft Ne-d R5

e'C'.f C7\) ~

T~ IS -h.> 1\) c. n ~ N f.r (':-9 v e:-NTL 'f oc.c. u rs 11\J "'P (' 0 bIt b lliT't Th f 0 r..t . JTS
oLe~ f-frs~,o~ \0 L-1)-1'"1'1 1\"bovT Th~E- turvc.1lwJ ~lt-Jc.t A-rJ'fOtJ
C I\- f\.1 Lot> \(.. 1)-.. E:+'\ C) 'P~ ~owEVE-r, ,,. IS v...>orl\-.whtlt.. To I<Ni>W

1ht- bt-hftVtor of 1h ~ tt-lT E-C:r-rih. ~r u tn 01.1 s "fl L v e-) of ~.


5o LE-T<; s TUU '? erf (.)C) fur l ft<'&t- fi--Nd S. M fhl U#}L \J-S

of -,... F 1rs r foy- s ""'f\ l l 'X. we c.thJ E-)c 'P tl-Nd The e 7< po,.H-,.JT 1A L
(l)ld \1-ll-'\rfn'ft TEf"t-'\ b~ TErt'\

.. ) J y

+ y..s t --- ]
s-1..~

Sb
Now .for Lf\"rC:r& 1- T'-'t- A'Proxt,...,~notJ 15 IJ L1TILf: ,..,orf:
DtftiC.\JlT bol

cY'h)( \
vut-

=
i1\
?roc..c~d

J,i~"'e-i' t>
R~ folLow.i':

d~ - r, e
- '(
-z.

dK-
-me- -h r.s T Tf:t"'~ IS d e.f-l t.l I TE- fhVD E-q ~.>ftL$
vr;~ j1., EN wE- J,ttv

EV"I\ X ) .::. I - "L


1Ti
)
)(
~ e-'f .d ~

ul.

e' 1.'( dt
.. "d(- e;)
- 'X l.
::
' e
7...)(.
- )
1~ e- Yz d ( ft)
1\low 51~C: A '.S l tTf'G-c W E- C. AN 1\fl> r 0 1- I""' AT f X b'r' Y /hVd
e: '1\ pfu.>d The e J( por..> t-rVI I AL 1\"N.I ltv! E: <:J ( f!Tt TtfM b~ Ttt>M. We
fl fl)d 'lnAT
z.
-)(
erh )Cj I - 13 I 3 ~
e "t --
c(.'f.'I.)
-- 1.

ThE- SE-r-t-S wh1ch WE- '-'lh.IC"" Jo~T wriTTe-N INVOLVC"..S


~C."lOr 1AL S 1)l Tn t tJ 0 1'1 e-r lt1'""G R. ~d Th c:;-R c.-fuR. : The S E-1- 1E- ~ IS

ULTIMA1L'{ DIVE;R.C,..tl\.l()-. Thus WE- t-'\tt'l' Qcf,,Ut; ThE- DlVf-('6-11../(r-

57
A. vc:r-t itJTE-I'"E::~n.-Hr ProPe-rTC' ot The ~~nt-s t"or 1./H<:Jt x
IS lht\T 'fOV c.ITtJ C:rt-T frW/t'( W lTh A ~~ frP'Pf"O"'I..I MthlOM bl'
R.t-Ttt-\ t-.1 1tJ ()- o "" LY Tn E- f, r-s T ft w Tert-\s ~E-v t-r, u L n M ftTc t. Y
iht: SE-I"It":S. WILL D1VE-f"G-t- bOI lfOv 1..411\.L h~)/t 1\\f riC:rhT fTI\lSIVf-r
10 A ~E ~o.Vftb\. ~ Ac..curi}-C.Y. Tht E: rror- \N Tht- rt-S.I..)L7 I'S
of ThE- orde-r of Tht LA-.ST TE:FH'\ rt-~INS. For tr.ft1--'IPLE:- 1f
'i -= "2.. j\.o, EN Th <::- S ~ \ {';-,:) I S
l - .l. +
8
It orh.'? ~ TE:fM~ {'rl'"l2 K~T
I
Th t ITN s w "' I ~ (rQ"' c! -n.:> " b 0 uT
~
0
f.o. If It:::: I Th " 'e'f"f"Or IS 90iTt LM6t I
of Thf: orde-r 1 tlS~t.f
50 X M\l~T b t' ~e-A-Tff' Th AT frT L -ItS T '2... .for- Th f: fr P P r 0";( I M ffn "0#
TO WOf K.

A~ A rro b te- M <,;v?PO~E: "?OlJ WftrJTE;c:l The fUNCTION

G I U t1J b~ Th : I NT <:r r 1\ L J: e r f (. 'i) d 't . Th 1S 1S N0 T


T({b~Jt.ft-reo so 'f>OIJ htrve- "TO 't>o ~OME wort<. If we- sobSTI1VTt
1ut" ert<.'1') Wt hlt\Jt- lht dovblt ltJTE-c,..rftTION

~: )~r e-'fl. dvdv


No1.0 WE: w~ 1Q f'E:Utr'S~ ThE: orde-r of li'JTE::c,r1\"T\~._j, lo doT'-115
lT \.S WQf''lr.WhiLE: "N 'Drttw It PICTVR.E u.:y
y
WE: wlhJT ThE: cro-s.sc:d... ~1\Tch

......_,\~ 1'-SP:-tT TO Y .f-1-rST.


u

= 'f. ~ ().,. e.- lJ \. J \.)


X -1i er.fcx)
1..

8
P r o bLE- t1
-xl. lW "
e e

U:T 'r = X - ThE INTc (:) t' PI L i3(;-COI-1t5

-'fl.
e. d 't
The ~ w;, or-J Th ~ Jt..fr{;- G r-,yno N LIM ITS c fh..l b~ JG. t-toR.~b
'i>o we- ht\Ut- ThAT

A NvMbEr o-f 'Fh'r'~IC./tl Ph(;-J-)OH~A itJIJOLUE- INTE::~fALS


0 1 lnc 1\bove- 'T'fPE.. Tht lhe:or'l' o-f he-ItT -rr~.sft-R U.SE-.J
ThE- About 1tJTE-G.rfHS I)J SOL\JIIJb- Tht D\ftE:-r-NT'lAL E:qvfTnOJ..I
()T
di
The- ~o LV TiotJ lb lr\ I~

T
A-rJ tMPOt'T'ft rsr PfOP<:-rT'i' of ~t d 1-f+E-fttm~ L ~ 0 t)410}J fe;)OLT~
d t -"'> o-t-. I r-l Thl::) C.I\SE; T I
]he- Ttf.-7P-rfrn.JI"'e
)
A Pt>~oltehf".S

Tht- dtLTPr -NtJc.TiotJ ~c.x'J. TnER.efoRE 1t Ai t=oJ T


1~ d E;~cr 1 bed b'f f C.,X.) AT lhJif LATER Tlt1f; -f: Th~ T:MPHA1VR..
T(X)-t) ~ (:r\\J~ b'f 4
- c x-x') ,
e ~t- fcx') dx
1~1~ 1~ t.. Vet-'f IMPOrlftl.Jl RES0Li TO f\Ll o1 HITJ"h Ph'iSIC5
fp\ld IT \~ w of' 1n ut.)d e-~STfh..<:i1 \'..!Cr IT~ """ e: f\ t4 JJJ Cr
Re:LftiC:D TO ThE;- ERK.OJ<.. FUJ.ic.noN trrt: st-vc-rtta.. oThE-~
S PfC. I" l fu JJ C.TIO tJ ~ '"1\1 C. 0 u 1\J'"J"'t;; cd \~ Ph"?~ I (. ~;

(:
).,
e 'fL d'i J S: ... (.OS~~ dd
The L tl.S I TW 0 ~ C. ft L Ltd fr e-~ tJ (; l \ rJ TE: C:l Y" ft l5 f\"rJc:J ft-'fc
t:lJ c.ou NT-ff:" d 1 tJ. 0 PT\C.~ l tJ d. I f.f-.rtt c:n ON ThE: or Y ,

To ~~~ how \he ~t..H;L


fhJd lNTt:-e:, r ftL s. E:-vO Lvc
ArE- "'~e-fvL cou::, 1cl-Er A ~lt-l<::>L~ ~l.tT or !(..JJI -due +c
\llVMilvi\TEc:l b'i 1\~ tNfti-J\TE:- ~o\lr((; .l'nt- Shddow C..f\.ST
b'< The S \.IT I~ NOI AS e--xPE-CTE-d b'r' -fA-LLS ot-f rJJ
f'rtJ O~c..l LL IYJ1HY -f-ft~ht 01\l W\lh ~OMt l\(:rhT f-t\LLirJCr 11-J.S\de
"f'h e St.. ~'

,. _5 Hf'ec.Te-~ -:. hac:lo w L J.Vc


; 0,- ~lhU"Cc 1-+--~
\

lrJ 0~ cA ~ (" "}Q -hNd 1)....~ L1~l---\ lr-lTt-N.S.IT'r t1T A biSTnNT puiNT

X 01\l A ~or.f.f\cE- R -feei froM Tht- K!Vl"fE wE;- MIJST I.JSt

t-\v'l' ~~\~ \' ruJC.IPL.c5o w\-. 1 c.\..... rE-<v u 1 f"E:-J v~ !\) 1\dJ f\t..L ThE-
ftMp LINe\~~ of TI--t IN C. rC;vl NTfll E; Lee. Tr"IC {\e:Lc:ls I tJ C.tdfNT ON X.
"-'-->s wfr htrvc. Th tTl

(H t, X) = J ws ( W (t - ~) 1 d~
L
Th e ch ':::>lY\"rJ c. E; !Ld - 1R1..-t('f-xJ 1 ' fhUd IS fTP P r-ax lMftT:L )" ::: R t.-t ..l cx-yJ
2.R
5 I)C..~ In ftl

ft ( 1: J X ) :: Q ~ t-O..S [ w (. t - Rj c.) t ~ ( X- V) l.] d 'f


'-R. a
.,\l =. w;c, ~ 2- Ti J"- ::. w tW ~ ,,_)\) t-1 b t- ft.
r:---z--
Th~ 1tJTh~ foLLow,.JG- ~rt1

'l: ~J'
INIE-61'"/lL Cfo\J bE- W,..ITTt-rv

Ali, x) ~ /"' '~- %) [


o. -/Jil- c..o~o' JJ .,. JJ J
wine r c:. d :. (, -)() {1R. ' s ./
k Ll GhT 11\.ftC;.t--Q~ \ i 't IS G HJ e-N bY ThE:- S9u~E; o+ The
1\M P\.11\Jd t- fp,lc:l w~ c.. A~ wn TE-
..l. = l {\ \,_ : . o} j_
2-l'L
LC.'- + J S t

for LfrRE>t: Uth.llc.J o-f X s1rJc~

s .: c .: : -rn/fi Th E-tJ

-L = T-o [ c,_ + s1.]


11

5 -:: s- ~lll-;< S ltJ~LdJ ;:

W'kere ~ ::: )\ r-,-z.R


't WE- wlhJT TQ K~c w Th~ bE: h fN 1or of ThE; ll 1:1 hT
,~,.~~\11' ltJS\ct~ ThE- E:dG~ I
f.~. for S L 0 wE- IA.)/hVI ~
If Wt- Loot'-- JU~T 1\1 Th~ hr~T T rM wE- CfhV C!>;1 ft-rJ
tdt-fl ot how Tht- l NTC-N S 1T'i -fit L.l. S of{ t-.1() Te- fhlt-T IT t 5
, I S' I~
ftbovl E-qvA L "to e "to or d E.r j_

'L
'X. ---o~ lSI
z. J s I
't.
c...os I~ I
1..1sl
Ac!d\IV~ llr.E;- ~qotrre-s To -hNd ThE- it\.liE;-)I.),SITt"' wt- --h~J
IT 'P fO Po f T\01\1 t\ l ID 1;
4
}1 SL lh t\T IS 1T fftl.LJ off
,.~
ll" 'J~L
.;, (::.01)..)<:> lt-J r
IY"Of-"\ 1"\f\c- dc:,c;,

ThAT
co
- ~ _ 01) c..os a dJ 1.

-Iii 4~1Sl"L
r-z... -
;:_

Q)
2.15 I
5-s .o~M~'"JJ "::.
fTI/L -r c.o~ I~
- It.

s '(vfrf\ N c:, tnJd 1\"dJ IN & lA.)~ f pv c:l Th E;-


'-1)1 /1\J TN.S J -y
I

P"f 0 Pof"))O.Vt\ L TO
C. OS IS \'L 1"' {)~ J~ 11..
5
T'r\\~ .l e~c. r 1 b~.s A t-J. o.s C.. I L L UlTOr '1' IIJ'f-rvS./1~ -ff} Llt N <r of.f.
1\$ 'IS. jh E- OSC.Ill 1\J)OI\l~ {1-r- /tloouT .SOH- t"\E&) UfllVE
Pro yo f'f) o rJ 1\ L 1\> ~ e- \N \ Tl frL 1NT f-AJS IT'(.

ThE:-'f~ \S lhJ ltJifrfE-SnJJc,. 'PT'O?Hn' o-f ThE- -f..rt-.SJ..t-L.


1Ni;bff\LS It WE- lt-T
X-=- C.C.S)
P\...OT ~CS) vs SCS) WIJh v fl ( ) tT bl c .
sc.s}

CC5)

Th,~ curve- IS. C..A-I..L.-d c.on.w !::>PirlfL. Tht-


It c.l)rVt- htt.SA
so""' c-- 1r-.n-e Rt;S TIMG Pro!Vc- r rtes. tJor t -n, 1.1 r

d ,X :: C..()5 .s l. d .s
ds = -.jd/\t.tdyt.
Thl~ t-"E:-;trJ~ Th A-"T S l~ It VAr. AbLt o.f l ~N CT 1h f\ lOtJ v
Th~ \:..Vt'Vt;. The C.0t"\Jt l~ LA'!' td OIJT ltJ equf\L 1J t-l1T~ of
S1 D Th t ~ LO P (;;- o+ Th t;- C.v r V t 15 (:,I V (;-}'.1 b t
d_'f
d)<
= T"A7-> e ::. -t ~nJ s~
OR e = s'Z,.
Thu~ The- CU('\)E:; hit~ The Vt-R..Y U~1Cj)l.1(;- PrCP-tRT'I' ThAT
Yov.. KE;ff> 1\l f" N I 1\.1 (:) ; 9uA L ro Th e ~9 v IT R.(;
of ~
ThE.- D I.S Tf!JVU;- bETWE:c-rJ SPI~ 1\ l (.(;rJIC"R$ IS. Th t I\MPL11U::It-

crf l.IG"'T Th0.S ThE: Ori(:,JtJ C.orr~Po.JUcls 10 ))..E; 1{.1\ltfto E;c:lC:r{;,

1h e d 1 ~ 1'ft-r" C E;- .fr 0 M 0 -to I'S 'h A 0


1TtJd. The; INTCNSITY IS 1/'II.
A-:, Tht Lt:N~"}}\ A
AbovT 1\e c.&Jl c;.

,. .3
~
MOR{; ~?-c.tAl 'FuNCTIONS

VJ~ ~ttJE:- bo-f:-rJ dtsWSSti\JC> SOM~ of ThE: ~pe<.dlL fvNc.TJorJ5


w h1c.h ~OIJ Mtlf'l' c.oM~ Pre. ~o~s 1 ,.s y 01.11~ woi~ 1<.. Toe! A"i 1
'd L II< E.
lo sTAR! \IIJITh ThE. fVJ-iCTIOt--1 DE-f,,.Jf=d. b~ ThE- INTE<Orf\L.

Jrx etdt-
= Ec:CX)
t
Thts tNdcfl,.,tTE: tNTE:-brAL of X 1'5 C.ALLEO Thl:. ~ IN'IR..SE:
C:x?or-JE:-.rUTtfiL I~TE:C::>ff\L. For Sot1~ STUPIO R.t;ASoJJ ThE: E:J'PoNerJTIAL
lrJTe-G.r-AL IS DE:-fiP..\Ed AS
-t I
e
-t
d-t = -E,(-t}
T~e:- I~Tt:t.,."AL cf\N be ~::-xPRE-ssE:o AS 11 ~'""c. 1\,..ld c.osttJE
F IJNC.TJOI'-\ A-S
ci ()C) :: - )~~ cost
--t dt

s~ (.X) = s: SttJt
-t dt-

Noll..) The1"e:- 1\f'E: 111\bl.ES o-f Tht INft:e:.~Al.S GtVCl-1 -for IJf\-RtoiJ.S
V'fiLV:~ ot X. Yol) S 11-.ouLd NoT uo To inc TroubLE; of T'r(n.J<f
To wor-t< The~ ouT. IT 1S orJI..'? IMPOrllhJI TO R.eC.oC::.NI-=tt. whtN
'iov hi("Ve;- R.e-~chcd. ThiS POttJI 1M SOLVIN\;) ""The P~Obl:1"'1 So l(ol)

c..~ ~ o To 1h t" Tft b LfS.

W~\L 11 IS wA';>Tt-hJL -n::> Tr't' TO 11\JTE:.<:.r-AT c ThEoS E


tv!Vcnot-~~ I
IT I~ c.J<;;.E:-fvL TO IJ-1\Ics.TI~I"\"TE;. T~E: bci-IA\JtOR.. .fo(t.
61-11\I...L t\~d l A-R"t Uf\t..lJe-:) of X,. ThtR.E-forc w~ wC LL t\r51
LooK. AT Wh 1\-T h t"pp E:,r.J~ 1\S X _., o W t t"E:-pl..fi\'CE X b '( c JJJ
1h E; I r->Tc ~I" Pll. A tJ d. fr 5 1<. whAT I5 ThE- f' f"O P ~ R. T\' ot
00
I ( ~) :; e-t dt
Se -t
To "Proc.e:ec! W(;- WILL Ftdd ArJd SubTrA-c.T A-r-1 h..JTE:C:.t'"fll.
I.V~'I\c:.~ hA ~ "The: .S~E:- bE:- hl't'Vtor IN Th ft L JM\T AS E --::. o.
-....__.
A'"' tt.lTE: Co't'" 11 L vJhl c..h Cti\N "bE. USEd I '5 ) I _L df wh,c..h IS
(;; t
V'f\Lid fo'l' 5M~L.L . Th.~ I r-Jif: <0 r A L I 5 d <:-ftl\1 I TE- ft,.J hAS The
Vf\L\)E; - _Q-'l"' E. ThUS WE C.ftr..l WR.l T

~co e-t dt
e -t dt
r~
. -
t"
:;::

\: -t -I.' J.. cl t
t
- ).'l'l e

I c E:) ~ e -t dt 1
+ ( e- t- I) cJ f
t ) -
t
It WE; tJOW R..E: 'PLAC.E: E: b'f 0 ThE; I NTE:<::.r AL S AR dcJuviT
AN d. h AV E f\ -f-J N 1 T E: U ft L u e wh1c.h IS -. S77Z. ThiS NIJI"''be-r IS
dE;..f,,vE.-d. 'Tl> be; C 1
EvLR' S f'o)VMbE.R. Thu5 wE: hA-u~ ThE-IV

.I c e ) ~ ( Q) e -t dt
J t :;:: - .5777...-hc. = -4(/.781)
lhe 1 t-tlc<bf'f\L IS LOG.fhtThhl C. d IVefU:;:,&NT

d c P c~Vcl s o t-.1 l"hE: UALUE: of .

The C.<Cx) fh..ld. SiCx) ~tJc.TioNS AR t N e c. e:s~ ft' 1 L 't


L o " ttr 1~ M 1'- 1\ \.. L. Y d 1 v e-r ~ E:NT fo r s 1-'\ A- L L t.. fr>Jd. hlllJc ThE. LIMIT 1~(,
b t; h ltv 1 or cto1'" S Ht\LL X o.f

C~ l.X) = h (. J. 78 I X)
f-of' SMALL X
s~ ex ) -: X

. 577l

I
C.= 1" 31 i- --7~

ThERE; ARE. SE:v~f\\.. c:ir'nER PR.OPE:R.TI~ of The fXPONfrJJTHH..


Fvt-lcnot-1 worT~-! KNow IN~ :

-x
E~ Cttldx x t., (- x) - ( 1- e )
As Ptob I.E M ~ ? Rove. ThE. FoL.LOWIN e:,

~ o'"' e- pt S~ eel t> dt = -1 fttJ- .r )


{:r - J.
r ~
A,-.~d
)0~ S lrJ ~t
I itt.
dt ::"
l [ e-""
z. 'f.~Cm.) - e t~ , (-~MJ 1
T'-'e: whoLE- ? OINT of G-o JrJ(a. itJTo f'l c:l 1S.c.os~1t> IJ o-f ThE-SE
Sff-Cii}l. fu~c.TloJ'.IS. l'i. 11) -be- Ablt- TO M/tiJIPIILftT f\N /rJTf;~Y'IH.
1.1 KE- ThE:- LOI..V t-r orvc- ltbov~ ltJTO ft ~rM w h1C.h C/hJ be- E:ofiLIJATCJ
h'f VSiN~ ntbL &~. A &ood !Zf..)owLe-dG.E:- o-f ThE-S~ -fur-Jc.llotJS IS
Qo1JC- vflL()frbLE- 1r-l wori'<..II'VG. ?robt.e-t-t.s. A~ fhV ~fh1pi..- rc-c.flt(..
._,& h ~d. A p-ro b l E-M whe-re- wE- we-re= 'Tb .Ji .Nd
(ooo -0..)( -bJ' I
J e - e d)C
X
Th1S IS. E-t\s '( TO -VA-I.VI'\'IE: If We LE-T .: 0 AtJd brtfl K IT ,,sJ"t)
TW1:> I NTE: C.. r~ L.~ 1 l.
1

~ d -t
lco.e:).:
(
Je e
-O..;t
~ - )a: e cit -- _A ( 178 1 a.e)
.X t
wh~.r-E:- wE- L '-T X= tjc... L 1 1< E-

It be-) - 5:~ ~
~
-b)C
d" ::. k(J.781bE:}

I C.bc) :

The MORe 'l'oo L-ti'\T!V bc-iTf:~ 'four C...hi\NC.E:S b(S-C.OME crt


The-
SJlJM bLI "-' 1:::> oM lhe: rHsi...T wfl"~ 'To 0fiT The- ~.rVSWE;R, BuT REME;MbcR
ON6 TheRE- I~ ~ WAY 11l ..f1tJd. ThE:- fn.!Swf=R_ TheRE: ARE. IHMEdlll-TE=LY
MA-N 'I' w A-'I'S 1'0 G cl 1\-'1 E:- S f\"ME- ~S we R.

Now LETS STud 'i ThE: b~;-hAVIOR. of -t;~C-x) FoR UtR.C:s E. X.


To 5Tl\ R.T w C.f\1-l INTC.C:>v-ATE
~: e -t dt by 'PARTS,

-t I~ )~ e -t ~d. -t -l( -t

~:
-E.~(-x) ::: <;_ -
= -e e dt-
t ~
" t .. X tz.
q
'

-x -')(
-t Z l-X ) ~ e - -e1 . .
)( X

\fJ t c lh.l K E: ~:; P nu s vP fi-N d w t; w I L. L G e T f1 .S eR I E .S


wh\(:,V\ dt+tNe-~ - E '(-)(),

e-x ( I
X

Observe- ThKJ The c..ot-1-f,c.ic.~Jrs f\R fA.c.ToRtf\LS ""'d Tht:R.&foRe


fo't' A C:.IV&I'l X iou c..th-J <::ro ff\-R. frt-lou(:s~ ThAT The ~:'R1E:S
WILL UllMt\TEH.'I' dtveR.&f. H you G:VE-R. rAI'J Ac.ros.s ThiS
S~R..le-~ 'fOIJ ShoiJLd rE;c...o~\IJI~ E.. I'T As -e-+.x ,C.- xJ

ELL lPTI c.. I NTE C::rRf\ LS

A~o'TheR S?c.1AL !="Qt-.~c.noN Whtc.h '~ e:.-oocl To 1-<.J-.lOW 1S CfiLLE;d


Th~ ~l-LtPTic. t~Te:e:.rAt.. AovALL'l' ~eRE; I}Re ScUcfAI. K1tJdS oR.
C LA~ E;~ of ~ I.L l Pi I c.. It-ITt; C:d 1\ l. S.

= u.
Thl ~ 11-!TE-C:d' AL I5 NOT

ord nJf\RY fv~<.~c..Tt0N5 buT rt\Th E: R

Th& E;.LLIPTIL ltJTE::bf'ftL of The SC:C-oNd K.IJ..Id IS' deft~ed

c( ~''f) =- Soot -1 I -....k2..<J~'e..., de


ELl. I PTIC..

\.f Utn's~=) {1-.J<.'sN'I9


The:- f,rsT nvo }<..I!VdS of t;L.LIPT'IC. MDR&
fNTC.C:Tf'f\LS ARt
FR.&qi.J E: t-lTVi E.NC.Ol>NTS REO t1-Nd Th: Rc'FORE. I WILL "1) t,SC.u.S5
1hM..
5

Or.~t;. SF'EC.t AL c. A 5 E- of ThE. Ig 1<.1 !Vd E..L..L.IPTI C. I NTf: &t"A L.

15 .fo1' ThE:- cA:>E- wheN cp u f:lr-c-~ btTw E:E:,.., o ANd "Jz.


Th, s. -hJr-Jc.no~J 1 c:. c ALL E: d K (,!)
K cAl -= \ lf11, de
Jo -;::~=,=_=,-k=l..;.>=~=-=zr9:::;...
l\-\1~ IS c-ALLft> ThE- C.OMP\.&T; E.Ll.IPTIC. INTE.CTRAL.

O"J'h E R. ~ l' M ~ c-\ '""" E: E: I.. L 1 P T I ( I N l c C:1' r f\l... S M t\ 't' r E:- q () I R.f::
SvbsnTUT10N ot Vf\"R.lA'b\..65 IN o~dE-,.... '1"0 rE;~Ntc~. 01'.lc
'-OHI"\Ot..\. ~ob~nTUTIO"-l I~ t:: .)JN6. The dlfft.rE-NTIAL
subf>nTV'TlO'-~ ts de= _A_! so ThAT L.l= Fttt,<9) b~c.oHeS
~l,.

l): )Sit-1<!) dt-


D {1- t~ {1 -k_Lt1.,
F"urlner- GE:-tJE-1"'1\'l.. IT't c.f\-N be. ObT1Tt-~E:cl b~ ~h,f"LitJC:r ThE:.
Sc.ALE. of t S'-'C..h ThA-T wE:- hf\V<;

Ll: ( dt
J f a.L-bt.e [c.'l,.-dt.t1..
OR.. IN ?oVt'tJOMIAL fof'l"'\

l+ ThE. Vf\riAbLc o-f. lrSTE:.&rf\TtoiJ t ~~ <;rrei\TE.R ThAtJ


f\ QUf\d'('flTlC. I
Yo!.l. AR..G our o+ L uc..t<.. Tr't1 11J& TO cA-ST ThE
11-tTf;&rfttt. 11-1 EL.L..1?TIC. toRn. H-owe:v'1<. '(ou s houL.d Tr'< 70
C\QHfi...E.T&- The ';)c;>vfH'E; lhvd S&6 d The- 'POL..'(~OMIAL uJILl..fA.cTOK

SoMcnt1E:.S Thfr ltJVE;-'('SE; CI..LI?Tt(. -fvr...>c:..not-~S A-RE. use:d. IJJ


Th1S NoTI\TtON f = tC.U) ltNd. IS CAl..L-d ~(./...The- TY'flNStorMit'nvN
~q u A1l0~ S 11-R. &
cos tf ::. ch ( t.tJ
.S 1N ~ ::;- ~ 'n L U..)

~ l - ~'!..Sll)l.v
1
::- d h (.. V)

b8
You wotJd :-t"uJG W~rlT ct..t.t'PTIC. furJc.noNS ltRE- 1,J..
Mi1V be:-
Thf- MhTht-Mt\ncAl. won.d. Yo(,\ Kt..~ow n,,.T TriC:>~OWlC.TriC. fotJc.notJS
&,c.,~ ftS ThE:- ,S\tJ~ mJd C.O.SINc ft{'f: %. .StHpl..cST 'Pt;t'"tOdtC fuAJc.TioJJ5
F-rot-'1 w'h1c...h 1\f..L on-.~r c...oMt-tOIIJ -Nruc.no~s c.~ he- ~pr-e-ssE-d AS
/).\ St""f'l-~ 1-lo"Tf\'T)OrJS c..a exPor-Je-NIIfH.S. WhE:tJ oPE:If'#\TlNtr IN ThE.
COMPI.f-l< Pl.l'\t-.!E. Th~ -fuNC.TlOI'JS SNLUl lhJd Cl\(U) hftllc The- Pr-bPE:R.T)l
of- '8f-tt-\Cr 'lhE: .Sti-'\Pl.E-~1 "Uoubl..~ ?C:RJODIC. WruC.h
f-vr-lC.1lOtJ..5
,A~ lhJAL.~TlC.. The'!' ThE:~{Lc .fofl"'\ lh~ "Bt\St ~r- '1Ytt"tJSC.E-NdA-t..
-fvt..Jc..Tlotv~ Whtc.-h. C.lhJ b& C)c:.'P re-s~E:d tJJ le rMs o+ SI\J(UJ 1\"t'ld
Ch(IJ). Tht~C" l'rN:. U f:-f'( 1tJT:f'ESIUJC:1" ful'lC.JlOtJ) 'T\:> ~E: Mf\Th~Mf\-TIC!ItN,

IT 15 (.)JOrTh di&LU.S~\1-lC:> 'Prob\.ti"\S W~tc..h 11\J\IOL.Uf:;-

f-l..L.I Pnc... pJIE;<:>rfH s ~o You 68" fr +e-eL ..f-or- ThE PrPP6fl~ft7JC.E-


J}-} f'hYS.J'-5 mud 80Gr-ltJct-rttJG. Ort<:.-aNI\lLI;' Tht'f !,V(;Kc u.St-d To
dE:TeV'K\r-IG Th~ LE-1-lc:,Th of lt-rV ;t.LJPSE. I
1.. ITS P&R1ME:TcR.

IN The- fhvAL.'fSI~ of A SwtrvC:>-ttvG PctJd.IJL.uM ThE. 6ovc-ri'JINCT


"D1f-\- E-~ttJllf\ L E: Q U f}'TlotJ IS

ThE 'PE;rJod. o+ O~C..Ill..f\'f\OrJ IS dc'PE:Nd(;-JVT ON The ftMpL.ITVdE-


of oSC.Il..Lt4\'notJ. Ot-JL'f w~E:-IV ~ltJ6 ~ 9 IS Tht 'PE-rtod ttJdC:pOJdev'T
of Atv\p\.ITUdE:; Tht AbovE.- chffc;-WTlf\L F:quA'flotJ 1~ SoL.ue-d Tht"Overh
Th .- u ~ c- of- e L.t. I P n C. f:WT- C:d' fl t..S .

Now bECA-VSG lhL Tht5 1.S Vf-a't'f boRJN&- To Lcf\R.N ltbou7


Th E-~t- Sf>E:.(Jftl. f-utvC.TIOIJ.S I'LL (::.tv'& ~ou ft!J 1Nif:R&57l~b PR...ObLEH
VJhE:re ~&-&E. Weird.. -fvt\Jc.Vll)rv:) COM - 1.1p. Tn1S PNbl.~ wit~ ~or..ld,
b'l' The ~.Val\''1' MTE.-R ThE:- ttrJSwe-R. wAS I~NOw/J.
I

S v '? ?o ~ ~ w l'trVI 7h E:- ""'t- PnJ of 1W o rvu M Q e- R.S s ft "/ I tttJd 9.


W&t..L, Tht- lh\J~WCf' IS ~.S'I' ~ThE- 1\-f'IM<:::ThMIC.. MH\N IS 5. 'i3cJT,wfiiT!
WhAT AbouT The: GtOME:-Tf'IC.. Ylc-fh.J.S~ IT 1~ 3. Wh,c,h t.S Tht-
b ~ fT ; R ? ~v pp o ~ E: I v.r fl-t,JT Th E:- M ef\'T-J 1-'1 E-fTN o ,. Th f: G (" &f) M fIt JoJ.
Wh'{ t->OT 1J\KE:- Th& 1"'\.CftrJ of 3 lt-Nd 5 wh1c-h. IS 4~ fl.Nd Th&tJ
The G. E-O t'\ E:Tf I C. M eTh1 IS 3. 8 13 1

b9
?

1\.10 w W ~ c. ftN K E:- !:: P c., o 1 Jl..l <:, U"NTI L. W6 G &T w h ~T I S C. fll.. t. 0 The
&Aus-&'$ n '-A~. Tht~ MI'TY be- C..At..LE: d. ThE ltf"IThi"''E:.T~ E>t.o1"1E:TrJC.
Kt-11~ ot TWO tJIIMbER. /11 1
)1.. IT TurtJS ouT Thfri ThiS
fV\E:Af-4 I~ G:. IV-N b '(

::

f't. 11
c:le
{w-.l.sltle-rl"\"Lcos~e

You.. wooL c! be: httr-d Pr-t;~5E:cl 1""D ij~&OC.IATE: Svc..h A dlt.f-.cuL'/


ft.ttvC..TIOr..l Wll'n S u c.-h 1r ~IMP L. E- lciet\ A .S COMPliTIN &- A
M tft,J b U'T 1T I~ TY"U c.

To 1\-MIJ&E.- 1'00 furThE--r t'l.L IIJTR_oduc&- 'tov TO fl- NEoiA.J Sf;l


of PE"C.1Al. hitJC.'flOJJ~ IN fl \o(~EL.~~') buT ltJT""e;RE:.STit.Jb W(t'{,

So""'E;- o+- 'l'ou. hA-Ve- n~I\-R.d of C.OtJTfN\.)IrJ()- fff\C.TIONS. ThEY


hf": of Th. t:- ~ f' M

I
X
Z,-t _ I
Z.-t ...!..-
Z..+ . -
IS of The: -kf'M

x~ '2. -t J.
X
lfJ~\\Gh I~ JU~T fr QUfTdrt\TIC. f:-QUffnOI'l X. [\)ow WE-Cf)iJ
IN
V'/'rf~ ThE;- F 1-.'i',.....+h R'?ThK ot Tht- -f-r;rc.notJ b'f c.l-.AJJGIN~
'Jht- f'"Eo-pE:11TIIJ E:- t-.}VIV\ b (;;-(" S J t;. ~

l 1" _j_
'2..'-t - '
I+ ...1-
2.+ _L
I t'Z...
X ::. + = J -\- X
-z..+-2-
;x
WhiC:..h ~~ A(:,f\ltJ ft quf\d.v--Anc. IN ~. No whA-T
MI\\TEdl
i<.&P &111)0 "N "P f\Tr;-R.N "(ou 'Pl c..K <fou WI L.L ALwPrVS &JJd vp
eNITh ft qv/tdf'IHlC. R.E:L.It'TIOrJ6),tp
,\low tT as 'POS~JbLE:- TO c.ONSTflJc..T A CONTLNUUJG ft"ltC.TION
Whl ch ck>~ !VOT ~A-vE.- ThE- r'h-iThMIC. r~pe-nno,.., o+ The ftbovf
+r1\: \..'3) 0 ""' . T\1 E; ~ 11'1 p L..t';> T ]JOf.} 6- rhyThM' c. fr 1\-C.TIO ~ IS> 11-J e
~lL.1>w 1~ G:. + I
2.. ..,._,_
3+_1_
Ljt" ~
Stl
Flt-~du..\G The. for- Tht ~ -f-.rf}\..THSIJ ~ <;> v1Tc d,fJ.,c.vL:r.
-to-rMvl..lr
IJ,~-fit,T IT ht;l..d. V P /he- dE; VC.L..O?I""'\-1\fT orf Th~ /Yfot11C. bol"'1 b
1Nh1L.f- we; worK.e;cl IT ouT. warn c:oi\JHd-f/TbL.- E:ftof"T "/OU
C..l\1'1 &how The; Abovt.- .fv.A-c.TlotJ lS 1::-9 vAL To
- ~ ~ J, (- 2. ~J
Jo (-Zi)
HE-RE. The- ~'I'MboLS J, ITrJd J<> rt-.fcrt To ~E.SS&L ~NC.TIOJJ$
50 We SE:-E;- ~AT The-.!:.~ .SPEo"' A L. f'\JtJc.TIONS Cll"tJ 'bE;- R:E-.1..1\-T&D
To 'O~dtl-!1\R.'l N\JMbeR.S.

BE:-~E;l. furVc..liOI~~ frRE- dE-hrve--d AS dt:-f-t...,ITE; ltJT&C:rRfH.. S


11\.\ 11tE- i=o \..LOWI~Cs. t1r\N.._,frR

J ,. cv) :: J..
1\
}ll co 5( n-t - v s
0
11J t) dt
Y\. h~re- ~~ AN !t..IT-<:. t:-r 1"-idE:.X WIT'n v bE:lt-..1~ fl VftrlhbLG.
Th E: f' ; tr<' ;' MJ'TN'( wft'l'~ \Q E:J<?Rc~~ The ~E:~ScL 'Fur-Jc..noJJ
I

ON[; MO\- C...OMMON wt\"1{ I<:)


Z..Tj
I
J"' (. V) -.1'\ )
"2.. It z. I>

E~.::,s e \.. f v N c.:n o ,v s A-?P E:--AR- M fll\J 'i' Tl"' c. s w nG- tJ m t. , NTt e::, t'tH..
IN"OL.v~~ The ?roduc.,T o+ ~~1\.)e;~ f\1--\cl co~IN.5. A t.oT o+
'Ph'?~\'-~ Prob\.E:I"'\S TURr-.1 u? B~SE:I.. -h>Nc.-1lOtJ.S .ONe be11->&
IN T\t&- f\1Vf1~ Y S I~ of F R& qu6fi)C.'I' HOd vL. 1\TIOIU. I I'J /h,~ cASE w6
h ~tv G- fr 1Y' fl t<ls M t n-~:=o w ttv f:- G> 'v e-1\.1 b~ A c...o~ cp L-c) Th c-
1'hi'\St- cp Lt') lS TlMc vfln' 1rJ~ ft~ The: Utf'-rlf-r +rE-qvervc.'(
tS>ModvL.f\'"Tec:l. b'\' ThE; SlbNftL -frE=qu~c.'t' 1
y1 1.l, ThE- {).Jft1)e

-\rcqvnJV( jw tS w 0 ., a..,()~ C.vt).

7{
Sar-.IG- T\-tc ?nitS- lSI Chfli'JC::>Itv<O IT d.~Pe-rvds ON Jh{;- JJI.ISl"J4 tJT&OU.S
f r t-q 11 t1J c:'( IAJ e. JJ c t ci "1"0 s o l v E:- d_g : WL-t) or
dt
1 :: Wo-/; --t ~ C..O~ 'Y'!
Th\J.S The Slbr.JAL IS dcoCnbt-d AS

A c os ( w o -t -r ~ c..o s ~-t)
NOW v.JC; 1"\\C.:,~T h~K. whAT frE:-qiJcrJc..'( CO!Jip0/'H:N7.S ARE Thfr~li
11-1 ln,~ wAv/lf.. whAT ~~d~ b~d. -fr-e.qu~rJCIE.S 1\1'~ c.AR.R.Ied? Wf:.
t-leeo To evAI..vATE: The 11\JTE:.~f"AI-

( ei vt
) C.o S l1 VJo i t ~ c.D~ ~ t)
4
4 c.

To dfTE;'fMa~e how tfwi~J<:.-h of fr~quwc..'l' v 1.S cArt'IE:d. ThJS The..N


I~ f'rrJ q A-Mpl.E: o.f The- usc- of It C>e-c::.S~t... NJVC.11ol\.l.

IJ\}~q;.vcv&a... ThE: 'Pf"Ocl.;-M I!I.IVOLVC'~ "TWO 'DIM:1\JSIOi\JAL WAVe


'ffoi>I\<OI\110~ or l-'le>nQM '\?)f;~SE;L. fuNc.TioJ'J..S tT'P'PcflR. ~\./c..h probLEM5
A"'v WttTH" wfl'v cS, dft\JM hel'!-d V\ brliTlOI\J ltNd o-ner ProbUMS lJJVOL.VJJJ(r
C'J'LitJdY"IC.Al. S~MMEoTt"l' tJJVOL.Vc f:.OLVIN'=> ~&S.5;L .fu~Jc:TlONS.

'PRo?E.R.Tif-S of i)t;~tL .futJc.TIONS

tJO~ L\KE- 11) dJSC0~S &OM~ of The:- ?roPt~TIC.5 o-f "BeSSEL.


I'd
FOtH.-TiONS. The SIMpi.E-~T fo.,.t1 of ~c- be:ss~L -hJJ'lcTo}'J J"p.~t\1) IS
WhE-r-J lhe- aJildG I( l\ =- o f'ttJd w c h.ltuc ThE; "t. tro or dE: r" bf;-::.~~ L ~IV c'TloJJJ

:fc (. v) = ..!. ( Z.i\ iVc.ost 1


o 'Z..i1 Jo e crt
T'ht. nTh -ntl ltJ\Jd ra-1 ordf:r bc>S~l... tu"H.'JlON~ c.~ t>& r-t:l.ATI:d
Th~ o0 ~ h A f'E:c.v rs ION Re t.../\110 N ~hI)> of 1he. ferN

"Yl J", cv) = i [J.. ,cv) -t J._, (vJJ


oR ~~i>rE::~SE:J #ttJOT~ER. WI'T'(

Jl'I"'I(.V) -:: Jl\_,(.v)


v
T~ E=r E:'fou: 1f w e- h "l v c- It T tt b L & o-f 'Jo lt.tJ d J, Th t- N w e. "' ft v e
fiLL h1e:.h~::a<.. ord:r bc$Se;-L futJc.'1lotJS b't osuJc.. ThE. ~bo'/6-
.fo "f"MVI.-A. Th\S ~ ftlle..S A- L.oT of WOR.K.

72-
~ J77
1
LV) = J"' (V)
dv
by c:hftE:~6JTIA'ttrJ<::. vrJcLH ~t- INlcC.t'"ltL SICs./'! W<:- \-,"u'-

f\1\ld. b\f E::x-pfhVdlrv& Th& 'Produc..T of The SINE-::> ,q~ The J,ff:-rE?Jcf
~ z. c.o~IJIJ~ w& c.ft"N WRITE.

.Jn'(V) ::: - -i_ l J..,-t, (V) - j~_, (V)]


Ol'nt-r '? rop erTIE-S of ThE: d E:- n u f)Jl u E: o-f ~~ E- ~ E-~SE- 1.. furvc..TIOJ-1
ARt:
d [ v""' J ~ ( V)] =- V "' -j..,_ 1 (V)
dV
J_
dv
[ v-~ J cv ) ]
V\ -- - V
-l\-
Jh-t CV)

5 J, ( v) d v =. ToCit)

sv Joc....v) dv -- V J, (V}

s [ Jo (v)]"L.v dv -- vz..
2.
[Jol..CV) -t J.-z. c. v 1]

73
Bc--~SH. fvrvc710~S Jh>p~ ~UCNTL'( IN 'Ph'l'5tCS A-Nd. OJ')G of
ThE- Mo~l COMMOf0 <:H. curENCE-5 IS llJ ThE- fortv~ of- The- SoLL>TJOJJ

to fr chffcre;vTlAL EqultTIOI'I. Slt.~Ct The- dlf+f:-rE-NTlf'rL E-((vffllOr../


IS tMporrtWT IN ?h'{StcS, I'LL A1TE:-"MPT -ro WORK. f'r 'PRObLe-M.

SuPP~'" n-.ffl wfr(r;;s tn-<..&- ""PR.OPftC..Ihr~VC::. INStdc A


C'I'LI~dE;; of 't'Pr1)11J~ 0.., ThE Wfrt~S 51\"nS..f..Y The Wt\v
t-qvJ'I"f)O N 61\1 E-"-1 bY

"1.. : . d'l.. -T d'l.. d


l...

aa
dXl. d'1"" -t"- t..
(}
\...GT1""\~ -hrSI C..Or.JSidf=r Th- cftSE: Ot ltlJ JN-ht-.1\Tt
C'(I.\~OER. ANd T'ri.E WfT'rE--~ ftr"- roi'.H-Jtt-JC;, VP AtJd dowN.
Wf\lJT A S0LV1")0N WH1C..h IS of Th& foRt-1
lp (. 7\1 Y J /t)
1 := e , wt F" ( )\ 1 '(I a)
ltJ 1"'1"11<:> <&olvl)ol\) I l'tM LOOKII\JC:. -k>r- A St>Lonor-.~ WITh ft deArNITf
fr~q 0 e-N c 'r, w. I Al s 0 w fi;VT A p f1r'n (.. I)L ~ ~ TY' l'hJ E-t. I N (:, v-J I'} v :
Wnl c..h h ~S ""TI, e- 'Pro Pe-c-T'i Ai iht- wA-LL tT ~ o E-S TO '2: E=-0, I. E1
lf -=a A-'t f=CA.. For Cot--~Ve-NtE-tJC..c- tT IS e-AStcRJ"l) woRK
IN 1'01..1'\it C..Oot''DII"-lfU-S 1)\Jc '"1"t> ""Tn S'J'MI-"'ETRY of ThE ?rObL-11.

7lf
T~c- So\..u'l)Or-1 wout.D I.,E:- o+ Th~ for-K
i wt ,- K .:c
lf>C~,'?,:t 1 t) -== e e G(pc.oscp 1 f-'>~'f)
wh~.,.~ I TY"ATVSforME-d :X A) fC.O~<f fhVd. I{ A-S fS1rJcp, g.jow I
c flrJ D rff t1 -tVTl ffl- fhJ cl G ~T Th t;- ~'( 0 frn ON
I -d'- r d'- ) ~ :: ( wt. _ K'\..) G- -= \ "- G
lax"- a(J,. c.t. - "
_A l~ sot-'\6-TIMt;S. "Ha REF~RRcD TO f\~ nt& Elbct-IVALVc~ of ThE
1),ffc-R.--tJT\fH. e-qvtrnoN. tJo % VftRJfT110tJ,~E:-tJ
Non 1f 1 httd
). = w;c. . N~ w T'O 6 o -Nrlht:-r I t-'\ 05T T~tTh.>S~rM ThE:: 1:>\f-k-r&.rnltL
O?E-rf\101<. To ?OLh<" C.UorcittJft-T5 Or U#t1'1hbt...E:S f fh\ld ThtS cp.
T-rl'rtll~rt-'1.1\"nCN tS Ac..c...oMPll~ht-J u~ttJ(!) "In~ c.hAi.Jiir R\ll.E.:

Ncrn<:..t;- ~~r~ ,.,..~ l'lO Str-3-=--s or- C...O:)JI'Jt-5 \IV ln;- &<;>uffllCHl.ThtS t.)A5
IT S \,() oL 0.. bE: 1
S \IV Ct- ih; 'P ("{) b LH--'\ 1.5 S 'jl,.., M C'ir It.. Ato uT Th ~ ~
m1s. NovJ we:- ~e-e-d To .Su\..VE- ""lnf; ~~d\tot.J

I .;)2 ~
-t- -
f"L d cp'l.
ASSUMINCo t-.)Ow ~..-~ Th& MOM-JJT ~AI >.-= w;c. ftfJd I hA\1
No 1: vi'\"RtA--notJ .sh~tt.L rrY ft sot.v-noN of 1h~ fo~t1
(;((', <p) ~ F(pJ PC'f)
ThE-R- I~ Rf-ftLL.'t' f'JO CTO"Od. R..~Ol\1 w\-t'i' Tf'r' ThtS SOLUnON
oihff l'rltTtJ I )(IVC>'W IT WOfKS . .IJ.ow-V8f.I IT IS 0 l'JL"i' w\-\b.J S'Pe<.tAL.
~tS-01-'11'{'\ eS PE-rt-'\ I I Th ftl Se-? fti<,.rTnO rJ of V ITR) A-bl. E:S 15
Wo"<""Th lY"Y IIJG. W l"fn \ 'PLUG ThiS SOLV"nOrJ I NTt> Th 'Dtfft-r~A-L
f;qutmolJ 1 hf\VE-

cp ( F" + .l F') +
f
F
(?'1.-
Cf'' = -.!!::!.t.. F~
cl.o
~HE'S whEitE 'PE:-oPLE: frr<;;jUE; A Lint.& bE:C.f\V..SEr w&- WilL J)JVJdE:
Thr-o-u0h b~ F cp. \ (,of;-SS tT'.S oKPr'( To l)o -ndlT b~c.ttust
IT WO'('KS!

75
__
', .,., IF U \VIDE- ~I'"OU~h by Fq> GtrT

F'' t (~)F' cp" - wl.


F
+
-
fl.cp
= -c1,...
Now f+-tE \S fTtJ IN"Tt-'~-&:::.nJVo "POIJ.JT. Th ;wo T&RttS otJ
fk E: L e-h- 1ttr1 & UtJI qu c- 'PR.c'Pt-R.T\E-.S. T h & T&r,..., 1N F IS o.NL 'f
A-1 1= u J.J C..'T)O N of f W hI l c The TESt~ \tJ ~ 1S 0 tJ LY A
Fu~c..nof\.1 of cp. \~ p~ncvLITR. g> Mu.>T br. Pr v&R'i SPc.r&~.
Fu!-!c..Tlol4 wh 1c.,h .s r:rn~-h~ The- &qu ffllON
ifi"
_L ~ - nt.
f~P--
wh e: 1t ~ Y\ 1S Soe-1~ c..o!VS.TI1NT. ThE- SO.tiJ1lotJ 10 Th 1s E:-<(ufffJO,J
IS JU~T _ ,ncv ~ rh -c,'nrf'
~ ( 'f) :: e e oR y c<p) =- e
ThE:- M0-51 GEtJErf\'L SOLUnON wOuLd b~

~(cpj =- ASIJ~n<p tBC.OS'Yitp


ThE: SoLu'T)Of\.1 MVSI bE pe;-r,odlC.. Th:-t"e-+orc n CftNII.lOI b
L~).S Jl.;fhJ 0 or Th~ Purucn~ MIJ:)T s~sfi The
IMtT-C:> ltJrh"Y.
'Pt. r ~ \ (. ft L COrJ.STY tTl t-JT Th tf1 Tht'fl vJh e rJ '{ 0 u Go ft1' 0 UN d. '3 b 0 ~
ynu M\J.ST hn-ve:; ThE:; .SftMe fvtJC..'TiorJ G.&. 1 l"OIJ MI.JSI fEtrd The- .SIP-1t
'P R. E:; s~ u 1'" E:: or 'D t) f' L ftC..EM E:-J'I,.J""f.

Kt-.>o~Ntl'iCo 1)\G SOlvTIO!IJ --K>r Cf> 1


Th 8(vflllotJ R>r F
ChlV bE; ~OL\/Ed 1

F"(f) -t f f'(('> - ~~ F(f) = - :z. '" F((')


IT 1"::> c...otJ V - N I NT TO C.. h f'l'1\l C:> Th ~ S L-A l E:- b 'l L Tn ,U '- (" : t fl.
S"<-h ThAI f(f) -"> .J ( .z' n.). l'he,u w&- c.fu.J wrti

d1{fl) + ld.Ji.n.) + ( 1-
d n. l... (1., d rt.
n_'l
(1..,.
)J (rt) ~ 0
J-.,trt.) \S> 10-ov...> The f3~~E;L ...f-vN(...'llu~ of- ThE- VfN"'1ftbLt fl. -f}rJd
Q,.,or.lSTIWT-S A SO\. oTI<HJ ~ Th 't)\.ftE:f"e-NTlAL 'C-<:(Vdtl 0 tJ. 'Th U-5 vJ{;-

hfrv&-- As f\- C-0MP\..E;'TE;- SOL UTI OtJ


intp iEUt t'.K~~
<:r = e e. J)'t (rL) e
7G
I~ Tht~ ~OLU'T)ON Tht- Bc-s.5&L F'IJt-H..TJON tAK.E;S '~'\'\ 'PLAC.E:
of Tht-- ..SIMPLE-- SttJE;-
)
COSitVG V~rf}TION IN f) DN'E: 'Dif"1E1V5tOtJAI...
'P.trA 'ProbLEM. The- ~~~E:-L t"VNmOI'-I IS ThE- iWO 'DJt-'lf;r.JSIOtvflL
fu..\1\ LOG at 1n E- S \ I'J ~ t'T-Nd C{;.s \ rJ & S.

The ~;.SS::L futJCTlOIV.) 1-t-AV& SOMC"- INT&RE611JVG PI<.OPRfl-S


lhJd vJ e- Sko v Ld. TA l(e ft L-ou K. ffT ~oM~ of- Th E.H.

The SIMPLEr~T wAVE: or Hode- of- "The- l)&ss.~L fur-.~c..-no,J


'Doe;s rvoT 1)~:1\ld ot.J c.p sol ThA-t n=o. ThE .fvlc..noru JoCfl.)
LeoK.5 L I Kf ) ' ..Jo ( rz.)

~ ~
11.-= J{f =p(wic -l{; )'",1-f wE:- R&q U1 Re <P ::: o llT f =o Th 61V "'J"o CX a.) =0
I"''Pll~ ThA-t J(-:: "L.ljOS/a... f.)ow 1-f- Wj(. 1\ LOSr ThfrtJ '2..1.{0)/~
Tht: frXPON::NI1A-L 1~ 1-JE:C..f\'n\lf- f\-r.,ld f'E-A-L fhJd i)...E; wftyc- wiLL

fJoT PRoP A GfrTE: ''"'10 ThE- p 1p ~. D'N Th~ ol'-'erh;n.Jd. 1-f- Tht-
frc-qvENc..~ I~ hi<:Jh &JOu<;,h I Thf wftVt. CofSJS '1-rf\-tV~MI1TE:D.

ltJ ~E- cASE- of A DfllM nfflcl k:~ =o fuJc:!. iht.- -hrsl ~lfrur~l.
-ffib91J~t.'i' IS W:. 'Li2_5 C . tft(:,V!E-r fr8?UENCIE-S COI'ffSPONd TO
ordfr :cero~ ~-r-Tht- ~t$SE:-L {uf\.lC..\TlOtJ. ThE- ro-crrs ~e
h1c..lf\E-f

NoT I t-l A-NY 51 t'IPLE- M\J Ln PLE- fE:LI\itut-lSI-\1 p Tne.,E+c::irE- Tht-


NCT~ -h-oM. A d.,. UM ME- IVOT YlE- LO d I uS. A 'PI CT\J R: Of- ThE-
~\("S T 3 1"'\od ~s of ThE- ~ E<'o o rdGr b c-ss E L -fv r-1 en otJ ARc :
1'1t + 'D&.JoicS AN

The
8
Lcw~T Mode;-
tV
o-\- 1nc- t1r~T ordE:i' ~~S.t:L fv~cno f-1
'
'I

'
'
'
'
opw~d
'DovOic.)
MOTt<lN -
f't do~r-.s w(tcd
M01)\HJ. Th- ""Drtsh Ll~ f j
0- N 01- J>J Od 6- S

tt-.h/ 0 L \J~ f\ <p d Ei' &Nds=- tJ C.~ fNJ d v-fh"" 1-t-S frS COS cp J I , ~
I, ( Xyo)

77
/v co~t
Jo ( v) e dt

dt-

Now d-o)'J' T KtJOW how TO 1tJlC <a r ITIE:- The: 1-u).) ci)O rJ GO::> 1<_ -t.
1
flt'ST 1 L L <6&;- ,f I \) tJd 15TJ~~rJd b 'i TE:<H
A cos-itt- s l.Tj
0
IT Te\f"'\
~
cos t dt
0 I 'lTf
I c.o~-t
0
2. c.ost.t T1
3 cos 3 t 0
1 GoS 1 t J4 II
WE:ll IT LOOKS Ll~- IMAi' be- A-bl- 10 SOLVE- ""Tnt$. l Atrfltd~
'
~tJoW At W\IJ~T bt- f;-Jf;-y..) O~tiwl~t- ThE- ttJT;(:,t"~L E,~(.)/tL 'CEiO.
1'n c-R.d~R.E- /t~ T At : : 2 J.. i ~ b -I tJ & fl1J 11\JTE--be rt. Now 1 w fhJT n>
ItJ,. E- ~('"AT & s Ll\c:..o ~ '2.X t-
0
dt" . 1tEf LA-Ck- Tht- c...os I t.Jf- b '( &~otJ ftJ7) th r ,

_L. ,( t.n L e it te-t't] ...e I


a-t,
1..:-:.>o

78
ArJd. VS<:;- ThE- '81rJOMIAL 1), tOt' 1'1 W"'IIC... h s "tl' 1(5
2 CX-r'i)
"11
- i nI x}l--k y .{
ll'.Rt -h. (n-.-k)~ )<(
\fJkE:-rE;- X -= e,
fh0 d 7. ., { 4 1f n{O
we- Now t-J t-~ d
r ll\ e "II!' t- d -t ~ ~ e J o't.f\ -::.o
~0 1'1! ="l.ij 1+- n~o
f.&""Nh JV I N (, The CrJ1"1"A l IE:-ff"'\ \1\.l lnE;- t-j. p t7rJ -S I 0 IV

j= 2J.! '-iL
L 'L;. ).~1 ~
Thl.\ .s (-1) 1 vL-f. {ciJ --bl -
Jo( V) :::: 2. Z.i)Jl - L
J..
em~\
/I
').. .
= l - (vh,y- + ( ~)~ ( t- )lo
I I 't.h.. ~ 3!~!
,~,

T\--.1S s ;rl &~ ~ E- "' fly -.5 ItS A costJJ6- futJc.notJ.

ll -
~ utJcno ~ 1s
.,. - '1 '
:: 'L ::!_ (_v;-z. t + (v/L) ..,.. ( '12.) .,. ..
"" l)'I"Yl! Mt Z.~()'JfJ)(Yit~) 3!(n+tXn+L.)(nt3l

~ W WE: hlhf- OrJLY "D8fLT W llh 1}1fft)C1<. VftLVE)


,-='It .ThE-N whAT I~ JJt(V.)~
1
of 'n huT LE:-1 $ !VOW 1'\SK Whiff 1-f

w HL w - h ttve- iY"o C) b L e bE-C.JhiS- vv :- d 0 JJ I r K~o w


II-'\ t'td I ltTH '(
WhiTT ('/t)! 1S. 13uT df}MrJ Tht- loRPt'Pocs Th t'tT 1-S t>IJL'( A
.SCfrLr-hrc:roRJ LE-T'~ ~o fthffid fhJcl lff YP 1h thUd SEt- whft'f

J,,'L ( v) v"
2- '"3! Ct)({){t)
IS JU.5l Tht- S I 1'1\1

:Stl, (V) ::. ~v


Jv
l~E;- cot0-5TY\1VI 1\)r'r.J~ Out TO bE- -f;;r . JStJ'T tT /t111t.:t-JrJG
Tht\'T 'J"h.,. cv) 1\)ff')~ OIJI TO bf- ~vc\, f\- SlMpL;- nrdP.Jft1l't
hJtJ <-'T)OM ft+1t-r frLL ThtS ~t<Pl-IW hrfJl-1-M1\1)c.t1-L hoJ.v5 PoKOS
NoTe- fvr"l'ntr-f T'ntrr St~Cf- wf hltv'f f!\ ft-cur-stor-J -k>rnoL~
~A=r WE: UhJ GOMPVTt- J 312, (>~) ltrJd otfiE:R httlf ordtiL
fSSS - L fu tJ C..'T) 0 N.S .

t'\Tho'D of- STeE-P&-ST Df:Sc.e-NT

l tJt)(T WfT-rJr TO 11'\L.l< PrbouT Tht- b~tTVIOR of-


lhE:- bE-SSE-L fv t-> c. no tJ -for Ltrrb&- V. T~\I:S
f\ tJ I tJT1(E;..STIJJG l.S
CASt ~ '8E:c~u~(- WE: A-GfhtJ hl'hl~ 7'0 E;-xPthJd ft 5
ft PovJE1 SEi<.IE-S bvl NOW bt:-- cARE-NL I 1\J vJh1ch. Ttft1S
IN t- 1-<E-t-P. W c w t Ll USe f\ H E-~od o+ ttJT-0 f A-TJ 0 tJ
W h IC ~ l S V t-c Y. use:-fu L Cft LLE- d Th - t-"1 E-1h od of STe e-P&..S r
DE.~ei\JT.
ThE- IdE-A \S t._,}VOLv"1::> wiTh AtJ IN'TE-0fAL LIK~

Sf'te c. v c.o~t d T
Ui. \
VJ he-re- V f-/1 ft""t bt I 0 1 01J0 or t-10 R 6

Now the- furJc.:notJ h LL fhJd .JJcVfiL


O.sltlL fTTE.S LlK-
't.IS fhVYW\-\E;-RE;~ }T IS GpJL.'( l,.AJhE-N INTt-(;rAn..,G 1'hrou6h
A ~ M Prt.L f lhVC? <:- o-f t WheRE- 1'h t- 1' h 1tS E:- 15 MOT C 1., fu>bl ,.)b
5o R.tf9t OV( Th f}-'J ThE:- ilV'n-b ft) l h f)-,S P, C h th.JC- TO
ftMourJT TO M'flnuJ0. lhe f0McTICN HAY LO'OK LIKE
f- ~~e:.~~~HJ cf c..hft\lGC-.
':>Low 'fhll-SE--

1i 11~; ' 1111


.; II

~v viv ~

-t
w~ ~ ftve- Tnt- '"' T"E--<::d"frL
1h t-t-t cl.'\1 e t' fitt> d t wheil. ~ cp Lt J =
j
l'1 t; rv c.o ~"t- t'hv d we- w ttNI w !(.tv ow w "'8t~ 1 s It 'P
MJ'\",X or MtM. l r lS oiVl..Y ItT l'nE- ;t-TY"tP"''oM Tnff"r ThE- t)JJ66rttL
cmv ttMovNTib hYVYlnttJCo. Thv~ we- wfbJT '/-trJ) ::.o whf(l.f-
to tS Tnt; TI~E- Thf PV!flSE- t.S NOT chltN0tN~.
""Dtff c REtJTlA-TI N G cf l-t) trN cl So LV pJ <c fa r +o
VSttJto -t Y\ :::. 0
-I
-lo -:: SltJ 2.11' - .n
v
l 61 1-'1 (;- (.yO 0 V f1 Th I) f\-<'o ih t-J 1t.l A t'l OR&- <::>tt-l 8"" IH.. M fttJtJ eR
StJJC.t- IT 1.$ I t1 PORT'fn.JT.

r =- )"""
.l
). - "? 00
Sup po~ t

oo
cj;)
C:f(:t)
I

e
w ltf-JT
, .>t t/>Lt)
dr
Lv h tl~ E.- ~ (. -t) ~ IS 0 t T.
J$t<i>I<.H/ _,
Co~lbll])olol,

I, ; 1.1 ~

Now we- wri"rJT cpL t J f>1( p,Wd-d ftS A- ' 'POWt-R .S Cit\ c-) hboOT to
cp Lt) =- cp l-t o ) t ct .. t o ) eV l +o J -t L~} 1.. cp "t to J
WV\~6- -t cp
,,~:..to) ~
b ftC.)(:. ~~ T
...l ::
t> MftRf

s G- L-t o)
0 . SubSTYTUTJ JJ <:,

e 'A 4> LtoJ en !p"l-t I Ct-; )'- d-t-


Th~: e.;cporJe:r-JTl~l en,cp''lfol Lt~o)' IS It Gtl-US.S.tfh.J OSCILLIYroR..
1hV d. h A-.s ""E:- c..h~A-cre-R
( - "'C r:iT
J e d+ = I~
HE:lZ-6-- rJ.. :: _ L..'A f' ' . Th tN Its tt-N ttP P J2. or.' ,. ., f'rfJo IJ
s oo
-~
G- Lt
'
J e LA cpti) d-1-c
.
: :." & l:to ) e
l(-i}" cp ,, { t 0)
"A Cto)

o (.) r c 1'1 S ~
j.._t G- -:- e ' " i " =V r.t N d cp =:: c...os t
~ \1h i o -=- o or 1. 11 6 L J-t i) ) :: .1. J (j/' (-1 o ) = - I
( tn
) '0 e
.: )1i
e
, VtoJ't
J t .: {]_ ei v :; {7 cosv - ~ v
rv rv rv
\{ + h~ SE-1/8" A-L M t\7\ I t1~ 1Th t-rJ rov ..J VST S IJH Up
fi-lL 1h t- co f'.rrn b v no ,.;s

6f
lft~T TIME- We We-Re T'f"V 1M'=> TO r 1'-ld ThE: bE:hltVtOR.
of The- IIJ1E:G.rf\L ) -fci) et,\Fltl d-t .fi>r lttrC::>e Vft-lOE-~ of A.
It-~ PAR1\C.I.H.f\"1' The- 11\Jie<.:.rAL. WI\-S The ~E:-SSeL -hHJC.TIOI\J,

t'vcos-1:
~
I .. CV) :.. e dt
'2:rt i "'
-wto t

Tht:- UiTt"tA"blf V I~ ThE: Ltt-rG:.t. Vft'flf\-bLE- A /hud WE:- PtfE: lt-.lTEl<C,STffi


I IV W h ffl" Th - Vfl L U E: of Th :- I IV I - ~ r ft L IS Th E- 0 J>J L '( II H e
The- fl'l1'e-t;~AL AMOOIJT~ 'TO fTNYThiiVG IS vvh&rJ Thf: 'PhftS:
I S C0 IV S~T 0 r S /7-1 0 M l't'lh e1'-'1 r<rf'\C-tf L l. 'I" W h C,v

d ( vc..o~t) =- o
dt
~IS CoNdiTION tMPLIE";) Thfl1 or t-:o or lf.

1-fHE- ~ E; ltvT\5- C5> r ttt'l 0 IV L I M ITS h ltV - b E; ~ tt-dJ U.S"Tc d S 0 W t


t:>OtJ T
1
n~- TO worr'l' trbovT Tht -hlNtllON flb~T ItT t=- 0.
\f WE- ~OW frt>prO)CtMI\-1& e l-nt ~ e',.,o I N- ~'-'
nNCL fE:Cf/L.L
)_: e c(tt di = [lifo.
WE Tne,v h th/E-
e
,v ) z.n-{,
0

e-'"
vt/ ~,. J t
'::'
e ,-v ~ :: e
i.v
e
-c.lt,tq .fe~
v
-'" iV
Now WE:. l'ttrv e 10 bE- cttrE:-hJLL be ThE- I ,VI E{:) r fl L F'f011 -co io-tw
COIJTOIIl~ ~lL Th c "ti~$ W hC;v ThE- 'Phl'lS STOP..S C./tit-JJ"- ttJC:. ,thJd WE-
0~1...'1' WfhVT OrVE- C.'(C.LE. ThE fu,vc.T10/J LooKS LIKe

t -:: 0

92.
'II..(E Hi\Ve TO EVftLufiTE- The I~TEbrf"lL ftl t= Tf NOw. T.:>
do ThAi IN e E;t'PIINd -for It shorT PhltSe: fl"1J(:,t..c I 't, ltboOT tiJ J.l
f'E:-!?LACE t bf "rt + t JttJd ~'Pfn.Jd cost = C.oS(Ti-t't) =- -C.OSt
5\lve, '"C I~ SMALL E"XPitrJd ThE- C...OStrJE: TO firST ordeR.
- cos't :. - (I - 't/z..) =- -I + 1'/-z.
'Sub~n1UTII\J(:, 11\JTO The !NT-GrttL
) e iv<ost e int dT ;:: ) elVC-1 t1'/<) einW J-t'
ThiS 11\.lTEG:.('fft. ClhJ bE- -JftLU/'flf:"d. f'tlJd.. 1.$ E-QUf\L T1)

e
- iv fJlf-v e c. lt'fq e i nrf
Now we- httve To buT fiLL Tht~ $TIJft TOofrThcR.

J~ LV) [ fi e iv e _, ri/4 + ro e- ;-, e '~lq e ~"'} i

-t"fl.'t(h
we: C.t\lJ W"f\Te I
1'1
:: e )
bnNG;. Thts
'-
OuT f<-nrv' A-rJd WE- h ft\/e
iV - , n if( t. - ilf/ q -iv inl( -tLTfJq1
Jl'l cv) e e 1t. e
-::.
[ e e e "t
filrv
n,c- Ei< P r~.s IOt.J tt-l ThE 13fAc..KE- T IS J VST ZC. 0 S ( V- .,-l - "Y-1) S 0
w : h frl <: Fo r It F t rv AL f=7C P f' E-S s 1 0 N

--J
Y\
cv J =- fi iv
--v-rr
(! cos ( v- Yl-11 -
" rrlj ) FoR. Lft"R~e- v

'vo/F;; Should Sl'QP ttf.RE: 'TO "Df~Cuss fh;c,tTIN ThE Ph'!"~tc.lk


~E-ft"lVIt-1~ of Th( SoLo110rJ WE; hl'tv'-- JU.ST" obT1hN. IN G~E;f}L
ThE- eESSE:-L fvNc..TIONS. ftPpefl-r 1/V Th~ SOl.UTIOIV of ft TWO Dlt1-N-
$t OtJ frl W fh'" E: ProP m-:::.1\ilON h ltV& So I.. V~d fott
ProbLEM lJJ f:;

Th~ oun>otrvco wrtve- c.oMPOrJC"NT. ThE- Two du-1e:N:>rotJftL


WfrV f;t,I(JQ.~'f PLOWINIO 1fH''o1Jer.h. E.Vf:i' .. C!.l.C.LG t1V$"1 bE
lrJ'-'E-fS:1..'( ProPot1\01Uf\L 'TO The- 'l<frDIU~ ot ThE- C..IKC.LE:. ThUS
"""lVl~ C0E:-ff\C..tf:10T -f'iv C.:dVe-.5 ThE- c.o~R.~<..T ~pliTUdE;-
dec..ft"M1-JT To 'Proclvc..~ Th~ corrE-c. r ~~db\' "De-c f'-.ftSE- ft5
lh f- w frV E- ProP tr<P ttes ouT.

63
The t>iM&NSIOtJ L~SS. UltrtftbLf:- V IS rE-t..fTTC"d iO Th:- rttdtiJ.S
r ItS V :. ~ rt.. or \1:. -k n.. Whet-e- A<. = Y= wltVf- /'.lUMbrr
/f1Jd. '(-.. I~ Th~ Wl'h.lt- LC?vG.Th.

A G-ood QuE-.snotJ TO fiTI~t IS t+ow -oo You KNOW ltJhel\1 ThE


lt'PPROJ<t~-ttmoN. IT wtLL 1\JrrJ ouT ThA1 The il"ftlJSIDOI'J 'F~OH snn-u..
V To L Mot- V ttrJd. "f'n t-- flb o v E ASYM PTOTl C.. be- nttv1o r 0 c.cu r J /IJ The
RE-b ION of V "' l't. 1-l-owE-ve-i<- . TO STRI')J6 hT.forw tW"d wft,l( -ro &-o
1$ 1'0 iP tbJd. Co.s t '1 o J.J t-1-T h 1v, h i f o rd 6r iCR M. /Tt..ld l o o I(.
Prl ThE fY\Ar.. )'oJ 1Tvd e- o+ n.-.e- c.orrE:-<..nopJ T~M.

E~pfnVc:lt..,G:. cost to hl<0\1\E-< ordt-r we- hftve I -tlh -t t"~lz,y


Th-N et.'vc.o't L'V -t.vt'"ft +lvt'~ftlf t'n+
-= e e e e
E:: X. ?f\lJd IN Co ThE- L ~T TWO ~ POf\.1-tVTl ftl. S

e i 11 Je c: v tyl. ( I t C: V t q
Z.'t
f i , -t - n1 t '-) J t
'2.
<OivE-S 1)$ Tht- PRE-VIOUS f"f:SULT. in+ Pr\.H: A co E.-~ 10 ~e:Ro. Now
wt: t-JEE:d to cvALuAr 5 t~ e-<i.tl dt fhJ d 5tt. e_o(-e dt.
(' rJ..t'"
Stt->C ~ .} e- d-t :: ffo( DlftE-rEN'1lfmN6

S
, e -o<tl. dt
t~
I r::'
:. .!!I ,.,.Jd
),J. 4 e-.(il d_L
-~, ~ =
'- o<. 3/1..
4
Wh E-f"E;- cf... :: i.. Vfz . (\} c W ThE t '1Cf' M IS ~1-rJ. S H ft LL E-Y
l"YYIhJ 1n c IST 0 1' d 8"' TE1 M AN cl i 4 Is ~ o( 1.. SHALlf:-R. Coi.LH7JNIO
T er M S Th E- I NTE- 0 fA L
,.-
: e
cv ''t.f,
J;:v [I -t
iv
2.4
3
"'-4 (-V/tt)
~ et" If: [1iV
-+ 3
Zt.l
-v L
t'
i~4]
-
zv
NaTE:- Th t;1 BeTh co f rE: <.11 o tJ -r ~ns tTr E- of Th-~ ord E:r 1/ V
f\'N d CfhJ Tn Cf e~ fE- bt- COM b l Ned . 'J"' ( V ) I S ThE-N o I VC1J b 'r'

J"~ ( v) :: ~ ..!.. Cos ( V - l'l_] - Tf)


{j
_..
....
_!.. ( /.) ""'.f Oil COSJ fi.)E;-)
iTi v l. , yl/7,.

Now You httvc- 70 cOMPitR E- Te;RI1..S 11) Sf;- If Th ~ S-t--co ~Jd 0 Nf-
IS IMPOfTt\lJT.
h fhl :-
Th 0 \) 0 j.;T IT -p E-C () 1.. f M Th A-T I K WT TE:f t15
l.
It-\ 11 t 4 ANd 1-10 oTh:-rS t=~Cpt n'tt . I DID 'ThftT bHflVS:
ftS V IS L.I}R~ f: i C( 'I IV . T y, ~:; r-r y t 4 ~ v _!_ =- 1.
A-N d 11l. f!.. n'- . o( I h ih'E- 1tJ Tf \.LI G 6vll Y t<.e-pi
v '{/z..
ttL. L
v ThG

To se-e- how 1'n1~ 11-ppro){JMrhiON eftN wOR.I< Ler's Tfh{- Th(;;


Jo LV) be-~SE:L furJC.TiorJ /Wd C.OM P v;e- ThE: -h rsT roOT US IN(:, ThE:
11-bov ~ ltP P f'OXI M I'Yf"!t>l\l , }: or ThE- COSI N f:- T"O [3 E:- 0 W E- W ltrJT ThE

~VI-1E-tVT 11::> b~ tt'f'l ) ,, ~I v- Tif4 =Ttfl.. 0"' v: ~ 11 = 1..3S.S.


ll11S c.o P1 fMJi:'S WITh ThE; tT C. TV frl. r00r 0 f 'Z. '1 0 S , Th c f')Ctef
Y'ooT H-~Uif"E-':> V- it14 :.. 31(/'1.. V:: 5.50 ft-~ C.OMpftorcd WITh
S.'SlO. AT ThE- Th1r-d rooT wouLd b~ /l?Pf"OlUMAT~L.'I' ~2.7fn
:: B.b5o c.oMPAA.E:d. WITh 8. <:,.$4 A-c...TUALL.'f, OtJtE 7ht -hrsT
~E-Y"o ttProxtM trno t--.1 1~ H f}DE- 1 ThE: rco'TS~ A-Re c:rood TO
WI~ IN Pt I 0
/o,

Le-T 1 5 tvow CO~SI'De-R ANOThf:R.. CI\-S;- o-\. C.OMPVTiN& tfl~hL)'


OSC.ILlf!TnR.Y INTE:bf"ALS Th1~ liM t: wt' tl C.Otv.Sld1' oruL"( RE-AL
(;..,;pot-Je-NTS ftrld. .fvrThe-rMot-E- we'll 5tJPPoSE- ihc f-u~H.'J)'OtJ hitS
tJ 0 1'-1 J't'x I Mf\- It-> 1n E f rh\1 G E; of 11\lT f; C::,r t\TlO 1\-1. ~vJ do We
GOI'1 f>Vi&- Th t- UA't. Vt- of ThE- IN T E 10 r A l. 1
CotJ~IdEt Th'" \rJOHdi\L s~ e -(f"\""Hc)). d,x
I 7 X'l..
'PLOI TV\1~ ft>tJc.nOI\l IT LOOK~ liKE: ftl(} .,____ _ __
wE: Wlt..L ev t1 Lv me- Thf:- 1 tJ'"T t-0f"I\L wh c-R~
_,
Th e; N t-> t. n 0 IV I $ b I <? <? &-S T fu.J.d Th fff W I L L
bt: PJT 1 0N& e rJc! or Th ~ o~ ~r o+
lt.>iE:Gff'rf)ON. ll-1 ThiS fvf\Jc.notJ wt LL 1
L~
1- ~1. e-~ IS Thw e"~A ftNcl. ThtS t1trl bE
frVE:r'( .SMf\Lt vALuE- bur STlL.L. &T..) "The- ONL.~ C.OtJTnbvnON'
WOY'IV\ fu.JYTh I N G>
'W &- w 1Ll tJow E:7< p thJd hgoor ;x =t ' ( LE:'f X: 1+-t
Wht:-r~ V t~ IT SMrtt.l. NVMb-r. ThE- ltJiE-~t1l'L bE-,DIVI~5
00 -l'. I"Lt"l.Yty;!
e --~ dv
)0 \ -t ( I + '( }l

~5
::

Th~ ii\JTECO l"ihVd ft d '( 1 tJ~ ;;' POtJ - 1-)T I AL ThAT 1)o~!>~'1::
IS
Rc-quu~& MU c..~ Y TO KILL \T. So w~ ~AVE- AS ft1J
fTp P~IM f\1l0 tJ

S~ouLd. 'POitvl OUT ThAT .J.. lo~Cv-~-Tftq) IS


ThE- s'T'I'nVdiN~ Wit~ SoL unoN -ro ThE-
rv"Ddft-rENnftl E--quttno~
I Sh~uLd h ftvf:- 1'W o S.o L VTII:> tJ S, Tht- OTh1~
, I':. Th~ ..L S I~( v~ l!.Y
rv -11)
~~
/h.> d.. 1h 1S ':> o L. VTloN 11\1 tL'-' d ~.) sour c.~..s Fff 1h E: o~1 (:r 1\1. nus
oTher SoLIJT)OtJ IS CfllLE-d thE- ~ ~v""'~ fut-)<...1lotJ t\").)d We- ~\,ouLJ
1:>\SCV~ \T lVOW.

FRoM i'r.t- l)E:SS-t:L ~U~~Jt.notJ DE:f,JJt1)o,J ThE- dtf+eR~TifH.


e:.q vl'fTiol-4 J~' + ~ J"' -t C 1- )'\lv'") T =- o
ThE SOLVTIOI\.l cp = 1'\J"'tV) Wl\-5 ObT)'htJE:-d -for CfrSE-5

of tv 0 IJ .S I ~ 0 \.J L l'triT I E:: S frr 1)1 t- 0 fl E:> l ~ } f Th f S 0 LUTI 0 tJ


Co}JTfn)JS .5\N00LI"rRIT\E:.S A'! Th c ORI 0 1~ 1 ThE: JJ ThE- OThe-}2..
So LVT\0 1\.l '~ 13 J'- n C. V). ThE- C.0MPLt-Tt- $0 LUll Okl Q f
"{)\ ft C1e-Nil ft L -Q v th"l 0 N IS A ll tJ b4-R.. tOM b1 1\J trn ON o..f Th
-rw o ~ 1:> l.. uno rv~ 1 ' ~ ,

\f Y1 IS f'IIIJ trvTE.Cot=l<- ThE-tJ :lnCV) t)-rJd J~"'(V) -hJI'JC.'TIOJI..IS


frK_f:- fE'LI'\TE:d b'i ThE-- R-t..ffnOMShlP

'JYI. (V) :: (:- l)\1\ J~h (V) foy n:- IIVTtGE;tl..

The: tJE-vMI'llV tvNt.TION IS ne-ht. H;;d IJJ TC:rHS of Th t':- \IITft fl bL E f


J\lfLV} SINPlf = J'pLV} co.spr; - .J_p(V)
-k>r evq-"( p tJ oT !1-JT.-G t-r.
N"lV) 15 JUST Tht OifhoC?ONAL .SEH.. uno1\.l TO n,c-
Difte""&.r11At E-qvf\'nor-J. '"""&'!' Obt:'l' ThE- Sfu'1t; rE:Co,)rSION
RE-Lf\i\ON~ i'rS ThE- J~"'(V'J 5. Thf-
1
-c-:-c"o1h orde-r biE-UHfn.J
fot.~c.notJ IS

-t V 1.. - V z. ( 1t 'lz. ) -r V 6( I+ i -t f)
-'2j -z}Zit. z~q'Lb""
NolV) <:..-oNTYtHJS A LOGtrriT'hM\C. "'DIVE;r'(gbvc..e- ftl v= o. The
Two U.Se-fu L Y"E-lU rs I 0 IV fo f M .VL.~S AA c

N"' :: 1\J"nt\ - ~ ~~
Nr_,lv} lpllt) - Np(v) T,,_, Cv) =-rt?..v
'Jte ASYt'\PTOnc..
A
S OLu-no N of JJ..,Lv} IS ffv SIN ( l V _ rr: - ~)
COUPLE:- M 0 J<..;- R:L1);1 oN~ h \ ps

N0 (X J ::: - 2
11 r0., CoS (X COShlT) du

if ~0~
Jo Cx) :: 2
.SI~ c..x cosh u) d u

HftN\<EL 1
b&r , bt:i fu rv c.nou s
'The. frR.t- S &;vE:RI'H MORE -f-vNC.DOIVS Ct.oSE-1..''( R.E-LflTc'D 1'0
BE-~Sf:L fuNC.TIONS tuh1c.h frrc S-~ fflE-C!fU~TL ~. /nE--Y ~E:-
FtLL foR."" ~-d by L 1 t<l E-M cot-'! buv A-no~ s o-f. ThE- "J ' .S frNd JJ 1 .).

Th f:- 1-htrJ KE l fv IV cno 1\J Nlf M b <.--r .1 IS


sr , iv
1- H P cv ) -:. J p c vJ + <- Nr ( v ) 1\S'i'HPTtY/IC.
---'---:::0 e
2.~4 II 1.
fort-1
rv
n p (V) -:. J p(V) - t: tJ 1J(V) ----:":> e ~ ,v
SoME-T1McS ThE: ~ES.S e; L fu..,;cno N 1s E'1- p rE:SSE:: d IN i:\hSTv
of A- COM PL :1- \/fl1t I A-b L 1 rv w hI C...h c. A SE-

J: ( -i-i. X) ::: bE-f' X t , be;i 'f


i;)e: r fhJd. () e ~ /'fY"E:- J U.S T ThE- R.. Efh rrM:I I H A<~ I rJ fW. V p ftRTS of Th E- ~ :-SSfL.
.fvtJcno~l.

87
G ENE R.An N (0 FUN C Tl 0 r-.1 S

I'd ll\(- TO ll'tLt<. Abov1 (?bV-ff\111\J<:l fvtvC:flOIV..S 1-JOw.


GN E<" f'ril tJ ~ f\1 N c. n 0 IV !I f\-f t:- -S S W Tl f\' Ll V S f-9 U -f-1 C.~ of fll N C..']l 0 I.)S
LIK- Jo 1 "J, 1 "'J1. J J 3 I t=Tc.. ON~ fot-J c..noiJ Co/J"Nh~.S d.LL of ThE
B ~.::,.s E; L f v rJ c. n o .tJ s .

To se~ tt wE- cftl.J d e-v~t.oPc- ~ ...t!>&Jef<.A-T11Jb fvrJc.notJ


for 1\1:- ~E;5$L fvi\JC.1l0rJ. l :-1 1 '5 ScJPPOSE- Tl\f: ~E::5Se:t.. fvNtTIOtJ5
"Jill''SAitSf"~ ThE- fo lLOWJtJ<":I 1Wo ~cL.f\llONSht PS
71J"11<.1/J : { (_ Jht-t i Jn-} (/)
Jn 1
~ - l1.. ( J n -+ 1 - J n - ) Cz.)
F Li, v)
(3)

Tv\\~ d e-t' tv 1110 tJ .ST\ YS 1-f


H71 VJ IS E-i<PtnJd.E-d ftS Pow&.. SffitEJ
IM t ThCrJ ThE; wc--fflciC7VTS th?..~ The- ~E:-.S5E-t.. ft.JrJcnONS.

L1 1S -rr~ fhJd SC""E- tf Thr~ d~~ITio.,; WORKS. 11ut.TIPI..Y


t:q, Cr) A-bove b\' t Y~ lmld ..S v t1 ov :R n, 1. ..

l. )'} t ~ J ~ ( V) ~ ~ t"' 1-.-.; I


n ~
( Vj -f J{
~
-t J
t\ \1\- I ( V)
\NE:- rJ-d. A- WIT"t' TO crPR.G-~S Tnt- 5ERJ{--.) IN iC.--rM~ of F. LE-I'S
(3) bv -t {tt.Jd. M uL'T}f'L'i bV t,
t d P(:t, v} ::: Z. n t nJ )1 LV)
Jt
fhVd fro 1'1 R bo vf

~ ( ~ t t J F (i, v)
i' R 1.? C." E-d I ).) G TO Su LV e Th J<; 1.) 1f{-e-R eNT"\ f\ L. e-c,> U ftn 0 .J
0~
dt -; ~ F C I -ri t )
_.., =- v ( l+tl) d+
'L.

ofl. :: VdLt-~)
'2..

88
A IS Ft co~5Tft1Vr of /NTGRA-11otJ It~ fttR As -t e:roc-s.
A c.ouLd b~ A .fu~c.T}o,V of V W&- t-J~E:-d to ~ot..VE:- .for- Atv).
Lt:.l'S soLVt Jn I :: -{ ( J~-.. - J 1-\-) b'l' MULT\pL.'I' IIVG. bvI t."'
A-tJd .Sut'\MltJ<..
I i" J~' - -{ [tt-l JV"Itl -+ tf ~["'JYI-1
OY
~: - -i (_ t;~ - t) f L-t I v)
_v~z. ( Yr - -t)
F L t, v} -: c Lt) e
lhf- COf'JSTfrrJTC c.tnu be- f\ fv~VcTlOI0 of t. J..k>wevf-R SJ~CE
IW; 'TWo FutJcnorJS MIJ.ST A0R.c~ "f\'\E 5cflLE- htts bE-E-~--> c.hasc,u
I

svc~ ThA-T C -=A~ A fhJd Th~ -hrvAL R.E:.SuLr ,s

j\J.oi: Tht1T Th~ poweR 1:-}CpltNS.LOI'J CftrJfiJOT bE; IJJ IE-RI-1.5 oi t- Y.,:
FrNd. 'tV\ 1S SCCMS 1 ~ <..0 t-'.S l.Sle-NT WJ'l).. ou r s Tl'tR.ll tJ ~ It 5 s u ""'pnu ~.
Ir 1s tv&cc-ss AA Y -to ~ p fhV d e -t fh.>d e- 'lt S~tT-rftTE:: LY 1\5 ThE
SVMt-1\ffnOtJ fi}~S frot-1 -~to -tot>. ThE-crp#'ThJSIO,V hA-SfhJ
~SE-N-nA-\.. s ri'4G~U LtrR1T'f A;- o AT oo.

Vf?.
To
Li. Yt)
SE:& ,+- Th,~ G>b.JE:-rtrnto:~e:, fvNcnot-l woRKS Lf=r HE- EXptrNd
e l'r$ li '0 ov b \.. f; S E;- f' I E:S
v17.. Lt- 'It ) - [ ~ ) "' _!_ L "' " (_~ ) -fz I I

LE::T'S
e
C.CMpu"Tc- Jo,,.(.
-::. '!:..."'
YI
n=o.
""'1
f
1
'
L-
To 0t-T 'Jo nl"'uST~v{H-
* "' /..1--h-
.:/fCJ t
_,k
OThc-v-wtSt fti.L The- Olht\" T'fRM.S E-A-1 f:AtH OThe;,~
L
vf2_ Lt- /t)
1
-=- -z: ( _ y_t. )~ _! _ _ vt. (v't..) .1 t
e ..ft. ~ cJt! )l. - I 4 c, !)t 1"" 4 Cl-!)1,
ANd 11 worKS.
IT IS v tf '< I ~T&f -STI ~Co ThA-i Th - C? 60 t;-;1'\-n tJ C.. tvtJ en o A)
C.fr.V LooK. so S\MPLE; bvT A-T ThE- SITME-'TH-1-Rt-Pi2.E-SEiVT
S U c. h IT C 0 Me\. I Gltr-6--d fv I'J en 0 1\J. & TJ -Rfff\ 1\l ~ fv tJ C'T' 0~ S
fn'J... ~ v e,<.. '( usE--tv L w n eN ~ e- curs I \IE-- RE- \..A-ll 0 rJS hI f> s Ai'P effl<.
'g
SvPPOSE:" t =- e (. soMf- C..OMPt..cy NVM bE:R ThE-N The
(::lbJ fr l'mN es, fu NC.1)0I0 b~tOM - S

e v/'1. (e'e- -e-<'9) -::


-
e"Z.V.0~(9 =-
Joc.V) t'Le t'.,t>J n(\1}
t\"rl)
i" f e"~"~" C-I)~Jh(V)
ThE; PoiSSO).l UISTR 1b u"T I oN

I10 0Tn E-r TD f-S-r-A- b l I ::, "' Th ~ Id ~fl 0 + f'r G -tJ E-r ftn N (, fv f\J (. '1l 0 1\)
10 'f ov r M '"" d l. -'r M : 0 o lnrou ~ h A IU o lhE-r II'JTe-ft-) Tl~ G:. ~ ftH('tE.

Th ~- CJ.ftMP\..t I NOO\..V~ 'l"\--E- D~v floP ME-tJI


o-f ThE- 'POlS&tJ 'DISTY"I buT) ON
'\=u N c. noN. fts '?ou t--trh' RE-cALL ThiS fvt->cno1\..l IS use-d 'T'C -h1Jd ThE
ff'obA-b\liT'f of DbStt"VItJG. A- E-r'TfhtJ f'.)vMbe-i of E-V'~Th If'.! l't <i>tVE-tJ
nM.e JIJTI;R.\JAL t.
Th~ t-.1-NI occur f\1 ftTNdOP-1 ITNd frrE- .S.'Tt'fnSC.ItLLY l~dff>E-tJdE-NI

crf Cflc.~ olnER. wh 1LE IN /lC.TUhl Pl'"tt<:TI C E- f'r LO'J of t.'-VtNT 'Dfi'&Jd
ON ef\Ch. ol'VI.er 1 N Subll..t- fhVd C.OMPllCf'rTcD wAYS I
We- .S httLL
Coi'JStder ThE- h ll'0\1\J EX lh-1PL- A-S. frrJ l'Df;-f\l ONf. Svppo~E- wE
W frr.!r TO Cll l.C. v Li\"1 t- I ThE- ~HI M b t--r o1-- r fh 1\l DR0 PS ..ffJ L L ) tJ G. 0 tJ
A cc-rrtnt-J sqvfrRE- +o-cr- o-f -pflvtv~wr- ,~ f1 C'o1vt-N nMt- 1NTC\v~L
-t. Wh f)-T IS The l>robf\btllT'i Sl "DroPs WILL. TftLL uJ ThiS 11HE-
I NTHV flL. ?
Wt Wt\NI "J'Q Flt-Jd ThE: ProbAbiLITY I
Y,.ftC1)
I
of 0t-TTIJJE>
.h. c...ou tJTS tr.l Thee tNTE-fVf\L c+- liME:- T. New wt- t->H-d ::.onE
Mffi:)uct~ o+- T'v-.E- rAT: Fn wi-Hc..h ThE- c.ovt..~T'::. ME- oc..c.orr-JIVC..
Pe-r- SE-cOIJt). LE-T us c.flll l"'h.1S /tvc-r(trof:- NVM.b~ o+ c.ou..,TS 'Yfl~
5(;-c..o!Vd ot. Jw dT 1 hE- i"rob A bFl-tTV o-f A IJ ~~ 1s pro porno.v 1} L
To d.T b'l' eX... 1f ell tS 'lb-o 5 horT 1
'11--E-N t-Jo EvQV-
1 WILL occ.ur.
A h fA-~ u r<=- o+ how LONG '1'0U w11-11 8:1WbE'IV E=--/E:NIS IS ON The
o r-ei E-r ot I /rf.. .

oc..c.v'f'
Now
IN
wE-

lhE-
w fh'JI TO
11t-'\E- INTEr vAL
CAL (u l
7
me-
-t
The-
AT. ThtS.
Proofl-blll T';'
IS WRtiTfrJ.-1
of * COli NTS

( I - c<.dt) 7--k cr) -r ()( dt Prt-1 CT)


Th \.~ \ ,5. )"n E-- .S vI'"\ of- L l T I e~
l:ri Th t- lW 0 t"lllf 11 ttl L )"' -}\CliJ.S I Vf
Th, E;- p fOb f}'b1

c-v ENT~: lhAT .k E\1-NTS hf\vc- oc<-uv-rE:d 1JJ T fPJd NotJ~ oc.c.ur IN AT
A-f0d ~AT A.-t tv'f-NT) o<.c..vrred t~ T fn..\~ I &Ve-NT tN AT. oC.dT
JS ~f-- Pre bfrbl L \ T't' ON E-11" C:NT IN dT S 0 )- 0( dT I .S ThE
'ProbA-biLI"N ot- NO ~&-vf--Nn tN dT. 7,-fcL"T) \S Tht:- PrubAbiLIT}'
You h tt d h._ EV f-NT S I N T I M E:- T.
'P~ (T) 1" dt d P~ll) "::: '"'P.k(T) - Q(d"t (]'R(i) -t o(..dT Y-k-.C1)
dt
It--\ The- oTh of"c:lt:-r lYlE: 1Wo smc-.s t'\uST fr(:)R&E ftl-ld ,.._, ThE-
,~ ord :-1" wE: f"t-qutft Th~ ftC:>f':t J ThtrHort- we- hf'WE:- A nrftc-ro.mflL.
EqvtfnOI\1 1tJ Y~(T), vt:C

d P~t-r)
d-1
W t- ~ 1 soL.. v E- Tn IS S&-1 ~ c.f D 1ftt-r E-NT1 ft L E-q u fYf)o t.JS. NOllct
jJ\ v
The- 'Y,ft.L7) l'f>. frPPE-f\RS I~ f\ rtcurStoN RtLffllOtJShlJ;, wt'Tk?--h.-1
ThvS W h 80-Yt:i 'lh1S h m'?f:t.JS wE:- S ~ D0 L d eft ll I ).l fr 6CtJC(l. rtn~ C:>
-fv ~ c(j') 0 1\l '1'0 ht;t.. P v .) fn.. 0 rJ '- Wc W ftN T TO "D efH.> E-- P, Fu tJC 7) 0 JJ
FC.XJt) Wn\c.h hAS The- ProPEi'T'I' Whbl IT IS ~?ftr.k::lE:-d rrJ A
St:ll~
1
'POWE<' of X I ThE- c..o0f,( \OjT.) l\)r!V OUI 10 bE: ThE: r-h.tf) 4,
SA-11) WOVL..d liKf

Xtk.'P~LT)
\.f W:- M\JLnPL'(

ALL k Th -rJ wE- h 1\-V :

z.
ct>

1<-~o
X k. dP~
dt
::
'f ou wiLL ~ onLe- ThE- s HO r.Jd TE:i""' otJ 1l-- e- R.1 C:Jh T 's STI'I'X. TE-T.:> AT
h.= I It 1\"fh~ Th lhV At= 0. Th1~ I~ ~-<.fh.>SE: "Ph'l' S.t C.IIC.LY ?.. 1 15 de-f,lol6:J
To be :Z:E:v-o. The- 1-4-ffi T~~ IS H:fll..>tNbL~~ SD we WILL t(:,~Of(; rT,
Thus. U.StrJ<o The- d~fl).)I"""OtJ To'f tnt- (!)E-tJCCrnJIV<.o hli'JCJlON We ht'!V
~ F<.x,"t)
dt =
T'O SOLVE-
I
ll IS JUSI
F (X,T) = c. e- ct.(/ -x)T
1-t t: R c IHdrl tJ we- h 1'\Ve- TO w or f y IT bouT ..,-,., - co t.J S"'J"lTNT C. . Th 1S
1$ f\ COt-JS'T"'ft"NT WITh ~~ PE-c.T W T so ltJ <:.E-NE-rA-L IT covt.d
bE- fr tvrvc..'TIO"'l of X
I "' o RD E-R 11? P e-rcr""' \ tJ E:- wh tTT 1h =- C.OiiJ.STfl .N T s h o "'L d
be LE;1'S ~1\-MI~f: Thf: S"P&C...IftL PRO'Pe-RTIC.S oF f(.X 1 T)
w~qc.h Arf: f:-\..1\-"rf:"t> JC Th c '?hYS!C..S of Th~ ProbLcH. CotJ~1dE-1~
TIMe 1
T:: o Th E.N ~ex., o) .:: C (X). A-T T =o The.RE.
\'S \00/o Pf'ObAb1\..1TY of c~fo cout..~TS oc.cuffiN'-,Thv.S
'Po co) = I. ThE 'f'robA-blL ITY o+ \ oR. noRc- cv61JTS
oc.c..vrv ltu b AT T :::. 0 frf t f\ LL T:E 'R.O
I
1. [. 'P, c D ) :. 0
/
'Pl. (.0) =0I eTC
.
Th f:f E:-~ '( t- 1/J f;- M \) .sT K t:q 1.) \ RE: Th flT
F ().,O) =L.. X k ~~co) - I :: c (X)
F CXJT ) - Q(.( I - )() T
ThvS :: e
WOULl) ,JOW LIKE. Tl) ShOW ~0 'now l'D J<cc...ovE:-R
Th~ 'P& lT) 1
:5 b'l' ~?fhJd 1tJCo fl X,T) f\5 1\ 'POW-,<. SE--RtE:5
II'\ X. To '8E.Git--t LfT l-'\c wR1TE
-c<.."T -toLXT
FCX, T) :: e e

~ -otT
:: co<.T) e
.-R!
I1 d tv a w 1. 1K ~ 1t> Tf\ L )(. ft b o vI Th t- 'Ph YS 1 c...s of
T h 1s
-fvrJc1)0!'--\. F'tfST IT ShouLd.. 'bE:- lYvc- ThAT ThE- 'Prob A- b 1 liT'f'
ot tHl E-Vt-PfS ShouLd l\1)o vP TU I E

r
I '
0:>
L 'P~ Li) = ~ T) k. e-o( T = e -toi.T e-'.)( J ~ I
Az. =-o ~'-: 0 h. ~
~\d II 'DoE-S. Now 1"0 Ot>'TiT-uJ The ME-fttJ NvHbC'f of c.ovNTS,tJ1
l M u.s T co...,Pv T c 2:- j_ 'P,a. (.;) 1. l J

N: L. A<. ~=>x~ LT ) = L A Co( 1 ) l e- ~ 1


Sl 1\.ICt- /f<_ - I wt::- hfh!E-
~ !
L_ Co<.T)
l
e
-ll(T
= l_ (o(T) (o(T)
*-' e-o(T
~ - (k-1) ~ (~-1)! (,./i-1)!
J'rNd. 'bY ('~ bE-f, TV I tvG ~ -J ~ ~ SuM M '~"
N = o\T
8E: foRe- I Go 0 tJ I wovL 0 l.l IZE- TO 'PO 1tJT" OuT SOM t
UTl L IT '!' cft- Th e, 0 E-rH-< ft'n t-J '=> l=" u N C.D 0 N IN u rJc:H:-1 S.-mtJ d. I tJ <:> Th E:
Rc~ULTS. LE-T S
1
RciAH'lTE- Fl~JT) = e-oC..(l-x)T := z:. )(~ 'P.R-t.C.T).
If Th1~ we-<- ~-loT SU<..\... thU E-fTs'{ fuNC..IJO)J TO f;-f...'PftTJD 1~ T:rt1~
of X Wf: c.ovLd STILL c.h~<-K '1'0 S~E:- 1t 1T tS. C.O('ff:c.T. E.G.
0
ThE- 'PfObAblLT'< o-f loo"/o \S ju.)T X:: \ or F(IJI)= e- =I.
The Me-fnJ CfhJ bt- C..OMPvTtt> FroM '"bi-tE1""c-.vTtAtltJ<O F WI~
re-s fJE-C.I li> Y.. /hJ d. tv 1\-t..Uffil tJ <.=> ItT X :: I

- L )z ~ ~- I ?,n =~ kl_ {?_ ?~


- ~( 1-;.)T )\
o<..T e - o<..T =N
To c..o t1 PUT- The- M~ ~qv 1\'Rc of- ~E. 1V uMbE-R we- w fhJ T
[ J..'- ?A(_ T) - nffu.l squftft.:
IT I~ ~IE r 'TO ftrsT COMPvTE- ThE:- YIEflr-J Sqvf\'f N\1 !VOS The
htfnJ SIN C.t
~1 Z.ic~- ,rP~cTJ ~ (o<.rJ'"" t ccr
2
:: -= N 1- .N
dl'- 'f..=/

Now d Tht- 'ME-fhV NVMbE:-R ot covrJ~ \S tJ ~GtJ


IN f\ U-...l\1 1lME- 1'(\JTE.:Y"vfh. Wt- E:X'PE:CI TO 06.T
k. -N
-,
N e
k.
~ -N
ThE- 'Pr-o'BA-blLtTY 01 GE-TilNG t00 cov!UTS I.S JuST e lhv.S
Th (;- 'i' ro \:::dt b I\. IT'( Ul~ g ~ p 0 "'E-f.JT) ft LLr A- s N . ftT Tht- '0In tR
E-J(Ti E:-M ::-- fc i<- V~ Y L 1\-RG f N Th - ? rob 17 b 1L 1T)J 1) ISTr I bun 01\.1
C./TN bE- trP P R 0 .X 1M rrTt-D ll St 1'J o Th c ffi<.T Th f\- T
At ' ~ 1 z:rr ~ ( { ) ft
l \~ frS:>uMc-'D Lf!f<Ot- ~H.H.t )J \S L#tf6: IMPL'r'IN6 ft LOTof evttJTS
e>C.C tNf I NG1 TheN wE- h frV t:
'\.:)
\ .,fL -:::. "'
IV fl..e_tJ -..
Ac.. ~ -h-11!
ThiS Curve- LOOI"-~ LIKE

k --:::.
lht-
N
Mfn<.IMft
b'l' L~lTITV'=>
N
oc.wrs ~T
.A<.::.
=
NT..Q
~ = N . I wILL ~f>frNd 7 A-buul
Whet:- )( \S f\ + OY" - SMflLL
NUMb~R.

~~- _L
e -t ~ T t tJ-t..tJ h cdi-t)
- 1'2-n N
~Y\ N :: -h(l-t~) ~
1\.l ;- -t

1.-li tJ

Thus <?'*- I 5> fTf P1'0')( I 1'-1 1\-TE- D fT S


-:J \ - ( rJ -.,ft.)1...
r~~ -l- e "Z...N
fGlrJ
The ,....nd'Th of Th:- GffUSStt\-fJ
I NOw Wt'TtJ\ TftLt<- flboul
'""'rV fhJOtnfl<- ~PE-uftL F'ur.J<.:nof..l
Wh\C..~ \S ElJC.Ou~lf:-R.f;U 'f-R.e-tyUf:-J\)T L'r'- Th- 0f}t-!Hf\ FUNC..TIDN.
The- Gfh.1Mft- l'vtJc.nol\1 IS COMMO~LV USE-d WhtJ..l NOt-.ilNTt-6RAt..
1=1\CJO RJ Ptl s 1\i<'t- t1->c...ov JIJTf:RtD. FAtTORt fiLS A-R ~ 1\0'K.(; cu~ TIHf'r' BI..L Y
d~JJ&-d {Qr INT80cr UfiLUE-~ of n. Th& 'FoLLOW IN <0 'DfrFIJVInO)'J of
ThE: bfttJ\Mr\- f'\JtJt1101'J I.S f\OOPTCi>
\ Q:>
= )o n -x
?< e dx
Tht- l!VI;!0 ('t\L IS NOT Dt-rl~tu rO~ n L 0 S0 ThE- trbov t- dEf,JJ tnO~
ff"PPLI E:S 0 ~ Vt' -h> r "n 70 .
To PROVE- JhE;- ,,. fTE-C::d'ftL RE-~UI..TS ltV ThE- fflc.TORl ftL KC.ftLL
ThfrT s<l:> e -Ill>< d X
'0
= Jd.. , \F I bE:<=> 110 "Jt) d l.ffffe-rJTlf\TE: WITh
f:~ PE-t T TO X I WILL S T frrT TO 6t:T ThE- fo LL 0 wIN(:, I tJIE:--c r ft L S

\;:X
J
e .. a~.-,: dx::. -
rJ..'
\
J
x1 e-o(xdx -:'..:?
x3 )
C'x 3 e_o(xd,x.:::
J

fuvd W I t \--.. LI fT\, t- t-1 e-t,rrf) L e-f+t, f'T )vu S CfrrJ bt-- ~X Te JJ d e-- d TO
) X"' e-rA~ J ,x - n ~ w h 1 <.. h for rA ::: I IS J v S,- ThG:
o( '11-r I

/ N. or d rr TO :v f\ LU f\T E 'h l WE- N E:E: d TO C)( Te-Nd ThE


1) Efu.:l IT) 0 ~ ot- '!he- C:> f\1-1 M fr f= l) tJ t '110 tJ IJOTI rJ b Th f} T ~OM ThE- dEf-
1rv mo!\1 n! = F C. n t 1) cttN be- 1<..~ w n TT ~ u~ ' tJ b Tnt- ftK T Th ftT
n~ -= Yl cn-1)! "fv\E- rt~uL Tn.l6 r~cur-~10J'J Rt-LfrnONSltllt? 1S

~<-E- ~ c(ftJ be- 114Tc<Oe-r 1


J00~<::>t-f, R.Htt.. or coMPLe-x. ThUS froM
1\\E:- dt-tn.l\notJ wt hfrvE. ~ The- -h~ ftw !tiM$

r c') =o ~ =- ' r t~) = 1~ = 1 r c3 J =- z ~ =z 7c.

w ~ 'IL. -x
= x. e dx
J 0

Bi ~vbsT1 T'llltJ '=> X= yt 'th.- ~~~G>ff\L '&f;cot1E~


Th 1).~ wf: nftv e

95
USltJ<O ThE- R&-curstorJ Rt-L/TTIONShiP wt- hfhlt- ThftT
r( 3 hJ = '11. r ( 'tz.) = Y1. -rrr. Th vs pJ ~ f;Ntf"fl L

r c"' .,. -i.) ;:- tn --i.) cn - 3h) c s/1.. ) - )1 - --. -i r ( ~)


_ (.1..n-t) u . n-~) <.1..Yl-S) --- 53 1 ~
",.,
OR. 1"\--.E- 'Pr-oovc.T of fll..L Th~ ODD IJJJfbCfS 1$ Ju..ST 61\JCIJ
b 'f 1h c -f--FK.nH ' A- L fu .., c.. no tJ
r Cn+t) =-

Tn E: 13&-5SE=L i=ui'Jc..notJ C.fhJ Bt 'OE:Fl!JED 11-..l ~HS of Th


The Glh1Mr1 fv I'J~;..'T)orJ fH
2
.Frr
\Jh~ ~ \i ).)otJ ltJTE~t:R Tnt- \3>e-'&~E-L fvNc.norJ rs snLL DC'htJtd '"'
i'E;fn5 ot 1\-\e- <ofi'Hn~ FIJI'Jc...notJ, M-oweve-r 1f 'N ft:SutTS 11\.l INT;6(t1i1tJ6
OVf:f otJ'-Y P~r ot ft C't'C.Lt Thc p~ObLtM FflLLS fTP~I Al'ld. ~tau
1
hflvc- M:J -ms.re- ~r Pte.."\~(:, A bh"d N. lrJ 7hc- ut~~ of Jvl. C:t)
1h {:- f'"bOVt b~ Mt-)

J 'ft. (. ~) : 2-J S I tl (; 't ) [ l - CoS i]


tfTI
The- 'Ec1 fT F V pJc..nON

SoMf: owe h PJS 'DO"iYIE-R-d To ~~e- A rJcw tv~<..no~ (At Led


Th&- ~nrt FvN<..TlOtJ 10 ~L. Wll'VI T"lUt.nPLV IIJG TQ\1 0
GhM t1 A- t= u rv c:nor-.ts ro ~t-rh frR. Lf'l's ST'fTrT ~Y MuLTIPI.'l 1Neo r<r~o~J
bi r ('r\)
rolf\) r ('r\) = )o<.b Lib x"""- e -" d:x y ""~-~
~d y :: Yl._ 'l. ThbJ

\ f- Wt 11-\ I rJ I( 0 f ) !hVd "\, r'TS d E-h l.) , tl<D f'r P un.J E- w t- v..r I'ThlT 1\)
' J
c..o t-'\ ?o TI; ftlJ Ai' ffi IN l'E; ~ f" fH. ~ 0 ft G:. tl1 tJ LC"'TS c., h A1V bE- 1.1 ftr I f+ b Lt)
I

5-= rsuve lhJJ 7l. =n.. e.o.s e


lflt. ~ <J?_rt.t. ('Z.m-1 -tl.n-t) z....,-t tr~- 1
r U'\11) r (n ) :: ~ f0 0
e fl.. n. dft. 5 IIV e coS e d e
Now n--.t- INTE-<orf\L over 'iht- r1Td1u~ n_ tS JuST A-NoThtt- b~MA-
F= u r-.> c. no tJ
I
r ( wt -t r\ ) 1' h t1 E: fu r-t
\ 'lttz.. l."-' _, z."'- '..a de
rLW\) r(Y\) :: '- r (W\t"Y\) )o SIN e c..o:S I./

0R p l u I D 1f\0 o UT r ( W\ 1""'\'\ ) 0N Th t- F-1 !o '-'I

ThIS w h 1c. h s--q u AL S


I IVT to d1 L r l W\ } r ( Y\ )
o+ lht- ~~~ NN cnof'.) of }IV\ ttNd n (~"tYI)
J
r
(SC.W\,n) '::. rnl\i\) rtY\}
rtW1tn)
IT c rftJ bE;- S'hov..~r-l Th flT

BCMJYI) ;; dx
II IS lY'vt- ThAT ::.. ~lY),""') . ALL IT CfhV b~ ~how ThAT

)o~ _Y_l"vl--1
( I tY)rnt"'

i'Y'tt n :: I ~ E-N
00
r(IM) r(t-wl} ::. )
0
YM-I dy
I 1- '(

Wt::- h"1) J'('OVblt- TiV INC!:l 1'0 C.OMi'UT&- in~':> t!VIC'Gr-A-L by COJ,)J:Ou(

II\JT8:df\1lo~ ""'-1~ot:>.5 bvT II IS S-n'ft-lb'-tTfor.J Wf\"rd TO E-VAlvltJE-


VI f' G /TMM ~ f UrJC..TIO t.JS Th 1\- r
ro"") r (1-m)
-
-
Lrt t~) 1 t. = rt

97
TkER&- JS cr-l~ MORE c.u=r~s o+ s'PECtflL \="UNc.\Tlorvs
Thl"tl hit'S b~E-N "Dt<ONt-hE-d bv ft Nf\"M so tJow I w/hiJT ro
'D1Sc.u~~ ThEI-1 lhE:-~c At"~ ThE- SO U\LLE-d h l;-bE-1-Jdf- 'FbLYNOHIALS.
~hv-> ThC<"t- ~ Mtn-1'1' WfTY.S TO l:>~FitJE.. Tl11s s-1 o-f. futJc.1)\)rJS
bvT I'd Lll<.t 11> 't)C IT Ullt Th& C::>f-N\frnt-.>0 f,>.tVC..710N t-1E-ThOJ)
yrevtOvSL'\' ""'DIS.C.VS.S.E:;d.

fX)
IS
::: [_ t l'\ 'P~ CX)
{ 1- 2 tx ttl. rt=o

Nov.> ll'l A-dc.\1notJ To hfi'VtN<O l'r 10\JMbE--1" o-f Mlt"ihEMio/JlC.ft-t..


IHPL\C. FYfiON "Tht- ~ t-NC( An J\)G:> F VNCf)OI\J l-h'fS lhV tM'POitT1\'1JT
<bE:;oK:'ll'IC. A\.. SilO Nine fTNC..E: w rt\t.H I wfh\11 TO ME'NTIO N. IF wfh'JT
TO S'PECif~ Th "D 1STfu\Jc.& 13S1WttN '2.. 'PO 11-JTS Jl'J '?OL fT~
c.oord INf\TE S I wOUld w R ITc

!1.,1. = { n.'l.. .,. n.. i: - z fl, n.'l.. c..os e


If J CO~\D-R fL, L. [l.,_ ftrsT I
I CAN ItS
Th f=- RE-u Proc. Pi l "DIS.Ttn->c. c
I

1).. v~ w: c..t\"N E.- q !)ffi"t;. Th- V lt'R\ A'bLE;S IN Th G:>t:-Nt-Rfm N G


fvr-iC.TION 1)\.) ""IS E:-,xl'f'~ION

t :. )
x = c.ose
St~C.l IN E:-U:-<:.TrOST'ft"TIC.S ThE "PoTC-Nnfl L E:-10:-R(:,~ IS IN\/5l.SE:-LY
P(.tO"Po~notJ AL. 'To ~ \)IS'Tt'rtJc.E:-- bC"iWE-~ ThE- Ch fJR.(:,E;-) 1
t.. V = Kjn. 11..

OR V ::- ~t.. [ (~J" P~ Cc~e)


T'nu.S ft- JVVM'o~ o1- PrObLE-MS GOM- VP 11\)h~ Jhl5 ~fNt-rflntJG
tvt-)lT\ON fr'PPEITR~ So The lE.Go\)'Di<.t ?OLV tJOMitTtS ftj-f:: vsefvt TO
K.tJO'VJ.
No~.V 'BA-cK TO "'Jl.,E:- GE-N~tt'llN<o ~""' c.noi'J fhvd To ~.:> 1 sc.ovt.
So~V~.~o-1Co fn:>ouT "i"ht~E- SP8:-tftL N~l.1lOtJS. LE-T'S et<Pft}JD
( 1- 2-tx tf~,.r''L 1rv A- "Powe-,<- s6<-tE-S

( I - .., tv + t'l..)- IJ
"" ,. '2..
= 1 - l
2... (
-2..tx +-tl.. ) .,
- ~ (.- z:t~ -+tz. ) "t -r I
nt(:)l.t-r
COLL-"-nrvG TCit.MS IN ordE-f'';) of t, e orc:lt-r

( I - .,'- t X ...., t\.) -~ .,_ -- ' -t- t X 1"" c~"'t J


X1.. - i:., .J.(. 1. "T L
n1 CokE-r Of"at-r
,

Wt ThE- f, "sr- fht..> L ~(:, bJ d 8...; '?OLY IV 0 M l flL 5


'Po (.X) = I
P, c.x) -=- X

f...low ThE:- h\0\-\;-C' ordt1 LE:C::>trVdrE: 'F'OL'fNOMiflLS Cfn\J bt c:'..OMPUT"1)


ust~(o The- foLLow1tJ0 Rcc..uRStoJI.t RcumoMst,.,,pI
( 'Y)tl) ?"'+' (.X) C'Z.rt+ 1) X 'Pn <.x) + nP 11 - 1 (X) =0
h o u.r Th 1~ w O~'"'K S Lrl..s <..Ot-"1 P urc- 'P 3 fro.., The- ttbovc-

3 f\ - 5)( 'P'\,. + '2.. ')>, -= 0


5 y... P"l. '- r, =
J.{ X~ - ~X
0\"t
,,:!J-~v
"' (..1'

~L )2..(;-{..urs,\O!'> 1<-LffilO!"Shq:> JNVOLV:-~ ThE 'DE-RlVttnVf


LE. 0CNDR& 'POL'?tJOn\A-L) \Jil
1
I
( l - X'- ) f"' ( X ) t- Yl ;x 'P 'l'l tx) - l1 'P "'-' ( X) = 0

wftN\ TO Show \fOU now TO U~e- Th~ ~b'JC1C.trl1Nb


-n,Nt..n()tv Tb COMPVTE- Tht- Uflt.VC"S of l~rf\LS. SuPPOSE
I w ltrJ) 10 E:v f\ L v ft-Tt

lhl~ \;) NOT of Jl'JTE:<:>rttL5.


t-to~ 1)0 v~ 1Pr b l.E-5
l h 1'\VE.-

99
LeT t1 e;- De-h tJ t- ft New GE-N E;-1 ffn r-> e:, fv rv cno}..) G-(. t, s)
Whtc..~ hr\S ThE fOLLOWIM~ Dc-htJ 1noN

&l:t 1 S) = LL
l1o'\ )\
l"",.t..,.s"'
Th\~ 'Pe-r-K\T~ UOitJC:I Tht- WnoLE: St-T of lrJTE-offtLS ftT 0)./(
~r lh.Lhtwe-- TO 00 IS eJC.PfuJd 6- (-t,S)
I To f:,t-T ThE- Uf\LVE-5
of ThE- rrJTE:C::>ffiLS. 'FIRST J howwe,~, \ t-10SI INT-b~~Te

~
1
G-C.1,S); f [ f" 'P.,CX) .s"p"C!I)d.X

SvbSnNTitJCo I~ ii:>R ThE- G0JE-If!1ltJG fv Ncnoi\).S o-f Y..- (1\)

G- (. -I:J .S) =- '-


"T" -c-
C-
\+-1
)
I I d~
r'
"""' \-\. - I {t - 2 -t .X t fL { I - 2 ..s X +s 1...
If- 1 crtrJ 'Do \hE;- ,~.n~-'=>(""~L ot-J ~ l UhJ GE-l- TnE:- ~sw~ I
1
fttJ\ ~. U rvto1"'n> rJ trrc:- t.. 'l' , \ h f\"\Je- (_ON~1Y'u cTtcl fh.J 1~Tc 6 rftl
W V\\ Gh \ S. h frRd e< io 61 fT1. II trr- Th fhJ Th ~ 0 Y'1 b 1 J\.J"ft l S t-'T.
Thts. tS f\JOI ftLWfrt() n-vc so l)O~'T bE- dJSC.ovrfH:ocd. ITdoe-5
11> f tJ o "T 1n ft"r Th E- flbo lA.t ItJJe\? ,. ft L t fhV be- ev f\ LtJ1lre-o ITs
fttJ \ND-{r IN I\-- \)JT;-<t>RA L ltNd l l cf'rlJ be .S t MPLlfl 1) TO
G- Li, S) ~ _l )'h I +1sT = .1 Xrn 1-tw'
rs=t t - fST rw 1-w'
I ht\'V<=-- 1\) E:l(Pfti\ld 1hJ5 ftS A 'POWE-r S.fl\~ IN vJ
6 Ci,S>} = _l_ L- + w - wtlt.. i-WJ/-s - vv4;i.J t ---
W -r \IV + w;L t w~;~ + w~q t - - -

= '2. [ I + w" -r wi -t w' + w 2.~


~ s 7 zJ.r. +1
- ( ,-----;:) z.f
~
(X,.)

::: z. , /.Jt - 2.. [_ /J '*- t-k


(l A't. r') 11-,u zA~-r I

2.
l.At-t I
W~ I'll "DO~ ThiS 1'-'\ffl,J? FIRST IT Stl"YS Thf\T t-f m '"Doc5 JIJoT
e-(\>VAL n The-N .J..~..,.... -:: 0 0 'i""n. er- w 1~ e rf "M ::: n =- At 1
"' f"1J
= 2.
1..th-r I
fhJd. lhe-- INI;-C:>rAL hit'S Th1~ Vf\LVe.

j 0\)
The- ~,- Th ftT I W\ V\ :: .for
0 'l'YI :#:"h 1s fr v e:r '? 1M porTf'Thl T
P,.C!.u\. T SttJ(t:- tr IMP Ll ~ Thft"l Tnt TW 0 fu NC.noNS AAE: ori"'ooOrJfll.
Th1S }'f"OPE.<i"Y \S ft bAcl( borvt of Pr <i-0-od 'P~T of tJ!Pr1htMttrlcS
trtJd. 1,.- 1 s ctTV1lf7 L -ro The- DE--h rv l'no tJ of IT c.o M Pl-t-Tc- st-T of
tfu N c.'fl o 1\> S l 1 K. t- 1\, E::- C9-'f.d ER A11,... l &- <:>~ D R : 90 L'Y t-J OM I R l S

Tnrou0 h ThE:- 'DH tt-JtnotJ of ? ... CXJ JTNd ThE- 1<.:-C.IJSlSio,J


REl ftno 1\l.Sh l P IT C.ftN bE- '5 h o wrJ '""f"n ffl 1'~ t X) S m-1S f I t;S
ThE. f-oLLOW IIVG D\ fte-RG-Nn fl L E:-q IJ ftnOr.J

d - l
dx L u-~~. l
1.

~~ J T nCYtt-i)'P"'cxJ -=-o
oR. d
SJN9 de

TV\ R~orv \ 'Dt'frw fi-'Tff;N'i!Orv TO lrqS tQUIH,IT'{ IS. Thi'TT


wiThl~ l'nE- feT\"\,M of- 'PV\'1 SlC..S ThiS Urf+E-rc-rvnfTL E-qUfl'flO.tJ (!..()H-~
U fl V E:r'( fr8i v ~TLY th.Jd.. WE- I'Jt--6-d 1"0 S.OL.V;- tT. ThE:- ~(:-(I-SON
Th1~ ~VffnON c..oH.~ up ofTEN lS iYlrtr MftN'f 'Pl'"ObU:M~ 11\JVOL.Vc

""t t frP L r\-C. I fn\l


\J"L
0 p -( ""'0 ?
::l- dl...
I

T ~\.. + dl..
v a"' 1. ~ 1, ad ~
Th1~ oPtl'"r'\TOf" I.NorK.S' o1...J s.oM~ tvN c:.noN tcx,Y,t). If wc-
TrfltJ sfor t'\ f.ro M c tn1..1ES \ rtN Coord H..) r'ffE..S ""J"\l s 'P h C"f' \c. f) L co or d 1tJ ITJE-S
Thtl'-' ThE=" ltil'Lrt"tlftN OPeqproR. MuST l.\ K-W\St:- b~ T"~Sforl'1t-4.
WE- Mv.SI' V~E- ThE- Y"(;Lr't'nOI\ISVt\P'S

nl..f:. J.. ~ (!tt.dF) + I d ~~edF +J. cit.[


v n. "1.. o/l. oil- fL 1./JIMS a9 a e fl.'l-I.JW. 1.(9 Cf a
~Ot-1-'ni-'\E-S IT IS MoRt- C.O".>V e-Nte-N'I TO ThE- RfrolrTL Tt-~"t"'\ ~~

J_ ;)'- (11.f)
n.. ott1
rfr.:JIJ CtnV Show ""l"n f\T \ 1-ldt;t-J
_1 ~l..
n... o~~.,
L ( 1L F) :: _L. _.2.
11... '- afl.
(11..t !")
d jl...

I Dl
LE:T'S NovV U1~c.0~S A 'PrubLt-M. tNvoLvE:N0 Th-:- wftVe
cqvltTIO"-' 1N. ~Ph e<1C..!'tl co ore:! 1N 11T~ 1 I \)?.. F -=- -~ 1.. F.
Svp po~~ -hrs 1 ih t-1- 1 s 1VU 'DE-1'EtJJ:>e-N c..t-- 0 ~ cp
~ T\'"~ 1-'1 r\K:S
~E- P!bbL-M. OIVE- 't>E;-\::>R.Et L--S.'S. COM'PLic..f\TfrD. S INC.E- w~ K.t-J<,>w
?"' c(. o~e-) s f\"n ~.-he.~ ThE: e "DE-'PE-Nd f1J C.- l l E- T I 5 TR '( ThE

F ::: f.,.. lll.) 'P"' c co~e)


Tht~ f'rJIJ OuT G~ll\.lG SPhtrtC.r1L W fTvt- WITh ;:)OM- /hJ0uLth~
tS
'Disrnbu'T)otJ t:>t;Sc...--,btc-o .b'"( '"P"' c.t.OsG). IF 1 'PULe, ThtS
ll"'fll ~()Lo'T\O~ tt.JJO Tht- ~=hf\-1~:N11f\L -quA-'l\01'-l 1
\ 0ff

Yc.e ) I _d1.. 'l..


rt-
d!t
( !L fn(rt) ) -t .f"'ctt) d !J,.:V..e d Yce) :::-k't.f r'
rt 1.t11M e de de
whe-r~ 'fC&) =- Y"" t cose-). B't' "DJVtDJNC:;, Thr-ouGh b'l' fy'
/ltJd MIJLT!PL.YHJC,l) 'TY-roue:>h b'r' /l..'L We VtJC.OlJPLE:- ThE:- ffT{)\61...
lhJd PrN e:, 0L trr ? tTi'TS. Tn0.s Y ce > M u::>l s fflls ty
_L ~ Spj~ dy -r }"\(V\t-1) Y -=-0
St tJ9 d~ d"e
Thu;) '(C 9) I~ 11T& Vf::fY SPE=-elf\L FUNt'TlON Y"'c.wse),
1\!ow ~e- i'tWI tH p.,...,- Mv.S.T strnsfy
1 dz. (!l.f'kcrt)) ;- nC""+J r ( )
n... <fn..t rt't 'tn It .:: -*'l..f~Cil)
Tke &o \..uTI ot-J 1'0 Th 1'5> -o df-crE-rSTl fT L -(;{ u fm o rJ t S.

-t~ ( /\..) ~ A --rr:. J.,..,,_ ch) -t 'iS f.Kil N.....{(kt_)


5 ho 0 t..d Th CRt- I~ 1\-lJOThE:-R. St-1 of-
t-'\ C:-Nn 0 1\l.
rutJc.DOt.>S w hIGh. fh<.E:- Rf-L f\"rE;-1::> n> The 'Yn I s frS

Q"'CX): l ('t\
J_,
rp~C."f) ~
x-Y
SttJC..c- Tht:..R..~ I~ A- ?ot..e- 1\T X='( we- f'Jt-E-d lh.c-PR.INUPAt;
V/1LU~ o+ The- INTE-\::>f'AL, A- !Nord hbouT lht PRli\J<..tPftL Vt\1.-UE
of- fTrJ ltJit:-C?ffiL IS !IV Or-d -R.. S I.Jj>j>O'&~ I WftNJ 7U C.ALCVLftiE
"\l QuC.>C} , The"l\l I ltJI\-rVT 10 f;-\)f\Luf\IE;
+l
qoCX}::J. \ __!_ d'r'
z.. J-~ x-"f
Tht!) irJIE-C::dftL ~LOW~
~0 Le-T M- '8A-CK off
uP ItT 'f=-X
Of'J E-\"i"h-1 S\Dc- of ~e- 'POLe bt' ftrv AMOUJ\JT fTNd
T frK- ThE:- SuM of 'The: 1W 0 PftrTS. I. 6) <OcT rtcl of e=f Th

J
TroubLe 'SPOT b't' Lt.-T'"nJI.H::> E;- Go. TO o ttJThE- LIMIT

Qo ~ ~ i L- ( x-E __::!.! -1 \ 1-l ~


) -t x-Y J~TC X-i

: ~ ~\ [- Y.h c.x-,d]JC-E: -1
+ [-~cx-rJ]' ] )etC

-=.. i_ [ - ~---{:. 1- ~ C.Xt-1) - ~ C.x -t) -t-~E; 1


~ t 4 (',~)
Non c.t- 'Th <=- De-Pc-Nd.frJ C...E:-- o tv E 1) R O'PS. o \JT 'fr-<S rT S h o u .L D
lf- Wt- 'l'f\KE:-- E-q Uf\\..S fTMOUNTS OJIJ E-lThfi' SI'D:- of X. Thv5
WE- ~ltv t: 'P OS 1 TI v c- R 1ZEt\ b E-1 iJ 6 E- ftT f! IJ b '( 'ftj.}
A L I'\'IG E
cqv;\\.. bvT tJE:-C;,tt'nVE /tMOvrJT. ThiS 1'\C..TUt<.E:- LooKS'
ll ~-

y--:.

IT WrtJS. ThE:- Q 'S


OuT C.Of\.lTPn tJ
1\ll LOGII"'f!Tht-'\IC.. IE;;MS
?LUS OT'nt-r 'POV(I'lOMlftlS. ThE-Q 5 hR.&- US~L "TO "PI-I.VSI<:.S fl5
1

~-Y C.OJoll- IN WhfN A WAV~ ISG-fJ\ICrlfle-0 F-roM A- Sovrc.c ft(ON0


Tht- i- - f\1-\ s.

1 h ftV - rvOI 1"\E-Nno~V c d ThE- oTn ~ Sc lUTIOIV TO Th -


P..frotfll l(VfhlOrJ, ThJ.S SOlo710rJ IS 1)-Ssotthle->o W1Th :,Kpft1JdttJ6
foi'. ttl.. '-fL IN ';),IS Cft-SE: fhU\..) e _, f'nJd F= J.. 'Ph (<..l:)Sej.
(1.. n-t n.."'+'
IS rr "Jhe- 'Dl'f!f-e-R&J'JI~l E:quttnOJJ. 'fhi..S Soc..v\TlOw
SOLVTIOI\J '"ro
o bTfntJ.) wh E:lJ ThERe ~ ch f'tf"&-S cor->c & ..ny- f\T1) trr ThE:- OR.J6 1rJ.
For 1 c~ttr0& Y\ =o
?.., :: 1 J
JhJd F = ~n.. The- S'?n -fl cA-L
w f\Vc- 1 s s ~ t1 """JT 1 c s'P h t-r1 c ~rt L r .

\03
For TWO C.VIA-R<:.c-s fTI ThE- on<o 1rv A- - tt-Wd -t- ch~<b"C A
1
"DtPOL.E- IS -forM:1) W\Th A /ftt. cLE-<.TrJC. ?oT'1\Jllftl.. Vfli<fAno,J,

The-- thVCouLtrr "b1STYb0no,J Goe-s A-S 'P. (c..oseJ .=... c...ose. ThE
Nf-?<T 'POSSibtLtn' 1-f n::-2 or 3 c~AAGE-) /T7Th oR.r<::>tiJ_;'
lWO PL0StS fhJd. MINUS, ThiS hl'tS f'r t--10rE- C..OMPliCtrrE-cl
E;L~1Y'IC... PoT&vn-ALj IT ffflt.s off ITS
1
/n.. 3 fJd. lTtJC::>Ol.-l'ti"LY VfTRJE-S
As 1:. ( 3 cos t e - , )

cp A- NCo U L I'T'R. 'D EPE: J'J D-NC.:

So~ WE-- hr'hJE- rvcfJ woRRic'D ltbooT fh.J.Y cp ov-


A=l-1 M VTh A-L fttJ6LJLth<.. 'DE:i'etJDe-tJC. W \1\.trr If- The- D ISTn b uf)Ol\l
"Pe-p e10cLS o 1\l cp ~ fh EN ThE- 'D tffe.re 1\J'TI f} L f9 L) ff1) ON b ~M -5
~0 M p L I cffl-d. b "i' __L d t i= t+o weve-r J 1h 1~ l~ !)., E- OIVL 't
tt t.s 111le d c.pl.
1"%-iM Whtc.,h De--PE-Nd.~ ol\) Cf So we- KNOw F 1'-'?USI bE-
?roPor-110tJ fl L TO IT SG L. F, ) , l. r :. A-S 1 pJ h.'! Cf -t ~ c...os ~ c.p,
"fhv) ThE- MOr:- GE:1"0EJaf\l. ~oLuno}'l FOR F IS
F = -CH:
VU!L
I11
-n '~t C/I(Jt)
p
'P"'~ ce ) .4 '
1/h """ c.P
r~w. (6) 15 The- ftl\1 f)LO<i. o+ Th(;- Lt:C:>t-Ndrf: 'Pot..'(t-JOMI flL
i=or oTheR CASE-5 of- 'VVI :f o fh.Jd 's 'R E- urn-d. 10 7"' ct..oS e) by
P:' Cc.ose) ~ (!.)~e)"" d"'.._ P11. ex)
dx
\)Y\\oiCto~a) IS Cfh..Ld ~f ftSSOc..lffT-d l-6fl0dr-- ~1\JG'TJO~S.

Lt.l 15 LooK. tn ThE-- fTN~uLtt-r "DtSTrtbi.TTIOJ\1 i=or SOHE- sPE-<tAL


~tl-5t-.S. firST For 'l1=o p., C c:.o.)o) =I ThiS IS ThE Tr1v1Al cftSt;
Thff'-&- 15 IVO /tN ~ l.ll A~ ~EN a._ t0 Cl<.l Y\ : I Th i' E-E-
CONT1\1 N,)
'Po~S\ bl L11lE:'S 1'n = 0 or I b\)T m ,_.,\JST Glwlf-Y.S bE:- <..~5 1h fh.)
or eqvftl 70 f\. Th \JS wE;- hf\UE:
0
Y\ =-1 m=o 'P, C c...ose) -=: c.o~e = ~ln.
n-=-r nt\=1 I
P, C t..DSe J :: s 1tJS Gaicp -- '-In_
:: s ~~es ""cp = Y;n..
Th~t- 'TV\i' futJ<SJIOtJS Col\.fNt1rJ ~
t)-rE-- UtJlC(V IN ~fff Th--~
~t)ENC..t- O}..) Tht- d~lJITlOtJ of ~c-- X,'t,i coord.rtJfl-TC- S'r'STe-11.
Thfll \<; frrJ'( lY~5tofMitnotJ cfW bE exPResse-d It':> f\ Lr,VtftR-
CoMblNfJTlOtJ of lint: ftbovt- Thfte l='orJC.cno~s.
m=o J
!I J
.'Z.

3 :et.-n.1..
'2,. (1. L

~ cose sINe ~scp ~X/n}-

.3 c..ose s 'N e s tJJcp 1- 'I I f11-


~ 5 11J l..e c.o.s 2d( (Y. '2. -Yt/1.1.
3 5JrJ2.&5ttJl.q> 'A.XY/n...,

T'.,t:\ZE- \~ fn.JoThE;R LtSE-fvL Rt-t..AnorvS~\IP ~f;t'nJE-HJ 'TWO 'POl~~


pf'htJ-d.. \r-.) S.PhW\CftL C-Oord IN rJ'rG-S l'ht\T Sho\JLd. bE- t""'\bJ110Nt-d.
ThE:- ltJCLvoE-d fhv Gt.t- 6P~Wt-t-N The TWo 'P v 1tJTS J Gtoz.. , t.S e, 1vt1J
'B'?
(.OS en. :: C.ose, COS6>z. 't Stt-!9 1 St~e~ C.OS(~,-CV""J
ThiS CITtJ bt- )<. t'r~Se() ft.S

"Pn Cc..o~~ll. ) =L .. -~ .I ( n }
p\'1., Cc.osl:.\)
. "- l'ltlcj, -(' ... ,0
?~" (LO.S~) e e '"''TL
( l'\ 1"111r\) t
f
I
I
I

lOS
FOURIER SERIES

IIJ. ow WthVT TO IIVN'Od OC.:- The 'S v bJ E-c:J o-f FovRIR


SeRIE-S b'i l)tSC!)S:St 1\J" rt 'Pf'OblM wh,c..h. fovRteR. l-ht1SE:Lf
t\1T~PT~d. 'TO SOLVE- A-rJd IN lnE- Pt"o(t-SS Oc-vE:-t..oPe-d The V-f'r'
V<?.E-NL ~W8"ftL c.otJC.Ci'T of- -ku-rtt-r Sc-RI~. ThE ProbLe-t"
f't'Nd
1)E:Al-T WI~ 1'\- UNI-fof'..., rod of LE-N&Th a.. ThE:- qv~norJ
W 1\"S To d TE-1 M I rJ E- 1\"'\ '5 OH- L A-T :: R TIMe t w h ft1 The 'Pf-H PEi ffil)rE
wouLd bE- f\T Sot-'\~ PostTl.l))l.) X- .tssvMitJC? Tht- rNtnAL 1-MPt-rfflUrt.
"DIS1Yibv'TiotJ Wf\"S K.)I.)OW 1\-t "f:.o.

ThE- 'PfO b L ~ n::-qv I fe-d S OLV I ~6 ThE- 1) 1 f-ft-1'-cVTll't L E-q u fti1 o,J
\/1. T = ... ~
dt
Wh1c.h S\HPllnES Tc dt.T = ~ dT(x,t) tf WE- Cot-JS.td.~ tt OtJ
1) I M -NS I O!V A-L f' 0 cl. 7h 1$ dX1.. at tfft:-r1V11 ftl f-9 U ffflO IJ h I}S
1)

1't SPEC! A-L SOLUT'lO~ G. 1VW by TCX1 t) : -fcX) f} Lt) whrc.h w


C.thv 'Tf~ b'1' Pl.IJ6G;.JI\l<D INT'O ThE- &qvl\-'flO~. tfwe- l:>o W <0-T

f''cxJ =+fc.x.)~'lt)
0 t-t}
'D\VIt:>ltVG:> '"l'v\('0\H::>n b'l' f(XJ ~ tt) W- h~V

f "Cx) :: t ~J -::. CON S'Tl'\"J..)T


f ()C) lt) d
Slli)CE Th~ EQVI'tnOIV lr-J f t14E.S }..)OT DE-PErVci o,J t' WE-
t'\1151 re-qurrc-. Thlti f"C.X..) If()') = tOJ-)STf'n')T or ThA-T
fty:) b E--?<poNetVTIAL. \1- W~ TI\'K~ ThE- C.OIVSTI"'\'NT j\) bE- ~k'l..
'"i"'A E- N
f (.X).:: AJJ~~)<
IN G E-rv~ r\L .f <x ) = A IJ w. k. '~< -r 13 cos k. 'I{ bv-r Itt-\ ~ v, r 1 t-J <:.
T -= 0 A't X= Gl /nld X=O Th\J~ c.o-k'l\ C/'hVr4oT be A SOL.V110I\I AT
X=o. AT X-= a.. w:- wfhVi f(Q) =o -,nus s trJ ho... = o wh tck ?...L
--/t T
At-=~ SoLVtrJ<~:> +o'f'
).low
0t-t) wE- fnld
0tt}:e
SoLVTl 0 t\.J for Tcx,t)

106
l1 1 5 LOOK AT ThiS SoLunoN fer It c.ovpl.(;- o-f- Uf}LVE-)
0 f 11 r\lV d S Eo E:- I f VJ -t- C. fTpJ u N d (;-( S T"f\1Vd fl'"r 1T T ; LL S
(,U h
LlS. FtfST L-T n =1 A1 t-= o ThE-tJ Tht:-- rod. htts Ft
Tf;MPE-r~tlf'"(;- ProfttE- Th!"l-T Lo-cKS L I Kt l).,E-- fo LLowJ!V(l, .

0 .... ~ a..
1-

A~ T Ih c 1\1) V fhJ C.E-.S Th J.5 rtru R.t- 'P roh L E- WI LL c.o L L ttl'S ~
T-M PI;-(
~POfJtNT\1\"LL'I' f, ~ fl LL l'tMPLITUDE-~ IH0r06 X G-o l)ow~ Prorornct.trltE-LY
> I

\,0\Th f\ llt-'1&- C..OtJSl"ftlJT J


t. 0tiJ~tJ bt Gt.tfn'?.. . 't IS Th~ 71Mf- '10
rE-duct- ThE- frMp Ll 'Nc:lE- 1
/e 1 of' .3GB of lhE- ortCDti'JflL ui}LtJE:-. tJoTt:
ALSo 1VIE::- b1c...>t-f CL The- ~E::'f ThE:- 1&'\Pf:-ftl-'n)RE- fflLLS o++.

A" lhtJ AT A LA n:-r n ME- -t ThIS I) ISTrtOUTlOrJ IS


t)( P0 tJ C'f\.1 Tl A- L LY 'D E-c. It )J b vT w llh 4 Tl"" c-s The- r ATf- c+ ThE:
n: I "DISTV" I bv nON. 't (VvvJ bc-<....O t-'1~~ a..';41ll..
Whi\-T WOIJLd
wtts I')OT IT SIMPLE- ~IJ.JUSO ro? ~w w-ould. w& ..f.CP ur& ouT
w h A-T Tn E- lEt-'\ l ffffr t/ ME- t ? ThIS I S w h 111'""
pEt fin) ~"'E IS 1\'T' f'r
'Fovrle-t' Wl'tt'Jicd. 'TO KNOw. ti-E- footJd OuT ThrrT IT WfTSt.l'l
tJt-C.-SSA-r'< 10 i"f.SoLve- Tht- pro'oL~ oue-r fhJd. OVE-r ftorrJ,J. To
L\llld&~rf'r~y..H:i. Whlo/l n(;- dtd wE- HUS'T )-11\"t<E.- uSE- ot ON~ IMporl'l'hJT
'ProPEr'T'< o-J Th.E:- lt~t-fl-1 Dtff-1-IVTHH -qvttnorJ tttT =-ciT. Thi'TI
c)"t
IS 1\-tnvc! T,Cx,t) TtC.X 1 t) /TR- SOLuno~S Thc,u It LtrJfft-r-

COMbn.HrnorJ of- ThE:- iwo ~ IS ttLSo It Sotuno/IJ I


ThAT rs,
J~CX 1 t) =- c(l,cx/t) -t{'!JT,(X 1 t)
Thv5 W: C..fh\.1 NOW l'\1>t> The- Y)::. l /hJd. n::-z SCLVTI01>!5
~\Vt"YV 11-bovE To ohtJd It New 5oLu1)o.., wt-"c...~ h,q..s f}rJ
l~lnf\"L TI:MPE-11\"TUt"E- OtSTr1buDOrJ ~ffl Lo-oKS Lll<~I
Now Prl Pt U\-1:-t" i1t1- " i" Thl.S 1)\.SrrtbUTION bt-c.oH-5 nollE
A1Jd. \-10'f'~ Lll<l:- The-- t"t-= I TJtSTrtbU'TIOJ'.I bf-C.Itv::>E:- ThE- n=-2.
C.OMPb)Jf-IJ) I~ l)y IIJ0 ot.f- )f llt-1(::) ~ Thl't}J Tht- Y\ :::-I
pftrT. Th vs ItS JIM e- PAs~ ThE:- Low e-sT o rdE-Y ~ Jr ~' TC<" M

SvY"VtVC.:) 1 Tht- DtSfY'iblfl)ol\l lo--oKS MOf"c YYMI'-'Ic=Jnc.Al l'tl->d. 1)1-S


o-f.f- wtTh 1hc n,.,.e- <...o1VS'tftlV'T of n~1.

fovf\E:f eorvc.LvoE:o Thfl'T flN'l' .sMooTh TEM?Ci"tr;\lR


O\~TY'\bu110['.) COULd. bf:- lA..>f 11\CtJ' ft~ ThE- SuM o-f f; SE-riE-S
o+ S t~l.)~o I OA- L C.O M PO IV~I ~ of 'Dtff~E-NT fhJ\PUIUdE--5 #hJ d
b 1 1:! FE:-f6VI H.Od e- S h. 1'\-PE:-) I.[..
~ -~nz.+
2._ A"'5tN'"rr e (4
o..a..
1'\:: I

1f T\--.e- IIVIT'ltrL Tt-1"'\Pf-rrt"n>r-E- l)t.Yr-rbvTJON 1s KJJowJ,.L -foC)=Tcx}o)


jh f-1\.J IT c fhJ b,- E-)( prE: &S E:-1:) ft)
!:9
~(.X) =- L AY\ sIN ( l'\-J
II\: I
Whi\T IZitJd of lfu.UC.'TlOI\IS \1\t'hJ Th1S SPE--C..IA-L 'ProPE:iTY of bE:--tJJb
HPV"~S\bLE;- A-S Th~ SuM a\- SE-r\E"S of SIIV(;S h'tl~ C..OSII\lS, A-L.Jo
how Do W'- CoMpuTE:-- ThE- An'S J
1-'t. ThE- COtJT'"r tbu110I\J of
E-ITC..h ~ o d c ~

FounE:-f' 1\Jonc..E--d ThfJT ThE- Ay.'~ cout.d ~E- RffRt;VCf.>


b't' 1V\ t- h> \..Low 11'-t G:. 1-1 e-n, od

(40
J +c.x) S nJ ~~ d,x = L An \a.
)o !JIM ( n~JC} Sit./ ( M~) dl\
Th~ tt...rrE-(::>ffrL o._, ThE:- rhS hA-s ThE- woJOdtMvL 'ProPe-rTY o-f brNC::>
o tf h'\ =t n 1trJ d 1.$ 0.11... 1f rn : :- n. ThE- Proof For l'n1S IS
SlY AI~ hi-fur vJ A-rd

) { [ co.s (h -~~1
., -i f '-
Q..
TfCW~-t\)
.<l vi, (.,... -n. llfl'
~

= 0 - 0 =0

108
ThiS If. 'm =n The I 1\Jf(:;.lo OrL 1':.> NOT 1;) t-f- I JJ f:T.:; so wt- MI)S T
'...__.''
R1) o ,+
"WI='"
) Sll'l -n'lf)l suJ 1"nlT)t'
Cl 0: d)( - ~: l
2.
tos Z.ltli1,:
0..
d)C ::' a..
'2..
Tr\I)S WE;- VlrTvE: 1hAT
2
SJN (WI~)
AYrl -= Q ): .fcx) d,x
The A..,.' s trr~ C ftLL E-J 7).,(;- c.oef-f-1 Ci&VTS o+ The- hv r ICT Sffl f:-$.

NoT 1\1\AT llt\E:- co<:;ff)C.ICNIS ttrc- foo~Vd wf: MUSf -hrJd The
fc.x) 's. EsswnALti" ALL 5t--~ooTh I
SIN&L.E-t:i vr1LI)t- Nf-.)c..norJS ~e oKttY.
lhftl lite~ MtrfhtMttnctH rlbOOi?. buT IT WOrKS.Tht 11oR.t-T:e-fHS
Th m- ftr~ 1"R KHJ I tJ ThE:- S.E:ilt E-S Th c bE=-~ Th t- ifT l'U Th t
Ac lV 1\ L fu tJ c.n o 1\1

I wtiyJr TO RE"fUrt.J TO fl MoR..~ <S>W8'1h.. 1\-PPRotKM JJow


of- founE::r .5f-RI<2S. 1 i-1 1'\'Vc-- s OHc 'P&todtc.. -h>N c.llotJ, +ex) lht.ld
)w f'tNT 1"' XPr~S IT I~ ~MS of .S ltJf:S fu)d CQ:. 1N~'::. IN 'Th~
ltJIEf VA-L - ~ To -t C.. ::>VH" Th tS ftJC)

ltJie-t"vftL ftX) cl'hV bt- ~PfE-,5.:) f'D r\.5

fuc) = i 'Cio -r '1t c..o::> l!J t- /3 2. CO:)


c
l:TT,l -t .
c.
+ At sIN!!}
c.
-r A'l. Stl')t.n)l r ... -<.. 0 1 c.
c.
COS\ J'JE:- co e-fft C I ~

T~tS IS CALLEd toUi'lt"rS lhE;or<::M t>f 11\1 Vt-f'Tlrv<.o It SE-:i~.IE-S,. lhc-


1"\flThf:ME-'flc 1 fhJ 5 f.o oN d._ IT hr'Tid.. 1'0 bE:!. I f:./E;- w \tlb.l IT w f\S +n'"SI 'PfOPCC:tt>.
(ts t,ONCD ft~ .fc?') hiTS ft -hrVtTts- k'vl-'lb~ of "DISCotJntJIJITit5 ANd
lS Stt-)<Dt.t-o VftLUe &-x Pft!J.SION \5 v~Lro. tJo'fE- Tntrr
1
ThiS S&tE-5
fl X} Y'f:- P ffiTS E-v E:-r '( Z C. i=' 0 f" !he-r t-1 ore- I..f. -fliO IS A S 'f H r--1 e'lY 1cAL
-furvc.no~ f\"Bour )(:.v otJI..Y 'fh C.OSt7Ve- rt-rn':> RCI-1/h~. If rC~)
IS fuJTi S'f M Me')Y tCft L o rv l. Y "1116- 5 I ~e Te-t'M 5 REM tl1 }lj.

I 09
L.e:T '~ w or K o oT ltrJ f1< 1'\Yl PL. e: o+ +tow f'r fuN c. noN
\S ~p~~E.-d 1tJ l"Ei~S ot ft .fovf'lt'"r SC:--rle-5. LE:-T +C.xJ be
T ht- fo (.,L 0 w I rV G:. -5 ()C)
fCJ() =- - I
-l U() = 1" I
-I
+I

X_..,

F\rs.T v.JE'LL F1rvo ThE AN':!:>; JIJOTIC...E- The- fvi'Jc.norJ as lhvT;-


5 't' M 1-1 E:TY"l C. S.o 0 rV (.. '( Th ~ S \ I'IH:- TC-r 1'1 $ 50 f'" t/ I VE. Th U .5

AN~ t ). ~ fc.>t) 5 lt-1 11~ d)<


r
for X .:.o f-o I :: - I lhvd TQI" X7o L f:-1 f (.X.) :: +I

A..,::: ~'-
0
r
)
- Sltv n'n'"r dl(
I' + -cI ) c
I S I N l'l_!!_lt
-c c 0
c
ALL we- lt\.ft\1(:;- dol)..)~ ~~ Jv:sr brE-/'YI<. ft.x) vp 110'"10 r-vvo
C.o HT\tJ v o v '::> 9 1E;(. E. s . Ev lh. v tf'n rJ<l> The ft-N' )

It~ ~ { 11 [ co~ c ~ "! ) I_: } ; ii [ cos n ~ 1:


tn [ I . . C-I)" - C-I)~ +I J : ;n [ I - C-I) V!]
ThiS IS 0 tf V\ ::_ EveN ftrJd for tnJd odd. n ThE- Jh.J
bE-<..o Me- ..1
nn Tn o s +c xJ bc-<..o 1-1 G- s

fe,x) -r 4 5 JN3Tl + i SIN 5X +


3It !571
A- 'Ph YS l Ctt L E!< tTM P l e o+ ThIS -hJ N C. n 0 I'J \ .S A S W I Tc h.
TUt 1\.l lfVG V 0 L T'fH::>E. 0 tJ fn-.> d of-.f.
TWO HOI~f U~E;hJL Fvt..JC.TIOrJS 11-RE- ThE- S'I'MMt-J--r1c.r'1L

lh.lti thvTi S'(MMeiTIC.tTL St+WnoThs

tCX) ~ -c -
'2.

c.

-c.. 110
ThGfG- nitS bE-e-N A Lol of MIITn~.MftnGffL D lSCv~SIO N OIJ
ThE: C..O~II-l"<s>eNC.t- of ~t;- foortE-r S-rtE:-S. ThE: Q()t-2iTIOtJ IS
1\fT&f' SI.I~H IIJ'- Ttl ft L f\'-;eo~ tJ. lhVd.. ThE;-JJ ST'Oppuv<# how C.LOo~
lX> we- cOMf- n fcx} I
Ll I h~w tMpor11hJI ~~ Th~ rtSI ot- Th<: SE-rt~J
Th~tT 'iOIJ 'l1-lf"t-w lt\VftY. As I'TrJ -/lft-MPL.tS- Th(;- squA(f- wA-V
fv,vc.n 0~ h~S A CO,VII6f<::>E-!VCE: bUT 'P'f'OdOC.E-S ftN o llff~l-tooT Whtch.
r t-A<...~ ~ S. o H. :- L I M 111 tJ ~ U fl- L \1 f
.j.
[ truSt-S\-. ool
Ill'
l'

X --:>

.l

The-rE- 1.s ft wftY ;rrouf\)d Tht: oue-rshooT DlfhtuLTV fuJd


lhAT IS TO lt1TC)JufiT Th~ ftMPLI7U~ E- of The hlb he-r orde.
1Et"t15. "ThuS The-1r E-#E:CT IS L.E-SS fn.Jd Th LIHITirVG be--h.tn.JJor
of Th -- S i tE:-S IS t-1 u c.. h 51'-1 Q OThc; W E- c A- tu P u'T A f'f\-c.'T"' f'- "'
lf.lrtl Th~ ~t e;:.r SE:-r ~~~ fh..ld -hltVE-
.fC,x ) -:. f_ !+,.. "{ ..- & 1 tJ l1 71>'
n=t '-

As ~ _.., 1 '})\E: tv Nc:nol'-l 1-s fWPro~e-he:-d 1~ The- Ll MIT. Th


5--nE~ Sol-'\ Th-er--1 Lc:m KS L I K:- Th c +o Ll ow 1 t-.t 6 :
You cfttJ'T fiLWfTYS .'1<1'-CT ThE:- Hl'lThEMI'rilC.S
10 G:.IU~ you 'Tn~ 1'1'-hT rtl\lSWff. YOo MIJ'5T
Ur0d6r~~d ThE: probLeM you ME: try 1tJ6 -ro
.SoLVG. l.f 'Tht-- IT? PL lCitn 0 N of Th I~ rfuu r tff
SE-1\t-~ 1 ~VvoLVE-'D Sci'-'IE- ThfE;ShoL.d. l)t-TE:CTIJ\lG
C.\V'WIT 1 ThE:- OUf<'ShooT 'PhtJVOMe-Nti- C.OUL.d be '?utTf:
1YoubLt-~oKe:U~ItJG The ~- f\4T&Nuf\1lotJ MeThod wouLd.. be rt-qutre-d.
D ~ Tr\(C-- oTh 8' 'AfhVd ,-f 'i'o u JuST- w fl-tsr e-el !hE A;e-t~- U#Jd-r
~quf1fe 'lfWvt--- lht- ove-r-slAO"DI WOu<.. d. MOT bE- lhJ v Trcu b<..
s I fl\\(t; f1 poSIT) v G- 1\:-tV d iJ 6 ~ rtn V E- o u W s l-, lTOT Cft?J CE- L EitChOThff' O-uT .
Foufl1<- SC1tiS httv~ Pt LoT of vse-fvL lt:PPLIC!T'DO#
Ot-1 which IS I!VIe-gt-nJJb ouT f'JOI ~ US~d rT JN SUMMI~G
S-rlS. 'Fer l?'lCft'MPLE 1-f I 1-iA-D Th Sf-RJE-5
I
--- - l.
H-N

I ll
I C./OJ .f1tJd ..5 USJfJG. fovrtff fhvA'L'(SIS. iJow SvPPos~ Tht;R
IS SoH& fv,vcnoN Fen) Whtc.h re- ProovcS ThE- /rbovc- .)&RJ-S~ 1.[..
L. Fe..)'\) = 'F{o) -r fC.t) -r Fez.) + --- -+ f(n-1)

E!tC~ l~T&<;E-r cf'hV be- E7c P fE:&SED AS fl So LET


)-L& D~h tJ- CC.x) AS I

ll!~ l
-t<J:> CCX):
C(x> = "'. &c.x-n)
1\"01110
t

Cot-J.Sl$TE:"R FC.I'l) -ro BE.. A t=- urvcnorJ 3 4

The JJ ""'E:- c fhV re rr 1(:-V e- ""T"h. & i c -n) 5


\ x-
cC."~<) Fqq dx = [_ F Cn)

kJe wfuJI O!-)LY Th~ -n's >o


1-'\v'i.\ b~ ct.~T IV hi'I\.F ~u

CC.XJ

t fco) -t I ( ... FC."Z.)-t FC-t) + Fc.o} + FCI) +Fez.) t )

:: {_FlO) -+ -:\_ \ ~ CCx) f(.Y..) dl'


Loo
The: .h- Lm c. lfrJ b c- E-x p /hl.ld -d A-s A tovq E-r s E:i"' ~ s b'1W fE:-fl
F u II) t no 1\.1
- '/1..- 1\).J d + 'h. . S I tJC.. .S (X) '"'- S ( 7C) W c ~ ftv&- fr C. OS l tJ ~ S tfl f S
CC.lC)-: . Sc.x--n) -= '[ 'h.. bo-t- b, ce;.s Tl! + b<...c..oo;:,"L...!!.JC ~
~ c. c
w~ EV'~ n-. ~ <-<>~ft, (I E:NT':, b .... ' s f'r rE co I u E-N AS
L - 'h.
"0-l_ -
2
c. )
\

- 'r~.
z
(1;)

c-c:x ) = \ t "l:
-l_.,,

Svh M rtr\0 1\.l forM UL.It- be-toM - s


ct>
s -= -t f to) + ) :' Fe x J d x -t [
~~.

Now iov h.PrVE- To no The- lt-.ITt=-G:>rltL S wh,c.~ Mrf'i iJOT bf fts E~t5Y
PrS so.....,E- oThrr Tec.'ktvtquc. BuT ::.oM&I1M~S tT 1S lhJd whtN 1T IS
Th1~ ~flroA-c.h IS c;:>u lTC- 1)-c.wrrn-c-. A~ f(X) G.cTS s.Mo--or~E-r m-.ld 01-1ooTh~

.Q..t. -40.t -<l(),...


S = 1-te +e .,.e ~---

112
\ Now wf\-r.)r 1"0 IMPft>vE Th~ d.E--htJtnotJ of The- FourttT
~tflf.-S b'i' worK I rJC:> IN COMf>Lt/( IV C'T"ffllON, Th Eo- futvC'TlO fl) ft X)

be-c..o ""'~s
V\':-01)

I tJ TV\ 1 S I'J o 1'Frf) o 1\J 1r \ 'S ~S 1 t-1' n> w o -c 1<. o vT Th E- M fl'/""h E-M tmc S,
T~.:~ fn.Jd "TVIE- c.o~+ftC.It-.VI5 we- hiTV'
r-
)_, f
c.
(X) e
, MX(.
c dx
: r Q 1-o fe , (
J
'h- mJ TI.Xtc d ')(

rt~'f:- o!U Th RtiS IS IT~ osc.t~LA"rof '( -7\.PONDJ'Tlfll Wh\G"' WILL


N.OT C..QI\.f1VI'!::>Vrt- t'ttJ'{fhtlJG;, U~LE-SS ~-::. Y\. Vv'f- G>E:'r

a.." __ - r(.f- (X)


1
e -t""-Nc
d~
'l.C. '-

1-f tCX) IS f\- f-ttL FUNC.1l0N ThE-N ITS C.Qt-'\PL.E:X <:Ofi)J\J~fTT: f'*cx)
1s &tll1'1 bY f*cxl =- L.a.! e''-nn)Ctc.. Sti\X:E: fCX}-::. F*c:x) n,- TWu
Scfl c-) M USI bE- E-CVt\l. 1h e-r~ton- '"l'"htQ. c. OE--ff1c I ftJrS HU~T bE- E-QcJftL., 1,(
Th& a,.,'s M u~T Sl'tTISN Q., ::a..!'.

ONE- usttvL The-orE-M IS cA-LLe-d ThE- E-NE-RGY Tnc-o-c~ w'rl\ch


\t.liiOLVE-~ Th~ PrbsoL\JTE- sq I) trR~ o-f FCx) I 1.[.

E ~- lc1 ~ -c.t f<. X ) i-, C"11 } d "1\ -I [ a."


= 2iiC f ,~,r

e c. L.a.,* ) e....c.!" dx
>'h

Now 'f'"E:U\LL Th rH c ... 11,)1 - t' M'II)C


). e c e 7
dx :: ~.,- :: fov-WJ=n or o tf )'11;t"D
Thv~ wE- hA-v-'"
l.
z.c. )
~
fCx) f()<J d{'. :;_
'
(._ Qh 0..1"1
..
or E~ )_~ JfCXJI~ ~c = L let._l~ ~
'Ph"iS\c.ALll( wh~T Th\S ME-ttiJ~ I{ rf We hA-ve- fl COMPLtd)TE WftVf
t,V'r\,c.\,-\ Cf\1\.1 bt bf'ol<tw up !rVIO fl- LOI of Stt-lt- WINES o+ddiJrJ(;.
ftM?LITVd~s, Q .. ,( ThE: trJTf:NsrT'i o-f c::Ach wttve:), The T'OTI'tL
E-Ne-r"~ Cfffflc-d 1~ TnE- wA-ve 1s )he Sot-1 of The:- S)>vtrre
of E-Ach COM pci'JewT IIJTe-tJSlTY. ThE; ScJM of- ALl The sc;>u!H<-S
MUS! e~VAL ..1., lt. ThE TOTA-L t=NffG.'r' 1).) 7hE- wltvE

J 13
Yov S'nould b&- f\-wlh'e of 'four ~Pftt\)c::ll~0 'Powt-R TD
~0\..IIE ?'t"Ob\.;MS. )<E-c.ftLL wE- -hJu~d for A- SQU'h"E- wttvE- ThE-
';)eliE.-S C1C p ftl\).SIO 1\) WAS
tcxJ .,_ + J. S I IJ
3
~ Jj')C
c.
1" .,.. - --
Th E- (tv f:(' I\" C.. " s q (.) ftf (; \s t-9 uft L 1o so
\fCx) 1'1..-= ,
J.. ... -+ I
'"i. 3 '-
I + I
'-
I
-:st. + __ -]-::
Tf,_
8 "
L
J.
Yt"
l1 odd
Thus wE- hrtve:- foiJ~~Jd

r li"~-
1lodd
I
-=-

ThE-re I~ ft (:, E-tJEY fh..l 'C-f\-Tl 0 rv T 0 ThE- e 1-J E-r& "{ ThE-OR.~ W Yll C h
1s VI..>"OY"Th \(Now fhVd. lnflT tS c:,,vt-,v +cxl rnvd Gtx} The
hl t;(' (:> 'f I& (;, \V E;J b't'
I L. ~ bh
.
W~cVf
E :. l.C.
)_: -tc.x)
0cx) dx -::: b
.fcx J -:: "[ G..
"'e
'"nx.tc 8(.)( ) = -z: lo'le t'VITrf./c

R-TVfl\lllvG, To ThE que-&110"-' of co~vE:-R<!>-tJCE- AC9AnJ


INC. C.fnJ '1)0 f\- bE: ITE-f j 0 b .._, 0 W. Sup p o::,- Th fl-'T -f C. X) IS S &I(:-$
E: X p fnV d e d. ou E-r Th E- I'N TE-r v ft L of - Ti 'TO 11 1h e-N
,. "')(
fcx)-:::- '['a..,. e
le:T5 1Y'l' 10 -h~d. 1tJ TE:i'h~ ot fcx) w h fti ..ft.~ud \5 whE-r<E
N IS Sof-"\E- h1U1TE- 1'-\l)tdJt-t- whe-re- ThE- SUMJ-11NC:1STOPS. tp.~CX) 15
Ill , )\1(
ttJ Cx)- 2: Cl~'~ e
The coef~IC.t WTS fr(- GJVE-fJ b.;
I '1t -'vd
e .f(.t) dt
Ql'\ ~ tTl \-11 - ~ V\1
So Th r\T
F)IJcxl ::-
N
l e
_..,
tl'\'ll
l
l..lt
)" -n
e .fttJ clt

l T f\1> f> E:i'TfS "' ~ T Th n><:O ti'Y'E;: e:. e- rrn..> G wors c-- fo f' v ';) 'b u 1 1f. w E
?c.n.. L ThE- tt..>TE-G:>rf'IL ovT froNT TheN WE- htrvc- "'tn~ &t-Of-'\e1l"IG
~ t'h()c-t}
~f:'rtE-::, ... e whtc.~ ctnu bt: wr1ITOJ A-S
-rJ L. e ')\ c..x--t) -: e c~-t'ta.> o-t> e t(rJ-t'h.) c~-t>

y~,.cx-t)
- e
1.
~n
f 1i
-11
S 11'1 ( N t" '/t.) ( )(-t)

5 IN 'h. ( '1- -t }
fu> d-r
Th\S Stf'I'S ~ ~K.& tL-t) thJd. ft-dd T00E.-'T),-f" W(i"k lhf- Wt-lbL-!TI.N(,
ftrc.:ror ct S~C.t->-t'h.UJC-tJ. hJ lh~ c.~se:- of 'fLt) bt-lfll{:;. A
5 tt-.1 'fl.()(-t"}
5 TE P F U r-JC.nO N w~ h A- v fT f.on1 VL~ t=-or fnsd I ~6 Th t- 0\JerS h>T

f' \'\ C}( ) :: .l \ i\ S I !'-I ( ~I + 'I 2. ) C JC - t) I f


l..ft I-n d
5 I ,_, 'It ( ~ -t )

So +fiR we- hl'tVt- TttU\~() f'rSovT ru,..,C.T)Or-.>"::> whtc.h wE-rE;

R-Pre-sw'ted t:wrwt-n; -c. lhVcl c.. I ~ t..JOT ltJTtfE::5Tti) hJ Lcm..le:.


ThE- f A--t0C<> G- H P&> d To co f\1V d tlS K lf Th~H I~ !) n LL rT fC.""i'Rf-50JTltnOtJ
0-\ ThE:- fvNC..'1lOJ\). ThE- r'\'"I'JS.W&- I~ ti"JdE:-E-:d. 'J'f-5 b'-'f /IU Of'dt-r TO
M.rhz~ ThE-f'-f>f:-':>ttJTfli)o.V MOrE: E--xrH.T 1'LL AJH-d fl Lod't. o-f n 14
....... lf.X;c.
To ~E-&P Th c 'tiC PotJ wn A-L ?o wt-r fro'""' 6Dli\J0 TO :Z:Eo-ro 1 1,E:. e
It<:, C.-'> 00 1'l MvS T --.. CO. 1f vJE. Yti'U\C.e 11il b'l' W rT f..H:W
c.
l\IVMbE:r ThEN 1\S C ti\JC.t'"6'\-~E:$ W Gt-TS CLOS(;;-f". jk) ""J"nrS pr-oc.t-5S
~(; c..o~tl c. r 0-JT 5 of ~"' ttY"": C.OtJ venc-c! TO It tuN c. nON 0 + w I cpcwl,
WhtLE Th: SoMMrM/01\J OVH Yl hG-c.oM-5 f'r}J JNI-C:>fltL OV;-f W lf.
I

~ -~ 5 dw C ~)
Thl{S WE;- l-Jf\vE:- cfo'f f(X),

f (X) ::-

lV\\ ~ R e,-;) r~:-s E;N1ftnO f.) ot f<.)(.) I tJ Vu 1. v ~:> lh ~ SuPeR Po:> I no tJ u-\
AN lNfuJrl&- tJVMbt-T of OSC.tLL;t}TOfY wttv~S. Jo:f Wf- W/TNy- TO re-c..ov~
~Lw) wE:- tJE:-E:-d TO E:vALuArc

q>Lw) = )_: e
'
-wx
fc.xJd,.x

1 15
SoLIJ , rJ eo u 1i=F e:-t<.ovn f1 L eq vfYJlO f\.)S by
l=OI) R..l E.. R TRPt N S t=ORM. T6C.H-1J1 q v:.

s o l..l,)t,.., b t.. ' "' e-ttr '0 d?fs.R e,vn A L cq v ~~' o .v ~ w 'Th c. o .v ~"T'fh\l T
c..oefnc.1 b-)'j~ IS It C.OM.""' Of'l oc.c. "('f~c.t- ,.., 'P" "i'SI~ t\-Nc:l e-.J ~ trJ:-8'1~6.
1\- tJ"< ~hf\J 1q v ~ W l-n c... h. M 1'\ J<'k:5 1n (:- Tl"tJ<.: E-h'S I :-R \$ J\-P P R.E:<. t ftTed . ThE;
tJOfMt\L E-qvfn"lOIJ IJ..IVOLIJ;S ""Pe:ftvfhii.IE-S c+ S.OM:- vltf'LAbl~ ~ 11-tJd
cA-N be- ~ x pr ~'::.5 e-d. A- <:>

2:.. a~ d"'V -:: :t<..xJ


d X"" CJ

Tha RltS IS (i!.~fe-d. TO 'The;- tklhQMO<:>-N.(:O()<) PA-RI o+ 1>tf+&"C;tVDfU.


&q IIA1\0I\.1. Th. ~ h 0 t-1 e c, t-N E-0 v.) E-q u lt'nC N \S w h t:N e,<. ~ l ~0 . A-s fhV
qfn..tP!.E- ot The- 'OtffE.rE-NnftL E.-<j)vftnorJ 1S

4!:_'i + "'- cit + y = 0 X <..o


d )('L d.X. - 4}'
-= e
IT L I rJ e-trr t> d-f~ -NT),. L. E-q v M1 () '"' h ftS ~ e- proPei"l't o+
A SOL vno.v w h l c:.h. \ S ~E- ~~.~ M o-f 'PI EC..G S . \=!o.,. E:1c. ttMP(..E:
Lt'() ':. LC.:( I +'i'~.) ~ Lc.y.) T L(.'1.). ThiS
CoE=+h c. 1 E:-N ~ "D a tJ err 1:> C;pe,J d. o N X.

ThE:-r-e- Pri~ hvNcl re-I!. S. of 1.4)/1Y.) '70 SOLve- ThE-5 ~ f: q vfhiON S


W~tc.h. c..tttv bore- "{oil l><:YTTh. 'Bul Stf\!Ct' the-n- IS ci'ILY O,V~ (')1\J~w
Th t- ~' e-sT w ftY iO 'h\ m- frN" s w Ef" 1~ H o s T ~t-""i'Tl"ttc. n v G: . Fo v r t e-r
1\",._,S-h:>f'M.S lrn- vw~ v~e-i>L IN sot.OII'lGt ~-E-.SE- ~tllld.S o+Pri>bl..tM~.
~ e- pry~ c., ?L ~ u Po .V w h ' c....h "iV'\i 'S jC{.. h.!'>' q '-' :- 1s ~ fT)e- cl l s
The Ide-A- of rt-pre-SN~JTI!vb l't -NtJt.'J)Or.J ftx.J b~ ft .-fovv-tf:'t"' '7TI'f1\tS-fnrr1
~<.~All ~c.)c..h Thf\'T ~
\ lW~
fc.x) = J- 04 e cpcw) d~

l rv olh~ wor-d..s t> rf:f-t-r E. rJ i l ft1l N C:> cfrt.l be- S \ H p t ~ t:: 1) TO HlJ I...it PL/C.rtrlOJ-.1
b 'f i w . ThE:-1'-l The- -pro b L e11 l ~ re-d~ c:.E.d To otJe- at ft- LC.-b (' fl I c.
HfThh PV l. frllO ~.

lib
Th fh.&t.brlt IC. M lhJt PUL fhto )') C fh.l G:.o boTh w fr'(S b G-VlV e 6tJ
ThE:- {\) r-l C..Tl 0 rJ 1
\ ~ l"f ftiV 51-or M 1 ft"tJ cl b fte..IZ. 1\ (:) fn I'J , C 0 tJ S I d 6-< Jh t
-foLLow l~(.p 'noVO JY'A-t'V~Tori'""\S
_, W')(
<::>c.w) - s crx) c:. d~

y c.w) ::
s y c.~) c:.
- C:wy d J(

Wf: ~~w ~ft'l


~W)'.
t.w Y<-x) :.
S-~
~
cd'r'd~
) e.
-
dx
bvT ltL ~o -C: w ~
d)t
-t.'('Cw) :.
~ )( yqc.) e
R :- TV rr\1 l tJ 0 ~ .rnt- ""D'~ t:-N}) A-L e-y v trno~, 1 + wE- ,.., u L.,., Pt. 'I'
bol'n. s 'd..:S lo '"l e ~ "w " J 'f. /tJV d. 1tJ,.-e-c, r t'Yf"(;- w e- e, cT

L ct"' ciw)\o\ Yc.w) :: Gc.w}


YJ'i;; c.f\'NdE:-fl~e- 'PC~W) fr~ L Q."'Uw)"' v.JJ.,\c...h IS It- POL,~NCMIAL
1 1'-\ ~W . W - CfhJ .SOLve- ..fo (' YC. W) 'fh E-J\1 #\-S
C, CW)
yc.w) -:.
pciw)
W E; \t\ f't\1 E- 'ThE:- fo11 v- 1<::Y 1Y' fhJ S to f' 1-'\ of- The- /tNsvJH" &o we- hfl"Vt
To 1Y~fof' ~ 'ofrc I.(. #\-Gf'- I 1-(
w"
y (~) -::.
s_: .S_W)
peiw)
e
c.:
~
"2.-T(

A- ser o+- l'ftbLE-~ ft,r WOR_K.\t.) (::> ouT J'he~~ .f.oo r I 8" lY 1')-,JS-h:> f' M S
1S vf:f"'( IJ5~l.. w"' fr1 W f:- .f1> r M. A L.. L. 'I' h fn'~ j1) "1:>0 1.> SIJb~nwn

lt--1 t-or- e:,c...w)

e -t. ""'X dx.' d~


' I

'r'CXJ -s
"1.11

To evftLIJI\T& R( )(.. ->() tT I 'S> tJ E:-<. :-') $ t\-( )" TO c.tn c. u Lft=rc- Th~ 1 tJ'1t C:> r fH.

ut f\ 'POl.'f fJ. Ot'\ I 1\L. -rn~ 1\s I f:-f:.7" w~ TO "PO Th r'tJ tS b~ R.:5 1 d.v -
lht-<>r'l' ;n.1d. c..o ,_.rro IJ r lNic<o f'tWlOtJ, s lfJC.{: 'Pc i ""J ,s A POI..'I'NOMJ~L

\T c.~ bt- wt"\\Tf:,.._, As

I 17
Pciw) = CL"' ( iw-o<.,) (i. (A) -o(t..) --- C.t.'w-o{.._)

W t- vv I l. L f d SI ITS S v M t- No "L r 0 OT~ fN'e:- Th ~ Sf\ M e;.. ~uS


Evff~T\tl't- w~ h,crve- l't POLE:- 1\-T ex, ,r:J...1..., -- o<. ..... , we:- ,.J<::-e:.cL
To O~'~E-rt'df\)E::- Th~ fE-~tdvG. 1\,t- r~\ dv:- \S ""iV\E ?OL'/!VOMifh
t\\S51N(I) l'nt- 'POLt f\T wh~c..h. \h.E- EUftLI)A-llOt-J lS MAtH: Wll'h.
ihe:- 1tMfhtJIN0 POt....'r'tvOMIItl evi'\LvfrT:-0 /\-1 i W ::. t:/..11... fr.s 11

-rJ..yo I
1\) ftJ S o t>T
"vJ-pc.C:w). l
P'C.~t")
. . c.v-o<.'\. -:. ....
So Lv'T) o rJ T1> TV\ E- 1)\tf{;-raJV) ~ L E-q V frn O,J IS

Ycx > ~ ..l


P' (o~.l\.) 5:,
e o<. II.. ( x - x.' > g c. '\( )
0 "
dx

A-s fw'\flvna,vc:-d. e-th"LI-r wt c..fh'-' wf'tl'- Tht soLvTlOJI.t ITS


ft Svn o-t PI~C..c5; Of'Jt 'Ptt:-c.f. (~'\l fTLW/tiS bE: The- ~0M0(:)8Vf.Ov.S
s~ L 1.rn o N J ' , \.. L (. '( 1 ) =o L cr 1.. > = e:, c x. 1 Th b\1 L t... y 1 t- 'r't. > ::. Co c)(, )
Th E:- ,S<:> LV'fl ON be: c 10M -')
..1 eo(,_)( 5.,. -o<'lx' A Ol"'K
'ft.X) :: L P'co(fll c e alX') d~' TL (Le
~'\. )'
Wh tr~ e I ~ ""'E:- ~ o M o <o &J e-o v ~ & 0 L u T'l 0 1\.1

The-rE;- ts. f'NJO'ih-l wtt;-' TO w1'1\E:- ouT 1h'- Dtf+r-n:iV'hfH


equ thlo ,._, w h \C.~ 6 of""JC'N n ~ts v s e+v L. l f- w f- uSf:- ~ f
NoT'f'MlON TV\ tYT "'D y :: d Yjd,.. 1 ~ 60 ~ t:- n,f+er&snAL -(( vfhiON
L.a."' 1)"' Y(") :. 8 (X)

01"-
?c. D) '( l;<.) = ~ (,X.J
LeT':) VJOfK ouT Pt Stt1'PLE- ~11-M PLt: crf A L JtJffir
D\-ffE..rENn A'l EQ U7lll C~ of- 'Jh~ \~ 1:>c<Of"ft-. CorJS I d '1"" 1hE- .o LLOWitJ(?
f:L:-C.1Y'ICA-l" Cl fC.U \T
R.
-----~~--.....L~-------0
hi C.. tOIIl

0.... I
W~6r!:' S11'1 t.S '"1"\E- ti')NT VOLifrb& fhJd. 6 ouT IS T'r\ :- 0 "'P '-'T
VoLT~G>c. The llt'\ E:- h ~~TOr'/ of c I ('C.u T IS (!, I \1 E- ,._j b 'J'
RC.. cLfour T EovT -:. ~,,..,c:t)
d"t
L c 111 N CD 1) e- cl/ d. t- w & c.frtV W rt IE-

('):\c. U +- I ) b:,vT ::: G 1 ~


rtE-R.E- t'c. o) =- "P(e(.,. > ::. 'Rc l ) -r 1
o<.. ':.. --RC:I
nw ~ ~e-r-e- , "::> o " L 'f rooT
So Lu 'T1 0 rJ I~

I - "t;R ( t t'/R.c.. - t;R.c


EovT :.. Rc e c. ) c e EI M ( t I ) d-t I -r A e
To~ Ol'l w& tJ~~d Th- JI'Jillft"L C.ot.Jc!.tDONS ot- lh~ ProbLE-M.
5.J?P05 ~ E O'-'i .: E,..., ::- 0 f)"t t =0. ~ E:-,_j

to\JI ~ -'
R.C..
e -"ttR.c ) -i
e '1: '/R. c. ~ '"' (t ') ci"t
,
-oo
Prs ~ c.tt E- c.ri,
RC. d f..IJ-, :: ...l e-t"t~c:... 5-<t>+ e.-t '/~ f:iN (t'J dT
c:lt" ~c.

At-1 OTh :"(" ~ ft'H j) L E. I .::, TO V fh.. I) tr'C :- S c.rn)


If Wt- ~ \ ~E:l\)TI f\"'T-6- 7W l C.E:: !,UE- h l'tvE
11
S o"'J :::: c - -tL ~ t- cl 't'
) 1-Ttl..
5 t~) "ff 'b Ol'Y\ SId. E;~

-S''c""'l + Stt"') = )o~ ..o~-.,t d1"' -: ;n,


Th E:- ' f'O b U:"'"\ \) Th CTJ
1
s " ( rn) - sc M) -:: - /rn

Y''( X) - 'f (!-) =


I H- '"D ~o-r f\41 ON w t- h t'tv':
01.- I = - '!;<
P(.D) = 1:)1..-) fJpJcit~~ ~E- \f"'""TS w:: G:.t-T
o(, ':). +I o(1..= -~

= '2...'0 ::1.. Arvd 'P' c~ 1 ) ~ -~

e: s: (- ~~) e-~'
So ThfH 1>' Cot..,)

~ ('~~~
1
'{LX) =. J1<' _ e -1' dA

ll9
Th ~ PJT"Eiof"/tl.S c. fnJ tJ Ol 'b- E:-v A- Lvfl-"1; d... l) I rE- c..T L. 'f b lalT
CfttJ b~ E'/<Pf~ AS Er("Or ilJT-(::n~""I7L Et 'Prt-\JlOu.Sl-'1 IJISCcJSSe-d.
Th v~ S c. W\) c fttJ b~ VJr '"IT E-N ft-5

If -5C.'W\) -=- 5c.-~) b'c' :S't ~MtTrY w~ de-due..~ B =--A , 11L.SO Wt


J(N 0 w fr~ l')) --.. 00 "'E:- OSC.I L L 1m 0 ,..r.1 t"\ l.l.s.T "D fh.-\p 0 0T .so B = fl ::.. 0

N~w <!i>f" "mE:- crt~~ of "DOvb\..E- roo"''S -4JE- MIJSI


f\"N~Ir\E-1'- Tei'M. TO ThE:- ':::.OI..VT)OJ\1 "fnffi IS 1f 1)'1.:.
~~ d.oubL E ('\)Or o(o =I 1
lhE- SGLuTION /S (:)IV6v b)"
alo c~ x'J otox ~oX
e c. x- x' J 8 ex' J d x 1 t- Pte -t'.Uxe
P'' c x)
JhE:- ?OL.'ftJOI"'\lfTL "P<.D) t,VIL.L tJO""' fTLWI\'t$ h/We- f"~L r'l)"OTS.
\ "-\ '& I.,)C "' ft- ~ E: IT~ u "L : - I vJ h f(' ;- 1) :. :t i , \)/ 0{ "- -::
1
:t. L
trrJ c:l. 6-o fth ~c:l 'I 0 IJ w I l L c, t-T s 1 ~H. lhVd C. OS IN~) If ll, f:- /WSwff"
h tr~ f~l nn:>T.S "ih H wILl. ""i>'P E-/T''f' 1\-1 ThE:- 6Vd . l:>a t-) 'T 0 e-:1 N t-rv 0 u 5
w\1\-\. ~Jt-poM::NlJfiLS lh'Jd co MP L.e-x coef-hc. tt~VTS.

11\l Of'dE:r ~ ej.p I}Nd Oo f )(.~l!>vJLcci &t W'E- WILl Tl'\'t..t<.


~rt~L'l' l\-bou1 odfeft"'''111hL -QVh'nOtJs w1lh u rt-rl'tbLt- Lot-fhc.ttt..>T:S.
It Cfc."'-') 1 ~ lhc- ~i'ler lYI'tN~i1>f"f'-1 o-f rCJ\) TheN ThE- -follOw n./b
Trt't'N fd-o r ~ rtr\ o rv .s h o \.. \)
I
i ~ <flW) ruv
CCw) lot 'fCW) fh (/(..)
i "P'tw) X FC")
- 'f ''Cw)
.....
_ ___'>

IV\U:) wE:- se--lnf\'1 l:-\ul \)Pl..'tl~~ b'1' Lw IS ~t E-<;>u 1 v lfl.avT


TO c:h -\+8'E-1'fll All tJ ~ 11-t '/t. SPft(..f. CQ "' .sc-r v L 't d 'tf0r CtJ n B'fpJ ~
IN to S?ft{,E;- IS E=-9011.1ALOJT TO ~vL7' ?L '11 tJ" bt x 1 fJ x -s.PtU.e.

12.0
WE: c.ftt\.) USE Th~ IE<~NIQIJE:- o-f -n,f+E:-l"'~IIA-TI~Co 1,J w- S?flc.E:-
To .SOLvE- .S1>M~ ~~dK rJOtJ- L I..,E;-Ar udtE-CWTIAL Eqvfh/OJ-.1. F=or
~ii'M PL'=' I
Sv? 1'0~E- w~ vJ 1'!,\JT 1"0 so Lvt
d_:_t + X'( =o
d~'L

Bt-<.IWSE:- ~~~ \.S NOtJ L.l~et\1' Wll'n X 'TO FtrJT POw1~ \.Vt- c.~ Trll'N.SFDt'H

liw)l.. Y<.w) + 2 d. 'f<.w) ::::


0
dW

Wt ~ *\"~'="- re-d vc..E:-1._ ThE:- Of'dE:-r o+ T.:>\+fe.r~n ftL EC(v A<no 14


';>0 II IS. ~I~ , so I.M:-. w :- C..I'\-N ~ 0 LV(;. t- 0,. '1 (. w )
- i. j
-""> y Lw) ~ A e 1' (..U

l\low TO b~<.l<. ,, (,
I

A J
LiT
Thi.S 1rJIE-bfitl.. IS fH~cl 70 "1hE:- l:)~~~l -foi'ICIJ\lJJ of YJ ordE-~,
S.oHt-'Tit'\~ cA-t.L~d lhE. IMr~~ I ,,n'f:c..r A L.

~0 L "E

\ ShouLd 1'o11JT OIJI lhtri 't>IVE-l"Cl'tNl'""- <;.oLUT/O.tJS 'DO NOT


'hA-Ve- V:.Ovf"l(:-r -rrr'\tJS~rM s. 'tor f:-t<flMPU: I+ e11
1. hffl. )JOT F. T.

I tJ\)Vl JNIINI to "DI.SC.IJS.5 It CL~S Ol 8Ur<.K... bllX:-~ CltLLE:-d


ftM P L I f \ E:-r S, 1h t- fl'tv\ p L \ -h E-r h ~ lh ~ p ropT";'
Th r't''T {;ouT \ ~ C'l:: Llt'l-d Tb &,._, (t) b't :)Ot1f
TY ;:\ , s o""'E-n,..., '-~ v~rE-d
qvhYVT TO ~ Tnf.. 61hu
o+-lht d~IL'- \.[ I

E o vT = (f G u"
d \,.A$ It- ~ll M b<:- r of r rof'CC"T' 1':) ONE- crf- Wh. 1 c-h IS of TE;V
LltJErtnT'i. J),.,fY'f'" 1<) 1+ f~c-t) 13 PvT IJJ 'l'ht1v 'i=1 is ouT.
1fr.J d ,1- +1...Lt} 15 1 1-.1 ~EN l-1. ,s o IJT s c 1}, lrT ~ t- FL 1,..,
GlVG-S ~~ t-t:1... ouT. Svt1?l't STfT'r-d. \-f. '(ou "DoubLE- Th(- lN'f>I)T 'fOIJ
oovbLE- lhE:- OuTPuT'. Th\S ~~ It Ll._,Efr( 11MPl\ht-t"

I 2..1
Th &- ftM P L1ft E;-1' h~ The YfOPGfT\' o+ belJJG n,..,E- tNUfH'JfhJL
l.f ft-tJ 1:) ltJ A--t -t In E-JV ~ c:t) 's o o T. .:n;. Th- sttM Pl.-
S \G. 1\l Pt l \ S y> U T I ~ f}-T T ,..., 0 i-T v...
I
ThE- s ITYIG-- 0 Ul "PI.il ,s
obTfliAI~cl.

""i"h E- /TM P L l -h E-f ( fhv bE- A-tv 1}- L'f~ d -b 'I' 1N v~ n <:, frjJ JJ <":> 1TS
'BE:'r..A-v!Of' To 1\ S'Pf-CIA1._ fv jo.) cl10.V I lhE- d.H.l'it -Nl-lc..QlotJ I (A) hiC.J
?ff M ITS d E-do C.. I N <0 ThE- f"E-~ ?o tJS E-- -h> I<. 0 Th (;-'(" 1~ -p rJT -N rJ Cn 0 JJ ~.
1-f W- 'PUT ft dE:-L TA fvfl.)c.noJJ 1hE- ouT'PIJT WilL LOOK Ll\(~

A$ (.1:) ~~u~~
~A~.
Rt..-t')ooJr
So t--\t- -pro PE:<'n~ bc-TYV~ ~ c. i:"J A }I) d. 'R. c. i) f19..E """i'r.E- ..ft>uow' ""~
S l t.-t o ) -"') R C. hicaJ
b & Ct. -to) -'""> b R ( i -"to)
& (t -td .,..~c.-t-tl.) -""> ~ (i-i,) T Rl -t-tL)
f ( t d ~ ( t -t I) --::> J?L-t I) )( l t- t,)
Th-E- \<:t tfr we- ~ "'DC\1 :-L o P 1N G fl vJ ho L E- b o rv c. h
lS b'f PrJTil N C::>

o-\- d H Tfr -fv ~C.. T"l o t-l'S l'O ~ e-J~H EJr<.h A-T D\ tf~t-N) 11M C.-)
frtJ c:l 0 t "D dh:i' t-r-> T ' ftK ? Ll ")\) l) f.) W ~ c. fh) c.() I')ST'1' U Cj fh'-1 ~ W ftV E-
Pftt...\'\E-T 'lOI) Wfh.Ji, ~I)~ w~ c.fh.) W1'1 Tf
~Out: (:t) 5 'R.(.t-t') f,t.J (-t') Ji'
0 1\\ (.E; 1h e- f -5 Po rJS e- --ro fnJ )Mf>~t...S: IS 1:.S TY")'bLI shE-d II
\S "PO.SS\bLt-- 1'0 ~OLV- JT LL :)u b se-q u E-N1' e-q ..> /JJ>O r-J S <!> I \) 10
1h E- ~ "f ~T&--'1 TY' ()-N ';) 't= 8 -N ...>c. ll 0 )1.1 '

I A2..
t")oR~ ON Th& 1\-MPI..IFIE-R. ltt-id The CRUSAL
I KPLI CI\1)0rJS ON The: IRih-!SfEi<.. F'IJ N CTlON.

LI\.:>T 1lf.'IE wt- Sfft("'fe-d 10 'l)I'SC.o.ss. A-r.~ 1\-Mp t.\ ft~ bY


lLSttJ<::. fovr161" 1Y'frN~-forM lhcort. 1 wiWI '70 CONn tJUE" TYJI)T Su~.

'i3f'rsi<..AI..l.\' 1\rJ f\M'PLlftC1' INIIOL\Itc~ Jll../0 F\~)llQ)OtJ~ WHI'-)...


ftrc I"~Lfflt-d. "b"f SOM(;- c:fl),f'f" -fvNC.1t0r0 1 SOMC\ll-1~ f'~f'"f-d TO
ItS fl e>rE&J' S NrJCnoW~J 1 Rl..t). ThtS IS 1he- 'f~'POJIJ~<:- of- The
AMPt.tfltt<. TO ll-f\1 JMPVI.Sf 1tJP~T. A 'TftbL.E- of INPc.JT frtJd oVTPIIT
.f0tJC110t-1S I.S L}<;t--h>l. TO Sc.l HM1tri:Z:.td

6 (.:t) ~ElrA R.(o)


Set-~) J<.(t~u.)

J fLt') 5<.-tt') dt' sfCt'J R. Lt- t') dt I

Th~- reL.ftnOrJ~~IPS IMPL.Y 1f HI'PcJT ll ~l'='rJftl. <.NITh


co..,~l'ftNT ~~ u~cy 1 w, .. t. G~r-1::. etwt" ,; ~w 1 t...0JLL <>tl
e>vTlht- ~1\ME: trf-q\JeriC.'t b'-'T ftMpl-t-hE--d.. ITtJd. per hffl'S Ph.ft-JE;
w't
S\wh-t-o 1 1-t.. to\IT::: /lrC..W) e' . The rfur->c:Tlo,J ftCW) I~ COMPLE-X
soc.~ lhft'r tTS MfrbNJn>de IS c.Al...t.f-d. The- frMP\..tftc./)110~ whtL.f-
'ir\t- c..'-t-\tr!OitJI\-t~ ?Prl'T ~leLdS Pr ?hA-St- ~'twh. ~<.w):::. \f\cw>} e~'f(.c.JJ
Atr.AJ) IS of-t~ CALle-d Th c- '1)"'~~ -h> rJ c.motJ of- 'The ITMpLlfte-R..
1+ Tht-rt- fTrc- Pr LOT ot ItT Tht;- tMPUt Th~N
.fre-tyottvcte-S
ttr.\ :: ~(.wl e~w't' ~c:L ~t- OIJ'IPVT WiLL "DC"Pc-Nd. orJ 1nt
f\'1-'\p Ll "N cl;- of- Ef'rc..h of ~f: \ft'\Y"lOIJS CoM PorJ ctJTS. Wt:- ""\J~T ll'l t t <:> Y"ftTG
o \1 tr A- 1., L frt q u f;fJ c. I E-S 'TO c:, e;::r The 'TOif\1.. a\fr 'PUt S 16 tJ fH-

s <pc.w > e
~wt d
_!!P
~"
____..,. 5 'Vt.W) Au~>} e
t'"'->t" d
-~
G.Ti
lfJ f:- c ftN ST"V d. '!' ThiS
1h~ ~T lht\T
-fLt)
f\.low Lt-r fLt) = e.'(A)t ~IJc..h "i'h~-r Tht JY"~ft-r lS e 'RLt#t'Jdt 5 t'wt' '

B 'f re-& E-M tJ , "'(:, ~ ~ n K c- bAsE=- 1'0 bE: t = t-t' w~ c.m.t wr1rt
Tht 11-J TE-~ ... Pr L IT 5
'wt'
e" R.C:t) dt

/2.3
~wt
Th v ~ l f E-,"' : ;. e
VolE;- h II( \I~ 1<> \J \V d ""T'hf\"1
A-<.w) :: 5
Rt't) c.fnJ be:- ~v.vd

Rt't) -:: S e. ~w : AGw) c!_w


-z.-11'

iN T~(; cA-SE: t--~A~'( fre;qve-tJc..t~ f'riE:- . PR~:>t-.VI we h1W~

f.~ "" Ht) -=- \. tDc.w> e ,wt d.c.V


J J 'l.:(i
<1' <..v> > -=- S fLt J e- t' '-ll-t- d-r-
E:c>vT
'
&ouT =

:: ) fL-t'). J+ R..<..t-t')
It-\ o-r-de..... l'O f"~oc.E;~cl wE:- t-\c-~d. TO Tf\K~ The-1-t>or\~ irfu.IS~rr1
of l"t\(:- PROd0C.T ot 1WO fvtJc..nOJ-lS. 1ht~ I.S f\ ll5rf\>L C.OJUU;fl
So Lt-T ME:- <;~~ftLt'f""f; b'i' c.ttLLip..\Co Tht- TWO futJc..notJS f(-tJ ~d,a[t)
bo1'1\ hft'VE: r, T. 1
~ ~ f Lt) -"'> Fe~) ful d. 8Lt) -=:> (:rD.V)

s fLt'J d(t~t')dt' -~ FCw)GC.WJ


Tht- 'Pt"'Od.llut" fl-t'> ~ (t-t') 1~ c:hLt..t-d 1\- c..o~ vo L.vnON. IT JS
OS~ L \ ~ t-1 ftt-W CAi.-S -ro E-l~ ~ ft'f"'vf.ld I~ 1h (; w- s rA-CE- W k I C. h.
l\l\"lft' cAS't f.T,'S SatJ.C.E:- lhc- nlrc-e,rr\L. rt-duc.~ TO t-'\U\.,T\PLICfhlotJ
of- IW o ~ tJCliO toJS.

11-l .Sv~Mftri W& hftV'E- E-&TtrbL.lShE:-d.. T)...m- ThE: c..h/H"AC.Tf"Rt~TIC.S


of- f\l-1 PTMrL.t-t-1 ER CAIJ bt- Gt>TfhtJE:-c:l b'( l<..tJ OWIIJ u ITS r(:-JpO}IJ~c
To f\'t-.l JHPO\.S~ or 'TO It- S 1r-Jt- w fl'\1' E- of d EfuJt Th fr E-9 \IQ.Ji. Y.

12.4
IT IS \..SIE-lf6nN0 ~ ..S111dY Tht- Cft.St- whe-N ~<t) :::o .~r
't L. 0. ~\!) IS f\- ::n'f\1E;M-c'JT Vhl'\1 I'VO 1c-~ Po !V~E;- w 1LL OC..C.U f' ll tJT ll.
A~ IW\X)\ ~\(orJf\l \~ /Tl>Pt..l(:-cl. 1'\-\\~ ~El-l ,.S Pr 5~6\IT o-t C.ltUSitLJT)"

~ \\-J\PI..\E:'S ThA"T 1\lw> hf\~ c.(:{1'Y7n> chN'I\-tT&t~ri<...S. Wt- R.t-<.;>v1rE


n, tl..\ 0 - ~~I t d
\
J-Q) RL't) e t ::.0

E:-Q lHr L 'rY bE;-c.o M~S

dw
Z...li
1\-\E;- 1\..>TE:<c>f''Pr-L ouE:-r" ~ c. ful bf: E-V'ft"Lv-hiE;-d b ~ 'Pl.11lltJ., 1tJ A
CotJv t-rG>\t..lV> ~TOr- e e 'r ( ~-lure t. "- o) All d lflt'- IN <0 Tht- LJt1tT
A-~ e -""";> o. 1h I) ~ w c- h ttv E:- n:> E:v A- L I) PrTe-
lc.w-w'>t E:t
e. e dt!

_L
c. cw-w'} TE.

-p ()\\I H<O l't\~ ~~K. \tJro IV\t- 1tJTE::-bt"'ft C..

llt-l
- -")'0 ): kw') d w 'lt.rt
i,c.w'-w)t"E-
=o

1 l-n ~ c..fuJ. bt.- Wf'\ \T~ Pr~

ft d w'h..l!
) (.w)
w-t.V -~~
=-0

1~ 'tJ lr\~ forM ot- fr c...o~ vo Luno tJ bHwt-Q../


lT~ ~. T 1..t -n t1t- s plfc.e 1 ~ JusT
J (- t) RC. t} ~ 0
\tJhcrt- J. (. -T) IS Th e.- u rJ IT ~T-P tv tJ c. :no "'-' WhICh l~ 0 fo f' t- ~o.
The- cotJd tno~ oN Pr<.w} l.S ThA-I tT n ftv(;;- 1'10 SIN~<.H. . ~InE-5
beL.o~ Tht ~L ~ts. Tho~ <fo,. Rt t) ~ bc-- C.~f\L.... 1\-Cw) IS
~61 tw"b\TY'I\f"'i bu\ r~t. Tl\et- sAn~tH1 ~t" C..v- IT&,,. of- 1-t o POt. t S
bt-\.0~ lY\C f't,\L ~\~.

125
"Jhe- fJ01JOI\l

IS Vfrf o~ e-+v L. IT 1~ w-orlhwH.. le. W


1~ C.h r'h-llb \1\.1 (o ~potJ&JTlAt..L..,Y

NoV) ft C()tqL.t-y. -h>ML'TlOtJ C!'h-A h.,"e- It '&ING>VL..kP-li'f diLLt-d


(\- ~u Lc. T~ts ~~ PtJ'ori'-IT l1"'f' wl'\\c..h ll-\t-~l'lc.'ltoM ts ~Yt1pTOnuluy
IH-\i~\TE;. A -poL.~ lP-t 11- 'j'hysl tilL ~
fv.vc..TloN ~e-prc-se.uTS It- RE-So~tTNC.e,
wh\ c.. \I\ l'::> Pt- fr-8.9 u ~ c.'i A-I w h , c...h lh c- ,.,.., p ~., , -n> d. e of o~ c.t LL lhl o rJ
be.c OMt-':> l~f\N.ITE;- \-or f\- dY'I\)11\J(!, .fo..-c.E; of -ht-.~tiE- '"ll'MPLtfvd(:,

!hJY Phys.tc...A-L '5ysr~ hftS 1\- ''..,E-Mot-(' w'-'tc..h L~TS A- CE:-r'Nt1JI.i


WhtL ; 1T 1S. '""'P oss-1 b L E:- Thr'fr fT Phy s1 c.JtL sysTeM s hen> Lei. h ~ve:
'P~ COG 1\.1 l'l: fhV~ of- evWTh 1"0 C..OM&. ThIS IS v osT 1'\" S7'fffet1NJT of" lht-
PRINC.IPLe- of- cA-vSALtl"Y. lhe- ONLY wPty A P"''l'~tc.A-L S'I'~Tt-t1 C.f\-.JJ ~
ftC\-\I~"E- n~-h).}ITe- nMPLtTVd~ ts The- ~uLT o-f an Htf..'lo~y o+ ArJ
ttJ-h.tJITG- d'f1V11'lc, 1t>f"c.t- AI SoHE:- E-ftrLre-r 'lll-'\c. S\1,.\CE:- ft- ?OLE R~ll-~&.>TS
l~flt-i\TE- ft't-'\p\.11\Jc:H- o-f o~~ILLft-T\~1'1 ~Y"" ft- fi,..IIT- d rJ \J JJ.J e:, -f\)r(.E ~ he-t-Jc.(;-
IT H uST ~~'&~ froM fr -h:>rc..t- ""'1'\'T IP=t!--_. hA-S e-x Por-I E-1-JTt f'rLLY ci~c.rE/TSE-d
ff'oM tt-lfli'Jilf;- ,.....,pLa'Nd- ftt" i-= -00. lhtS 1Mp1..1E.-S Tht- drtiJIWC:,
fof'c. e- hll5 f)- coMpL..e-x tv~~H=..,,, c..'t w ~~ 7 os,n v - W:t. nus ThE
'POL.fr5 of fr Re ftL S'i STt;t1 Mu.sT LIE nJ 'l'h e- uppe:- hAL-f PLitNt
of lh~ c.oMpL.~ fre-quttJ~Y SPIKe, c..ofre-sPorJdt/J~ cit-c.A;'ttJG -ro
"'-'9t.t'NcH:S. Sfl-tO fttJO'I\-\:1" wftY l'n~ o~c.tL-LATIOivs of. ALL Y~L
'P'nystc.~L svsre-Ms d.E:cfry NA-i\h''At.ty w ~~ 1lt1 e , Th~ resoJJ Ptt-~c.e
fr-t-C(IJCtJC.IC'~ f\'LL hAVE: 'PostnVc W:t fhJd. Ll~ tl\l lht- uppE-R.
~ALf f L /h.lc.

J2.b
leT's !'lovJ d.t-duc.e:- ~of.'\C:- 'Propf'f""nE:-<:> o+ A by LMve&TI(Qfl'rl'-lb
Th~ LtMtllfllb ~httvtor o+ Th~ t~T"(;--&f'fh..Jd. LE=T 1 5 ,.H'tTc Tk~
ft\crb t" I A-~ 'Tht- S. U M of ft-Jol I M 1")10 t tJ Itt"' V fh.J d.. ("E-f\ l f frrT !
w'-wZE;
_L ~w i
w'-w-i.E: (w'-w)t tCt.. cw'-wJ"L -tE z.
( tt;-A L..) (IH.J\Cot~ ftf't)

~'- w lc:.u ,_ w)

ThE: ~L ?IW'T 11-1 ThE:- I. I MIT C:ro~ ftS> Tht- 'P Y'Hlt.l PAL UftUJt. t ~. 'P V J._
5\t-lC.~ 1he:-rc- ftrE -<f.; fh.
'
1> t~TJ'nl.>ce 0~ ;- IT'he< S\ J.E:- of 11,~ Stl-ib"l.l\'r"l7y,
w'-w
1ht- tMI\-~~trri P~ b~kttv'e-6 As #\ dE:L..TA Fo,..c.no,., A-S e -"> o
uJ~\Le ~E; trtel\ Got5 ~ lt. l\10~ we- hlW'~ ffi The liMITlNGI

r" _!_ + ~rt ~c.w'-w)


w '-w .. -~.e
' w-w

Th v~ 1-f- I lJ N d e-r S.l1\ Nd The P r INC.t P ftL V flL u


t de- tt- I h tt II e fJ f'-S 0 L..T Th AT L o o 1<. S L1 K :-

0 :::;: ( 00 A Cw' J l=>Y _I dw'


J-co w'-w 2.11

Th ~
T~ E-
1 t1 ~IN Ar'{
re~ l 'P ~ RT
'P ttrT
l't t--E:'d S TO
IS. E-ft'S'I
be.
TO
INTEE.d'r\Te-d
tt-ITGff(TE; IT tS
1\fOc)~ c:1 The
~IJSi
-i. z
Acv>).

S I 1-l~IJl. f'rf'l T'l fr 5

5<.u-b+S
-oO wt~
Q)
A C..t.0' J 'PV _j
w-w
dw
Z.Tf
ThIS IS f'r LI n L ;- t) 1#1 C.U L T TO ttJ'T"&\"ftT: SO for Tht- MOM~T
L.E:r 1"\t- w Y" \T E ThE; r e-~ ln. T A'.:>

Atw') Pv _L - ~.: A(w)


w'-(.1.)

I Z.7
Now ft CW) \& C-OMPLEX 50 vJE cfhJ wrtr- tT flS
Tht- SuM ot A (' -ltL 1'\-1\ld I M fto INtrr'J' Pf\RT1 l,t

A {W)
.
:. ARC.W) -t l. Ar(w)

A-Ncl fttoM The- Pl-111 OIJ~ f'ESIJL.I WE: hi'Tve 1ht- co,Ud..tn o t\J T\,fl1

AP.. (w') 1>V : AI (.W)


w'-w
Thv~ C:>tii-N lnE- f'f;-Al of" IMf\"<;:, tNft-f"Y 'PI"tt'T The OThe-r C.fh'-1 be
SoLved. f1>r. ThAT 1~, -fo1' The reAL Pllf'~

- S-~
--...... Ar Cw') pv -L
w'-w
-d_w'
n
= A-n(Wil
""- 1

lht exltMPL..c- of- Th~'SE;- Y"C""Lm/ON~ WH-ICh ht\V- be-~


Oh. LE-d. The:- DtSPe<SIOf\) R.E:-LmtONS TL,E ~tJd~ of re-fyt}-c.T}o,J
ot liGhT l& usc-d. It-t Tht~ C/TSE- the- IH1\C:>11'-'fhr'f fvt-JOl~
c.orv"e-~POt\.)d~ TO The- ltc:l.Sorpno.V 1),..-oub"' ft- MfdJfl whiLE
ThE:- reftL 9A..-T IS The- rt-f..-.tc..norJ lrJd.{";\
J
rt. 'FrOM 1h.e-S e-
rE-l.fnlotJS TN~ LeltrtJ l.hA-i 1\ Lll'tf'teS AS f\ fvrvc.TlOtJ of ~9'-'E-NC.'(,
Tht~ 'Pht-NQHCNI\ l5 Refe-rred TO /\"~ c...hV""Ofo1ffl1C.. A-bcff"ftTIOrJ IN OPnc.s,

I'Ll GIVE; ONe-- MOf"E: EXIt-1"'\Pl..e of The:- USE: o{ ~OIJrle-R


S-c-("J~ be--fore- I L. E-Ptv E Tht- SJ bJ e-c.. T. I'LL WO,:;t.K. 0\Jl AN
~lC ~PL(; of h1'\'1 .fLow. WI L.L 'S.o l..V E; Tht: ON- dlt"'e.JSIO~ ftl..
ttcm- t=t..Q vJ &-q v Fmo rJ
dlCX,t)
~t

svhJ~T TO The- 1NI:T1ftL cof')c:ltno,J T~lt-T ItT -t=o The- 1~GitT


'Dl~Tnbvnol\l '~ & 11/tl\{ by f(.X) 1 1-1. TCX 1 o) ::. fC.Jt). Now fou rH;t'
'TY'/trVSfor M 1t\l(o t { ~,t) we h A V -

tL~1t) ~ 5 e ~. -kJC Tc X1 -t) d .x

Th - ..J l-H-e-r~ fr L e-q voJJ -bt:<-aM e-s


- ~ 1.. t ( i<.J t) :. c:Lt
dt

IZ.B
ThiS f-91Jfl'flON. IS ~0 w E: ~ll.y bOLV-d It~
-.-kl..t
~cA,tJ ~ e At,&.)
-f~ l.t
= cpc~). The-N zc~,1)=- cf[l<.) e
IV"/T}lS-fE-.r ft>t-t(.1/0f'J (.A)f. c.rt-~ INV-rT 1T TO

StNc.c- c.pc~) '::> j e.'~tc' fC.x'J dx' we- C.fhJ R.cwr1Tt Th-
~f>o..>etSTl frL f\S _ t(k + l (1(-X')]' _ c.~')2..
e. -z.t" e -t"t"

A~ d. fiN A L.Lf
-ex-~
I )L ,
TCX 1 t) = e 'rt ftx.'J dx
'"'--~ Th \.S IS Ft- co,wo L-lHfllO ~ 1NTE-<Offl L 1N X by IT Cs> AIJ~ 1A~~

"DISTil-.\ buT\Ofll.
?A'RT Tvvo

Wl\.. L "-\ow c.h ftNC::>E Ttt& SubJ-c.T fh.ld. Slfh<..T TO


P\Sc..v~ A Sf;-RI-::> oi 1-JE-W SubJe-c.TS. WhiTT hfh) JN M~Nd
IN~ -ro G-o Thvo" e:.hTh-e Fo~LOWftH;:) LISTI 7~'"'-'<:> ~fO<.>bJ...
~oKt- 'MORE;- rfrt>IL'f Jhfu..l OThEKS 'DWt;Nd lkl<# I.J'j'OtJ lr\E; I~E5T!

1:n F 'F e)<,fiJTt f\1.. ~ Vftll 0 N S


~nflL orf+ff'Ci'JT'lth. fqvthrorJS
C~LCUL U:S Of V~l tYfloN~
\Nlf:- C::> r A ~ e-q u1\'11 o tJ .S
Mt\Tv"lc.e-S WITh ltPJ~LtC.fiTIOtJ TD VtbR.Iff)v)\) Theor)"
v Ai..VC:-~ of ll LlrJSM "Drf.t. Eq's thJd IJJT'e~fftL Eif~
E:\<:>e-N
'Pe-rTu r b 1'1'110 rJ Prob~fM ~ uJ L\ tJ e-AR. S1 STf;hS.
'PJ< Ol3 ABrtVIJ /llJcL S~Tts.ncs.

chtf~n f\ \.. -<:.y v frf) oN '~ fl


-fr R~Ut1loi\J~h 1 p bEffwt;-t-~ T'vJO
VAt' tAbLe~ SfiY X 1\?Jd 'j I NVOL..\1 1N G de~HifmVt:-.S o.f. OtJ(;-
.,..
~&\h. i'el:lpE:oC.( 10 1)\.~ clh~y"
)
1,. 1"11'1 f:S E-<(Uffl)ON it./ JV'j
I
~
d J
d_7 ,_1 ... dJ ..,
'"' <D;JJ~f\'L "ThE:- I.IOw{;(' of ~ ~vf'tT10N 1 1.,
Thf;- orc:lt:i' x dx dl\
Th~ 1\. of 'll\E: d~ I Vl}"nv~) J ht- ~ \ E'R. 'hE. ftyvtfllO~ ~~ -n> .SOt...V~.
t.(~()AU.'I IN fl"TT1l<..t(IJJG t4 l)J#. ~ Thf- t-IT STq> JS 1"0 Rt-d~>c.E
'hE:- or~ by otJe.. The-re- l ~ o tJEr c.I\SE.,. ln e;- L t/Jtfu- Dtff E-q vJ ll"h
c..otJ.sTfrrJT'" c..o6-'fhc..1ttJTS1 WhtlU- lrli.S C..t)Mj>L I Clff"~ 'ThE- ~t>L.~llON.

l W\\..l. COl0Sidt-f' '"'i'\\t. Pf"'\:>L.E';M 'SO(..V~d whftJ thE- .SOL.UitOJ.l


hA~ P6-E;N RE:dvc..e.d.. To hlJ ulT'E;<:>rAL ~ORM. lN HOST (.(t-S~~ The
t)\ff ~ eq C.#hltJ'Cfr b~ q.N.-T Ly SOI..VC"d. IT\ e,.Jt.y l N The Tf"~Tbovt<S'
1\trr yo\) -h)Jd SoLvltbl.f;- "Pt"ObL.tt'\s. I'LL nrsr
ll"f\c:hTioJ-i foLl.OvJ
bY 'I:J\~<..US~\)'.1(0 SOLI)t}-bL: '"Probl.ti1S. You Wil-l. se-c ThAT
bo LI.J 1 ~ CD 1) df- :-'(. R.t-q v 1t'-.S ft 1.. ot of- -h:>-o \.1 ~ Clo lf-R..o".,) 4 1l' t uu 6
70 fn1 c:l. The E:ttst E-ST 1u r"" -}-of' s o L.. v 1tJ 0 Vh e- ~ v hn Otoi.
f I Rsr OR DE. R 'DI i=t== tR E:-1'1Tl f\ L E Q ~fffl OJJ S

Fli,sr oRde-r '""D rff. f:Q 's. f\ R~ o-f Tht ~1' t-1 f C')(1 y, dl\
eli ) =0.
o~ KoR.~ '-OMHol'lv!' e,..PK-&5st:ci. A.:) dy - Fcx, v). I he- HosT &E-t-lei<.~L
f,~T ordH"" -o,-\{. &q.' 5 IT.& ~t>T .SOLI)AbL~ ~t E-9uffnOt-.{ t~ SOLV /1-bl.E;

If Tht fu.lswe-r iS Kt-d'-'c.E-d 'TO Cj)'-'Adt"IPJ))ft-. ofTf-#J TIME-S /he- bt-sl


1\-?protK-~ ~~TO 1-1tt-K.t- A- Tttbt..E- of J.,y, fli'.ld. dyfd~< ttrJd roH,")OTc
ll-\c- .SL.OPf. ~r
utr-r 1ovs l~t-'SDJJG vhLVtS> of X 1\-Ncl. '(. A-fTE:-i<-
you .f\~d how ~T Y ~hlhJ &t-S WITh /C
1
)' OIJ Crht /l..C:C..OH pvTt

1ht- D\tf- frl9 Do:5 ~-lOT C.OHPLE:-Tt-Ly dt-ht--tc lh~-\vt..)c.no,.)f)-(...


Sow no 1-J 1\"Nc:L ltv G {;10 c-; 1\- L you Ntt-d &OH c- fh<-h1 Trftr y COJJSJA1JT
at IJE(:)r-I\110N 1rs The- or-dft" of '"(j>vfff10N lt-lC.K~E-S 1 you WILL.
NE-td II- c..or~ Por.Jd 1~ c, ,V\JM be--r a Svc.h C..O ,..,.STfhJTS.

S OLVIt-tfD t>df-e-r e-NT'If\L "q vltnONS bJ ST\ldy IN(:) lht- chfrr/Kffi


of Tht- SLOPE:- fof v frrl Ov~ VA-L U ~ of X IS 0 fTt-rJ ~ fTE.-
tN -k>i' fo'\ A1l1J c . Th I~ I d f1l- h Its b~ Cfc. p l'tJ.)d t-el fbJ d I~ Cit L L f:d
?fr~c.A-LS tl\f\-~r-fhJ\. t-\"E:-rc- for E-i\A.h vf\LUE:- of y lhJd X 'fou
'PfA-w ft L\TILE:- ~LOPe ot o~tT Lt-~b~. frht.r 'Pr~ I~CD A- /..OJ
crt- lh~~ L 'm,~ s L.o pe:s ~o v UhJ J o LrJ Thevt up lhJcl <=>ff f\
...fet:L .fo(' ~t- &oL..~.rno!V ft?.)c:t \Th bt-httV 1or , IJ v~,ous ~ Re<:>1o~.
Th-e- L lt-lc-S .Jo ltJ ltJ& lhe- ~1\'~100~ Rfre:,IO).)~ ~ c.rrnc.RL S.0L(J'"J10U$,

Now wt'Ll 1'-IV~'Tl<::dff- SOYic t1-E:-ThodS of SOLVINC:> t-r.f\-Cn.Y


Tho5fo ~ufrnOI\>S. wh1c.h c.t'OJ bt- ~oLVcd (;J(A-C.TLY.

No Y. elY
= FCX) T')ojj~ IS II0Tf:b r- A TE;-d DII"'GC.Tl}'
d)<
NO ')( ~ ::. Fey) IN Vt-t-T lh.ld IIJT E- (:) n')-q""{; A~ j_
dx dx :: ..!
dy d'( FC.Y)
X -:
s -rc:v)

CI\SE 3 '. fO<, y) -::. - I"\C._2:t ~) W 1 Th ~Pf;<..IAL C.otJd1TlON


N c.,x,"Y')
Th\ ':> \":: rJ~,- (t ue;r t t(~t"fv L C ~t SIP-)C.t; NOT t-1AHY
8? vtrnol\l::. hr'h'E- Tn tS. ProPt?..lY. lh(; ndi . t- q ' s
~ot..ul'rbL~ Sl N c.e: ~~lcJ~ ::: - ~ _.., HdxtNdJ=O
/PJd tf '?C.X 1 {) ~ ffftStl t-S
d 'PC .X, t ) = 2:f d X -t i1 d y
~X <)~
t1 =- sls2 fnVd N "=' ~
qx ~d

131
1h - -::;.o L U'TIO 1\J TU C1fS- ~ 1S J cJ sT 'fC~ t'T ) :: S H d,)( -r KO')
~ frN /'rM p L E;
t;-J(
~ =- 'f..:!:}~ _,.., (Y + 1 >') d X + C. I- ;q d '1' = 0
d,X I+)(
d C 'j X -ti\~ -t'l') =o <!>t-T
1..
'jX t-)<z. +Y -= c. or y = c. -1-
j-t.)(

-:::. d)l.
f{X)

So l..U I tJ (;, NoT o t-l LY +1r~1 '0 r de< bJJ tfL..So hl1.5 h f-f
I~ SOY\ t-Tl t-1(;-'l::. v~ L 'TO C.~ fnJb ;-- Jh(:- 5c.f\'Lt- of "Jnt.

t-\

\f- X I~ c.. h f\"NG? E;-0 To y Pr Ll KE-


~ovrJT cy Tht- '5c.fh.. ~ 1s PR~~u e-d~ Svc.h. fnJ E:-C(uffnOIJ 15
~'""o e:,:Nt:;-O 1J ~ or \ NUA-r l fttJI "10 ft- S C. I\" L (;-- ~ ""TR fh).yf'or H trflON. I 1-l
Sue,~ CPrSE::) "'~ SubSTITu110f\l Yf'!- -:::. V CftrJ bE; HffD. ThE-
Scf\L- c,~ANu & IS X -? Xt fhJd. v - ? V . NovJ + wt- v ~E- S=kx
~ ~c. f\ L- ~ f\ S )< t ,_t1'\ C. fhJ d 1.) sc. fh..~ tr.S V'. "1n E:- ~0-1 o+ ThE-
d\ #t<~'TYftl E-q v A-110 f\.) IS JJO
~ =- .flV)
dS
A-lJd.. 0 NE:- V f\"f I A- b L hAS b;E;rJ rtM 0 veclj HJ Th I<) C. IT~ E- ,! .

cti
d)<
= dv ;x
dX
4Y t-V=- V1..+1 dv =
d'& VL"-v tl
A~ f\"N oThtf" q 1\-MPL E
~ = X + XJ
d'f. y
1\t\t:-\1.1 d=- x2. v ti1J d g = ~x:
d x tv 2. X y -t )(t.dy -- x-t~
3

dl' = dl< X.'"V


2..V -t- <!Y = +....1
dS v

132-
Th - L I JJ E:+r V" I .s.T o r d C1t. d df e R wn A L cq u f\11 0 t--1 h ft ')
Th t- e:, t.1IJ ~ A- L fo f" M
dy t- Pc.x)y := QLx)
d)(

C> E-N tiff L SoL UT}O "-'

y ~ e -f<.-x) s';. e
FCX
1
)
Q LX' ) d X l

A
Fe.~<') ::. Sy; Pc.x'' J dl\ ~
Foi~ q-=- o ,The:- Hot1oc,c-toJt.oiJ~ c.ttst- Tht- ~?-<.tAL ~oLvnoJ'J ~~ ~o.sr

~ ::.. A e- ~<.x)

ONC..~ Th\~ E.-q \) 1\i)Or-.1 1~ so l..IJ e-c:l w t- c.tTrJ Ms o -&o L u~


dy + Pcx> y =- q c.x > y
)l

,_dx
Wh l (., \-\ l~ 'ff:W r I ITt-rJ IT ~
dY T 'PCX) .l :::. qc..x)
y .. c:Lx ~('"''
A SPf;<...tPtL c Me~ 1s c.ftLLW ThE;- l-1 c. c.~t-rrl e.q Vf\1lorJ
~ ;- Clc.xJ ':11. ~ bc.x)
d)( \1
lh1S. c..ftNNOI IN Gtt-Ji:-rftl b~ ~OL..V-d.. bVI t'T l~ 0Nu~U~(...

wn A-T you. c.I}-N cio wtT~ tT. Wt;- c. In/ re: w Y' ''~ 'r A-S>
J. !Y ;- ~ l.. = hc.x)
~ d~ (} QC,K)
Now LE-T S -=- SY. Qc.x'J d)(.' so lh ltl
Th~N we hi\V ~ dY
d"~ -r dl. = dc.s)
Ltl d ::. l d_:p :: ]!. 1 , dotJ 'T ItS"- whj "to tJ do Tl\ IS
tp d)C. y>
In e-JJ w t- c !'TN w f' I TE-
d. y :::-. ~~ - ( ""' 1) ~ -""":)
d't tf ~'L-
Wh\ c..~ 1s wn1T~u ft$
dl..~
~l-
~
0
gc.S) 1f
Th\~ \.5 ~DW l. t tJ ~ \ N ~f f\111 d S.O~V!rb Lt' buT The- ~r clE:-r
l~ l !VC.f~E;- 1'0 ~('lc!, S lt-':IC.t" tn~ +.1-)IIL 8:;> u'tTIOI\J IS t..l Kt:
~- wrrve- ;-qutmotJ ,Th~ &oL.vnotJ t~ l1ore- ftn..,,~, fTR JO v.s.

/33
We- V\ ftv&- 1:)1~cu~ ~ ~d L 1utf\"1 c::lt ffe;wn AL E-9 v lt110'-l..l
f\1.. (c,t-d f
WI 1h c.o .v ~ lltrJ\ c..ot-fftc.1 ov-r ~ tu0d fov tJd... Tht-'f clhJ A-L.W ~ ~ ~
h> 6- So L. v f;"d Th c- C. ~E.- o+ tJ 0 ~ L I tJ b4- (" 1:::> I f+t-rE:tJTHH. t-Q v ~-5
1b (trJ Ol'nt;-r H. /tiTf; ~ Wttl C. V\. W t- w l L.L P l ~C. USS I tJ 1h -' c.fnu.,ow nJG
c.I\Sf=-'::>.
C~f:- l . NO y t:" ( <;t II I 4 X ) ::. 0
. (Jid'OJ I
R t-d V C. fr 0r ci..C'r b y L- TT I N (Q W =. '(

NO X J S e:- d >'/ d y s 1tM c ft-5 "b~rt:-


Jr'i ~J_

~II :; +CJ) by ~I

;~ ('J:) ~

IN d bJ""I ttlb h8'" or dt;R..


V\ -\
?VI{X) dkp
-""
t- 1\- Cx J {____ 'J + --- p,l'X) dy T "Pc,cx}y = QC~J
dX d ~ 1'\1 c\)C \}

If C? =- 0 tnE:- ho t-'\0 G:> ~E;-O v~


1\- !:X/I-1-1PL(; ot 1\ LI~-M ti-OMo6e~E;OvS arJTE-bffll.
tqvtnlON I~ Tht- -ful.l.OWINio
ao -Y 1-
tl X) :::. ~ S 0 e [-f (X+y;J d,Y
1-\e-r&- Tht- I Nlt-bfl\. C.I\1JtJOT" bt L>ONE:- Sai\JC.~ aT atJVOl..uE-S
1- (.)C +y) w ~\IC..h I.S w l1 "T W t- ltf~ IYV uJ <:> -ro -fIN c1. TYP 1c. ALLY
Thew I NIE:Gfllll.. e-q vfrno"':s, Itt": ~OLVt-d by Tht t-'lf;-Thod of
1Tef M"\Q N Th '~ 1S A 1-1 tffn;""' 1'\"'nC./ll. W tty of SAfHJ ro 1Y1I11.. lhJd
(;-'fror. '/oiJ hfWe- 1'0 6u~s A -ftx) Tkfl-l PUJE~ IN '1ll jn(- IMTtoft}L1
t;vlh..vl'rle 1ht;-tt-c.IH.c.v t.I\-Tt- f<.'l' J 'f)Nd i'('( lt-&A11J.

The IS #\ St-\ftl.l Cl.i\~S o+ ltJTE~ r 1\ 1.. E;-q U1h/O"-'S '-'.)hie.~ wt


(..frt) GE-'1 I'"\~ of ra ~~T ftvJ Ay. n\l~ /tJIJOL\.1 E:-l fnJ E:- q U lh1 IHJ
of- Tht- for~
h.x) =- A ) KC.X, y) {l YJ dy -t 8(,(j

Ht-1E: t<.('~, y\ \ 5o c.A l l (;-d The J(..{;r~(;(... . lw ~ftMPt.t w ov t..c:l hE


..f l;q =- ) e _,Y-"> .tc.y) d f
Th ~ I 5 ~ f+t-.r-., E.-d f\S lh E.- d \5> p Li\ L(-t"l&JT K.t-<'f'l E: L J K c X- y) .
t--lovJ Tht- ~fF.ST why 10 proc.tt:d ~~ 10 TltK.E- ThE:- c..otJVOL\J'TlON

of Th\~ ltJTc~rf\t... ~Kl IS J


~ I.'!(.K-y} d
S e" r- ftx) dx ~ ~<.)() ;;. A. )_m CO
e
_(y-y.)
e eJJk.yfiu
1'-dJ y

OR c.pc ~) : - ,). W{J~) Cf{~J


whfi.,.~ we~) =- ) e -'"1 e ~ ~"LIJ d u :;:, .J.
-n..
lr'
~
- ~7'\..
I+ --ft 1..

cpc.ft..) -;=.. e
I - :>. co.tJC ir..J

l..3 b
AMOT~;R ~X 1\"Mf'l.E- Is

fOC)
-=- rJ....1 C.l-tcY)f}cyJ ely
:. So' f~C.Y) dy - :X S~ Yf3CY) dy-
- C - X 0

c. =- ~: c c - d y) 3 dy
o :: S..,' y cc - oy J3 d y

Wh&E:- ~ 1\?Jd.. 3 M0SI bt tJIJMCi'IC.frtL.y ~Ot.\JE:J) /t-Nd Tht


s OLu'J) Of.) llf:ffrTE-d.
C ALClJLUS of Vf\-KiftTIONS

l\low 1 wlh\JJ 1U ~OLV &OMf: 'P C"Obl.;11~ at A D1~t-JJT


T'fPf:. ~ e:x,lt-MPLc Su?P~t:: h A~ c- A- ~IYtN<o f\-))d
wftNT"l'O ~c..Lo5>~ 1'\-\f: l'oll~lNuM. A-r~. Whm- .Shf\-'Pt- do&~ The
~>TTilllb Tl\ l<..(;? Th (; frrclt I~ EliV c-rJ AS

A~ s~I .foq d x .{<,~


A ~~ Th~ fr ~ll't1b(;-f w hiC.h d(;paJdJ o~ A
b I
~ tH.T)ON. w~ C.t\lL A A .f-vtJ cno...a JH.. S1JJC..~ ()

10 e:-1> ENd ~ 0 Ill ..fc. )( ).


frS f\1-JiJ'J)\c; ~ -1\--M P Lt S cJ P'?OS E- Th f'O w f\ bALL u ? I t-1

Tht:- Prtr. Wh /f'r 'Pff\\\ wiLL lT -foLLow "I. The- ~we-r I~ l'nE- t>tJ(;
Thff'l M.~ "TV\&- 70TfrL 6\l err:,f L8"iST. 1:, uJ whK.h OtJ E:i lS )vllfT~
Wt- wtLL t>~tJe- A.
II t-.ttw --r-crrt A lh~ J
J\-<.1lOtJ I wh tc.lot 1S Th~
Tt-ME;- I i"llc brA L d- K t- P~. lhus
A ::. 5 [ ~ (~~ ) 1. - 1M Jh (.{-)] ch-
~c- ?robL~ lS ?O -hNci. Th~ UJv-IIE- w"'tc.hhc.no.., M~Kc-s Th .~
M \ ""' M u 11. To -oo Th' 5 w c- ,..., u~T """l'r>'l Mt i;-Eo- Th- 1 j...('f-E;o rf\1..1 d. Th 1s
Mtfrt\)S ThttT tf i<X) de-&.~'"~ b~ lh JrCTlJPrL P~ <rf- The- BALL ThEN
-fC X-+ E) 1s "'2. .aid ordEt" 11'-1 1 1, .. yov c:ftN uo of+ 'fh~ '?ffiK. at Thf;-
htLL \I'J ftNY ~IH:c.nol-1 fTtJd t-.)Ol C..~(tlJ<af: yt>ur S.LO'P~.

S1J?1:>os.~ 1\tlt:-tJ -F. C:t) 1':> ThE.- NIJ(:no IV w htc...~ J-11\)( 111 1~t~
Tht- tiJi~onvd. Mt-<1 '1Y'1 hti)::. 1\C.t) -tl\_l't) whtc.~ 1~ &LIG,kHY
dt\tt-rbJT -f-roM Thf: c...ON~Cl "PfiTn. Th.f:;N Ol.)'f' C.ONdtliON bf<OMc)

A[ h ( t) ] = A[ -'n (.i) ] T tJ 0 I rr 0 r d E;- r IN 1l.


1tr hLt) We ltiA-Vf-

: ~ l~ r i .. ~ 1. - ac11 -t 1
rt-> d t
E XPfl Nl)INC:J
: 5 L~ -hl.- ~Jh t M~~- M~lt
HuJ~ VJc 'f"f:'( v rr f:

): [ ~i;t- M(J~] dT =
lfJ k\C.~ c. fo'J b E: \ NT; C::d t\'1; 1) by 'P ft\U"S
-t
=- 'M'h
T
Vtttt)Jo - ~o ~li LtJ.~LtJ - 5
W\atl(t)Jt

- 0 - S: (m ~ (t) t- M(J ) yt Lt) dt



hLt) = :-'(
T~"s IS Tht E:J< PcC..TcO rc-&H.:r of fl 'Pitf'Tlc.LE ~ f Al..t.l N~ 1 tJ
A (:)f'ft\)ITtrf\01'> PJ\. -h~:L.d.
MCMI~N E-d LI\ST ll ~E h 0 "" Th ~ v ft"i"Ji\11~ fh.. p t' I ,.:>c..tP c.E
wf\S \J5t-~L. ltJ .Sol.UI,._,~ 'Pf'Ob\..b'-IS. \'c::l LIJ(.(;- 1'0 ILLIJSTr1lJ-(; ThiS

by worl<lr-l<: ouq""" fh.X>The-it I:"X'tl-MPI. E- Th1S nt'l-6 IN EL.e<.:Tf'O:!>TfiTJC.S.


Co~1dH l~o ~YLitJOR.IC.Itl.. C.OI\I'OIIC..Tor u.Jhac.h. ltf""~ c.o,VC.~TYIC.. "Tht- IN~tf'

o1 fl\d10~ o.. 1~ AT ff PoTCi\lnAL. V W h tlt" Jh(;- oTiffrr vf ft'tdJJS. b


IS AT 0 P~T'ftVnfH.. ll\t- ?tiTOJT HH.. '9 bE-71.\l-f-N ThE
CON chH'f'O C"S t_ fnV be- q ~ ITE- C.O M P \.I C-1\1(;-d 'PE-p f-A.)d It-' G.
~ r.l Tnt S IJ f ft.. c. ~ c. hft-1" Go (; t+o V) E-C.J e-r 1ft E- f;"1C 1\-C.T <.p
lSinf: of')(;- wk1c.h t-'\II'JIMI-=t-~~ ~e- C"Nf1"6YJ 1.
Wh ac..~ e.-\ II\ ~E S -n. t- bJ ffGo '{ I 1\lTt-C:>t'" It L ""''~I M JJ H

E = ~; 5 (rv~ )t d vb L. = ...,,~, M\J,..,


1\1~ Et>lf;rc:.y 1~ Th(;- f:t.lf:r&Y ot '1'\--E- sysTtN\ \tJhtC..h as. e-qof\l.
To {: c_vl.. wh~{; <:!... I~ 1)\~ ct\-PAt.fll'tNCE. Th\JS '51JJC.E;- v I<":. fi>Ct-cl
~6- (.A-N h 1-l d. c.
lht- c.o-ut-cr ~S we-r fo~ op I.\IE !'NO.., ~ IT IS f' 1
/n..
VI\1'1A1IotJ Sl)c.h Thf\T ~~ e-xl\-c.T \lt\l~Jt- for ~ IS

c:
\Nf; 1"'\le:.kT SE.E how C.l~~ we- clhJ ~~ Th1~ fh'JSwt-r by
TA a<.\ to1 10 A TriA'- f!/ I...H\1 ""
aca NOT -;ne-- c..of ~t-c.T ONE-. leTS
-i1r~T T'f'{ A LINHW'LY d t-c.re-1\-~ a""(:) -f IJiLd I
<S}-=- v ( 1- 'tfb)
( I- ~fb)

b-ro..
'2. (. b-0..)

At-.1 oT\\t;1" (, Vt-~ ~~ (, kT \:,~ Pr Q\l f'l d r fiTlC. .fv !It c.no t-1
L

~ -::. V [ I -t Ctt-&.} - ( I +fl.) ( ~ )]


'b-el.) b-Q.
01Jf" ~robL~ IS To s:-Lt-C\ "J'kE- b~l e,.\lt"\1~~(;- Of' (){ fR_oH
T"' ~ ftt..M H ..y of P ,_, ,_ \:, 0 d\ ~ .

I ~0
\1\/c'LL 'P roc.~d by
v~ ~ v[ o<.

::

Now , t"E:- d. "TO 7 'c. I<. The- ri... w h l c.."' '"" lloiFC e-s n IN' f11 ::c-e-5
Th 1s fv ~ c:no tJ. lh" s To -f 1~ d C Ml !') 1 d dtt-r~llf\TE: C witT 0(.
~ SE;-T : q v fl L ~ 0 . Vol h OJ I cl o ~ 1h AT 1 f, rJ d
0(. = - .l._b

bl.-t (\U.b"t-Q.t.
3C b~-a..")
\'lou-) LE--T M~ (.OMPftre- Th:-~ TWO t"E;-~Ut.T~ WI""" ThE' A-c.TOfU.
VALVE' .fo~ c/l.nE.o for d I -ft t-rttSf flt'nOS ot 't>Jo...

~ .c7Y""~ c C~~td
"- Z..if ~0 - t.INtAf'
~n~o "ti'i ~0

z. ' 44z.3 I 5 ,.LjlfC.


1 Tl..l . 633 0 .1~3

I~ .43'1 . lol ~ .415


lOO .21o7 .51 .3~c.
15 '2.. "'""1.. -z..so '- 4"&7
I .I l 0. 4 ~Z..OlO , o . Sooooo 10. 4~z.o G.5

Th u<:. for S t1 fiLL D I ffore.vc.E:-S I tJ b ITNd 0.. "l"ht TWO


Tf'l"~ vJO'f~ wC'LL WI~ 1)\E;-- ~hJft-dY/r1lc.. TTiftL bt,)..) u ~C.~O,JAL..
IT 1~ ON\.~ whtt-J lh.t- rdTlO C!>C'f~ <.Jp 10 lOo TO I ThAT
Tht; ~IJI\Clr!mt.. 1"'\i)c:ltL -e,r~ dOwN

J ~I
Thf- vtrr,tmo~'> 1\"L. 'i>fiiVC.I PL.f; h~ds MftlJY ttPPl.l c-ffioa\1 '~
IN PY\~~\C.S.. lr I~ vf:;;ry POW~\.. w\o\tlV l'hE;- 'i>robL~ IN\IOLV6-S
1\.lo l,o5~E-S. H.fn.Jf ~robl.~S. hAv~ H\1\IIMOM praiJC..IPC..e-S 11-S Thnr
()A SIS.

You Ml(o~l be;- 1!0Tt"rc-lnt;-d 1\) l'tJow Thfll Tht 1--'\fncWC"t..L.


t;-qvthloN~ ft>r- fr~ ~Ptn:k- Ct\N b~ dt--r1ve-d -fv-o..., A l-'lltJu'\vH
P r 11\l c..1 Pl.k- t:> 1 VC\v ft. V t-Cfll r '?oT6N1l It L A ( K1 t) lh:ld A SC.f\L fuL
?t)Tf=NTlftL cp~J~ 1 t). lht 1\-t<JJo!ll ~~ 1-'\Jr-liMVI-1 .fo1" Thf;- sy~-reM wk'-"'
obe--f.s tu\~wt-l.l.'~ CQvl'mON~. "l'h"~ wt. MftY w~'TE;

s hQ A~._ - ~. ~~.
V'f I :1
c +
1
QThe< 1-1\MIMIIM. 9fi1Vc.IPLE- S tfJvot..I/E; L\'hT wh1c.h '"Jl'tKc-s
1
1h~ M \~ t-~IJ)1 1\ t--1 E:- 'B~e-i-tJ TW 0 'Po11JTS- f"~ft1' S ?i2-1 tJ'-1 PL.
Snfoe;cl\l'l~c-r'.s ~uFniON th.so ObE-ys A ,...,rJIM.UM ;Nt;re:,y

~,rJ,M\JM. -for wAve- iur..Jc.not-.~S,I., 'f


1
E;. '"" ALL tJOfM6'\..lt;t-cl --a
Wkl'-~ Sl'r'f\sry j y~ r. . d vo l.. =- I
t'\ ATR l C~ S

A t-1 A'TY 1X ,s fh\J itrffry of tJ 11..,., bcr~ Llt'Y E-el. o oT a~ A


R f:<.TthVo L~ :S h A- p'- 1.0 \1\ 1 C.. h S ftn ~ f. y C. E-rTttu> c.() M ~H N ltn 0 tJ L. A W S d l'ld
~~\.MlO"'~niP$. /r- .SPt"LII\L C.LttSS 11-f t-'lfl1"f1Cf"S l~ Thfr- SQuft-r(;
Hrtn'l~ wktc.h v.>t'l..l dtT\L WITh.

1h ~ H NlY I )C IS l 1\' y t-d 0 uT I N A. f" 0 w c..o L 1.1 H ~ ~ E:-T'W of I<

Wht;e- t d~oT&S ThE:- 'fb.t.) ruUMb{;-f" fhJd ~ dt-NoThS The C.~LVI-'IIV


~ lJM 'b ;"( ThE- 1\-t.'h Lf1../I~T \~ d(;t.) O"Tt;cl by ft-N Q1 i. lh 1=.
UVdJt i A-Nd j looTh t"l>rJ ""ro N SO 7),(:; Mftrr"l)\ IS
o, MtN.s,ol\1 f\'L N xw. The- rrr rny ,s DeNOTt"D As a. .
Now ~o f'rHftys C.ftlJ be- ftdde-d , a.

a. -t-_h_ - c
It U..:j .,. b~j ::. Cij
Th t- ;> r o cl v c.T ot ~o Mf\"fTl C.E- 5 I~ <:, pJ e-N 1\-S

a.. ~ =c

~ /h-1 f;-)( lrMPLt o+ how l'niS M\1 L T\ PL\C.flilo,J wo~KS ltT '.S
MLl L 1) PLY _.,
Th~ -foLL 0 w lt-1~
~
1W 0 HltiYJC..ts T'O~t"Th~il-

,
1~7 +
~~~~~~~)
'Z. S lx'i T ZS ) 11
= } 1'3
~7 t 35 141 ... .3b
G. /h-Id l)owl'l 2. wr-.t-N MIJLllP&.yaJJ(s,.
foLLOw1tJCo ~or Mf\'JriC.t-~ fu.)d Show Th<;

l.
fS'~ ~ ".:~
L
:=.. <5 : ..11.. --
"'..,....t. J <T... "j = i, O'"J ':: - <!1"\1 """~

I~ Mfl'irtj( MIJl.TI'PL\Cf\1101'1 The prod"c.'T .Q. .h_ I~ daft~l


.froM ~Eo ?rodot.T ~a... "Tho~ you. h frl c- l1l bE- c.#t"t"f--h> l. wh ,T
you,. OOUJGJ.
ArJ frl( ltM PC...E of M fflT 1~ 'Pl Ot-1'1 PC... I C./tnOI'l 1~ L uJ cttr c.oord ao~
TV"t\TJSiott-'\1\'nON. Suppose- Wt hlhJE; Tht s&-T of coorduvfn"6.S
x.j X1.,XlJ ___ X-n whlc..h for A\ x N PE-cntNE:~UL/h"" l"''trn'J)4.
Mort=;- (...O"" Jol\ 0 tJ I."( ft 1.X. 1'-l Mf\1(1 X \ S c.IH,t. E-d. A- V c-c1() 1<.. tJow
{t NE:'W St:T at COOfd\ toli\Tt!) C./tt-l bt- wriTTEN Pl~ f\ Ll tJfiW .SilM o-f
Tht;- Ol..c! COOt"'olf') t\T ;)
'
I
)(, :. a11 X t Q ... )( l. t-
x. .' :.
Cltt )( I ;- Cl u. X 1. ...

X~ -:. Ct\0\1 ~I + --- Q w"' X""'


'i'V\1 ~ IS fr s q v frrE: f-1 h'TY .X whE-re

'X j ~ t. U.j ~ X : =...,~ ::: .9:, X


ThiJ~ v.lf:- c~ 7niN\<. ot t-"1\)LII?LYII\Jb A vc--c.V"Or bY fl MIYTY'l>' V't>
?rod"c.E.. It ,VEdN Vt-<.:ro~t-. 1f we- """llcl c- A 1\lOThcf 'TTfnJS~rMAIIO~
I
!:.. bj c: Xt:
1N "o 1.. \J t-}. 'TWO '"tf fhJ"s .fo t"M trrl 0 I'J

XII = ; ( ~ bJ {L a.fd) ~ ~ = L Cj ~ X ~
~t cOMbll'l~ lYftN~forMAI10I'I c~ bc e-x?rtssE:-d AS.

Tht- orclcr Bf"el\.l ~ f\rsT


- c - b ~
--
1\ T~Wf""'tmo!IJ bY ~ lhE ~ OtJ- hy b ,
A~-Jol'ne-r wrry of WfiTlW& ThiS 15
l)c~~) ::: 'DCRz.) l)(R,)

? roc.e;~ d 1tl {o otJ 1t-1 uE-'h).) 1-n o~ fnJd Trr.., tJ oL o &1 .


Tht- V NIT M ATY'I)( \S de-~ Mtd '"TO b ~

( ~ ~ ~~) - 1 = T
0 0 I 0
0 0 0 I
Tht- V to>\ T 1-1\f\TJ I]!- hf6 1\\i; "J>r1) Pffi",Y '1"h f1 T
Ia.. :: a.. ::a..T
--
t1 \) ~1\ j)L H:trn 0 tJ of 1\- t-11\1""""Y 1)( by A N\} M b f-11. I t.) I) 0 L. \) - .s
MvLnP'-Y'"-'fo ettc.n E-~f'NT bf J}J.tr ~vMb~RJ 'l

I I

Xc: =L o.~~ Xj -~ X ,; = l ol C:j Xj _,


J
!f ft I~ ThE:- i'c-C\ Prot.tl\' L or 1Jll ve-rS. t- o.f Q A-tJd. I~ D~OJE; 1> AS a. ,
\TIS wve- 'in~T o< a. ::. 1 :: o..-' Q..

MA"'TI~ IT~o c.tlfn v~


~
111)1.11 Pl.t C.A110N I I. E..

a.. ( b c) :: (ab)C

M'ITITI'f. Jt0DJI)OI'l I~ 'f.) I.STt'l b \,)I) V ;

(). { ~-r~) :O.b+~c.'


-- -
M tnY I)C MVI.. 1) P Ll c.ttn 0 ,V IS C.O._. M UT'#\'1) V t .f
a..b ::- ba.
lhe C.OKMU'lltn>~ of a. ft1\ld .Q_ 15 dt-J-1/Jf-~ '""TO bE-

~~ - b ~ ::: [ g, J b J

Th& a. I~

ca.t) C:j =- ot.J ~


ThE- 1Y' tnv.Spo.s~ 1t-~Tt-l' c.l-1 11-N~~ :> Th~ rows 11-N d CO&..v HtJ s
L.t-~1NCP ThE: MlrltJ d \f\~0.-l IH,. Ul\.tC..~~N(:);. t),

The- rtc nn TtthJ 1\dJo at.lT a.* 15 d~tJtd


(a.*J 'ct -=- aJ~ * :
fr R~L. M~l~ h~ R~L. t.Ltt1e-tJTSJ
a. = a. ~

A SYMHETriX MdTY '"

-a. = -a.. .....


l~ 5
ft 1-tei<M ff l~l'l H1\"lT t>( I~ OtH w k I c.-h ~v AL.S Tht.-
~MPI.t"/C C.ON-1U Goklc- of an 1lh1\l~<fO.Sf:

Q. ~ a:*
ft U ~\TI\ lty 11 ATY I)( S II'Tl~fl~
.fb_ "#r ::: a,_- I

1WO ftTcrs wo('Th fE-t1't1 btfl )..(~


-I -I -I
(a-b) -- .k 0..
1\1'-'d.
( ~~ )t -- !g_'t a.'*
The- cl t'fEf f"\ , pJ me of A M IYT'riJ' 6 ThE;- ?fodoa- &l.lM

ot- ln~ ~l.tMf;I>JT~ d~T A


ThE- iY' Ac.c- of
d d\~otJ A-L H f:~ T~

Tr ~ - Z. ct ~, ~
l'nt- lY.tc.~ ~~ Tht- fo\.t.ovJJtJo 'Pr'OPf1"1H$
Tr (~b..)::. Ti' C~~)
lr C~t.b.) ~ Tr C~t-~)
T,. C~ .b.~) :::: IY" (~~b) =t T.,. (g. ~_b)
AfPLI cA-TION of 11 ATRJ ~ Tt1 EoRY To
50LOir-ii'O ThE- POLY hfvMIC.. HOI.E<.\JC.E:

VJ f:: h 1111 ~ b E-bll 0 1 5 <: 0 ~.S 1N Co fh t- Th t-o r y 0 t t-1 f\TT I C. (;-j


rJow Lf;T-5 f\i>PL}' vJ"I\'I W- ~/hi~ Uitfl\led. TO 5oc.u 1,t.>b 1t
~p-clh(. ProbL~M. 5uppo:;,~ Nltt> ft ,...0(.(;-COt.E- of- S11Mf-
:;,Aft"Pf;' fh'>c:l 1b -hr~T ft9Pfo,CtMI\"JlOI'I we cltrJ iHf+&ll-lo Tki.s
MOLE" CVI.~ '"Eo Co J-l561 of it tJ I) M b& o.f DISC r:1C M~Sf-S fuJd

Ei\<-1--- t-'\~S IS c:l&-c.t'ab~d by 3 c.oordiii>ITfc5


.A.'
1 'o~o
.q

x.Jyl,.:tiJ x~.,yz.,-'l.z,
1(1 ~

Sv c.~ "Tl-.A'f ""TnE:- 1'-INmc. ~c-r~y o+ The s.ys~ 1~ ro1u~ by


I(.. G "!.
I
/1, M 1(1"
/..; l.
+ Y
a.
-t' l;,
' t
) .,.. 1:. hlh

('Xz. -tylo t-l.~
)l. t- ...
Th E:- Poil:J..)'l1 t\ L. t11J f:or <D r l ~ C:. I 1.1 e-N by
V-:. vcx. y,,c., 1 J x.~.,y~. 1 'lzi -)

~T To "'DtSC'f"l b~ 'ThE:- ~y ~TE-M by It NE-..V St'T o--f


wh\<..~ \ ~h&ll-1.1.. t>E"hJH: 10 be:
..f*, )( I --fiM~ Xz. <g ~ = ~ l 1 .,.. ..

wr I'-

1-\- 1'),~ ~Y~TEM I~ 1 tJ -QUI Ll br~"" , ThE- f:-t.Jfr&y (~ A


MIIJIMUM. IT Thl~ STA1c t~ De+nJEc:l. 'by lhE- ~eT a1 Uf)i'lt\#;>Lf"S g
~ C.O!Ud.\n~n.> w'h\C.k t--IU~I bt- ~A'nSn~ IS .lVj0 ~ }~ =o.
Th11~ we- c..trtJ ~'PftN d 11-bour Th1~ ~u, 1..1 bf'1vM snt'T~ .for SMIU.L
Pt1"11Jtbh'no~ 1-l. Ler '6-:. ~ -t . Cx.?lt1JdtN6 V r\-S ll

V-:.. \I(Q,
/) I D
ql-
I
--- ) t ~ ( o,- o.)
, () 0.
cjV
0 %; <t~
j- +~ "2.. (q;-9,)
- ~ J {) D ~ ~ti
1..

LV
J;
1.

1-%
-t h , G. \. E-i o r ci t-r T c-r KS
f\JOvv tlLL -hrST ordE-r Wl"\S -= O. /t-Nd ALL WE:- rt-TftiN 15 ThE
!CC('o~ Old-f ~ &E-i:o,.lo Otd.1 Tt-rM. 1-f we: f'e-de-hJJt our IJft;,AbL5

froM "fh' t:-q\.hl\l)rt\JM ,~, t. t, ~ .. -:. ~;- ~." ThC'1J O~t.y '"'j)..e- QtJftdfftTIC..
-rE-f""' r~mtJ~.

I~ 7
I Cfh\.1 S I ~ P L I .f y v 'De--h f\J I ,J (D
~"c..h ThAT ~y
-3%:<\~j
The et.Jcrf:ly o~ Tht- ~ yST"t1-1 c~ MOw b- wr rrc-tJ A~

E ~ i ~ ~~
1..

+ t ~ 7 c,j ~, ~-1
1h~ S y5TE:f-\ h ftS bE-EN rt-dtJ c.~d lo IT ~f-T o-f 'PA-mc.t..-~ lhJd
INT~c..o NN HT tt-l (c. S'P ' ' tJ 10~. C~J r t-prt-s.bl~ Tht; 11\.l TE:-r lk.T 1 JJ b tct"Ct-.S
b~TW ~~ P /t-rn c.. L E;~ . W tTh Th t- 'TOl"lh. E IV H by W~ CI\")J .S 0 1. \J E- fo f
1h~ ~qvtnlOrJ of t-'\OT\OtJ by ~ fl)ldl~~ Th~ MOno).) v..H"c..h
t'\\NIMI=tt"S """'E- Ac.noN. To trc.c.o'"'pt..l~~ Tht~ wE: wRITe- The-
LA~ftn-llA-t-t J L ,-h>r Tht- sysle"r1,
i . L.
L -= K. c - 'P E; :: 1.. 'i:...~c: - 1:_ ~ c.,J ~~j
Now wG- wf\""NT 1"0 f"'"\IN\f""\\"t-t- Th\~ -fVI\lC.1lO~ J.t.
t. I

) (tL i' (t) - {. ~j CiJ ~~ ~j) d-t = "-'' l'ol


To i'roc..e:-f:d L-T ~: :. ~ -t 1ti
- wl-lt-rc- '6- ,~ Th~ c.~:>rrc-c..T
1"\(ffi 0 ~ ot Th t" , 1A. '? fNJl C..l t frrJ d '1[; 1~ 1T ~ ? e-t"TU r .P lt'n 0 tJ -fr H'\
1'\1:) MOTlo..,.\. T.:>l.f+E-c""~E-NTIAnl\lG. fh.Jd St.l b..S11TUTJ~(Q "'-' f- G>E:-1 TO
11..-~'T or c:h r 1 ..., lt

- ) ( ~ g: YL' -t ~C.:;~ tt;)d-t

Thl~ cotJd J'T) o rJ I~ A ~E-T o-f 6--q \)1m 0,., s o+ """"'l1 0 tJ Wktc.h
~ftl?~ Tht {Tc...c.f;-1.8" f'fn 0 tJ ot ThE- , 1b 7> FrfJlC. Lt I~ DtJ(:" TO ~'"The
o+ \f ' froJ>J~
~I) ...

l "1t> N
lh.L. Th -t
T ~ (:"(t-
OTh t;i'
/'rrE )J
.forces A-en N'-
d l~bYT"1fll
0~
''
f..q u tYi1 \) loJ s .
f I) rJ

Wt" ~0 vJ w fhS\ 1'Q ell~ .s ll L07) o )J ""Rl 7\1 ~S-


C vs.~ ThE-
f"tt> v ft1l crJ~ l~ ..... A-'T _.. I X tJ OTffil t) N. Th c- ~' s ftr.- ~E-Prt-~E-.01~.1
by ft c.o 1.. \1M ~ t"\ t\11' I)C 1
~ 0 1-1 E:-'TI t1 t-S cJ} lL -ci A- VE-CTOR I

~ 0 ( ~~)
~II

J1S
s y .vt bo L C,'j ST'IhJd!) .fo r It tJOt" M.A L M A-Tr 1)( C .
1-

N ew 1v o,...,-n ~ ,.r w E. M f'r1 SI M P 1.. y Th (;- : 9 <.J ft'nOf.).S of


TO
- ~i -C o
o
Thus The sot. on o tJ ~ ~ The- p ~ ?E-rry ThA-T 1n SE:-c.o ~ d ne-r, u hTJvE
I~ !'ropor11oN1t~ TO ITSE-Lf. WE- M.{W 60E:S..S It SOLIJTlOt-J SIJ-JC.E-
I,V(; hft UE- s~ Tl-h.S ~ul\'f)OtJ ~ b~rE:. w~ l(..rJOw by S.'Tl"rr'T\tJC:
'tnt- Mo'flo~ \tJ IT C.E-C'T'thJ-.1 Wf\)1 frLL Th.t- 1)\SilJrbl't"NC.tS WILL
r~C?t>tJ~ A-i c.hf\-l'"t\-C.TI:<I~T\c.l fr-Quti\J(.Jf:-~. ThE- Chfl-rf)-CTE-rt.Silt. MCfilOtJ
of- Thr 5fSTI:'M. _t~ Dtsc.nbE-d. by tT~ IJOt-M.f\'1. MCc!E-~. Tht-~t-
/'1 0f M rt L M 0 tH;-~ 1
14 i , WI l. L b ~ Th ~ ~ o l. 1.1 n 0 N TO in.~ A- b 0 U f- E-q vffll 0}1.11 1. [,

ThE- ~m~ry ~f ~V~I~

j\low W&- WILL ?IJfSIIt- ThE- rt"NfrL.YSlS IN ~~Tr1x fJi)Jffl)o,J


buT Lt-1 ME: c:t)VT)Cf'l ThttT ThE- ONLY "' ~T"'Ic o+- "'-'~ (t??roAc.J...
I~ o~f: of ex 'PE-t;)t lV c.y. lT sINs V o o P rtpe-r "8\IT IT -o oe-st.) 'T 'DO
fh.IYThti'ICP cWf:-. Y OIJ 'DON'T UrJcl&s'Tf\-Nd !hE- 'Pt'"ubLtt-11 ftr.Jy ~Iff;
IN fr1c.T If- 'I OIJ ftre:- Ntrr C/IY"e-fvt.. 1he- NOTA-TION WILl c.orJfvsE; f0V.
ThUS l) ~ I 1-1 Co 0 lJ r M (\fY' \ 7' N 0T ~0 N W C. M ft-y LV Y"1 Tt- ~ l;
E-\?vtt'n orv~ of- M \) n o 1'1 Its

- w2 Ui = c u: - A u:
ThE: Pft'rftMe-r-e-r A IS rt-+e-r1:) TO As Tnt &1~e:-.tJ ufrt.o~ oR.
t-t~b') -frc-qv~c.1 E;) of- 1ht )o-\CfJlO .....t. Now wt-
r-Jt-E.d Thf 'b u:
W~tC.k Tt-U.S v~ ~E- ~IT-of dtS11Jrbfh)L~ o+ ThE- z1h. t"\oc:l--.fhiJS
1,1.) f- ~ e-t-c:l 1'D ~ 0 L v t Tl\IS ~ ffrt' \ )( I \) ~70 ( E-q u ffJio N
g_ u. ~ = A u,

-z: j cij u~ :: A u,
Th t- P(l) b l 61 I> TDof L I ~ e-ITR. &q u ftn 0 N S fo f"
S o L V E: It ~ E:T
f\1 otJKNOw!'iS ( lht- (.{~ '~). I'T 1\.J'fl\l~ oJJ Thrfl Tht-rE- fr('~ #JOT
f\.l lf\lo~ bVl Vfti"lf'lbL(;S .SIN(.t- Tnt fo lLDWJtJb f:-qu(fJlON
t-\11~1 ~OLd
Z.J. C C'j - A~,j ) {.{J ~ 0
OR DE-.ftr->1tJco ;n~ Nt-...U M.mYJ.X 6. -:: a - ~! ., tT Po~~ow.s
ThA-T A_,
= Q:) ~IN c. c A a; ;:. 0
Tht OrJ 1.)' So LvTIO tJ 'TO !1 l) ::0 oi"ht-r lhfhJ Thf:- 7T1v1A l. CA~

of -
I) :: 0 ~~ 1-f A I ~ .S I IV C:H) L. A- R. Whl c.h 11"\PLI~~ ThAT
iT~ 'DCi-ffMII\Ja I~ 0. Th 1.) ~ we- cfrN ONLY' &E-T A Ulb dhlOJ-1
If 'DE=-T ~-A I =o
To ~STfthl.\Sh w>n1<.h >-. 'c:, sftrl&f-)1 Th1.S e-qvfhrry re-~u,ft-5
Wort\Jv <:. OI)T 'fh t- 1) e-'1'1 MIN ..WJ . f_ I~ (i)IIJttJ by Th~ dytJt\"MICI'~
-Q V fr"nO NS 1\"Nd lhtr8fotc Kl'low r-1. Th v .s w e ""' I)~,. w ott..K o u I
lhc- c! ~to-\\ )'J~T" of ( C, - ).., c.~ '3 -
cl.l C.n-A, Cq

C 1"\ I
1\1 ~o ~ T Th t-r e-- trr e- N 1:> 1fft-r &VT U lh.. u c- s +o r 1\ . i::11> v.> ev t-r
~ e-r E- t'\ flY bE- LE-S S 1-f S e- \J t-r It L t'rr E- E:- q V fH.. Of' d t- (:, t-Nff 1\T(; .
To fn.>~ 'Tht- ~' ~ we:- """u.sT so L\l~ ft 'POLY NO""' JQ.l. of
u~r~t- N. we- v-lth'VI l'nE- ro-oTh o+ Tht- 'POL.\' rJt)~I~L so~
'bt-l IT -qu-ht'\. 10 ~o.

WE;- s;A#\LL -hrsT t.oNsade-r The- cASE- wht-rt- I'LL 'ThE- n:roTS
u_ \. uq
frf'- 'PITTe<e-NT , v c- sh 41-l.L t>e-.voT~ The- t-tron A-~ "' w~E-rE-
n... c,o~::> -+ro""" 1 To N. ""E-Ct+ore- ThE- $l)Lu'11ot-~~ u's wlL.L.. c,o
lPil'r fr i>(rfi\C."L.A-f A(JI..\ ,,.l) ~( -ftC.~ X"'' Tht-re- ~A ii(ll.}.
Th \s s frl ~ ~ r -IK.h f.r~ \,)b\) c.f 1h (:-( E- 's IT (,~ 1\i .,..C.Tt-1\ ~ nc.. M 0110 ,..,
or ?1\iTH"~ oi \.1\\>t""rmotJ. Thf t-<j>vftnoJ\.1~ w\--.1c.h A-rt- lne,v strns-hEJ
ft-rc- .. u.i (1.) =- .Act\, {'l.l u,
o,. L. c,i u/"' 1 .:. A'""' U.;(lt'
Now wt 1LL Loot'.. ffr s-o,.,~ of r>ro?~1l~ of Th1S Sot.IJ1Jo,J,
ThE= Pro?e-rry of- ORlhoe:,~A-liTY 1~ VfrR.Y u~tfuL IT~ you
WILL Lfrre-1 "5 t;t.

Now fl1J uThe-R t> ro?(;-(T\j of l'ht- ~ oLuTlo N w t w '.L -jl,Jd


l.l5t-h.>L \S The- tV\JM:-1'\C.ItL vfh.tJE=- of [. u;'n) ut. "-. IT1VrtJS
ouT vJf- c.rtN C!>N'-'Y ~eT Thi fr Pf'oPoR-norvf\L. s l=i:;f- ot Tht
U'S. we hiNe- ft\)()1)(:1"- lt.J~rtd\"\)ON Ji) C,ff Tht
'DotJ'I
trbsoL~e- ~~c~ of ThE- u'.s. To fo511tbLIS~ Pr soLvn~,.J wt-
Choo~~ The tJOrM~Lit-uJC:J <..otJ&"'Tf'thtJT Thftl
c;' (Ill ,, (11.1
L- U~ v..~ =I
~ A 'Sv,....fw\ft{Y of Th\t- orJno(:)ullolltt.ITY ft-Nc:l Nort-ittt.. ny C.OlvdtDONS
oN "'fn~ v' ~ M~ y W Y' I Tf; 1 IV 1'1-\ t Sh ot"Tl-t'lbld. ~o-mn OtJ

(u.
wE;

(ll) J J., (S.) ) -::. ~ll-~


wh lfE;-~ (\..~ ::. 0 '.f rt ~ ~ lttJ d = I I 1 n... -: . s . 1h I s tv Ol'f)TI 0~
IS ctu,-6 lht INNCI or ~c.fll..frr' 'ProduCT a-J twO U{-C'JDr.S.

jhf;- ~Ol.IJTIO~ WE:- hfr\Jc Obll'hJ.J~d IS. f-o\Oft- C:.C,Vc-t'f\L ThfJJJ


I\ ftP P-f\1' S Th t 6 fN E-r 1"\1.1 l'l I tJ V 0 \..V Eo-.5 lh t" SoL I))) 0 tJ of The- rftr'n C. L t:
1"\lmO!'i Where- lne; "'D1 SlUr b~C.f DOE-.) /VoJ {(u!Tf- R.~o,VA-WTt Wilh ~
tJorMttL. tslf w~ Oe-&<-rtbt l~f- tl\)ll'lfl-L sySTtt--t A-mi carJd(Tl\l!V Df
At t=o ~ ~~cc>J" Thti\J we- c/hV f.JJd Th c- &ub~E-91Jb\ff M<>Tio,J
'b; a) . Th t ~ 0') we:- c fi-N 'DD lh ,.s ,s. b~AV~ o- w c- c fh.l ltdd n 6f1n te.
Tht ~ot.~nth.l) wtlh A-rb ''1Y'frr1 c.oc+hc., ewvl s f. G..
j, ct J :. cf'' u.(J) e 'w -(; - I.Jj

+
J
a.('IJ u(/..)e' w
' l1.)

t
OR

kJ.cre- Th (;- u:~t.l /rf't- Jh f j\) Ot"M A-t. M 01) ~ ~ t ~ YSTQ-\ 5 W h 1 d.... h fN E-
<1f-
b-t?J w-orl<c-6 0~ T. mc a ('l\ frrf: ~ ,VuM bcr~ (A)~ I c.~ d.e-?6\Jd s
ON ~ 1\1\t- sys~ \~ S'M-17~1). ""f'kfff I) IT Tt:-LLS V.S ~ow f-1\\JC.h
-' IS Pr-5Ct.>l.
ot ~~ IJOfM/tL t-"\t>oc - .,~t a (II.) ClhVrJ6r be c.oMpvT6-c:L
1fhtitcl o+ l)~t. !he IIVTE-1~111->(::) n,, /1.)(:) IS Gtvau ~:CD) The
C/tN b~
111
Q.( S -h>oNd. ThE- ll\l11)(tL C.DNdi"TlONS C.lttJ be-
~pf'~5>E:-d It 5> ~, coJ = z:: a (ttJ u. , (~~.,
IT -hrsT l ooi<..S Lli(.G- Tnttve:.~ frr~ ex> t!V & +ro~ bf\d n wor~~. ~u7
If Wt" rE:-d\ t..l A ~tfo1tl M 'Ptbb 1.. E-M ti\J "'-:-N O~L.I N\::J w(T~ <foo (l{:f
~~~& w-t- tv.lr"f U.~J SOMf--Wn(;f"~. ""t-ltt- wc-wAIVTe--d 1'0 f(.f.)Ow
h_~ M\.)C..h ~1\C.h J.IIOdc ftDo~d TO 61\l(;-r It C.01'1?o'&1Tt" 51G.I\l f\L.
'We- Wt-1'E:- 1\I.>O~<P SltJt-~ O'f' c.O:Stl\lE;-~ o+ "Dt.f+cn-NT -frE-qvetJc.tt-.S.
IN or'"De-r 1\> "D-'l~Mt1VE- how ""'l.)c...h of O.VEo t-10tn- ~~ PRt-.H,..J'I
~ M tty t--1\Jl. n Pl. Y 17rJ1t b'j AtJOJne-f" MODE; J I f..
( IJ) ( It I fJ. .(~) 1 1 U\.}
L. .I i ~ 1' (.Q ) :: ~ Q ~ t \..t I

/\low 1h ~ '
f"l C9l-IT Stt> ~ =0 u N L ~.s n...-:. S So Of'HY Q <.SJ

~ o -r \) ' v ~s f'nJ d w f- h rr v E
A C~J (OJ
~ -: ~ ()~ ~ .. (.0)
Thv~ w c h t'\"v E:. f'r c, e-.u e-r A- c.' C;-1\Tl oN of A

L6"s s u-c- lht s It t.L w or~<.s


~ow otJ lh e t1 N t1tr' u 1b rffno *"'
of ft C01. MOL.e-C.cJL.(;. 'iht- 1-'\CL.E- C.1...>1.e IS MOdE:: 1..~ fl~ ~ ?flr"TI,Le.S
C.OtJ.IVCC.Te-d by 1WO ~Pr\1',)~)

~ )(, _...,.

l l. I 1..
K.. E:- :. I
'L I(,.,.., -t ..1
L
rz.. Jh -+ 1: /~,X3
Now I fh.)cl "3 1)0 /'lOt J)Sf{"r 1\<T so ThE- 'YDIE-NTlBl 6\) ~(:> y

~;-<.OM e-s
P. ~ = I
'i. K C.X - ,Xl..) ' + t ' ( Kz. - X3 )t. ~
Rco~tJ 11\lw uf\ v-1 tl b LE:~
x, ~ ~ ~ \
we hfr\/f
1<.. ~ ;. i (ill. ~ ~l," + i.lz.) 1..

Pc = t [( to~ 1_) -t ~ J\.


I fo J + ,: ~ l,

- 'f ~ ~ z
1.
1
L - ~~ z~ ~ ~
ThE- 15> Dt"THMtiVt-d A-S .feLLOwS
I .l Q
C
'J .-.
~~ -~ -~) 11~ (-~~3 -z: -~G)
B r"& 3 ,b
=
0 - z.r!>
'foi c..o,.)IJGIVle-Nc.c- t>\c.~ lht ~6>rt1Ve:, c.oNs.T"fttV"J K-;::. ~s. Nil(.).) 10
flJJd ~t A'~ we- t-'\\l~T 60LvE PE:-7 (~-AI) ::.o. J,f,

l)eJ { -:~ -:~ ~L~ ) -=- 0


0 -L. f3 3-~
Thl~ IS f)' ptl'IJ~ tci OUT" 10 b~
(3-.xfce-A) - IL.c~-.A) -J1..C:s-JJ -=o
( 3- ~) l.. c 8- ,A) - l,'f ( 3- ;\) :: 0

'The- rooTh v-f Tht~ c.u b l(. ~t

>" ~ !> .A ... =o Al =ll


ThU~ Th~ -f.r ~<1 ut-N'-1 c-s ot () ' bY' t'tT\ 0 ,.J ft;"t:;

w" ~ 11 wl..~o w~ :: r.,


\,.}(:- 1-)0W l'leE:ci 'T"I) fH~c:l ThE: J'dOC"I"'I'IL MOcH:S 1
ThE: .Jd)J wktt.lo-

C.OI"r"fOPOI\l!) TO Tht~t- ?f\"1"11<..0Lhf" Wt::-qUt"NLIE;). To Do TJ.\1\T ..ve NE1>

To for"

(~ -_::-~) (~J
""Thr) <D 11J t> 0.:> "lrd'" H: ~C? v A'Tl o,J

-1.~u, OIJ1. - 2./jUj :. AVL


0 -1.0,Ut. -t 3lh -=r\U3
for- A = .A' ~ 3 w~ "' lt'\Jf:-
3U1 -z.f3 Uz.:: 3u,
-,13~. -t80z. -zf'?>U1 = 3v'"'
- l. ~ U1. -t 3 V3 ::. 3 U3

(t) "(1)
U, -= - "'-l
TI\1~ 15 fl l L WE- I< f\JOw A bo1JT
_1: - (I)
c;TJ u. . ().) E; k lhJt 0 1\) I.'( -~TA-bl.l~h lht-lf t't-Lffnv~ .SI=tf.- 1VOJ1h~1f
-U. (/)
/tb~L\)* JJor,...tllt.leE: ~ <:.~1

0
_.,.
ThE- 1W D 6\>l) /IIOMS M O\J~ 0 U t ~d... 1~ TOC::>t-1"-H S uc. h 1n ff) Thf-
(E-f\)Tti' Utr bo rJ ~~ 1 (e-M lh JJS S Tim O.rJ 1tfR.y.

3 u,- z.r~ o~..=o


- 2.G, lh -r3u!l =o

Of
- (1.)
u. :
f=-ot TI\1~ c.ASt- 1he-rt- 1~ t-)0 f~TOIINC.. fofc.E- S\) Th1~ I~ Tht- 'Ct-ro
-frtqv~c.t t101.)t- WhE-t'IM 1\t.L. "j"k~ 1\-TO""S t-'10\IE- TO~f'ihH' IN ft 1TfuJSL.I}-11DtJ.
\ (3)
'3.rsl :s,o L 111) 0 tJ 1\ -=.j WE;

- -z.r3 ut.:: 8(),


-t. (i l)t. ::. e ol

( dl.)l ,jll) -
( uo>, u',_lJ
JS~
Wf:- f>trl\l.L ""ow TT'I TO ~Ol.U e ""''~ -;>rob l. ~ Wl'll'- s 0 Mc
1~1111\L C.OtJOlnOr.J~. liE-H Th~ UllLITY ot Tht- ofl)..oboiiiALny fHftT101-)S.#t1f
WILl P(t)UE:- 1'0 bt- tJC:Iy vst-fvL. SOf?O.S(;- ThE;- SOL.Ul)OtJ 1'0 l'ht-
'fr1> b l t-1-A I~ c, I u eN It') (t11 -(II.) , w (tl}-t
~H) ~ z::
{A.)
a.. u e
fhJcl AT' t == o vJE- ",vo..u ~ (0). Tht- ProbLEM 1 ~ TO
1
n,Jd a ( fl) .
Wt-LL IT foLL.Ow':> lnf)T

i (0)
c ~)
So 'D 0 IS M u(..TIP t. Y by U J
ll
z:.. a (Ill ( uCJ) u'll.')
(1\.J J

( u- '~)

Ar->ol'r. f;1 osmt. "DYJJfu.1lC.f\L co~t.~T I~ In ffl of tJDrM(U..


c.oorc:l 1JJ fries . t\ ~r e: Ft l'f M s h r d\'11 oJ0 ls H "o -H'o"" Tn t o L. D
1"0 A JJ~ SEn'
- (1\} I
Q '1\.1 ~t N E:-w q ~ .o frt'~ ~
of 'lne- u~ p J
1 c.
~ q (II.) II, <II.J
~, ::. ~ \.l

lh~ 1 fr- C.OMPLI C~d. HOT1oi'J C.ittJ b(; f;-XPrE-SS~d f\~ ft 1.11"-lt-r
c..oMb"vfli)o.V o-fThe- tJOfMftL MoD~s. w~ff- q' 11:LI.S hl)w 11\Jc~ 111

"f- lht- r"lh Mot>~ ~~ 'Prt-~~T. ~"~ lh:>fhr-J W(; htlv~ 1\rJ
~ftLooy w1Th fount-r Stf'IE;-~. lrJ lUfrJ '10 -hl'ld Tht- qui.} 1tJ
- (1'1.)
TE:f'MS o-f The (.(,' Wt- hlt\J(;
Q ('1) =- f u_.'lt' ~ ,
Tht UTlLny 11'1 WOf'l<ltJ(:) w(T}\ Q(ll.l \~ IN Sll'1pt.rh',~-JC. Thf
&N&r b y 't-q u ftfl c tJ. to l CX. """'PLE: Th f- j<.. I tJ t"'iH. C:tJ t:'('b '/ cltN b t w t'l 'iTtN ft >
1\.6- = h. : ~1.
b
o, :: t ~
" ,._
Z ~
tJ
Q ('1.1 tJ./rt) q u./,o)
UJ}

(.S) (Jtj
Q I~ PI- 'OytJI\'M/c.A-L 'PfTf/tM~ /hJd C.fuJ bE- 'POLl E-d Thfouc..h U,
St> Th~ SuM OUt-( f fttJd S c..fnJ bE- Mftd- l'htJS SJMPllfy,~G:.

Tht ~press, otJ


i!. q' (If..) il!l.}

)55
Th(; 'PoTtrJTlftL l!.tJfrrlOY c.lh-1 bt- S.tMyLt f1 t-el bvT rt-q\Jt rt-~
MorE:- wor K 1

S II (~J
C~.j q ~j

~low OJ
"2: C,~ Uj :: ~0
~

": l ! >tl.) () ( q .-t.) (II.}


l.. ll- "'\'
l/Jh I C. h. l~ NOW ft -httrLf $\M"j>L(- -:XPf(;-S~IOrl ltVIJOl.\)Jp.)~ OIJI.'{ ThE:.
~o M o+ s q o fTr f:-) ~~ 'BoTh Tht- Kfr fuld PE bE:C.oMt- op.>c..OvjHE-D
E-(\> l) ftj) OrJ~ . ~ ~ ~1" ~
q vq =- - A c .-t.J Q <II.J

To ~~01.\) yoiJ h~vJ n"s t-.}OtMA-L lOOfolll.>f\'lt- sl'Uif wo-rJ<.S l'L.L.


U~t- 1'\-\t- Prt-VIOI.J5 t-xf\'M,?LE-. ~t-r{;

I I
fz..~' t O~t.- Fl.~'- = rl.
1

~ f,, ( ~ (%, t-~5) ~))


q(t)
f

rL. [GCCf>+~3) -~%L]


l..
lhfrr-1 z.
?&:: .!
3
3<t}l.. + f. 0 ct) + J.
1.
IIQ
(J}

Hfffh~1tr\C.A\.t.y whtff ~,~V(;- hlfVt- uorJt- l~ TO 'D)I} b ONfl Ll~(; Thf


c HffiT l){ by A L I J'l t-ltr 'Tf" 11-1\J 5 fu Y'M J\-)) 0 .,.l

tJ 0 w w rrtJT 1'0 ?v rs~ Eo ~ ot-1t"


Mm"Tic~ 1\-Nd "E;-~'ft>r~ . LET ::. C~
c ti ::. v Pr IV tw -vC
E-<.'11> r . "
lhJd

~E;- s~ALF'rr p~o..,c..T ot JWO t!G-e.TOrs l)


cx,Y)= 'i:. X~. y,
Al~O \l c.ftrJ b~ ~~ ~ !.\) rJ /hA-J
( l!~J&) :: ( ()..) liT ~ )
NOw w~ 10 1'frt. t<. 1\- b ouT fnJ -q lJI V!h.~ c..e:. Tr lt1JS ~ r t-1 ffl1 Ol.#.
Jn\S tS A I..JtJt/tf c.oorc:ll~f\n- 7-rlhVStorMitnOtJ
I 1
o+ I
Th~ fot'M
%-::: s"~' t~l.'&l- -rSn'f>3
I ' I
~.L - s~'b t-Sn ~\. -tS1.\ ~l
.
0

~
fr'NY proof ~AT

-
~

= -5 '-b
I

Now 1-'\f'r~ IN~ Th1.S 1YIPV.Sf1>r.,. AnON IN Th- K.l~ffic. &Jf:f"6J Eqvltnop.~.

t{E; ~ { ( g i) J = i ( S gI J S zI)
4)111.!0 our ~-.~e-w ffrt.T -;r., ~ c fhU b~ Wi'ITIW

Kf- = i ( ~,) s~~ i'J


I~ ow 1 + wt- r~ u 1 rf: 1'h IS. E- )C. J> feb~\ 0 j.) "Ttl b (;-- o+ ThE:- t 91J I v ft L&J'J
+vr"" Po b~+vrt::.~ '. t Yz.. cg ~ z') 1
Th~ we rt-q ~ 1 r'- lht- Tr/tNS'~rM
tW~\ S trf"l.)ty
s-+ s =- 1
or s-r ~ f-'1-t'tl 1~ Th c- c...o-Nd 111 otJ or s Tu b &

1..( ~\ntfy.

For The- ? E:;- ~?R.E;-~ION WC' i+fsvc-


pf;: {(~,c.i)= t(s~,J~~~')
~1.cg' 1 s-~c~ g'J = {cg 1
J~'g')
Whf.t"~ C I ;: S-' ~ S
\:x<.o'"'t-"> Tht 'Pft>?E-f -yr~sforr-1~0tJ of The:- "P.c. HlhTJX.
ThE f-<?IJffnt>~S of t4D1)0rJ arr: SJlLL SttllSfle-d by
Th .s 1Y' t1w s-tor'"" fr1l otJ
I
1
0
~ :! -c ~ --:> s '
~ ~ - -C -$ b
I

!.!. C I -I
~ :
- ~
Tht- 8<.<..,-..>uftLU~ of s;_' (tffi- ~t- s ftME;
hE:c fh).S e It~ ~
OV f' 1'N\'f..'Sior t-1 t\11 OW h~ tJOT C..kf\NCoc "lY\t- 'Ph~SJC..S at ThE t>~bL~.

' 57
1. 51-l.ow 1<ot-t.)UfhCJfS of .bl. hr')-vt:- 17b::,ol.ui"~ uflLv~ \
()..)~ E;-r~ !::!: I -:. ~I l.l

'2... "S~ II'J A ll iHoiHII'I ~<;>utVAL~C.t T'ffhVS~rM'tTflOrJ


ft Ht; M i TG fhJ M1tn' I ,X ~1iry ~ ttt< MI Tt.A )J

~. ft.lS\JM t- '-tbEI'liJ~T')f""j UIL /hJd t-lbf-NlNt\.0(:) \n..


1 oi tl (hE'ff'1E-TOJN)

#Nf:- ~Nt)~~Vt..l. )ct.vt J.o,- X IN IHH~ ofY Tht- ~f?vfhlOIJ

Ax-lx=y
Wht-r:- _A ~ t-JUMbt-r.
S J E> ~ tsT fr r h Y~ t c. tl L p 1"0 b l ~

4. ~t E-tbtwvftl.. "'t-\&<:(. for -J~ovuftt.o'-~ o+ A ts


't)~ ( ~ - A!) ~ 0 t$ fr Pt>Lyi'JOf-11tvi9L
~vfrl> ~rJ t ~r )\ .
V\
PC. A) ~ l: C.\'\ A ::. 0
.Show H mr tX A ~ 1\i)~f, e1
z c~ AII\ -=..o
-

158