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1

2

Copyright by All rights reserved. No part of 4th completely revised and ex-

KSB Aktiengesellschaft this publication may be used, panded edition 2005

Published by: reproduced, stored in or intro- Layout, drawings and

KSB Aktiengesellschaft, duced in any kind of retrieval composition:

Communications (V5), system or transmitted, in any KSB Aktiengesellschaft,

67225 Frankenthal / Germany form or by any means (electro- Media Production V51

nic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording or otherwise) without ISBN 3-00-017841-4

the prior written permission of

the publisher.

3

Contents

Table of contents 1 Nomenclature ..................................................................6

2 Pump Types ................................................................89

3 Selection for Pumping Water ..........................................10

3.1 Pump Data ...............................................................................10

3.1.1 Pump Flow Rate ......................................................................10

3.1.2 Developed Head and Developed Pressure of the Pump .............10

3.1.3 Efficiency and Input Power ......................................................10

3.1.4 Speed of Rotation ....................................................................11

3.1.5 Specific Speed and Impeller Type ..............................................11

3.1.6 Pump Characteristic Curves .....................................................13

3.2 System Data .............................................................................16

3.2.1 System Head ...........................................................................16

3.2.1.1 Bernoullis Equation .................................................................16

3.2.1.2 Pressure Loss Due to Flow Resistances.....................................18

3.2.1.2.1 Head Loss in Straight Pipes ......................................................18

3.2.1.2.2 Head Loss in Valves and Fittings ..............................................22

3.2.2 System Characteristic Curve .....................................................26

3.3 Pump Selection.........................................................................28

3.3.1 Hydraulic Aspects ....................................................................28

3.3.2 Mechanical Aspects..................................................................29

3.3.3 Motor Selection .......................................................................29

3.3.3.1 Determining Motor Power .......................................................29

3.3.3.2 Motors for Seal-less Pumps ......................................................31

3.3.3.3 Starting Characteristics ............................................................31

3.4 Pump Performance and Control ...............................................34

3.4.1 Operating Point .......................................................................34

3.4.2 Flow Control by Throttling......................................................34

3.4.3 Variable Speed Flow Contol .....................................................35

3.4.4 Parallel Operation of Centrifugal Pumps ..................................36

3.4.5 Series Operation.......................................................................38

3.4.6 Turning Down Impellers ..........................................................38

3.4.7 Under-filing of Impeller Vanes ..................................................39

3.4.8 Pre-swirl Control of the Flow...................................................39

3.4.9 Flow Rate Control or Change by Blade Pitch Adjustment ........39

3.4.10 Flow Control Using a Bypass ...................................................40

3.5 Suction and Inlet Conditions ....................................................41

3.5.1 The NPSH Value of the System: NPSHa ..................................41

3.5.1.1 NPSHa for Suction Lift Operation ...........................................43

3.5.1.2 NPSHa for Suction Head Operation.........................................44

3.5.2 The NPSH Value of the Pump: NPSHr .....................................44

3.5.3 Corrective Measures ................................................................45

3.6 Effect of Entrained Solids .........................................................47

4 Special Issues when Pumping Viscous Fluids ..................48

4.1 The Shear Curve ......................................................................48

4.2 Newtonian Fluids.....................................................................50

4.2.1 Influence on the Pump Characteristics ......................................50

4.2.2 Influence on the System Characteristics ....................................54

4.3 Non-Newtonian Fluids ............................................................54

4.3.1 Influence on the Pump Characteristics ......................................54

4.3.2 Influence on the System Characteristics ....................................55

4

Contents

5 Special Issues when Pumping Gas-laden Fluids ..............56

6.1 Settling Speed ...........................................................................57

6.2 Influence on the Pump Characteristics ......................................58

6.3 Influence on the System Characteristics ....................................59

6.4 Operating Performance ............................................................59

6.5 Stringy, Fibrous Solids ..............................................................59

7 The Periphery ................................................................62

7.1 Pump Installation Arrangements ..............................................61

7.2 Pump Intake Structures ............................................................61

7.2.1 Pump Sump..............................................................................61

7.2.2 Suction Piping ..........................................................................62

7.2.3 Intake Structures for Tubular Casing Pumps ............................64

7.2.4 Priming Devices .......................................................................65

7.3 Arrangement of Measurement Points .......................................67

7.4 Shaft Couplings........................................................................68

7.5 Pump Nozzle Loading ..............................................................69

7.6 National and International Standards and Codes .....................69

8 Calculation Examples

(for all equations numbered in bold typeface) ................71

9 Additional Literature .....................................................79

10 Technical Annex (Tables, Diagrams, Charts) .................80

Tab. 2: Reference speeds of rotation ....................................................11

Tab. 3: Approximate average roughness height k for pipes ..................20

Tab. 4: Inside diameter d and wall thickness s in mm and weight of

typical commercial steel pipes and their water content ...........20

Tab. 5: Loss coefficients for various types of valves and fittings ........23

Tab. 6: Loss coefficients in elbows and bends ....................................24

Tab. 7: Loss coefficients for fittings ..............................................24/25

Tab. 8: Loss coefficients for adapters .................................................25

Tab. 9: Types of enclosure for electric motors to EN 60 529 and

DIN/VDE 0530, Part 5 ............................................................30

Tab. 10: Permissible frequency of starts Z per hour for electric motors ..30

Tab. 11: Starting methods for asynchronous motors ..............................32

Tab. 12: Vapour pressure, density and kinematic viscosity of water at

saturation conditions as a function of the temperature .............42

Tab. 13: Influence of the altitude above mean sea level on the annual

average atmospheric pressure and on the corresponding

boiling point .........................................................................43

Tab. 14: Minimum values for undisturbed straight lengths of piping

at measurement points in multiples of the pipe diameter D ......67

5

1 Nomenclature

1 A m2 Area

Nomenclature A m Distance between measuring point and pump

flange

a m, mm Width of a rectangular elbow

B m, mm Vertical distance from suction pipe to floor

Cv gpm Flow coefficient for valves, defined as the flow

of water at 60 F in US gallons/minute at a

pressure drop of 1 lb/in2 across the valve

cD Resistance coefficient of a sphere in water flow

cT (%) Solids content in the flow

D m (mm) Outside diameter; maximum diameter

DN (mm) Nominal diameter

d m (mm) Inside diameter; minimum diameter

ds m (mm) Grain size of solids

d50 m (mm) Mean grain size of solids

F N Force

f Throttling coefficient of an orifice

fH Conversion factor for head (KSB system)

fQ Conversion factor for flow rate (KSB system)

f Conversion factor for efficiency (KSB system)

g m/s2 Gravitational constant = 9.81 m/s2

H m Head; discharge head

Hgeo m Geodetic head

Hs m Suction lift

Hs geo m Vertical distance between water level and pump

reference plane for suction lift operation

Hz geo m Vertical distance between pump reference plane

and water level for positive inlet pressure

operation

HL m Head loss

H0 m Shut-off head (at Q = 0)

I A Electric current (amperage)

K Dimensionless specific speed, type number

k mm, m Mean absolute roughness

k Conversion factors kQ, kH, k (HI method)

kv m3/h Metric flow factor for valves, defined as the

flow of water at 20 C in cubic metres per hour

at a pressure drop of 1 bar

L m Length of pipe

Ls m Straight length of air-filled pipe

M Nm Moment

NPSHr m NPSH required by the pump

NPSHa m NPSH available

Ns Specific speed in US units

n min1 (rpm) Speed of rotation

s1 (rev/s)

nq min1 Specific speed in metric units

P kW (W) Power; input power

6

Nomenclature

1

pe Pressure in suction or inlet tank Indices, Subscripts

PN (bar) Nominal pressure a At outlet cross-section of

p bar (Pa) Pressure rise in the pump; pressure differential the system; branching off

(Pa N/m2) Bl Referring to orifice bore

p bar (Pa) Pressure (Pa N/m2 = 105 bar) d On discharge side; at dis-

pb mbar (Pa) Atmospheric pressure (barometric) charge nozzle; flowing

pL bar (Pa) Pressure loss through

pv bar (Pa) Vapour pressure of fluid pumped dyn Denoting dynamic com-

Q m3/s, m3/h Flow rate / capacity (also in litre/s) ponent

qair % Air or gas content in the fluid pumped E At the narrowest cross-

Qoff m3/h Flow rate at switch-off pressure section of valves (Table 5)

Qon m3/h Flow rate at start-up pressure E At suction pipe or bell-

R m (mm) Radius mouth inlet

Re Reynolds number e At inlet cross-section of

S m Submergence (fluid level above pump); system, e. g. in suction

immersion depth or inlet tank

s mm Wall thickness f Referring to carrier fluid

s m Difference of height between centre of pump im- H Horizontal

peller inlet and centre of pump suction nozzle in Referring to inlet flow

T Nm Torque K Referring to curvature

t C Temperature L Referring to losses

U m Length of undisturbed flow m Mean value

U m Wetted perimeter of a flow section max Maximum value

VB m3 Suction tank volume min Minimum value

VN m3 Useful volume of pump sump N Nominal value

v m/s Flow velocity opt Optimum value; at best

w m/s Settling velocity of solids efficiency point (BEP)

y mm Travel of gate valve; distance to wall P Referring to pump

Z 1/h Switching cycle (frequency of starts) p Referring to pressure

z Number of stages r Reduced, for cutdown im-

zs,d m Height difference between pump discharge and peller or impeller vanes

suction nozzles s On suction side; at suc-

tion nozzle

Angle of change in flow direction; opening angle s Referring to solids

Angle of inclination stat Static component

Loss coefficient sys Referring to system /

(%) Efficiency installation

Pa s Dynamic viscosity t Referring to impeller

Pipe friction factor prior to trimming

m2/s Kinematic viscosity V Vertical

kg/m3 Density w Referring to water

N/m2 Shear stress z Referring to viscous fluid

f N/m2 Shear stress at yield point 0 Basic position, referred

Temperature factor; opening angle of a butter- to individual sphere

fly valve; cos : power factor of asynchronous 1, 2, 3 Consecutive numbers;

motors items

Head coefficient (dimensionless head generated I, II Number of pumps oper-

by impeller) ated

7

2 Pump Types (Examples)

Pump Types zontal / vertical), features include:

Typical selection criteria for the pump casing (radial, e. g. the mode of installation, which

centrifugal pumps are their volute casing / axial, e. g. is dealt with in section 7.1,

design data (flow rate or capac- tubular casing), the nominal diameter (for the

ity Q, discharge head H, speed

the number of impeller entries pump size, as a function of

of rotation n and NPSH), the

(single entry / double entry), the flow rate),

properties of the fluid pumped,

the application, the place of the type of motor (dry mo- the rated pressure (for the

installation and the applicable tor / dry rotor motor, e. g. wall thickness of casings and

regulations, specifications, laws submerged motor / wet rotor flanges),

and codes. KSB offers a broad motor, e. g. canned motor, the temperature (for example

range of pump types to meet the submersible motor). for the selection of cooling

most varied requirements. These features usually determine equipment for shaft seals),

Main design features for classifi- what a pump type or series the fluid pumped (abrasive,

cation are: looks like. An overview of typi- aggressive, toxic fluids),

cal designs according to classi-

the number of stages (single- the type of impeller (radial

fication features is given below

stage / multistage), flow / axial flow depending on

(Table 1 and Figs. 1a to 1p).

the specific speed),

Table 1: Centrifugal pump classification the self-priming ability,

Number of stages Single stage Multistage the casing partition, the posi-

Shaft position Horizontal Vertical Horiz. Vertic. tion of the pump nozzles, an

Casing design Radial Axial Radial Axial Stage casing outer casing, etc.

Impeller entries 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1

Motor type, Fig. 1..

Dry (standardized)

motor a b c d e f g h

Magnetic drive i

Submerged dry rotor

motor (See 3.3.2) j k l m

Wet rotor motor

(See 3.3.2) n o p

8

Pump Types (Examples) 2

c d e

f g h

i j k

l m n

Fig 1 (a to p):

o p Centrifugal pump classification

acc. to Table 1

9

3 Flow Rate Head Efficiency Input Power

Selection for Pumping Water (with the same kinematic viscos- nozzle = 4 Q/ dd2 in m/s

This section applies mainly to ity ) regardless of their density vs Flow velocity in the suction

pumping water; the particulari- . This statement applies to all nozzle = 4 Q/ ds2 in m/s

ties of pump selection for other centrifugal pumps.

Q Flow rate of the pump at

media are treated in sections 4, The total developed head H the respective nozzle in m3/s

5 and 6. manifests itself according to

d Inside diameter of the re-

Bernoullis equation (see section

spective pump nozzle in m

3.1 3.2.1.1) as

Pump Data p Pressure rise in N/m2 (for

the pressure head Hp propor-

conversion to bar: 1 bar =

3.1.1 tional to the pressure differ-

Pump Flow Rate 100 000 N/m2)

ence between discharge and

The pump flow rate or capacity suction nozzles of the pump, High-density fluids therefore

Q is the useful volume of fluid increase the pressure rise and

the geodetic head zs,d (Figs. 8

delivered to the pump discharge the pump discharge pressure.

and 9), i.e., the difference in

nozzle in a unit time in m3/s The discharge pressure is the

height between discharge and

(l/s and m3/h are also used in sum of the pressure rise and the

suction nozzles of the pump

practice, as are GPM in the US). inlet pressure and is limited by

and

The flow rate changes propor- the strength of the pump casing.

the difference of the kinetic The effect of temperature on the

tionally to the pump speed of

energy head (vd2-vs2)/2g be- pumps strength limits must also

rotation. Leakage flow as well

tween the discharge and suc- be considered.

as the internal clearance flows

tion nozzles of the pump.

are not considered part of the

pump flow rate. The pressure rise p in the

3.1.3

pump (considering the location Efficiency and Input Power

of the pressure measurement

3.1.2 The input power P of a pump

taps according to section 7.3!)

Developed Head and (also called brake horsepower)

is determined solely by the pres-

Developed Pressure of is the mechanical power in

the Pump sure head Hp along with the

kW or W taken by the shaft or

fluid density according to the

The total developed head H of coupling. It is proportional to

equation

a pump is the useful mechani- the third power of the speed of

cal energy in Nm transferred rotation and is given by one of

p = g [H - zs,d - (vd2-vs2)/2g]

by the pump to the flow, per the following equations:

weight of fluid in N, expressed (1)

in Nm/N = m (also used to be

called metres of fluid)1). The where

head develops proportionally Density of the fluid being

to the square of the impellers pumped in kg/m3

speed of rotation and is inde- g Gravitational constant

pendent of the density of the 9.81 m/s2

fluid being pumped. A given H Total developed head of the

centrifugal pump will impart the pump in m

1)

In the US, the corresponding units are zs,d Height difference between

ft-lbf/lbm, i. e. 1 foot head = 1 foot- pump discharge and suction

pound-force per pound mass; the nozzles in m (see Figs. 8

numerical value of head and specific

work are identical.

and 9)

10

Efficiency Input Power Speed Specific Speed 3

gQH gQH QH viscous than water (see sec-

P= in W = in kW = in kW tion 4) or have high concentra-

1000 367

(2) tions of entrained solids (see

section 6) will require a higher

where

input power. This is, for ex-

Density in kg/m3 in kg/m3 in kg/dm3

3

ample, the case when pumping

Q Flow rate in m /s in m3/s in m3/h

sewage or waste water, see sec-

g Gravitational constant = 9.81 m/s2

tion 3.6.

H Total developed head in m

Efficiency between 0 and <1 (not in %) The pump input power P is

linearly proportional to the

The pump efficiency is given teristic curves (see section 3.1.6) fluid density . For high-density

with the characteristic curves for density = 1000 kg/m3. fluids the power limits of the

(see section 3.1.6). For other densities , the input motor (section 3.3.3) and the

power P must be changed in torque limits (for the loading on

The pump input power P can

proportion. coupling, shaft and shaft keys)

also be read with sufficient ac-

must be considered.

curacy directly from the charac- Pumping media which are more

Speed of Rotation the following speeds of rotation Specific Speed and

are taken as reference for pump Impeller Type

When using three-phase current

motors (asynchronous squirrel- operation: The specific speed nq is a para-

meter derived from a dimen-

sional analysis which allows a

Table 2: Reference speeds of rotation

comparison of impellers of vari-

Number 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 ous pump sizes even when their

of poles operating data differ (flow rate

Frequency Reference speeds for the characteristic curve documen- Qopt, developed head Hopt, ro-

tation in min1 (rpm) tational speed n at the point of

For 50 Hz 2900 1450 960 725 580 480 415 best efficiency opt). The specific

For 60 Hz 3500 1750 1160 875 700 580 500 speed can be used to classify the

optimum impeller design (see

Fig. 2) and the corresponding

In practice the motors run at been matched to the actual pump characteristic curve (see

slightly higher speeds (which speed of rotation. section 3.1.6, Fig. 5).

depend on the power output When using motor speed con- nq is defined as the theoreti-

and on the make) [1], which the trollers (for example phase cal rotational speed at which a

pump manufacturer may con- angle control for ratings up to a geometrically similar impeller

sider for the pump design and few kW or, in most other cases, would run if it were of such a

selection when the customer frequency inverters), gearboxes, size as to produce 1 m of head

agrees. In this case, the affinity belt drives or when using tur- at a flow rate of 1 m3/s at the

laws described in section 3.4.3 bines or internal combustion best efficiency point. It is ex-

are to be applied. The charac- engines as drivers, other pump pressed in the same units as

teristic curves of submersible speeds are possible. the speed of rotation. The spe-

motor pumps and submersible cific speed can be made a truly

borehole pumps have already

11

3 Specific Speed

dimensionless characteristic the definition in the right-hand Using Fig. 3 it is possible to de-

parameter while retaining the version of the following equa- termine nq graphically. Further

same numerical value by using tion [2]: types of impellers are shown in

Fig. 4: Star impellers are used in

Qopt/1 Qopt self-priming pumps. Periph-

nq = n = 333 n (3)

(Hopt/1)3/4 (g Hopt)3/4 eral impellers extend the speci-

fic speed range to lower values

where Qopt in m3/s Qopt in m3/s = Flow rate at opt down to approximately nq = 5

Hopt in m Hopt in m = Developed head at opt (peripheral pumps can be de-

n in rpm n in rev/s = Pump speed signed with up to three stages).

nq in metric units nq Dimensionless parameter For even lower specific speeds,

g Gravitational constant 9.81 m/s2 rotary (for example progressive

cavity pumps with nq = 0.1 to 3)

For multistage pumps the devel- mixed flow (diagonal) and or reciprocating positive dis-

oped head Hopt at best efficiency eventually axial exits (see Fig. 2). placement pumps (piston

for a single stage and for double- The diffuser elements of radial pumps) are to be preferred.

entry impellers, the optimum pump casings (e.g. volutes) be- The value of the specific speed

flow rate Qopt for only one im- come more voluminous as long is one of the influencing para-

peller half are to be used. as the flow can be carried off meters required when convert-

As the specific speed nq in- radially. Finally only an ing the pump characteristic

creases, there is a continuous axial exit of the flow is possible curves for pumping viscous or

change from the originally (e. g. as in a tubular casing). solids-laden media (see sections

radial exits of the impellers to 4 and 6).

In English-language pump lit-

Approximate reference values: erature the true dimensionless

nq up to approx. 25 Radial high head impeller specific speed is sometimes des-

up to approx. 40 Radial medium head impeller ignated as the type number K.

up to approx. 70 Radial low head impeller In the US, the term Ns is used,

up to approx. 160 Mixed flow impeller which is calculated using gal-

approx. from 140 to 400 Axial flow impeller (propeller) lons/min (GPM), feet and rpm.

The conversion factors are:

K = nq / 52.9

Ns = nq / 51.6 (4)

pump impellers. The diffuser elements (casings) of single stage

pumps are outlined.

12

Specific Speed Impeller Types Characteristic Curves 3

Example: Qopt = 66 m3/h = 18.3 l/s; n = 1450 rpm, Hopt = 17.5 m. Found: nq = 23 (metric units).

3.1.6

Pump Characteristic Curves

Unlike positive displacement

pumps (such as piston pumps),

Radial impeller *)

Radial double-entry impeller*) centrifugal pumps deliver a var-

iable flow rate Q (increasing

with decreasing head H) when

operating at constant speed.

Closed (shrouded) mixed flow impeller *) They are therefore able to ac-

Star impeller for side channel pump commodate changes in the

(self-priming)

system curve (see section 3.2.2).

The input power P and hence

the efficiency as well as the

Open (unshrouded) mixed flow impeller

NPSHr (see section 3.5.4) are

dependent on the flow rate.

Peripheral pump impeller for very low

specific speed (nq 5 to 10)

Fig. 4:

Axial flow propeller *) Plan view shown without front shroud

Impeller types for clear liquids

13

3 Characteristic Curves

300

ues is shown graphically in the

300 pump characteristic curves,

150 Operating limit for

low input power whose shape is influenced by

150

70 for high the specific speed nq and which

40 input power

25 document the performance of a

70 centrifugal pump (see Fig. 5 for

40 a comparison of characteristics

25

and Fig. 6 for examples). The

head curve of the pump is also

referred to as the H/Q curve.

300 The H/Q curve can be steep or

NPSHr

150

NPSHr opt 300 25

flat. For a steep curve, the flow

70 rate Q changes less for a given

25

25

40

change of developed head H

40 300 25 than for a flat curve (Fig. 7).

70

150 This can be advantageous when

300 controlling the flow rate.

curves (Not drawn to scale! For NPSHr , see section 3.5.4).

90 24 20

n = 2900 min1 22 n = 1450 min1 18 n = 980 min1

80 20 16

Head H [m]

Head H [m]

18 14

Head H [m]

70 16 12 Operating limit

60 14

10

12

8

50 10

8 6

40 6 4

80 90 2

70 80 90

[%]

[%]

60 70 80

[%]

60 70

Efficiency

Efficiency

50

Efficiency

60

40 50

50

30 40

40

20 30

30

10 15

15

NPSHr [m]

NPSHr [m]

NPSHr [m]

10

5 10

5

5

0

0 100

17

Power P [kW]

30

Power P [kW]

80

Power P [kW]

16

60

20 15 40

14 20

10 13 0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 100 200 300 400 500 550 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

Flow rate Q [m3/h] > Flow rate Q [m3/h]

L Flow rate Q [m3/h] V

Fig. 6: Three examples of characteristic curves for pumps of differing specific speeds.

a: radial impeller, nq 20; b: mixed flow impeller, nq 80; c: axial flow impeller, nq 200.

(For NPSHr see section 3.5.4)

14

Characteristic Curves 3

is unstable (shown by the dash

line in Fig. 7). This type of

pump characteristic curve need

only be avoided when two

intersections with the system

curve could result, in particular

parallel operation at low flow

rates (see section 3.4.4) or when

it is pumping into a vessel which

can store energy (accumulator

filled with gas or steam). In all

other cases the unstable curve is

just as good as the stable charac-

Fig. 7: Steep, flat or unstable characteristic curve teristic.

Unless noted otherwise, the

H/Q characteristics normally creases. For low specific speeds, characteristic curves apply for

have a stable curve, which the head H may in the low the density and the kinematic

means that the developed head flow range drop as the flow viscosity of cold, deaerated

falls as the flow rate Q in- rate Q decreases, i. e., the curve water.

15

3 System Head Bernoulli

Fig. 8: Centrifugal pump system with variously designed vessels in suction lift operation

A = Open tank with pipe ending below the water level

B = Closed pressure vessel with free flow from the pipe ending above the water level

C = Closed pressure vessel with pipe ending below the water level

D = Open suction/inlet tank

E = Closed suction/inlet tank

va and ve are the (usually negligible) flow velocities at position a in tanks A and C and at position e

in tanks D and E. In case B, va is the non-negligible exit velocity from the pipe end at a .

3.2 static pressure and kinetic and discharge sides. If the dis-

System Data energy form. The system head charge pipe ends above the

3.2.1 Hsys for an assumed frictionless, liquid level, the centre of the

System Head inviscid flow is composed of the exit plane is used as reference

3.2.1.1 following three parts (see Figs. for the height (see Figs 8B and

Bernoullis Equation 8 and 9): 9B).

Bernoullis equation expresses Hgeo (geodetic head) is the (pa - pe)/( g) is the pressure

the equivalence of energy in difference in height between head difference between the

geodetic (potential) energy, the liquid level on the inlet inlet and outlet tank, applic-

16

System Head Bernoulli 3

Fig. 9: Centrifugal pump system with variously designed vessels in suction head (positive inlet pressure)

operation. Legend as in Fig. 8.

able when at least one of the piping, valves, fittings, etc in is referred to as the system pres-

tanks is closed as for B, C or the suction and discharge lines sure loss.

E (see Figs. 8B, C, E, 9B, C, as well as the entrance and exit The sum of all four components

E). losses, see section 3.2.1.2), and yields the system head Hsys:

(va2-ve2)/2g is the difference in

the velocity heads between the

tanks. Hsys = Hgeo + (pa pe) / ( g) + (va2-ve2)/2g + HL (5)

friction losses (pressure head all the heads H are in m,

losses) must be added to these all the pressures p are in Pa (1 bar = 100 000 Pa),

components: all velocities v are in m/s,

HL is the sum of the head the density is in kg/m3,

losses (flow resistance in the the gravitational constant is g = 9.81 m/s2.

17

3 System Head Pressure Loss Head Loss

heads can often be neglected in Pressure Loss Due to Flow Head Loss in Straight Pipes

practice. When at least one tank Resistances

The head loss for flow in

is closed as for B, C or E (see The pressure loss pL is caused straight pipes with circular

Figs. 8B, C, E, 9B, C, E), Eq. 5 by wall friction in the pipes and cross-sections is given in general

can be simplified as flow resistances in valves, fit- by

tings, etc. It can be calculated

Hsys Hgeo + (pa pe)/( g) + HL from the head loss HL, which is L v2

independent of the density , HL = (9)

d 2g

(6)

using the following equation:

both tanks are open as for A pL = g HL (8) Pipe friction factor according

and D (see Figs. 8A, D and 9A, to Eqs. (12) to (14)

D) as L Length of pipe in m

where d Pipe inside diameter in m

Density in kg/m3 v Flow velocity in m/s

Hsys Hgeo + HL (7) g Gravitational constant (= 4Q/ d2 for Q in m3/s)

9.81 m/s2 g Gravitational constant

HL Head loss in m 9.81 m/s2

pL Pressure loss in Pa

(1 bar = 100 000 Pa)

Fig. 10: Pipe friction factor as a function of the Reynolds number Re and the relative roughness d/k

(enlarged view on p. 81)

18

Head Loss in Straight Pipes 3

For pipes with non-circular or plastic pipes made of poly- clean water or for fluids with

cross-sections the following ethylene (PE) or polyvinyl chlor- the same kinematic viscosity, for

applies: ide (PVC)) or for laminar flow, completely filled pipes and for an

can be calculated: absolute roughness of the pipe

d = 4A/U (10) In the laminar flow region inner surface of k = 0.05 mm,

(Re < 2320) the friction factor is i.e., for new seamless or longi-

where tudinally welded pipes. (For

independent of the roughness:

A Cross-sectional flow area the pipe inside diameters, see

in m2 Table 4).

= 64/Re (12)

U Wetted perimeter of the

The effect of an increased

cross-section A in m; for

For turbulent flow (Re > 2320) surface roughness k will be de-

open channels the free fluid

the test results can be repre- monstrated in the following

surface is not counted as part

sented by the following empiri- for a frequently used region in

of the perimeter.

cal relationship defined by Eck Fig. 11 (nominal diameter 50

Recommended flow velocities (up to Re < 108 the errors are to 300 mm, flow velocity 0.8

for cold water smaller than 1%): to 3.0 m/s). The dark-shaded

Inlet piping 0.7 1.5 m/s region in Fig. 11 corresponds

Discharge piping 1.0 2.0 m/s 0.309 to the similarly marked region

=

Re 2 (13) in Fig. 10 for an absolute rough-

for hot water (lg )

7 ness k = 0.05 mm. For a rough-

Inlet piping 0.5 1.0 m/s

ness increased by a factor 6

Discharge piping 1.5 3.5 m/s In Fig. 10 it can be seen that

(slightly incrusted old steel pipe

The pipe friction factor has the pipe friction factor depends

with k = 0.30 mm), the pipe

been determined experimentally on another dimensionless para-

friction factor (proportional

and is shown in Fig. 10. It varies meter, the relative roughness of

to the head loss HL) in the

with the flow conditions of the the pipe inner surface d/k; k is

lightly shaded region in Fig. 10

liquid and the relative rough- the average absolute roughness

is only 25% to 60% higher than

ness d/k of the pipe surface. The of the pipe inner surface, for

before.

flow conditions are expressed which approximate values are

given in Table 3. Note: both d For sewage pipes the increased

according to the affinity laws

and k must be expressed in the roughness caused by soiling

(dimensional analysis) using the

same units, for example mm! must be taken into considera-

Reynolds number Re. For cir-

tion (see section 3.6). For pipes

cular pipes, this is: As shown in Fig. 10, above a

with a large degree of incrusta-

limiting curve, is dependent

tion, the actual head loss can

Re = v d/ (11) only on the relative roughness

only be determined experimen-

d/k. The following empirical

tally. Deviations from the no-

where equation by Moody can be used

minal diameter change the head

v Flow velocity in m/s in this region:

loss considerably, since the pipe

(= 4Q/ d2 for Q in m3/s)

3 inside diameter enters Eq. (9) to

d Pipe inside diameter in m = 0.0055 + 0.15/ (d/k) (14)

the 5th power! (For example, a

Kinematic viscosity in m2/s

5% reduction in the inside dia-

(for water at 20 C exactly For practical use, the head

meter changes the head loss by

1.00 (10)6 m2/s). losses HL per 100 m of straight

30%). Therefore the nominal

For non-circular pipes, Eq. 10 is steel pipe are shown in Fig. 11

diameter may not be used as

to be applied for determining d. as a function of the flow rate Q

the pipe inside diameter for the

and pipe inside diameter d. The

For hydraulically smooth pipes calculations!

values are valid only for cold,

(for example drawn steel tubing

19

3 Head Loss in Straight Pipes Dimensions and Weights of Steel Pipes

ness) for pipes

*i>i>

`vii x x x x {

-ii i] i>i

>V`Vi>i`

}>>i`

}`

>i`i`] Li`

}>>i`

Viii`

ii`

i`] `i>i

}V>

i>V>

>viVi>}

LiVii i

i>V>`>>}i i

Vii i] vi`

v

-VVii i] vi`

v

,ivVi`VVii i] v

VVii i`] v

i>i `>

>]>V

,LLiL} i] iLi`

7` i

>vi}ii>i

>

x x x x

Table 4: Inside diameter d and wall thickness s in mm and weight of typical commercial steel pipes and their

water content in kg/m to ENV 10 220 (formerly DIN ISO 4200). D = outside diameter, s = wall thickness

All dimensions in mm Seamless pipe Welded pipe

Seamless Welded weight in kg/m weight in kg/m

DN D s* d s ** d Pipe Water Pipe Water

15 21.3 2.0 17.3 1.8 17.7 0.952 0.235 0.866 0.246

20 26.9 2.0 22.9 1.8 23.3 1.23 0.412 1.11 0.426

25 33.7 2.3 29.1 2.0 29.7 1.78 0.665 1.56 0.692

32 42.4 2.6 37.2 2.3 37.8 2.55 1.09 2.27 1.12

40 48.3 2.6 43.1 2.3 43.7 2.93 1.46 2.61 1.50

50 60.3 2.9 54.5 2.3 55.7 4.11 2.33 3.29 2.44

65 76.1 2.9 70.3 2.6 70.9 4.71 3.88 5.24 3.95

80 88.9 3.2 82.5 2.9 83.1 6.76 5.34 6.15 5.42

100 114.3 3.6 107.1 3.2 107.9 9.83 9.00 8.77 9.14

125 139.7 4.0 131.7 3.6 132.5 13.4 13.6 12.1 13.8

150 168.3 4.5 159.3 4.0 160.3 18.2 19.9 16.2 20.2

200 219.1 6.3 206.5 4.5 210.1 33.1 33.5 23.8 34.7

250 273.0 6.3 260.4 5.0 263.0 41.4 53.2 33.0 54.3

300 323.9 7.1 309.7 5.6 312.7 55.5 75.3 44.0 76.8

350 355.6 8.0 339.6 5.6 344.4 68.6 90.5 48.3 93.1

400 406.4 8.8 388.8 6.3 393.8 86.3 118.7 62.2 121.7

500 508.0 11.0 486.0 6.3 495.4 135 185.4 77.9 192.7

600 610.0 12.5 585.0 6.3 597.4 184 268.6 93.8 280.2

* above nominal diameter DN 32 identical to DIN 2448 ** above nominal diameter DN 25 identical to DIN 2458

20

Head Loss in Straight Pipes 3

mm

15

d=

20

25

32

40

50

65

80

0

10

12

0

15

5

17

0

20

25

0

30

35

0

40

0

50

0

60

0

70

0

80

10 0

90

00

00

00

mm

12

d = 180 0

14

0

20 0

16

00

Fig. 11: Head losses HL for new steel pipes (k = 0.05 mm) (enlarged view on p. 82)

HL correction

Temperature factor

Temperature t

Fig. 12: Head losses HL for hydraulically smooth pipes (k = 0) (enlarged view on p. 83). For plastic pipe

when t 10 C multiply by the temperature factor .

21

3 Head Loss in Straight Pipes Valves and Fittings

(for example PE or PVC) pipes for their large thermal expan- Head Loss in Valves and

or smooth drawn metal pip- sion. For sewage or other un- Fittings

ing are very low thanks to the treated water, an additional The head loss in valves and fit-

smooth pipe surface. They are 20 30% head loss should be tings is given by

shown in Fig. 12 and valid for taken into consideration for po-

water at 10 C. At other tem- tential deposits (see section 3.6). HL = v2/2g (15)

peratures, the loss for plastic

pipes must be multiplied with where

a temperature correction factor Loss coefficient

v Flow velocity in a charac-

teristic cross-section A (for

example the flange) in m/s

g Gravitational constant

9.81 m/s2

Tables 5 to 8 and Figures 13 to

15 contain information about

the various loss coefficients for

valves and fittings for operation

with cold water.

The minimum and maximum

1 2 3 4 5

in Table 5 bracket the values

given in the most important

technical literature and apply to

valves which have a steady ap-

proach flow and which are fully

open. The losses attributable to

straightening of the flow dis-

turbances over a length of pipe

6 7 8 9 10

equivalent to 12 x DN down-

stream of the valve are included

in the value in accordance

with VDI/VDE 2173 guidelines.

Depending on the inlet and

exit flow conditions, the valve

models used and the develop-

11 12 13 14 15 ment objectives (i.e. inexpensive

vs. energy-saving valves), the

loss values can vary dramatically.

16 17 18 19

Table 5

22

/>Lix\VivvVi v>iv>i>`v}ivii`iiVvviiViV>`>ii

/iv>iv} i VivvVi v r

} x x { x x n x x x { x n

i

-`i`V>i

`
r > x xx x x {x { x `

,`L`}>i>i x { n x Vvvi

`
r > n x n x {

>>`}>i n n x x { `

`
r > x x r{

Loss Coefficients for Valves

x n {

* x { n

iv > n x x {

{

>i { n xx n n{ x x {n { {

* x

> xIIIIIxI n II Iv* {

Li>i]v}i`

x

> n n

Li>i]V> rV>Li>Vii`

> vi`>i

-vv>i

>V>i {

> x x

}i>i n

> { n { {{ { x x x

9>i x x

>

->}}>i

>

>>}>i n n

>

i>i]

>}i> >

i>i] x { { >i>`i`>v

>> > { { x n { x { n { { x

i>i] { x { x x

>i`i> >

>i x n x { { { }

xx {x {

>

i>i

-}ViV>i x x { { -}ViV>i

> ii>`i}

` r{ x x

r n { {x { { n {

r x n x x

i n n n Vi>V`

->i

vi>ivv`>ii` >i>iiViV>`>ii iVivvVi LiVi>i`L ` rx

7ii>i>>i]iviVi]iVivvViVi>ii>>i7Vi>}viViiVivvVi`iVi>i}>

23

-ii}v`i}

3

3 Head Loss in Valves and Fittings Loss Coefficients for Fittings

,`iL xc c {xc c c

-v>Vi -v>Vi -v>Vi -v>Vi -v>Vi

} } } } }

v ,r { x x x x

`

v ,r` q q { { { x

,

v ,r` q q {

v ,x` q q n

7i`i`

LivVV

Li`

vii>i` q q q q q q q

q q q q x q q x q

in Table 7 and the adapters of

L>viLi`iL\

Table 8, one must differentiate

/i >ivi}iciL`Li`Li`]LLi

between the irreversible pressure i`Liv>V`V>i`L>iiiV>i`Li

loss (reduction in pressure) VL>viL>i`

pL = v12/2 (16)

where

pL Pressure loss in Pa

Loss coefficient { n

Density in kg/m3

>\

v Flow velocity in m/s

iii>

and the reversible pressure }`ii

change of the frictionless flow

i>LiLi` n

i>i`Vi>LiLi`

according to Bernoullis equa- iiVi>LiLi` {

tion (see 3.2.1.1):

iiv}\

ii`}i

ample a reduction in the pipe

-> x v rxc c {xc

diameter), p2 p1 is always

>vii` x xx x n

negative, for decelerated flows V>}iiv}\

(e.g. pipe expansion) it is always

`i>v>>`i>ii}v>}i>>

positive. When calculating the >iviV`LiiViV

net pressure change as the arith- v>ii}>iV`L]vi>ii`>i

`i>v>iv}>>i]iV

metic sum of pL and p2 p1, the

pressure losses from Eq. 16 are

i`i>}i

always to be subtracted.

Often the so-called kv value is

used instead of the loss coef-

24

Head Loss in Valves and Fittings Loss Coefficients for Fittings and Flow Meters 3

Table 8: Loss coefficients for adapters ficient when calculating the

Expansion Contraction pressure loss for water in valves:

v1 v1 v1 v1

d D d D D d D d pL = (Q / kv)2 . /1000 (18)

Type d/D 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Q Volume rate of flow in m3/h (!)

I 0.56 0.41 0.26 0.13 0.04 Density of water in kg/m3

= 8 0.07 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.01 pL Pressure loss in bar (!)

II for = 15 0.15 0.11 0.07 0.03 0.01

= 20 0.23 0.17 0.11 0.05 0.02 The kv value is the flow rate in

III 4.80 2.01 0.88 0.34 0.11 m3/h which would result from a

IV for 20 < < 40 0.21 0.10 0.05 0.02 0.01

pressure drop of 1 bar through

the valve for cold water. It cor-

relates with the pressure loss pL

in bar with the flow rate Q in

Table 7 (continued) m3/h. The notation kvs is used

for a fully open valve.

Flow meters:

Short Venturi tube = 30 Conversion for cold water:

Standard orifice

v

D d D

v

D d D 16 d4/kv2 (19)

where

is referred to the velocity v at diameter D. d Reference (nominal) diameter

Diameter ratio d/D = 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 of the valve in cm (!)

Area ratio m = d/D)2 = 0.09 0.16 0.25 0.36 0.49 0.64

Short Venturi tube 21 6 2 0.7 0.3 0.2

Standard orifice 300 85 30 12 4.5 2

Water meters (volume meters) 10

For domestic water meters, a max. pressure drop of 1 bar is specified for the

rated load. In practice, the actual pressure loss is seldom higher.

Branch fittings (of equal diameter)

Note:

The loss coefficients a for the branched-off flow Qa or d for the main flow

Qd = Q Qa refer to the velocity of the total flow Q in the branch. On the

basis of this definition, a or d may have negative values; in this case, they

tion (see notes to Tables 7 and 8).

Qd Q

a 0.4 0.08 0.47 0.72 0.91

Qa

d 0.17 0.30 0.41 0.51

Q Qd

a 0.88 0.89 0.95 1.10 1.28

Qa d 0.08 0.05 0.07 0.21

Qd Q

45 a 0.38 0 0.22 0.37 0.37

Fig. 14: Effect of rounding off

Qa d 0.17 0.19 0.09 0.17

the inner and outer side of el-

Q Qd

45 a 0.68 0.50 0.38 0.35 0.48 bows in square ducts on the loss

Qa d 0.06 0.04 0.07 0.20 coefficient

25

3 Head Loss in Valves System Characteristic Curve

Fig. 15:

Loss coefficients

of butterfly

valves, globe

valves and gate

10 valves as a

function of the

opening angle

or degree of

opening (The

numbers desig-

nate the types

Degree of opening y/a or relative lift y/DN

illustrated in

Fig. 13)

3.2.2 Fig. 16: System characteristic curve Hsys with static and dynamic

System Characteristic Curve components

The system characteristic curve

plots the head Hsys required by

the system as a function of the

flow rate Q. It is composed of

the so-called static and

dynamic components (see

Fig. 16)3.

The static component consists

of the geodetic head Hgeo and

(pa-pe)/(g) between the inlet

3

One must be careful to distinguish

between this use of static and

dynamic components and the pre-

cisely defined static head and dy-

namic head used in fluid dynamics,

since the dynamic component of

the system head curve consists of both

static head (i.e. pressure losses)

and dynamic head (i.e. velocity or

kinetic energy head).

26

System Characteristic Curve Selection Chart 3

Fig. 17: Selection chart for a volute casing pump series for n = 2900 rpm

(First number = nominal diameter of the discharge nozzle, second number = nominal impeller diameter)

and outlet tanks, which are in- the heads for each flow rate are

dependent of the flow rate. The added to obtain the total system

pressure head difference is zero curve Hsys = f(Q).

when both tanks are open to the For branched piping systems the

atmosphere. system curves Hsys1, Hsys2, etc.

The dynamic component con- of the individual branches be-

sists of the head loss HL, which tween the flow dividers are each

increases as the square of the calculated as functions of Q.

flow rate Q (see section 3.2.1.2), The flow rates Q1, Q2, etc. of

and of the change in velocity all branches in parallel for each

head (va2-ve2)/2g between the given head Hsys are then added

inlet and outlet cross-sections of to determine the total system

the system. Two points are suffi- curve Hsys = f(Q) for all the

cient to calculate this parabola, branches together. The sections

one at Q = 0 and one at any before and after the flow

point Q > 0. dividers must be added as for a

For pipe systems connected series connection.

one after the other (series con-

nection) the individual system

curves Hsys1, Hsys2 etc. are

plotted as functions of Q, and

27

3 Hydraulic Aspects of Pump Selection

3.3

Pump Selection

3.3.1

Hydraulic Aspects

a pump size, i.e. the flow rate Q

and the head H of the desired

operating point are assumed

to be known from the system

characteristic curve; the electric

mains frequency is also given.

With these values it is possible

to choose the pump size, the

speed of rotation and, if neces-

sary, the number of stages, from

the selection chart in the sales

literature (see Figs. 17 and 19).

Further details of the chosen

pump such as the efficiency ,

the input power P, the required

NPSHr (see section 3.5.4) and

the reduced impeller diameter

Dr can then be determined from

of a centrifugal pump

100

10

9 7

H 8 10 6

m 7 5

9

6 8

50 7 4 4

5

40 6

4 3 3

5

30

3 4

2 2

20 3

2

2

10

6

1 2 3 4 5 10 Q m3/h 20 30

0.3 0.4 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 Q l/s

Fig. 19: Selection chart for a multistage pump series for n = 2900 rpm

28

Hydraulic Aspects of Pump Selection Motor Selection 3

the individual characteristic

curve (for example see Fig. 18).

If there are no specific reasons

for doing otherwise, a pump

should be selected so that the

operating point lies near its

best efficiency point Qopt (=

flow rate at which efficiency is

highest, BEP). The limits Qmin

conditions in %

and Qmax (for example due to

vibration behaviour, noise emis-

sion as well as radial and axial

forces) are given in the product

literature or can be determined Fig. 20: Drive power as a function of rated pump input power at the

by inquiry [1]. operationg point

To conclude the selection, the Example as per ISO 9905, 5199 and 9908 (Class I, II and III)

NPSH conditions must be

checked as described in section 3.3.2 3.3.3

3.5. Mechanical Aspects Motor Selection

A multistage pump is chosen us- When selecting a pump the me- 3.3.3.1

chanical aspects require atten- Determining Motor Power

ing the same general procedure;

its selection chart shows the tion in addition to the hydrau- Operation of a centrifugal pump

number of stages in addition to lics. Several examples are: is subject to deviations from

the pump size (Fig. 19). the effects of the maximum rated speed and fluctuations

For pumps operating in series discharge pressure and tem- in the flow volume handled,

(one after the other) the devel- perature of the fluid pumped and, consequently, changes in

oped heads H1, H2, etc. of the on the operating limits, the operating point (see section

individual characteristic curves 3.4.1). In particular if steep

the choice of the best shaft

must be added (after subtracting power curves are involved (see

sealing method and cooling

any head losses which occur be- Figs. 5 and 6), this may result

requirements,

tween them) to obtain the total in a higher required pump input

the vibration and noise emis- power P than originally speci-

characteristic H = f(Q).

sions, fied. For practical purposes, a

For pumps operating in parallel,

the choice of the materials of safety allowance is therefore

the individual characteristics H1,

construction to avoid corro- added when the appropriate

H2, etc. = f(Q) are first reduced

sion and wear while keeping motor size is selected. Safety

by the head losses occurring up

in mind their strength and allowances may be specified

to the common node (head loss

temperature limits. by the purchaser, or laid down

HL calculation according to sec-

in technical codes, see Fig. 20.

tion 3.2.1.2) and plotted versus These and other similar re-

The safety allowances stipulated

Q. Then the flow rates Q of quirements are often specific to

by individual associations are

the reduced characteristics are certain industries and even to

shown in the relevant type series

added to produce the effective individual customers and must

literature [1] or the customers

characteristic curve of a vir- be addressed using the product

specification.

tual pump. This characteristic literature [1] or by consulting

interacts with the system curve the design department. When energy-saving control

Hsys for the rest of the system methods are used (e. g., speed

through the common node. control systems), the maximum

29

3 Motor Selection

power peaks which may pos- Table 9: Types of enclosure for electric motors to EN 60 529 and

DIN/VDE 0530, Part 5

sibly occur must be taken into

The type of protective enclosure is indicated by the IP code as follows:

account. Code letters (International Protection) IP

First digit (0 to 6 or X if not applicable) X

If a pump is selected for a Second digit (0 to 8 or X if not applicable) X

product with a density lower Alternatively letters A, B, C, D and H, M, S, W for special purposes only.

than that of water, the motor Key to Protection of electrical Protection of persons against

power required may have to be digits: equipment against ingress of accidental contact by

solid objects

determined on the basis of the

First 0 (not protected) (not protected)

density of water (for example, digit 1 > 50 mm in dia. back of the hand

during the performance test or 2 > 12.5 mm in dia. finger

acceptance test in the test bay). 3 > 2.5 mm in dia. tool

4 > 1.0 mm in dia. wire

Typical efficiencies and power 5 protected against dust (limited wire

ingress permitted, no harmful

factors cos of standardized IP deposits)

54 motors at 50 Hz are shown 6 totally protected against dust wire

in Fig. 21, and the curves of ef- Protection against ingress of water with harmful consequences

ficiency and power factor Second 0 (not protected)

digit 1 vertical dripwater

cos as a function of relative 2 dripwater up to 15 from the vertical

motor load P/PN in Fig. 22. 3 sprays (60 from the vertical)

4 sprays (all directions)

Table 9 lists types of enclosure 5 low-pressure jets of water

6 strong jets of water (heavy sea)

that provide protection of elec- 7 temporary flooding

tric motors against ingress of 8 permanent flooding

foreign objects or water, and

of persons against accidental

contact.

The specific heat build-up in

both electric motors and flexi-

ble couplings during start-up

for the maximum permissible

number of starts Z are given in

table 10, unless otherwise speci-

fied.

Submersible motor pumps (Figs.

1j to 1m) are ready-assembled

pump units whose motors need Fig. 21: Typical efficiencies and power factors cos of standard-

not be selected individually [7]. ized motors, IP 54 enclosure, at 50 Hz as a function of motor

Their electrical characteristics power PN

are given in the type series

literature. The motor is filled Table 10: Permissible frequency of starts Z per hour for electric motors

with air and can be operated Motor installation Dry Wet (submersible motors)

submerged in the product han- Motors up to 4 kW 15 30

Motors up to 7.5 kW 15 25

dled thanks to a in most cases Motors up to 11 kW 12 25

double-acting shaft seal with a Motors up to 30 kW 12 20

paraffin oil barrier. Motors above 30 kW 10 10

30

Motors for Seal-less Pumps Starting Characteristics 3

The vapour pressure of the

fluid pumped must be known,

so as to avoid bearing damage

caused by dry running when

the fluid has evaporated. It is

advisable to install monitoring

]

and any tendency to solidify

or polymerize or form incrus-

tations and deposits, need to

be available at the time of se-

lection.

Fig. 22: Curve of efficiency and power factor cos of standardized

IP 54 motors plotted over relative motor power P/PN

3.3.3.3

Starting Characteristics

Submersible borehole pumps, The primary component in

which are mostly used for ex- turn is coupled to a commercial The pump torque Tp transmit-

tracting water from wells, are dry driver. The impeller of a ted by the shaft coupling is

another type of ready-assembled canned motor pump is mounted directly related to the power P

units whose motors need not be directly on the motor shaft, so and speed of rotation n. Dur-

selected individually (Fig. 1p). that the rotor is surrounded by ing pump start-up, this torque

On these pumps, the rotor and the fluid pumped. It is separated follows an almost parabolical

the windings are immersed in from the stator windings by the curve as a function of the speed

water [7]. Their electrical char- can [7]. of rotation [10], as shown in

acteristics and permissible fre- Fig. 23. The torque provided

Seal-less pump sets are generally

quency of starts are indicated in by the asynchronous motor

selected with the help of compu-

the type series literature [1]. must, however, be higher so as

terized selection programs, tak-

to enable the rotor to run up to

ing into account the following

duty speed. Together with the

considerations:

3.3.3.2 voltage, this motor torque has a

Motors for Seal-less Pumps The rotor is surrounded by direct effect on the motors cur-

Seal-less pumps are frequently the fluid pumped, whose kine- rent input, and the latter in turn

used for handling aggressive, matic viscosity (see section on heat build-up in the motor

toxic, highly volatile or valu- 4.1) must be known, as it windings. The aim, therefore, is

able fluids in the chemical and influences friction losses and to prevent unwanted heat build-

petrochemical industries. They therefore the motor power up in the motor by limiting the

include magnetic-drive pumps required. run-up period and/or current

(Fig. 1f) and canned motor Metal cans or containment inrush [2] (see also Table 11).

pumps (Figs. 1n and 1o). A shrouds (for example made

mag-drive pump is driven by a of 2.4610) cause eddy current

primary magnetic field rotating losses, resulting in an increase

outside its flameproof enclosure in the motor power required.

and running in synchronization Non-metal shrouds in mag-

with the secondary magnets in- drive pumps do not have this

side the enclosure [12]. effect.

31

3 Starting Methods

Starting Type of Current Run-up Heat build- Mechani- Hydraulic Cost Recommended Comments

method equipment input time up in motor cal loading loading relation motor designs

(mains load) during

start-up

D. o. l. Contactor 48 IN Approx. High Very high Very high 1 All Mostly limited to

(mecha- 0.55 s 4 kW by energy

nical) supply companies

Star- Contactor 1/3 of d. o. l. Approx. High Very high Very high 1.53 All; canned mo- Usually stipu-

delta combi- values 310 s tors and sub- lated for motors

nation mersible motors > 4 kW by

(mecha- subject to a energy supply

nical) major drop in companies

speed during

switchover

Reduced Autotrans- 0.49 times Approx. High High High 515 All No currentless

voltage former, the d. o. l. 310 s phase during

mostly values switchover

70% tap- (gradually re-

ping placed by soft

starters)

Soft Soft starter Continuous- Approx. High Low Low 515 All Run-up and run-

start (power ly variable; 1020 s down continu-

electro- typically ously variable

nics) 3 IN via ramps for

each individual

load appllication;

no hydraulic

surges

Fre- Frequency 1 IN 060 s Low Low Low Approx. All Too expensive to

quency inverter 30 use solely for run-

inverter (power up and run-down

electro- purposes; better

nics) suited for open-

or closed-loop

control

In the case of d.o.l. starting low-voltage grids (380 V), the For start-up, however, the wind-

(where the full mains voltage regulations laid down by the en- ings are star-connected, so that

is instantly applied to the mo- ergy supply companies for d.o.l. the voltage at the windings is

tor once it is switched on), the starting of motors of 5.5 kW reduced by a factor of 0.58 rela-

full starting torque is instantly and above must be complied tive to the mains voltage. This

available and the unit runs up with. If the grid is not suitable reduces the starting current and

to its duty speed in a very short for d.o.l starting, the motor can torque to one third of the values

period of time. For the motor be started up with reduced volt- of d.o.l. starting, resulting in a

itself, this is the most favour- ages, using one of the following longer start-up process.

able starting method. But at up methods: The motor runs up in star con-

to 4 8 times the rated current,

Star-delta starting is the most nection beyond pull-out torque

the starting current of the d.o.l.

frequent, since most inexpen- up to the maximum speed of

method places a high load on

sive, way of reducing the start- rotation at point B in Fig. 23.

the electricity supply mains,

ing current. During normal Then, switchover to delta is ef-

particularly if large motors are

operation, the motor runs in fected and the motor continues

involved, and may cause prob-

delta, so that the full mains to accelerate up to rated speed.

lematic voltage drops in electri-

voltage (for example 400 V) is During the switchover period of

cal equipment in their vicinity.

applied to the motor windings. approx. 0.1 s, the current sup-

For motor operation on public

ply to the motor is interrupted

32

Starting Methods 3

and the speed drops. On pump An autotransformer also serves of the values for d.o.l. starting.

sets with a low moment of in- to reduce voltage at the motor The fact that current supply is

ertia (canned motors and sub- windings and unlike star-delta never interrupted is another ad-

mersible motors), this speed re- starting allows selection of vantage of autotransformers.

duction may be so pronounced the actual voltage reduction. A Soft starters are used for elec-

that switchover to delta may 70% tapping of the transformer, tronic continuous variation of

result in almost the full starting for instance, will bring down the voltage at the motor wind-

current being applied after all, the start-up torque and current ings in accordance with the

same as with d.o.l. starting. supplied by the mains to 49% dimmer principle. This means

that the start-up time and start-

ing current can be freely selected

within the motors permissible

operating limits (heat losses due

to slip!). Special constraints re-

garding the frequency of starts

(contrary to Table 10) have to

be heeded [1].

open- or closed-loop control)

provide a soft starting option

without the need for any addi-

tional equipment. For this pur-

pose, the output frequency and

voltage of the frequency inverter

(see section 3.4.3) are increased

continuously from a minimum

value to the required value,

without exceeding the motors

rated current.

motors in star-delta connection

( = star connection; = delta connection; P = pump)

33

3 Pump Performance Operating Point Throttling

Pump Performance and stalled pre-swirl control Flow Control by Throttling

Control [4], [6], [8] equipment (see section 3.4.8), Changing the flow rate Q by

3.4.1 operating a throttle valve is the

for axial flow (propeller)

Operating Point

pumps, by changing the blade simplest flow control method

The operating point of a centri- pitch setting (see section not only for a single adjustment

fugal pump, also called its duty 3.4.9). of the flow rate but also for

point, is given by the intersec- its continuous control, since it

Please note: the effect of these

tion of the pump characteristic requires the least investment.

measures for changing the char-

curve (see section 3.1.6) with But it is also the most energy

acteristic curve can only be pre-

the system characteristic curve wasting method, since the flow

dicted for non-cavitating opera-

(see section 3.2.2). The flow energy is converted irreversibly

tion (see section 3.5).

rate Q and the developed head to heat.

H are both determined by the

Fig. 24 illustrates this process:

intersection. To change the op-

by intentionally increasing the

erating point either the system

system resistance (for example

curve or the pump curve must

by throttling a valve on the

be changed.

A system characteristic curve

for pumping water can only be

changed

by changing the flow resist-

ance (for example, by chang-

ing the setting of a throttling

device, by installing an orifice

or a bypass line, by rebuilding

the piping or by its becoming

incrusted) and/or

by changing the static head

component (for example, with

a different water level or tank

pressure).

A pump characteristic curve can

be changed

by changing the speed of rota-

tion (see section 3.4.3),

operated in series or parallel

(see sections 3.4.4 or 3.4.5),

for pumps with radial impel-

lers, by changing the impel-

lers outside diameter (see sec-

tion 3.4.6),

for pumps with mixed flow Fig. 24: Change of the operating point and power saved by

impellers, by installing or throttling a pump whose power curve has a positive slope

34

Orifice Plate Variable Speed 3

g Gravitational constant

9.81 m/s2

H Head difference to be

throttled in m

Since the area ratio (dBl/d)2

must be estimated in advance,

an iterative calculation is neces-

sary (plotting the calculated vs.

the estimated diameter dBl is

iterations the correct value can

be directly interpolated, see

3.4.3

Variable Speed Flow Control

At various speeds of rotation n,

a centrifugal pump has differ-

ent characteristic curves, which

are related to each other by the

affinity laws. If the characteris-

tics H and P as functions of Q

are known for a speed n1, then

Fig. 25: Orifice plate and its throttling coefficient f all points on the characteristic

curve for n2 can be calculated

pump discharge side) the origi- The same is principally true by the following equations:

nal system curve Hsys1 becomes of the installation of a fixed,

steeper and transforms into sharp-edged orifice plate in the Q2 = Q1 . n2/n1 (21)

Hsys2. For a constant pump discharge piping, which can be

H2 = H1 (n2/n1)2 (22)

speed, the operating point B1 on justified for low power or short

3

the pump characteristic moves operating periods. The neces- P2 = P1 (n2/n1) (23)

to B2 at a lower flow rate. The sary hole diameter dBl of the

pump develops a larger head orifice is calculated from the Eq. (23) is valid only as long

than would be necessary for head difference to be throttled as the efficiency does not de-

the system; this surplus head is H, using the following equa- crease as the speed n is reduced.

eliminated in the throttle valve. tion: With a change of speed, the op-

The hydraulic energy is irrevers- erating point is also shifted (see

ibly converted into heat which dBl = f Q/ g H (20) section 3.4.1). Fig. 26 shows the

is transported away by the flow. H/Q curves for several speeds of

This loss is acceptable when where rotation; each curve has an in-

the control range is small or dBl Hole diameter of the orifice tersection with the system char-

when such control is only sel- in mm acteristic Hsys1. The operating

dom needed. The power saved f Throttling or pressure drop point B moves along this system

is shown in the lower part of coefficient acc. to Fig. 25 curve to smaller flow rates when

the figure; it is only moderate Q Flow rate in m3/h the speed of rotation is reduced.

compared with the large surplus

head produced.

35

3 Variable Speed Parallel Operation

the motor. The expenditure for

variable speed drives is not low,

but it is amortized quickly for

pumps which are used often and

which are frequently required

to run at reduced flows with

small static head component

Hsys,stat [8]. This is particularly

the case for pumps in heating

systems.

3.4.4

Parallel Operation of Centri-

fugal Pumps

Where one pump is unable to

deliver the required flow Q at

the operating point, it is possi-

Power saved

working in parallel in the same

piping system, each with its

own non-return valve (Fig. 27).

Parallel operation of pumps is

easier when their shutoff heads

H0 are all equal, which is the

Fig. 26: Operation of a variable speed pump for different system case for identical pumps. If the

characteristic curves Hsys1 and Hsys2 shutoff heads H0 differ, the low-

(Power savings P1 and P2 at half load each compared with simple est shutoff head marks the point

throttling) on the common H/Q curve for

the minimum flow rate Qmin,

If the system curve is a parabola tion with it and hence, that no below which no parallel opera-

through the origin as for Hsys1 operating point results; the low- tion is possible, since the non-

in the example, the developed er speed range is then of no use return valve of the pump with

head H according to Eq. (22) is and could be eliminated. The smaller shutoff head will be held

reduced to one fourth its value potential power savings P2 shut by the other pump(s).

and the required driving power at a given flow rate Q are less During parallel pumping it

in Eq. (23) to one eighth its than for the system curve Hsys1 must be kept in mind that after

value when the speed is halved. as shown in the lower part of stopping one of two identical

The lower part of Fig. 26 shows the diagram [4]. The improve- centrifugal pumps (Fig. 27),

the extent of the savings P1 ment compared with throttling the flow rate Qsingle of the re-

compared with simple decreases as the static head maining pump does not fall

throttling. component Hsys,stat increases to half of Qparallel, but rather

If the system curve is a parabola (i.e., for a lower dynamic head increases to more than half. The

with a large static head compo- component Hsys,dyn). remaining pump might then

nent as for Hsys2, it is possible Variation of the speed usually immediately run at an operat-

that the pump characteristic at means varying the electrical ing point Bsingle above its design

reduced speed has no intersec- driving frequency, which must point, which must be considered

36

Parallel Operation 3

when checking the NPSH values

(see section 3.5) and the drive

power (see section 3.1.3). The

reason for this behaviour is the

parabolic shape of the system

characteristic Hsys. For the same

reason, the reverse procedure of

taking a second identical pump

on line does not double the flow

rate Qsingle of the pump that

was already running, but rather

increases the flow rate less than

that:

Qparallel < 2 Qsingle (24)

This effect when starting or

stopping one additional pump

is more intense when the system Fig. 27: Parallel operation of 2 identical centrifugal pumps with

curve is steeper or when the stable characteristic curves

pump characteristic is flatter. As

long as both pumps I and II are The problems occur when the with unstable characteristics are

running, the total flow rate developed head H1 of the pump not suitable for such a low flow

Qparallel is the sum of QI and running is larger than the shut- operation. (For a lower system

QII, i.e.: off head (i.e., the developed curve Hsys2 they would be per-

head at Q = 0) of the pump to fectly able to operate properly

Qparallel = QI + QII (25) be started; the second pump is since the developed head H2

unable to overcome the pressure of the pump running is lower

To compute the characteristic on its non-return valve (Fig. 28, than the shutoff head H0 of the

curve for parallel operation see System curve Hsys1). Pumps pump to be started).

section 3.3.1.

Starting or stopping individual

pumps operated in parallel does

save energy, but it allows only a

For continuously variable con-

trol, at least one of the pumps

must be fitted with a variable

speed drive or a control valve

must be installed in the common

discharge piping [4].

If centrifugal pumps running

at fixed speeds and having un-

stable characteristics (see Fig. 7

in section 3.1.6) are run in par-

allel, difficulties can arise when Fig. 28: Parallel operation of 2 identical centrifugal pumps with

bringing another pump online. unstable characteristics

37

3 Series Operation Impeller Diameter Reduction

3.4.5 but not the shrouds of the im- of the impeller outer diameter

Series Operation pellers are cut back. It is some- and index r the condition after

times possible to simply remove the reduction. The required

In series operation, the pumps

the impeller and diffuser of one (average) reduced diameter re-

are connected one after the

stage of a multistage pump and sults as:

other so that the developed

replace them with a blind stage

heads can be added for a given

(two concentric cylindrical cas- Dr Dt (Qr/Qt) Dt (Hr/Ht)

flow rate. This means that the

ings to guide the flow) instead (27)

discharge pressure of the first

of cutting back the impeller

pump is the inlet pressure for

vanes. Impellers with a non- The parameters needed to deter-

the second pump, which must

cylindrical exit section are either mine the reduced diameter can

be considered for the choice of

turned down or have only their be found as shown in Fig. 30:

shaft seal and for the strength

blades cut back as specified in in the H/Q curve (linear scales

of the casing. For this reason

the characteristic curve litera- required!) a line is drawn con-

multistage pumps are usually

ture (for example, as shown in necting the origin (careful: some

used for such applications (ex-

Fig. 29). scales do not start at zero!) and

cept for the hydraulic transport

If the impeller diameter only the new operating point Br . The

of solids, see section 6). They

needs to be reduced slightly, a extension of the line intersects

do not pose these shaft sealing

rule of thumb can be applied. the characteristic curve for full

problems.

An exact calculation cannot be diameter Dt at the point Bt. In

made, since the geometrical sim- this way the values of Q and H

3.4.6 with the subscripts t and r can

ilarity of the vane angle and exit

Turning Down Impellers width are not preserved when be found, which are used with

turning down the impeller. The Eq. (27) to find the desired re-

If the flow rate or developed

following approximate relation- duced diameter Dr.

head of a radial or mixed flow

centrifugal pump are to be ship exists between Q, H and The ISO 9906 method is more

reduced permanently, the out- the impeller diameter D to be accurate, but also more involved

side diameter D of the impeller found (averaged, if required): through the consideration of

should be reduced. The reduc- the average diameter D1 of the

tion should be limited to the (Dt/Dr)2 Qt/Qr Ht/Hr (26) impeller leading edge (sub-

value for which the impeller script 1), valid for nq < 79 and

vanes still overlap when viewed where subscript t designates the for a change of diameter < 5%,

radially. The documentation of condition before the reduction as long as the vane angle and

the pump characteristics (Fig. the impeller width remain con-

18) usually shows curves for stant. Thus using the nomen-

several diameters D (in mm). clature of Figs. 29 and 30:

Impellers made from hard ma-

terials, such as those used for

Dr

solids-handling pumps, or from

stainless steel sheet metal, as

well as single vane impellers

(Fig. 43) and star or periph- Dt

D1

eral pump impellers cannot be

turned down. (The same is true

for under-filing as described in

Fig. 29: Contour for cutting

section 3.4.7). For multistage

back the vanes of an impeller

pumps, usually only the vanes

with a mixed flow exit

38

Impeller Diameter Reduction Under-filing Pre-swirl Blade Pitch Adjustment 3

3.4.8

Pre-Swirl Control of the Flow

8

q. 2

26

E

q. For tubular casing pumps with

ng

E

ing

usi

us

mixed flow impellers, the pump

characteristic can be influenced

Total developed head H

in the impeller inlet flow. Such

pre-swirl control equipment is

Fig. 30: often fitted to control the flow

Determination rate. The various characteristic

of the reduced curves are then shown in the

impeller dia- product literature labelled with

Flow rate Q

meter Dr the control setting (Fig. 32).

Flow Rate Control or Change

by Blade Pitch Adjustment

A solution is only possible when in Fig. 30, which intersects the

D1 is known and when a para- base H/Q curve for diameter Dt The characteristic curves of ax-

bola H ~ Q2 is drawn through at a different point Bt (with dif- ial flow (propeller) pumps can be

the reduced operating point Br ferent Ht and Qt). altered by changing the setting

(with Hr and Qr), not a line as of the propeller blade pitch. The

setting can be fixed and firmly

bolted or a device to change the

3.4.7 31. The shutoff head does not blade pitch during operation

Under-filing of Impeller change. This method is suitable can be used to control the flow

Vanes for minor final corrections. rate. The blade pitch angles are

A small, permanent increase of

the developed head at the best

efficiency point (up to 4 6%)

can be achieved for radial im-

pellers by filing the back sides of

the backward-curved vanes, i.e.,

by sharpening the vanes on the

Fig. 31: Under-filed vanes of a Fig. 32: Characteristic curve set of a centrifugal pump with pre-swirl

radial impeller control equipment, nq 160

39

3 Blade Pitch Adjustment Bypass

with their respective characteris-

tic curves (see Fig. 33).

3.4.10

Flow Control Using a Bypass

The system characteristic curve

can be made steeper by closing

a throttle valve, but it can also

be made flatter by opening a

bypass in the discharge piping

as shown in Fig. 34. The pump

operating point moves from B1

to a larger flow rate B2. The

bypass flow rate is controlled

and can be fed back into the

Fig. 33: Characteristic curve set of an axial flow pump with blade

inlet tank without being used

pitch adjustment, nq 200

directly. From the point of view

of saving energy, this type of

control only makes sense when

creasing pump flow rates (P1 >

P2), which is the case for high

specific speeds (mixed and axial

flow propeller pumps).

For these types of pumps, con-

trolling the flow by pre-swirl

control or by changing the blade

pitch is even more economical,

however. The expenditure for a

bypass and control valve is not

small [4]. This method is also

suitable for preventing pumps

from operating at unacceptably

low flow rates (see operating

limits in Figs. 5 and 6c as well

as in Figs. 32 and 33).

a falling power curve and flow control using a bypass. (For a radial

flow pump the power curve would increase towards the right and

this type of control would cause an increase in power input, see

Fig. 5).

40

Suction and Inlet Conditions NPSH Available 3

3.5

Suction and Inlet Conditions

e

[3] ulph

id

dis

on

NPSH = Net Positive Suction Ca

rb

Head

3.5.1

The NPSH Value of the

System: NPSHa

The NPSHa value is the differ-

ence between the total pressure

in the centre of the pump inlet

and the vapour pressure pv,

expressed as a head difference

in m. It is in certain respects a

measure of the probability of

vaporization at that location

and it is determined only by

the operating data of the sys-

tem and the type of fluid. The

vapour pressure of water and

12 and in Fig. 35 as a function

of the temperature.

temperature t (for an enlarged view see page 84)

41

3 NPSH Available Data for Water

Table 12: Vapour pressure pv , density and kinematic viscosity of water at saturation conditions as a

function of the temperature t

t pv t pv t pv

C bar kg/m3 mm2/s C bar kg/m3 mm2/s C bar kg/m3 mm2/s

0 0.00611 999.8 1.792 61 0.2086 982.6 145 4.155 921.7

1 0.00656 999.9 62 0.2184 982.1 150 4.760 916.9

2 0.00705 999.9 63 0.2285 981.6

3 0.00757 1000.0 64 0.2391 981.1 155 5.433 912.2

4 0.00812 1000.0 65 0.2501 980.5 160 6.180 907.4 0.1890

5 0.00872 1000.0 66 0.2614 980.0

6 0.00935 999.9 67 0.2733 979.4 165 7.008 902.4

7 0.01001 999.9 68 0.2856 978.8 170 7.920 897.3

8 0.01072 999.8 69 0.2983 978.3

9 0.01146 999.7 70 0.3116 977.7 0.413 175 8.925 892.1

10 0.01227 999.6 1.307 180 10.027 886.9 0.1697

71 0.3253 977.1

11 0.01311 999.5 72 0.3396 976.6 185 11.234 881.4

12 0.01401 999.4 73 0.3543 976.0 190 12.553 876.0

13 0.01496 999.3 74 0.3696 975.4

14 0.01597 999.2 75 0.3855 974.8 195 13.989 870.3

15 0.01703 999.0 76 0.4019 974.3 200 15.550 864.7 0.1579

16 0.01816 998.8 77 0.4189 973.7

17 0.01936 998.7 78 0.4365 973.0 205 17.245 858.7

18 0.02062 998.5 79 0.4547 972.5 210 19.080 852.8

19 0.02196 998.4 80 0.4736 971.8 0.365

20 0.02337 998.2 1.004 215 21.062 846.6

81 0.4931 971.3 220 23.202 840.3 0.1488

21 0.02485 997.9 82 0.5133 970.6

22 0.02642 997.7 83 0.5342 969.9 225 25.504 834.0

23 0.02808 997.5 84 0.5557 969.4 230 27.979 827.3

24 0.02982 997.2 85 0.5780 968.7

25 0.03167 997.0 86 0.6010 968.1 235 30.635 820.6

26 0.03360 996.7 87 0.6249 967.4 240 33.480 813.6 0.1420

27 0.03564 996.4 88 0.6495 966.7

28 0.03779 996.1 89 0.6749 966.0 245 36.524 806.5

29 0.04004 995.8 90 0.7011 965.3 0.326 250 39.776 799.2

30 0.04241 995.6 0.801

91 0.7281 964.7 255 43.247 791.8

31 0.04491 995.2 92 0.7561 964.0 260 46.944 784.0 0.1339

32 0.04753 994.9 93 0.7849 963.3

33 0.05029 994.6 94 0.8146 962.6 265 50.877 775.9

34 0.05318 994.2 95 0.8452 961.9 270 55.055 767.9

35 0.05622 993.9 96 0.8769 961.2

36 0.05940 993.5 97 0.9095 960.4 275 59.487 759.4

37 0.06274 993.2 98 0.9430 959.8 280 64.194 750.7 0.1279

38 0.06624 992.9 99 0.9776 959.0

39 0.06991 992.6 100 1.0132 958.3 0.295 285 69.176 741.6

40 0.07375 992.2 0.658 290 74.452 732.3

102 1.0878 956.8

41 0.07777 991.8 104 1.1668 955.5 295 80.022 722.7

42 0.08198 991.4 106 1.2504 954.0 300 85.916 712.5 0.1249

43 0.08639 991.0 108 1.3390 952.6

44 0.09100 990.6 110 1.4327 951.0 305 92.133 701.8

45 0.09582 990.2 310 98.694 690.6

46 0.10085 989.8 112 1.5316 949.6

47 0.10612 989.3 114 1.6361 948.0 315 105.61 679.3

48 0.11162 988.9 116 1.7465 946.4 320 112.90 667.1 0.1236

49 0.11736 988.5 118 1.8628 944.8

50 0.12335 988.0 0.553 120 1.9854 943.1 0.2460 325 120.57 654.0

330 128.64 640.2

51 0.12960 987.7 122 2.1144 941.5

124 2.2503 939.8 340 146.08 609.4 0.1245

52 0.13613 987.2

53 0.14293 986.7 126 2.3932 938.2 350 165.37 572.4

54 0.15002 986.2 128 2.5434 936.5

55 0.15741 985.7 130 2.7011 934.8 360 186.74 524.4 0.1260

56 0.16509 985.2 370 210.53 448.4

57 0.17312 984.7 132 2.8668 933.2

58 0.18146 984.3 134 3.0410 931.4 374.2 225.60 326.0 0.1490

59 0.19015 983.7 136 3.2224 929.6

138 3.4137 927.9 Density of sea water

60 0.19920 983.2 0.474

140 3.614 926.1 0.2160 = 1030 1040 kg/m3

42

NPSHa for Suction Lift Operation 3

3.5.1.1

NPSHa for Suction Lift

Operation

For suction lift operation (Fig.

8) the pump is installed above

the suction-side water level. The

value of NPSHa can be calcu-

lated from the conditions in the

suction tank (index e) as follows

Fig. 36: Calculation of the NPSHa for suction lift operation for

horizontally or vertically installed pumps

NPSHa = (pe + pb pv)/( g) + ve2/2g HL,s Hs geo s (29) (Fig. 36, on the left) at sea level

this equation can be simplified

where with sufficient accuracy for most

pe Gauge pressure in suction tank in N/m2 practical purposes to

pb Absolute atmospheric pressure in N/m2 (Table 13: consider

effect of altitude!)

pv Vapour pressure in N/m2 (in Table 12 as absolute pressure!) NPSHa = 10 - HL,s - Hs geo s

Density in kg/m3 (30)

g Gravitational constant, 9.81 m/s2

ve Flow velocity in the suction tank or sump in m/s The correction using s is only

HL,s Head loss in the suction piping in m necessary when the centre of

Hs geo Height difference between the fluid level in the suction tank or the impeller inlet (which is the

sump and the centre of the pump inlet in m decisive location for cavitation

s Height difference between the centre of the pump inlet and risk) is not at the same height

the centre of the impeller inlet in m as the centre of the pump inlet

(= reference plane). In Fig. 36,

Table 13: Influence of the altitude above mean sea level on the an- Hs geo must be lengthened for

nual average atmospheric pressure and on the corresponding boiling the pump on the left by the

point (1 mbar = 100 Pa) value s (i.e., same sign for Hs geo

and s!). When s is unknown,

Altitude above Atmospheric Boiling point

it can usually be estimated with

mean sea level pressure pb

enough accuracy by examining

m mbar C

the pumps outline drawing.

0 1013 100

200 989 99

500 955 98

1000 899 97

2000 795 93

4000 616 87

6000 472 81

43

3 NPSHa for Suction Head Operation NPSH Required

(Fig. 37, on the left) at sea level

this equation can also be simp-

lified for all practical purposes

to:

(32)

in section 3.5.1.1 apply analog-

ously.

Fig. 37: Calculation of the NPSHa for suction head operation for

horizontally or vertically installed pumps 3.5.2

The NPSH Value of the Pump:

3.5.1.2 head operation), the pump is NPSHr

NPSHa for Suction Head installed below the liquid level. When the inlet pressure drops,

Operation Eqs. (29) and (30) change by cavitation bubbles start to de-

For operation with positive inlet replacing -Hs geo with +Hz geo velop in the pump long before

pressure (also called suction and then read: their effects become apparent in

the hydraulic performance. One

NPSHa = (pe + pb pv)/( g) + ve2/2g HL,s + Hz geo s (31) must therefore accept the pres-

ence of a small amount of cavi-

where tation bubbles in order to oper-

Hz geo Height difference between the fluid level in the inlet tank and ate economically. The permis-

the centre of the pump inlet in m sible amount of cavitation can

be defined with certain criteria.

Often a head drop of 3% result-

ing from cavitation is accepted.

Fig. 38 shows how this point

is identified: At a constant flow

rate and constant speed of rota-

tion, the NPSHa of the test loop

is reduced until the pumps dis-

charge head has fallen by 3%.

Other criteria for the cavitation

limit can also be used, such as

the increase in sound level due

to cavitation, the amount of

material erosion or a certain

reduction in pump efficiency.

To avoid impermissible cavita-

tion conditions, a minimum

NPSH value is required, which

Fig. 38: Experimental determination of the NPSHr for the criterion is shown (in units of m) in the

H = 0.03 Hnon-cavitating NPSHr curves below the H/Q

44

NPSH Required Corrective Measures 3

characteristics (see Fig. 18). The

reference plane is the centre

of the impeller inlet (Fig. 39),

which can vary by the height s

from the reference plane of the

system, for example for vertical

pumps (see Figs. 36 and 37).

So as to avoid exceeding the

given cavitation limit, it is nec-

essary that

at the intersection of the NPSHa

and NPSHr curves. If the NPSH

requirement is not fulfilled, the

developed head will quickly de-

crease to the right of the inter-

section (i.e. at larger flow rates), Fig. 39: Position of the reference point Ps for various impellers

which produces a cavitation

breakdown curve. Prolonged 3.5.3 a subsequent improvement of

operation under these condi- Corrective Measures the NPSHa > NPSHr condi-

tions can damage the pump. The numerical values of tion in an installed centrifugal

NPSHa and NPSHr are based pump system is only possible

on the fixed design geometry with major design and financial

of the system and of the pump, expenditure for the pump or

which cannot be changed after the system. Options include:

the fact, and on the particular increasing Hz geo or reducing

operating point. It follows that Hs geo (by mounting the tank at

curves A1 and A2 of the H/Q

curve in the case of insufficient

NPSHa: An NPSH deficit exists

in the singly hatched (case 1)

and cross-hatched regions

(case 2). After increasing

NPSHa(1) to NPSHa(2), the

pumps useful operating range

is increased from Q1 to Q2 and

the operating point B can now

be reached.

45

3 NPSH Required Corrective Measures

entire flow range of the pump in

question, but only on a certain

part of the range (see Fig. 42).

The resistance to cavitation ero-

sion can be increased by choos-

ing more suitable (and more

expensive) materials for the

impeller, in particular for larger

pump sizes.

In one special case, the elimina-

tion of an NPSH problem is

quite simple: For closed flow

loops (for example in a heating

system), the system pressure can

simply be increased to improve

the NPSHa, as long as the sys-

tem is designed to cope with the

Fig. 41: Sectional drawing of a pump with an inducer (detail) higher pressure.

pump at a lower point), mini- the impeller, Fig. 41) can keep

mizing the pressure losses in the the costs of the improvement

inlet piping HL,s or replacing within limits (a rebuild of the

the pump. In the latter case, pump is unavoidable, however).

using a special low-NPSH suc- It must be kept in mind that the

tion-stage impeller or installing NPSHr reduction by the inducer

Fig. 42:

Effect of an inducer on the

NPSHr

46

Effect of Entrained Solids Impeller Types for Pumping Waste Water 3

3.6 Since single vane impellers can- up to 7.5 kW approx. 30%

Effect of Entrained Solids not be turned down to adjust ( 1kW)

If the water to be pumped (for the operating point (see section from 11 22 kW approx. 20%

example, domestic waste water, 3.4.6), this type of pump is from 30 55 kW approx. 15%

rainwater or mixtures) contains often driven using a belt drive above 55 kW approx. 10%

small amounts of entrained (see Fig. 59g).

solids, special impeller and When assessing the head losses

Allowances added to the drive

pump types are used (for ex- in the piping (see section 3.2.1.2),

power are not shown in Fig.

ample with cleaning covers or adequate allowances have to be

20, but rather in the product

special shaft seals) [1]. added [1].

literature [1], since they depend

Fig. 43 shows the most common not only on the drive rating but To avoid blockages in the pipes

impeller designs for these types also on the impeller design and for waste water with high solids

of waste water. For pumping specific speed. For example, for concentrations, a minimum flow

sludge, non-clogging channel single vane impellers pumping velocity of 1.2 m/s in horizon-

impellers can be used up to domestic waste water or sewage tal pipes and 2 m/s in vertical

3% solids content, single vane the following power reserves are pumps should be maintained.

impellers up to 5%, free flow recommended: (Exact values can only be de-

impellers up to 7% and worm termined experimentally!). This

type impellers for even higher is of particular importance for

concentrations. variable speed drives [1].

Front view shown without shroud Front view shown without shroud

Fig. 43a: Closed single vane Fig. 43b: Closed non-clogging Fig. 43c: Free flow impeller

impeller for waste water con- channel impeller for sludge or for fluids with coarse or stringy

taining solid or stringy sub- non-gassing liquids containing solids and gas content

stances solids without stringy compo-

nents

Fig. 43d: Worm type impeller Fig. 43e: Diagonal impeller for

for waste water containing coarse, waste water containing solid,

solid or stringy substances or for stringy or coarse substances

sludge with up to 5 to 8% solids

content

47

4 Pumping Viscous Fluids Shear Curve

Special Issues when tionality is referred to as the

Pumping Viscous Fluids dynamic viscosity with the units

4.1 Pa s. Fluids with this type of

The Shear Curve curve (for example water or all

Viscosity is that property of a mineral oils) are normally vis-

fluid by virtue of which it of- cous or Newtonian fluids, for

fers resistance to shear. Fig. 44 which the laws of hydrodyna-

shows this process. In a fluid, mics apply without restriction.

a plate with a wetted surface Fig. 44: Velocity profile between If the shear curve is not a

area A is moved with speed v0 a plane wall and a moving par- straight line through the origin,

parallel to a stationary wall at a allel plate. the fluid is a non-Newtonian

distance y0. F = Towing force fluid, for which the laws of

v0 = Towing speed hydrodynamics apply only in

The movement requires that

y0 = Distance to wall a limited fashion. One must

the resistance force F be over-

v/ y = Rate of shear therefore strictly differentiate

come, which can be expressed

as a shear stress = F/A. If the between these two cases.

wall distance y0, the velocity v0 Since the quotient of dynamic

or the type of fluid is changed, viscosity and density is often

then the shear stress also used in fluid dynamic relation-

changes in proportion to the

velocity v0 or inversely propor-

tional to the distance y0. The

two easily identified parameters

v0 and y0 are combined to yield

the shear gradient v0/y0.

Since the viscosity of the fluid

causes a shear stress not only

at the walls, but rather at every

distance from the wall within

the fluid, the definition of the

rate of shear is generalized as

v/ y (change of velocity per

change of distance). Just as for

the shear stress , it is not the

same for all wall distances y.

During an experiment, pairs of

values and v/ y are measured

and can be plotted as a func-

tion, the so-called shear curve

(Fig. 45).

When the shear curve is a

straight line going through the

origin:

Fig. 45: Overview of the shear behaviour of viscous fluids

= v/ y (34) a without, b with a plastic shear limit f

N Newtonian, B Bingham, S pseudo-plastic, D dilatant fluids

48

Pumping Viscous Fluids 4

ships it is defined as the kine-

matic viscosity Values required to

DIN 51 507 (transformer oils)

DIN 51 603 (fuel oils)

DIN 51 601 (Diesel fuel)

= / (35) Lubricating

oils BC

ISO viscosity classification

to DIN 51 519

where

Kinematic viscosity in m2/s

Lubricating

Dynamic viscosity in Pa s oils BB

(= kg/sm)

N

Density in kg/m3 (for numeri- s

Fu

oil

ar

el

Ge

oil

cal values see Fig. 48)

sS

Lubricating

s

oil oils BA

tor

Mo

For water at 20C, = 1.00

Su uper

s

oil

pe

P

HL

S

ar

rh eate

106 m2/s. For further numerical L, ge

ea

H

Su

ile

ted

ils ob

h

co

pe

uli m ils

ste am

to

rhe

dra Au ro

d

so L,

am

values see Table 12. The units

ate

Hy res , VD

ste

p

cy

ds

m L L

Co C, VC B, VB

lin der

tea

de

cy

centistokes = mm2/s, degrees V V

ro

in

cy

ils

lin

ZD

oil

ne

de

Engler E, Saybolt seconds S" rbi

sZ

ro

Fu

Tu s TD

B

ils

el

oil g

oil

ZA

tin C

Tra

(USA) and Redwood seconds era s K

sM

Fue

nsf

frig oil

Re hine

l oi

orm

c

ls L

R" (UK) are no longer used and ma rating A

er

e sK -AN

Fue

oils

frig oil sL LP

Re hine oil

l oi

c ing CL oil

sC

ls E

a t ils

bri

c

ng

o ing

cat

L

Lu ati sC bri

br ic oil

Fig. 46. Lu

ic ati

ng Lu

l br

fue Lu

sel

Independently of the discussion Die

Fig. 46: Conversion between Fig. 47: Kinematic viscosity of various mineral oils as a function of

various units of kinematic vis- the temperature (enlarged view on page 85)

cosity

temperature: at higher tempera-

tures almost all liquids become

thinner; their viscosity de-

creases (Figs. 47 and 48).

tates with a freely chosen speed

ured at various speeds along

size of the wetted area and the

distance of the cylinder from the

wall.

49

4 Newtonian Fluids Viscosity and Pump Characteristics

t = 100 C

= 2.01 mm2/s

t = 92.5 C t = 98.3 84.2 72.5 44.5 C t =18.3 50 70 C

= 2.35 mm2/s = 15.8 7.76 4.99 2.33 mm2/s = 11.87 3.32 1.95 mm2/s

Form

ic

acid

Fig. 48: Density

and kinematic vis-

cosity of various

fluids as a function

of the temperature

t (enlarged view

on p. 86)

Newtonian Fluids that described in the Hydraulic 20 and gives the same numerical

4.2.1 Institute (HI) Standards and results as the KSB method

Influence on the Pump that of KSB. Both methods use (Fig. 50) in this narrow range.

Characteristics diagrams containing the conver- The KSB method is based on

The characteristic curves of a sion factors which are applied measurements with nq from

centrifugal pump (H, and P in a similar manner, but differ 6.5 to 45 and viscosity up to

6 2

as functions of Q) only start in that the KSB method not only z = 4000 10 m /s. The use

to change perceptibly at vis- includes the parameters Q, H of both diagrams is explained

cosities above > 20 106 m2/s and but also the significant with the examples shown in

and only need to be corrected influence of the specific speed them [9].

with empirical conversion fac- nq (see section 3.1.5). The HI The flow rate Q, the total

tors above this limit. The two method (Fig. 49) is based on developed head H and the ef-

50

Viscosity and Pump Characteristics Conversion Factors 4

Conversion factorkH

Fig. 49: Determination of the conversion factors k using the Hydraulic Institute method. Example

shown for Q = 200 m3/h, H = 57.5 m, = 500 106 m2/s

51

4 Viscosity and Pump Characteristics Conversion Factors

400

300

200

150

100

80

60

50

40

30

20

15

200

10

8 250

6

5 300

4

3 N 400

2

1.5 500

1 600

800

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

4000

1 2 3 4 5 10 20 30 40 50 100 200 300 400 500 1000 2000 3000 5000 10000

0.3 0.4 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 10 20 30 40 50 100 200 300 400 500 1000 2000

Fig. 50: Determination of the conversion factors f using the KSB method. Example shown for

Q = 200 m3/h, H = 57.5 m, n = 1450 rpm, = 500 106 m2/s, n = 2900 rpm, nq = 32.8

52

Viscosity and Pump Characteristics Conversion Factors Conversion 4

ficiency which are known for

a single-stage centrifugal pump

operating with water (subscript

w), can be converted to the val-

ues for operation with a viscous

medium (subscript z) as follows:

N

Qz = fQ Qw (36)

Hz = fH Hw (37)

z =f w (38)

The factors f are designated

with k in the HI method; both

are shown graphically in Figs.

49 and 50. In Fig. 50 the speed

1/min

of rotation n of the pump must

be considered in the diagram

and the specific speed nq of the

pump impeller must be known,

for example from Fig. 3 or

Eq. 3.

= Hw = Hw fH, w 1,03 Hw fH, w Hw fH, w

With these factors the known 1)

2)

performance for water can be

converted to reflect operation

with a viscous fluid. The con-

version is valid for the range

2)

0.8 Qopt < Q < 1.2 Qopt (39)

A simple calculation can thus be Fig. 51: Spreadsheet for calculating the pump characteristics for a

done for three flow rates, with a viscous fluid using the KSB method (enlarged view on p. 87)

single exception:

At Q = 0.8 Qopt, all the characteristic curves can

Pz = z g Hz Qz / 1000 z

Hz = 1.03 fH Hw applies be plotted over Qz using the 3

(but Hz never is > Hw!). (40) or 4 calculated points, as shown

in Fig. 52 on page 54.

At flow rate Q = 0, simply set

where

Hz = Hw and z = w = 0. A For the inverse problem, i.e.

z Density in kg/m3

worksheet or spreadsheet calcu- when the operating point for the

Qz Flow rate in m3/s

lation as shown in Fig. 51 can viscous fluid is known and the

g Gravitational constant

simplify the conversion. values for water are to be found

9.81 m/s2

(for example when choosing a

After the power is calculated at Hz Total developed head in m

suitable pump for the requested

the three flow rates (in the flow z Efficiency between 0 und 1

operating point), the water val-

range according to Eq. 39) using Pz Power in kW (!)

ues are estimated and the solu-

53

4 Viscosity and Pump/System Characteristics Non-Newtonian Fluids: Pump Characteristics

the water viscosity w when cal-

culating the Reynolds number

Re = v d/ . This yields a lower

Reynolds number, and a larger

friction factor z results from

Fig. 10. (Note: the influence

of the wall roughness can now

often be ignored because of the

larger boundary layer thickness

in the flow.) All of the pressure

losses in the pipes, valves and

fittings calculated for water in

accordance with section 3.2.1.2

are to be increased by the ratio

z/ w.

general practical use: the dia-

gram provides a fast way of de-

termining the pipe friction fac-

tor z as a function of the flow

rate Q, pipe inside diameter d

and kinematic viscosity z. It

must be kept in mind, however,

that the coefficient w for water

in this diagram is only valid for

hydraulically smooth pipes (i.e.

not for rough-surfaced pipes)!

The corresponding w can be

used to calculate the ratio z/ w.

Since the static component of

the system characteristic curve

Fig. 52: Conversion of the pump characteristics for water to that for Hsys (Fig. 16) is not affected by

a viscous fluid viscosity, the dynamic com-

ponent of the system character-

istic for water can be redrawn

tion is approached iteratively 4.2.2

Influence on the System as a steeper parabola for a vis-

using fQ, fH and f in two (or

Characteristics cous fluid.

sometimes three) steps.

For specific speeds above nq 20 Since the laws of fluid dynam-

the more realistic KSB method ics retain their validity for all 4.3

Newtonian fluids, the equations Non-Newtonian Fluids

results in smaller power require-

ments; below this limit the cal- and diagrams for calculating 4.3.1

the pipe friction factor and the Influence on the Pump

culated required driving power

loss coefficients for valves and Characteristics

according to HI is too small [9]!

fittings are also applicable to Since the local velocity gradients

viscous media. One must simply in all the hydraulic components

substitute the kinematic viscos- of a pump are not known, a cal-

54

Non-Newtonian Fluids Pump/System Characteristics 4

4.3.2

Influence on the System

Characteristics

When the shear curves are not

straight lines of constant linear

viscosity, one must divide them

into sections and determine the

coefficient (= stiffness number)

and the exponent n (= structural

number) for each section indi-

vidually (easiest when plotted

on double-logarithmic scales).

Using a special diagram (analo-

gous to Fig. 10), which shows

the pipe friction factors z as a

function of the generalized

Reynolds number Ren for vari-

ous exponents n, the value of

z can be read and the system

curve Hsys determined for a par-

ticular flow rate Q. Since this

ticular because of the need for

recommended for general use.

istics, in most cases diagrams

with a narrow range of applica-

N

a particular fluid are used to

the application differs from the

particular conditions of the dia-

gram, the more uncertain will

the head loss analysis become,

so that in such cases the experi-

ence of the design department

must be tapped.

Fig. 53: Finding the pipe friction factor z for viscous liquids

Example: Q = 200 m3/h; d = 210 mm; 4 2

z = 5 10 m /s

Newtonian fluids on the pump years of experience with this

characteristics is not generally fluid feasible. The selection of a

possible. Only for a limited suitable pump must therefore be

number of special fluids, such as done by the design department.

fibre pulp, is a prediction based

55

5 Pumping Gas-laden Fluids

Special Issues when Pumping of an impeller, the gas bubbles pumpage, the following meas-

Gas-laden Fluids tend to accumulate in certain lo- ures can be useful:

Unlike dissolved gases, a non- cations and to disturb the flow A sufficiently large settling

dissolved gas in a liquid (ex- there. This effect is reinforced tank in the suction line can

pressed as a volume percentage) the more the pump operates allow the gas to separate out

can change the design para- at a reduced flow rate, since of the fluid and thus mitigate

meters, the characteristic curve the lower velocities exert less its disturbing effects.

and the general performance of carrying force on the gas, Pipes which are used to fill

a centrifugal pump dramatically,

the smaller the impeller inlet an open inlet sump must end

as shown in Fig. 54 using a non-

diameter is, since the throt- below the liquid level so that

clogging impeller pump as an

tling effect of the gas volume there is no free fall of water

example. The gas content may

is increased, that might entrain air bub-

be caused by the production

the lower the specific speed nq bles in the tank. In addition, a

process itself but also by leaking

of the pump impeller is, and baffle can prevent the entry of

flanges or valve stems in the suc-

vortices in the suction piping

tion line or from air-entraining the lower the speed of rota-

(see Figs. 64 and 65).

vortices in an open sump inlet tion of the pump is.

when the water level is too low Low-flow operation of the

These effects cannot be cal-

(see section 7.2). main pump can be prevented

culated. When significant gas

by installing a special part-

load pump. When this pump

is only needed occasionally,

2.8% it is advantageous to use a

4.1% self-priming pump (whose ef-

ficiency is lower, though).

5.5%

2.8% A gas removal line in front

0%

6.9% 11% of the impeller hub requires

a vacuum system, is only of

8.3%

9.6%

limited use for large gas quan-

tities and disturbs the normal

2.8% operation of the pump.

2.8% 0%

4.1% In the pump, open impellers

5.5%

6.9% 11% (see Fig. 4) with few vanes are

8.3% advantageous, as is the instal-

9.6%

lation of an inducer (Fig. 41).

Without any special precau-

2.8%

tions, non-clogging impeller

4.1%. 5.5%

5.5%

11% pumps (Fig. 43) can pump up

6.9%

8.3% to 3%vol and free flow impel-

9.6%

lers up to 6 to 7%vol of gas.

expected under normal oper-

Fig. 54: Influence of non-dissolved air on the operation of a non- ating conditions, side channel

clogging impeller pump when pumping pre-treated sewage (open pumps or water-ring pumps

three-channel impeller, D = 250 mm, n = 1450 rpm, nq = 37) (positive displacement prin-

qair = Gas volume in suction piping as % of the mixture. ciple) operate more reliably.

56

Pumping Solids-laden Fluids Settling Speed 6

6

Special Issues When Pumping

Solids-laden Fluids

6.1

Settling Speed 00 000 00 000

80 7 60 5

Solids (which are heavier than

water) are most easiest to pump

0

when their settling speed is low- 250 0 3

200 kg/

m

est and their flow velocity high- 1 500

s

=

est. Because of the large number

00

40

of influencing parameters, the 0

3 50

settling speed can only be calcu- 0

0

30

lated based on simplifying as-

sumptions: the settling speed of

a single sphere in an unlimited

space (subscript 0) results from Fig. 55: Settling speed ws0 of individual spherical particles (spherical

force equilibrium as diameter ds) in still water

4 g ds s f

ws0 = tual repulsion of the particles,

3 cD f cT = Qs /(Qs + Qf) (43) approximately according to the

(41)

following empirical relationship

has a large effect, where

where

cT Flow-based solids concen- ws = ws0 (1 cT)5 (44)

ws0 Settling speed in m/s

tration (transport concen-

g Gravitational constant

tration) The effect of an irregular par-

9.81 m/s

Qs Flow rate of the solid in ticle shape cannot be estimated;

ds Diameter of sphere in m

m3/s the shape may differ substan-

cD Resistance coefficient of the

Qf Flow rate of the fluid in tially from that of a sphere.

sphere dependent on Res

m3/s

s Density of the solid in kg/m3 The effect of the particle size

f Density of the fluid in kg/m3 The solids concentration and distribution can also hardly be

the boundary effect of the pipe calculated. Fig. 56 shows an

walls reduce the settling speed example of the distribution of

Res = ws0 ds/ f (42)

where

f Kinematic viscosity of the

liquid in Pa s

The settling speed ws0 is shown

graphically in Fig. 55.

57

6 Pumping Solids-laden Fluids Pump Characteristics

particle sizes ds plotted logarith- ds, the concentration cT and the empirical relationship for the

mically for the portion which density s of the solids as well relative head reduction H/H is

passed through a sieve of a given as the specific speed nq. The approximately

mesh size. Transported solids

are almost always composed of 3

H/H = cT / Res (11.83/nq)3 (s/f 1) (45)

particles of various sizes, so that

the size distribution has a more

where

or less distinct S-shape. To sim-

cT Transport concentration according to Eq. 43

plify the analysis, it can be as-

Head coefficient of the pump; here approx. = 1

sumed that the particle size for

Res Reynolds number of the solids flow according to Eq. 42

50% mass fraction, designated

nq Specific speed of the pump according to Eq. 3

d50, is representative of the

s Density of the solid in kg/m3

mixture. This assumption is the

f Density of the fluid in kg/m3

most important source of dis-

parities in the planning phase.

When conveying solids hydrau-

After all these assumptions m = cT s + (1 cT) w

lically, the pump characteristic

and gross approximations, no

curve needs to be shown as de- (47)

exact predictions of the effects

veloped pressure p versus flow

of solids on the flow behaviour, where

rate Q, not as developed head

the system curve, the total de- m Average density in kg/m3

H, since the average density m

veloped head and the efficiency s Density of the solid in

of the solids / water mixture (in

of pumps are to be expected. kg/m3

contrast to pumping clean wa-

The design and selection of w Density of water in kg/m3

ter) is not constant. As simpli-

pumps for solids transport must cT Transport concentration ac-

fications, the geodetic head dif-

therefore be left to experts who cording to Eq. 43

ference zs,d between the pump

have sufficient experience with Since the pressure rise in the

inlet and discharge as well as

similar cases. Even then, ex- pump is the product of the

the velocity head difference

periments are often necessary density and the developed head

(cd2 cs2)/2 g are ignored, i.e.,

to attain a measure of certainty. (which is reduced when trans-

the static head is set to equal the

Only certain general tendencies porting solids), two independent

total head (Hp H):

can be stated. influences are at work in Eq. 46:

the increased average density

p = m g (H H) (46)

6.2 due to the presence of the sol-

Influence on the Pump where ids, and the reduced developed

Characteristics m Average density of the solids / head (H H). Both changes

The solids behave differently water mixture given by are caused by the solids concen-

under the influence of the cen- Eq. 47 in kg/m3 tration, but they have opposite

trifugal force field in an impeller g Gravitational constant effects, since the density raises

than the carrier fluid (usually 9.81 m/s2 the pressure while the head defi-

water) does. The solids cross the H Total developed head in m cit decreases it. Therefore, no

streamlines or collide with and H Head reduction according general prediction can be made

rub against the walls of the flow to Eq. 45 in m as to whether the pump pres-

passages. They thus reduce the p Pressure in N/m2 sure rise will be higher or lower

head H produced in the impeller (to convert to bar: than the water curve when the

by the difference H. 1 bar = 100 000 N/m2) solids concentration increases.

Heavy, small-grained solids

Experimental data exist on the The average density of the mix-

(for example ores) are likely to

effects of the particle diameter ture is given by

58

Pump Characteristics System Characteristics Operating Performance Stringy, Fibrous Solids 6

produce an increase, while light, will soon be clogged. The curve method for the hydraulic trans-

large solids (for example coal) minimum is therefore generally port of solids. Speed control has

and low specific speeds tend to considered to be the lower limit an additional advantage: when

decrease the pressure. of operation. Exact predictions the head developed by the pump

are only possible with sufficient impeller drops as the impeller

experience or by experiment. wears, it is possible to compen-

6.3

Influence on the System sate by merely increasing the

Characteristics 6.4 speed.

When the flow velocity drops, Operating Performance In vertical pipes, the settling of

solids tend to settle to the bot- Fig. 57 shows the typical be- the solids poses much greater

tom of horizontal pipe runs and haviour of a centrifugal pump risk, since the pipe can suddenly

collect on the pipe wall. The transporting solids through a become plugged if the flow falls

flow resistance increases and horizontal pipe: with increasing below the minimum required,

the free flow passage becomes concentration, the intersection even if only due to stopping the

smaller, so that despite the of the pump and system charac- pump.

decreasing flow rate, the flow teristic curves shifts to ever low- The high erosion rates when

resistance can actually increase. er flow rates, so that the lower pumping granular solids are

This results in the unusual limit of operation could be ex- the decisive parameter for the

shape of the system curves as ceeded. To avoid this, a control design of the pumps used. An

shown in Fig. 57. The minimum system must intervene promptly. example of their typical robust

in the curves measured at vari- Throttle valves would be subject design is shown in Fig. 58. The

ous concentrations is a sure sign to high wear, however, so only risk of erosion also limits the

that a solids accumulation is a change of rotational speed permissible operating range to

taking place and that the pipes remains as a feasible control near Qopt.

High solids concentrations put

constraints on the use of centri-

fugal pumps; the limit values can

only be found by experience.

The above considerations should

have convinced the reader that

hydraulic solids transport is

6.5

Stringy, Fibrous Solids

If long, stringy solids are present

in the flow, problems can oc-

cur, in particular for axial flow

Fig. 57: Pressure developed by the pump pP and pressure losses of (propeller) pumps, when these

the system psys for various solids concentrations (concentrations materials (plant fibres, plastic

cTsys, cTP) of the flow Q. The developed pressure pP = f(cT) can sheets and rags for example) are

also increase with increasing concentration cTP for solids with high caught on the propeller blade

density (here shown decreasing for 10 and 20%). leading edge and accumulate

59

7 Solids-laden Fluids Operating Performance Stringy, Fibrous Solids

increasing head loss and power flushed out. These self-cleaning

input, which continue until the blades are called ECBs

driving motor must be stopped (= ever clean blades) [5].

due to overloading. Untreated municipal sewage

The problem can be solved by often contains textiles which

slanting the leading edges of the tend to form braids and plug

propeller blades backwards by impellers with multiple vanes or

shifting the individual profile other flow-dividing devices.

Fig. 58: Typical centrifugal planes during blade design, just Single vane impellers, worm

pump for the hydraulic trans- as for a backswept airfoil. Dur- type (screw) impellers, or free

port of solids ing operation, the fibres can flow impellers (see Fig. 43) are

slide along the blade leading the better choice for these ap-

edge until they are shredded in plications.

the clearance gap at the outside

a b c

f g h

k l m

60

Periphery Pump Installation Arrangements Intake Structures Pump Sump 6

7 the position of the shaft, i. e. the arrangement of the dis-

The Periphery horizontal or vertical (see charge nozzle on tubular cas-

7.1 Figs. a and b, also i and c or h ing pumps (see Figs. k, l, m

Pump Installation and f), and n),

Arrangements

the arrangement of the feet, the environment of the pump

Pump installation arrangements i. e. underneath or shaft casing, i. e. dry or wet (see

are design features in which centreline (see Figs. d and e), Figs. b and o).

pumps of the same type (in

the mode of installation of the

general of the same series) may

pump set, i. e. with or without 7.2

differ. Figures 59 a to o provide

foundation (see Figs. b and f), Pump Intake Structures

typical examples of the most

the arrangement of the drive, 7.2.1

frequent installation arrange-

Pump Sump

ments for horizontal and verti- i. e. on its own or a common

cal centrifugal pumps [1]. baseplate or flanged to the Pump sumps (or suction tanks)

pump (see Figs. g, a, h and i), are designed to collect liquids

The major parameters classify-

and be intermittently drained

ing the pump installation ar- the weight distribution of the

if the mean inlet flow is smaller

rangement are: pump and drive,

than the pump flow rate. The

sump or tank size depends on

the pump flow rate Q and the

permissible frequency of starts

Z of the electric motors, see sec-

tion 3.3.3.1.

The useful volume VN of the

pump sump is calculated using:

d e Qm Qin

VN = Qin (48)

Qm Z

where

Z Max. permissible frequency

of starts per hour

Qin Inlet flow in m3/h

Qm = (Qon + Qoff) / 2

Qon Flow rate at switch-on

pressure in m3/h

i j Qoff Flow rate at switch-off

pressure in m3/h

VN Useful volume of pump

sump including potential

backwash volume in m3

The maximum frequency of

starts occurs when the flow rate

Qm is twice the incoming flow

Qin. The max. frequency of

starts per hour is therefore:

n o

61

7 Periphery Pump Sump Suction Piping

be prevented from being depos- Suction

pipe

dE

45 to 60

ited and collecting in dead zones

0.5 dE

and on the floor. Walls arranged

at a 45, or better still 60 angle,

Fig. 60: Inclined sump walls to

help prevent this (Fig. 60).

prevent deposits and accumula-

tion of solids

Fig. 62: Flow-accelerating

elbow upstream of a vertical

7.2.2 The suction and inlet pipes in

volute casing pump with high

Suction Piping the suction tank or pump sump

specific speed

The suction pipe should be as must be sufficiently wide apart

short as possible and run with a to prevent air from being en-

gentle ascending slope towards trained in the suction pipe; posi-

the pump. Where necessary, ec- tive deflectors (Figs. 64 and 65)

centric suction piping as shown should be provided, if required.

in Fig. 61 should be provided The mouth of the inlet pipe

(with a sufficient straight length must always lie below the liquid

of pipe upstream of the pump level, see Fig. 65.

L d) to prevent the formation If the suction pipe in the tank

of air pockets. If, on account or pump sump is not submerged

of the site conditions, fitting an adequately because the liquid

elbow immediately upstream of level is too low, rotation of the

Fig. 63: Intake elbow with mul-

the pump cannot be avoided, medium might cause an air-

tiple turning vanes upstream of

an accelerating elbow (Fig. 62) entraining vortex (hollow vor-

a double-entry, horizontal

helps to achieve a smooth flow. tex) to develop. Starting as a

volute casing pump (plan view)

For the same reason, an elbow funnel-shaped depression at the

with multiple turning vanes (see surface, a tube-shaped air cavity

Fig. 63) is required in front of forms within a short period of

double-entry pumps or pumps time, extending from the surface

with mixed flow (or axial flow) to the suction pipe. This will

impellers unless this is impos- cause the pump to run very un-

sible because of the nature of steadily and the output to de-

the medium handled (no stringy, crease. The required minimum

fibrous solids, see 6.5). submergence (minimum depth

deflector in the intake chamber

Fig. 61: Eccentric reducer and branch fitting to avoid air pockets of a submersible motor pump

62

Suction Piping Minimum Submergence 7

dE S

dE

vE

B

6 dE 5.5 dE

0.5 dE

S

dE

vE

B

DN B

mm

65 80

Fig. 65: Piping arrangement in the suction tank / 80 80

100 100

pump sump to prevent air entrainment 150 100

200 150 S

Fig. 66: Clearances between wall and suction pipe in 250 150 dE

vE

300 200

the suction tank or pump sump according to relevant 400 200 B

German regulations. Smin, as shown in Fig. 67. 500 200

2 suction pipes arranged side by side require a

distance of 6 dE.

2.0 30

00

20

00

S S S 15

1.5 00

dE Q

=1

00

0 m3

m 80 /h

0

Minimum submergence Smin

60

0

50

1.0 0

40

0

30

0

0.8

20

0

15

s 0

m/

0.6 =3 10

vs 0

80

60

0.5 2 50

40

30

0.4

dE S S S

20 1

15

5

0.3 0.

10

Inlet diameter dE

Fig. 67: Minimum submergence Smin of horizontal and vertical suction pipes (with and without entry

nozzle) required for suction tanks to avoid hollow vortices (to Hydraulic Institute standards)

63

Suction Piping Air-entraining Vortex Minimum Submergence Intake Structures 7

of immersion) is specified in Fig.

67, the minimum clearance be-

tween suction pipes and walls /

sump floor in Fig. 66. (Special Raft

measures must be taken for tu-

Suction pipe

bular casing pumps, see 7.2.3).

Fig. 68: Raft to

The minimum submergence Smin

prevent air-

can be read from Fig. 67 as a

entraining hol-

function of the intake diameter

low vortices

dE (this is the pipe inside dia-

meter of straight, flangeless

At flow velocities of 1 m/s, the tate. For this reason baffles as

pipes) or, where available, the

minimum submergence levels illustrated in Fig. 70 should be

inlet diameter of the entry

specified by the relevant Ger- provided.

nozzle and the flow rate Q. It

man regulations agree well with

can also be calculated according

the data given above [13]. 7.2.3

to the following equation given

Wherever the required mini- Intake Structures for Tubular

by the Hydraulic Institute:

Casing Pumps [1]

mum submergence cannot or

not always be ensured, meas- For tubular casing pumps, the

dE ures as shown in Figs. 68 and minimum submergence and the

Smin = dE + 2.3 vs (50)

g 69 have to be taken to prevent design of the intake chamber

air-entraining vortices. Irrespec- are of particular importance

where tive of the aspects mentioned because impellers with high spe-

Smin Minimum submergence in m before, it should be checked cific speeds react very sensitively

vs Flow velocity whether the submergence levels to uneven inlet flows and air-

= Q/900 dE2 in m/s, also meet the NPSHa require- entraining vortices.

recommended 1 to 2 m/s ments laid down in 3.5.2. Fig. 71 shows the arrangement

but never exceeding 3 m/s

Round tanks with tangential of suction pipes in intake

Q Flow rate in m3/h

inlet pipes are special cases but chambers of tubular casing

g Gravitational constant

used frequently. The liquid dis- pumps.

9.81 m/s2

charged via the inlet pipe causes Refer to Fig. 72 for the mini-

dE Inlet diameter of suction

the contents of the tank to ro- mum water level required for

pipe or entry nozzle in m

open, unlined intake chambers

Radial splitter

Axial splitter

To pump

Baffle

Radial

Suction pipe splitter

To pump Tangential

Tangential inlet

Axial splitter inlet

To pump

Fig. 69: Use of swirl preventers Fig. 70: Use of swirl preventers in cylindrical

tanks to ensure smooth flow to pump

64

Intake Structures Priming Devices 7

Lined or covered intake

chambers or Kaplan intake

elbows are more expensive, but

allow pump operation at lower

submergence levels [1].

ds

Irrespective of the aspects

mentioned before, it should be

checked whether the submer-

S gence levels also meet the

NPSHa requirements laid down

dE in 3.5.2.

(0.3 0.5) dE

7.2.4

Priming Devices

Most centrifugal pumps are not

self-priming; i. e. their suction

pipes and suction-side cas-

ings must be deaerated prior

to start-up unless the impeller

0.75 dE is arranged below the liquid

Entry cone level. This often inconvenient

procedure can be avoided by

(2 2.5) dE

ing as a non-return valve) at the

suction pipe mouth (Fig. 73).

Deaerating is then only neces-

4 dE sary prior to commissioning and

after a long period of standstill.

A closed suction tank (static

tank) serves the same purpose,

in particular when contami-

nated liquids are handled (it

Fig. 71: Suction pipe arrangement in intake chambers of tubular cas-

does, however, increase the flow

ing pumps. Smin as shown in Fig. 72

losses and therefore reduces the

dE (1.5 1.65) ds

NPSHa). The tank is under

2 suction pipes arranged side by side require a distance of > 3 dE

negative pressure and mounted

upstream of the pump suction

with and without entry cones or where

nozzle (Fig. 74). Prior to com-

calculate it using the following Smin Minimum submergence in m

missioning it must be filled

equation: vs Flow velocity

with liquid. When the pump is

= Q / 900 dE2 in m/s

started up, it empties the tank,

dE Q Flow rate in m3/h

and the air in the suction or

Smin = 0.8 dE + 1.38 vs g Gravitational constant

g siphon pipe is drawn into the

(51) 9.81 m/s2

suction tank across the apex un-

dE Inlet diameter of bellmouth

til the liquid to be pumped fol-

in m

65

7 Priming Devices Suction Tank

1.5

stopped, the tank is refilled with 4000

liquid via the discharge pipe 3000

either manually or automati- 2000

cally. The air stored in the tank 1.0 1500

m 1000

escapes into the suction pipe.

0.8 800

The suction tank volume VB 600

0.7 500

depends on the suction pipe 400

0.6

300

volume and the suction lift

Q = 200 m3/h

0.5

capacity of the pump: 150 /s

m

100 1. 5

0.4 = 5

80 VE 2

pb 1. 0 5 0 0.

2 60 0. 7 0. 5

VB = ds Ls

4 pb gHs

0.3

50

(52)

40

30

where 0.2

VB Suction tank volume in m3 20

0.15 S

filled inlet pipe in m 10 dE

piping in m 0.1

pb Atmospheric pressure in Pa 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.8 m 1.0

Inlet diameter dE

( 1 bar = 100 000 Pa)

Density of the liquid han- Fig. 72: Minimum submergence Smin of tubular casing pump suction

dled in kg/m3 pipe to avoid hollow vortices

g Gravitational constant

9.81 m/s2

Hs Suction lift of pump in m

according to equation

Fig. 73: Foot valve (cup valve) Fig. 74: Suction tank arrangement

with suction strainer

66

Suction Tank Measurement Points 7

Hs = Hs geo + HL,s (53) 4 Suction tank volume

0.03 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 1 1.5 2 3 5 10 15 20 30 60 m3

2

water level and pump ref-

Str

]

s [m

aig

erence plane for suction

ht

ft H

len

lift operation in m, see

n li

g

tio

th

Fig. 36

suc

o fp

HL,s Head loss in the suc-

ipin

1

ax.

3

5

3 M

g Ls

tion piping in m (refer to

7

0

2

4

20

[m

6

15

3.2.1.1).

10

]

8

6

4

17 5

As HL,s is in most cases notably

12

2

.5

9

.

7

smaller than Hs geo, Eq. 53 can

5

3

be neglected and Hs equated

1

with Hs geo. In this case, Fig. 75

provides a much faster way of

finding the required tank size.

For safety reasons the suction

tank volume should be multi-

plied by a factor of 2 to 2.5, or

by a factor of up to 3 in the case

of smaller pumping stations.

The liquid pressure must never

reach its specific vaporization

pressure at any point in the sys-

tem.

7.3

Arrangement of Measure-

ment Points

In order to achieve a certain

accuracy in pressure and veloc- 600 400 300 200 150 100 80 60 50 40 30 20 mm

ity measurement, the flow must 1 Inside diameter of suction pipe

Fig. 75: Graph to determine the size of the suction tank. Follow the

measuring points. Therefore,

numbers from 1 to 4 for selection. A safety factor of 3.0 has al-

undisturbed straight lengths of

ready been considered in the above diagram (head losses HL,s in the

piping need to be arranged up-

suction piping were neglected).

stream and downstream of the

measurement point(s), as shown

Table 14: Minimum values for undisturbed straight lengths of piping

in Fig. 76 and indicated in Table

at measurement points in multiples of the pipe diameter D

14. All pipe components which

may impede a straight, parallel Source Distance from Undisturbed

and non-swirling flow of liquid pump flange pipe length

are considered a disturbance. As/D Ad/D Us/D Ud/D

Relevant German regulations VdS 2092-S 0.5 1.0 2.5 2.5 In-service measurement

(VdS Association of German ISO 9906 2.0 2.0 5+nq/53 Acceptance test measurement

67

7 Measurement Points Shaft Couplings

are elastic, slip-free connect-

ing elements between drive and

pump which accommodate axi-

al, radial and angular misalign-

ment and damp shock loads.

Flexibility is usually achieved

by the deformation of damping

Ud

and rubber-elastic spring ele-

Ad

D

ments whose life is governed

to a large extent by the degree

D of misalignment. Fig. 77 shows

two of the most common types

As

of flexible shaft coupling. Fig.

Us 78 shows a spacer coupling

between a volute casing pump

Fig. 76: Arrangement of pressure measurement points up- and

and drive. It permits removal

downstream of the pump

of the pump rotating assembly

Property Insurance Companies) shafts in perfect alignment, since without having to dismantle the

stipulate pipe lengths in mul- the smallest degree of misalign- suction and discharge piping or

tiples of the pipe diameter for ment will cause considerable move the pump casing or drive

in-service measurements, while stress on the coupling and on (back pull-out design).

ISO 9906 specifies pipe lengths the adjacent shaft sections.

for acceptance test measure-

ments. The data from both

sources are listed in Table 14.

If the required straight pipe

lengths cannot be provided, the

measuring results are likely to

be less accurate. Consequently,

pump flanges are not suitable as

measurement points.

The pressure measuring points Fig. 77: Flexible (left) and highly flexible coupling

should consist of a 6 mm dia-

meter hole and a weld socket

to fit the pressure gauge. Even

better still are annular measur-

ing chambers with four drilled

holes spread evenly across the

circumference.

7.4

Shaft Couplings

In centrifugal pump engineer-

ing, both rigid and flexible shaft

couplings are used. Rigid coupl-

ings are mainly used to connect Fig. 78: Pump with spacer coupling compared with normal coupling

68

Pump Nozzle Loading Standards and Codes 7

7.5 missible nozzle loading [1]. grouted baseplate, broken line

Pump Nozzle Loading for pumps on non-grouted base-

As the loading profile for each

A centrifugal pump mounted pump nozzle is made up of three plates).

on the foundation should not different forces and moments, it

be used as an anchorage point is not possible to specify theo- 7.6

for connecting the piping. Even retical nozzle loading limits for National and International

if the piping is fitted to the noz- all conceivable combinations. Standards and Codes

zles without transmitting any Therefore, operators either need A series of national standards

stresses or strains, forces and to check whether the nozzle and other technical codes have

moments, summarized as nozzle loading imposed by the system been introduced in Germany

loading, will develop under is still within the pumps permis- since the early sixties which

actual operating conditions sible limits, or have to contend govern the dimensions, manu-

(pressure and temperature) and with the considerably reduced facture, design, procurement

as a result of the weight of the general limits specified in sev- and use of centrifugal pumps.

liquid-filled piping. These cause eral national and international Many of the requirements laid

stresses and deformation in the standards and codes (EURO- down have been included in

pump casings, and above all PUMP brochure Permissible European and international

changes in coupling alignment, flange forces and moments for standards and codes. Drawn up

which, in turn, may affect the centrifugal pumps, 1986; API by both operators and manu-

pumps running characteristics, 610; ISO 5199). facturers, these are now well-

the service life of the flexible established in virtually all sec-

Fig. 79 shows the permissible

elements in the shaft coupling, tors of industry using or pro-

nozzle loading for single-stage

as well as the bearings and me- ducing pumps. The most impor-

volute casing pumps to ISO

chanical seals. For this reason tant standards are tabulated in

5199 (solid line for pumps on

limits have been defined for per- Fig. 80 on page 70.

Permissible moments Mmax at the flange reference plane

as well as permissible forces FH,max (at x,z plane) and FV,max (in y

direction) to ISO 1599 for single-stage volute casing pumps made of

ferritic cast steel or nodular cast iron at room temperature. Lower

numerical values apply to austenitic cast steel, lamellar graphite cast

iron or higher temperatures.

69

7

70

Scope of Application

Dimensional Standards: Pumps and Accessories Codes and Specifications

and Responsibilities

24252 24253 24261-1 24276 24 279 24292

German

Centrifugal Centrifugal Pumps; Liquid Centrifugal Liquid

Engineering

pumps with pumps with Designations pumps for pumps; Tech- pumps;

Federation

wear plates, lined based on chemical nical require- Operating

PN 10 casing (lined function and plant ments; Mag- instructions

Pump

(wash water pumps); design Quality spe- netic drive for pumps

Committee

pumps), single entry, features; cifications and canned and pump

with bearing single stage, Centrifugal for materials motor pumps units; Struc-

bracket; with axial pumps and compo- ture, check

Designation, inlet; Rated nents list, wording

rated powers, powers, for safety

dimensions dimensions instructions

DIN DIN 24251 DIN 24259-1 DIN 24299-1 DIN EN 12756 DIN EN ISO DIN EN 24250 DIN EN 12723 DIN EN 12639 DIN 24273 DIN 24296 DIN ISO 9905 DIN 1988-5 DIN 24420-1 DIN 1989 DIN EN 12262 DIN 1986

German 9906 Liquid Liquid (Class I) Technical spe- Spare parts Rainwater Centrifugal Drainage

Multistage centrifugal Pumps; Pump name- Mechanical Rotodynamic Centrifugal pumps Ge- pumps and Pumps and Pumps and DIN ISO 5199 cifications for lists; General harvesting pumps; systems for

Standards

pumps; Drainage pumps Baseplates plates; seals pumps pumps; neral terms pump units pump units pump units (Class II) drinking wa- DIN 24420-2 systems Technical do- buildings

Institute

with heads up to 1000 m for machin- General Main dimen- Hydraulic Nomen- for pumps Noise for liquids; for liquids; DIN ISO 9908 ter installa- Spare parts cumentation, and pre-

at a rated speed of ery; Dimen- specifica- sions, de- performance clature and and installa- measure- Materials Spare parts; (Class III) tions, pres- lists; Form terms, scope mises

Mechanical

1500 rpm sions tions signation acceptance component tions; Defini- ment and product Selection Centrifugal sure boost- and struc- of supply,

Engineering

Standards and material test numbers tions, vari- Test classes tests and procure- pumps; ing and redu- ture of text quality

Committee, codes Grades 1 ables, sym- 2 and 3 ment Technical cing systems field

Pumps and 2 bols and specifica-

DIN EN 733 DIN EN 734 DIN EN 735 DIN EN DIN EN units tions DIN EN 806-1 DIN EN 12050 DIN

22858 23661 and -2 Sewage lift- EN 12056-4

End suction Side channel Overall Technical ing units for Gravity drain-

centrifugal pumps dimensions End suction End suction specifica- the disposal age systems

CEN pumps (rat- PN 40; of centrifu- centrifugal centrifugal EN 12162 EN 12639 EN 1151 EN 809 tions for of waste inside build-

Comit Euro- ing PN 10); Rated per- gal pumps; pumps (rat- pumps; Liquid Liquid Circulators Pumps and drinking water from ings Part 4:

pen de Nor- with bearing formance, Tolerances ing 16 bar); Baseplate pumps pumps and with input pump units water sys- buildings and Sewage lifting

malisation bracket; main dimen- Designation, and installa- Safety re- pump units; powers up for liquids; tems premises; units; Layout

European Rated per- sions, rated per- tion dimen- quirements Noise to 200 W for General Design and and dimen-

Standards formance, designation formance, sions Procedure measure- heating sys- safety re- testing prin- sioning

Europe

Coordination main dimen- main dimen- for hydro- ment; tems and quirements ciples

Committee sions, sions static test- Test clas- service water

TC 197 designation ing ses 2 and 3 heating sys-

Pumps system tems for

domestic

use Re-

quirements, American Petroleum Institute

ISO ISO 2858 ISO 3661 ISO 3069 ISO 9906 ISO 5198 testing, ISO 9905 ISO 5199 ISO 9908

International

marking API 682 API 610

Inter- End suction End suction End suction Rotodynamic Centrifugal Technical Technical Technical

Shaft Sealing Centrifugal

national centrifugal centrifugal centrifugal pumps mixed flow specifica- specifica- specifica- Systems for Pumps for

Organiza- pumps (rat- pumps pumps Hydraulic and axial tions for tions for tions for Centrifugal Petroleum,

tion for ing 16 bar) Baseplate Dimensions performance pumps centrifugal centrifugal centrifugal and Rotary Petrochemical

Standardi- Designation, and installa- of cavities acceptance Code for pumps pumps pumps

Pumps and Natural

zation rated per- tion dimen- for mechani- tests hydraulic Class I Class II Class III

Gas Industries

Techn. formance sions cal seals Grades 1 performance

and dimen- and for soft and 2 tests;

Worldwide

Comm.

TC 115/ sions packing Precision

Pumps grade

Standards Codes Specifications

Fig. 80: National and international standards and codes for centrifugal pumps (last update: 2005)

Calculation Examples 8

8. The consecutive numbers of the in the text. For example, the ap-

Calculation Examples calculation examples in this plication dealt with in exercise

chapter are identical to the num- 8.3 refers to Equation (3).

bers of the respective equations

Pressure Differential tial between the discharge and to keep the same difference in

Given: A volute casing pump suction sides indicated by the height. If they are mounted at

Etanorm 80 200 with char- pressure gauges. the same level, zs,d must be set

acteristic curves as per Fig. 18, (Taking zs,d = 250 mm into ac- to zero. Refer to paragraph 7.3

speed of rotation n = 2900 rpm, count presupposes that the pres- and ISO DIS 9906 for the cor-

impeller diameter D2 = 219 mm, sure gauges are fitted exactly rect location of the pressure

operating point at the point of measurement taps).

best efficiency: Q = 200 m3/h,

H = 57.5 m, = 83.5%, water Flow velocities

temperature t = 20 C, density vd = 4 Q / dd2 = 4 (200/3600) / 0.082 = 11.1 m/s

= 998.2 kg/m3. Nominal vs = 4 Q / ds2 = 4 (200/3600) / 0.102 = 7.08 m/s.

nozzle diameters DNd = 80; According to Eq. (1) the pressure differential is:

DNs = 100; inside nozzle dia- p = g [H zs,d (vd2 vs2) / 2g]

meter dd = 80 mm, ds = 100 mm = 998.2 9.81 [57.5 0.250 (11.12 7.082)/(2 9.81)]

[1]. Height difference between = 524 576 Pa = 5.25 bar

suction and discharge nozzles

zs,d = 250 mm, Fig. 8.

8.2

Input Power

Given: The data as per exercise According to Eq. (2) the input power is:

8.1. P=gQH/

Sought: The input power P. = 998.2 9.81 (200 / 3600) 57.5 / 0.835

= 37 462 W = 37.5 kW

Specific Speed = 2900 0.236 / 20.88 = 32.8 rpm

Given: The data as per 8.1; the or

specific speed nq is calculated = 333 (n/60) Qopt / (gHopt)3/4

using Eq. (3) = 333 48.33 (200/3600) / 9.81 57.53/4

= 333 48.33 0.236 / 115.7 = 32.8 (dimensionless)

71

8 Calculation Examples

Bernoullis Equation

Eq. (5) gives:

Given: A centrifugal pump

Hsys = Hgeo + (pa pe) / ( g) + (va2 ve2) / 2g + HL

system as shown in Fig. 8 with

tanks B and D, designed for a where

flow rate of Q = 200 m3/h for Density = 998.2 kg/m3 according to Table 12

pumping water at 20 C. The Pressure in tank B: pa = 4.2 bar = 420 000 Pa

discharge-side tank is under a Pressure in tank D: pe = 0

pressure of 4.2 bar (positive (pa pe) / ( g) = 420 000/(998.2 9.81) = 42.89 m

pressure), the suction tank is va = 4 Q / (3600 d2) = 4 200/(3600 0.21012)

open to atmosphere, ve 0. The = 1.60 m/s

geodetic difference in height is (va2 ve2)/2g = (1.602 0)/(2 9.81) = 0.13 m

11.0 m; the welded discharge Hgeo = 11.00 m

piping has a nominal diameter HL = 3.48 m

of DN 200 (d = 210.1 mm acc. Hsys = 57.50 m

to Table 4). The system head

loss is 3.48 m.

Head Loss in Pipes

The diagram in Fig. 11 gives: HL = 1.00 6.00/100 = 0.060 m

Given: The data as per 8.1 and:

The calculation according to Fig. 10 would be more complex and

suction pipe DN 200, d =

involved, but also absolutely necessary for other roughness values.

200.1 mm according to Table 4,

length = 6.00 m, average abso- Relative roughness d / k = 210.1 / 0.050 = 4202

lute roughness k = 0.050 mm. According to Eq. (11), the Reynolds number is Re = v d /

where

= 1.00 106 m2/s,

v = Q / A = (Q/3600) 4 / ( d2) = (200 / 3600) 4 / ( 0.21012)

= 1.60 m/s,

6 5

Re = v d / = 1.60 0.2101 / 10 = 3.37 10 .

From Fig. 10, d / k = 4202 = 0.016.

Eq. (9) gives

HL = (L / d) v2 / 2g

= 0.016 (6.00 / 0.2101) 1.602 / 2 9.81 = 0.060 m

72

Calculation Examples 8

8.15 Given:

Head Loss in Valves and The suction pipe described in 8.9, including

Fittings a slide disc valve DN 200,

a 90 elbow with smooth surface and R = 5 d,

a foot valve DN 200

and a reducer DN 200 / DN 100 according to Table 8,

type IV with an opening angle of = 30.

Sought: The head losses HL.

According to Table 5, the loss coefficient of the slide disc

valve is = 0.20

Acc. to Table 6, the loss coefficient of the 90 elbow is = 0.10

Acc. to Table 5, the approx. loss coefficient of

the foot valve is = 2.0

Acc. to Table 5, the loss coefficient of the reducer is = 0.21

The total of all loss coefficients is = 2.51

Eq. (15) then gives the following head loss:

HL = v2 / 2 g = 2.51 1.602 / (2 9.81) = 0.328 m

Orifice Plate

Eq. (20) gives

Given:

The pump described in exercise dBl = f Q/ (g H) with f according to Fig. 25.

8.1 is provided with a welded As an iterative calculation is necessary, dBl is estimated in the first

discharge pipe DN 80, the in- instance, and this value is compared with the calculated diameter. If

side diameter being d = 83.1 the two values differ, the value selected for the second estimate lies

mm. The discharge head is to be between the initially estimated and calculated diameters.

constantly throttled by

The following is calculated first of all:

H = 5.00 m.

Q/ g H= 200 / 9.81 5.0 = 5.34 m.

ter

e r Result: dBl = 12.2 5.34 = 65.1 mm

m ete

dia m

d dia

ate ted

tim la

Second estimate dBl = 68 mm; (dBl / d)2 = 0.670; f = 12.9;

Es lcu

Ca Result: dBl = 12.9 5.34 = 68.9 mm

Result: dBl = 12.8 5.34 = 68.4 mm

the corresponding estimated diameters in a diagram so that the third

estimate already provides the final result in the intersection of con-

necting line and diagonal, see adjacent diagram.

73

8 Calculation Examples

8.21 Sought: The data for flow rate Q2, discharge head H2 and driving

Change of Speed power P2 after change of speed.

Given: Eq. (21) gives

The pump speed as per 8.1 (op- Q2 = Q1 (n2/n1) = 200 (1450 / 2900) = 100 m3/h

erating data with index 1) is to

Eq. (22) gives

be reduced from n1 = 2900 rpm

H2 = H1 (n2/n1)2 = 57.5 (1450 / 2900)2 = 14.4 m

to n2 = 1450 rpm.

Eq. (23) gives

P2 = P1 (n2/n1)3 = 37.5 (1450 / 2900)3 = 4.69 kW,

on the assumption that the efficiency is the same for both speeds.

8.27 Sought: The reduced diameter Dr and the discharge head Hr at BEP

Turning Down Impellers after turning down the impeller (Ht = 57.5 m).

Given: Eq. (27) gives

The flow rate of the pump at Dr Dt (Qr / Qt) = 219 (135 / 200) = 180 mm

BEP described in 8.1, i.e. Qt =

Eq. (26) gives

200 m3/h, is to be reduced to

Hr Ht (Qr / Qt) = 57.5 135 / 200 = 38.8 m

Qr = 135 m3/h by turning down

the original impeller diameter

Dt = 219 mm.

NPSHa for Suction Lift

Operation According to Eq. (29),

NPSHa = (pe + pb pv)/( g) + ve2/2g HL,s Hs geo s

Given:

where

The centrifugal pump system

Gauge pressure in suction tank pe = 0

described in exercise 8.5 plus

Atmospheric pressure pb = 955 mbar = 95 500 Pa acc. to Table 13

the following data: place of in-

Vapour pressure pv = 0.02337 bar = 2337 Pa acc. to Table 12

stallation 500 m above M. S. L.;

Density = 998.2 kg/m3 acc. to Table 12

HL,s (refer to exercises 8.9 and

8.15) = 0.39 m; Hs geo = 3.00 m; (pe + pb pv)/( g) = (0 + 95 500 2337) / (998.2 9.81) = 9.51 m

ve 0. The pump described in ve2/2g =0

8.1 is installed horizontally with HL,s = 0.39 m

an open suction tank, as shown Hs geo = 3.00 m

in Fig. 36. According to Fig. 18, s = 0, as the centre of the impeller inlet is at the same

the pumps NPSHr is 5.50 m at height as the centre of the pump inlet.

a flow rate of Q = 200 m3/h. NPSHa = 6.12 m

With an NPSHr of 5.50 m,

NPSHa is larger than NPSHr in this case and therefore sufficient.

74

Calculation Examples 8

8.31 Question: Is NPSHa sufficient?

NPSHa for Suction Head

According to Eq. (31)

Operation

NPSHa = (pe + pb pv) / ( g) + ve2/ 2g HL,s + Hz geo s

Given: The pump system de- where

scribed in exercise 8.29 is be op- Gauge pressure in

erated in suction head operation suction tank pe = 0.40 bar = 40 000 Pa

with a closed tank as shown in Atmospheric pressure pb = 955 mbar = 95 500 Pa acc. to Table 13

Fig. 37. The system data are as Vapour pressure pv = 0.02337 bar = 2337 Pa acc. to Table 12

follows: place of installation Density = 998.2 kg/m3 acc. to Table 12

500 m above M. S. L.; HL,s (re-

(pe + pb pv) / ( g)

fer to exercises 8.9 and 8.15) =

= ( 40 000 + 95 500 2337) / (998.2 9.81) = 5.43 m

0.39 m; Hz geo = 2.00 m; ve 0.

ve2/2g =0

The pump described in 8.1 is

HL,s = 0.39 m

installed horizontally with a

Hz geo = 2.00 m

closed suction tank, as shown

s = 0, as the centre of the impeller inlet is at

in Fig. 37. According to Fig. 18,

the same height as the centre of the pump inlet.

the pumps NPSHr is 5.50 m at

NPSHa = 7.04 m

a flow rate of Q = 200 m3/h.

With an NPSHr of 5.50 m,

NPSHa is larger than NPSHr in this case and therefore sufficient.

Pump Characteristics When Head at BEP Hw, opt = 57.5 m

Pumping Viscous Fluids Optimum efficiency w, opt = 0.835

Given: A mineral oil with a Power Pw, opt = 37.5 kW

density of z = 0.897 kg/m3 Speed n = 2900 min1

and a kinematic viscosity of z = Specific speed (as per exercise 8.3) nq = 32.8

500 10-6 m2/s is to be pumped Kinematic viscosity z = 500 106 m2/s

by the centrifugal pump de- Density of mineral oil z = 897 kg/m3

scribed in 8.1; characteristic The three conversion factors fQ = 0.84, fH = 0.88, f = 0.62 are

curves according to Fig. 19. taken from Fig. 51.

Sought: The characteristics for The calculation is continued using the table below:

discharge head, efficiency and

Q/Qopt 0 0.8 1.0 1.2

input power when pumping this

Qw 0 160 200 240 m3/h

viscous fluid, using the spread- refer to

Hw 66.5 62.0 57.5 51.0 m

sheet calculation as per Fig. 51. Fig. 18

w 0 0.81 0.835 0.805

The data for handling water Qz = Qw fQ 0 134.4 168 201.6 m3/h

(index w) are required first to Hz = Hw = 1.03 Hw fH = H w fH = H w fH

find the conversion factors: 66.5 56.2 50.6 44.9 m

z= wf 0 0.502 0.518 0.499

Pz = z Hz Qz / ( z 367)

36.8 40.1 44.3 kW

3

To calculate the power Pz, the values for flow rate Qz in m /h and

the density z in kg/m3 are inserted into the equation.

These calculated points can be used to plot the characteristic curve

for a viscous fluid, cf. Fig. 52 and Fig. 18 (this chart is applicable for

handling water with an impeller diameter of 219 mm).

75

8 Calculation Examples

Head Reduction for Hydro-

According to Fig. 55, the settling speed ws0 of a single sphere under

transport

the conditions described above is 0.5 m/s. Thus, the Reynolds

Given: Grit with a density of number is Res = ws0 ds / f = 0.5 0.005 / 1.0 10 6 = 2500.

z = 2700 kg/m3 and an average

The head reduction is calculated using Eq. (45):

particle size of ds = 5 mm is to

3

be pumped in cold water H/H = cT / Res (11.83/nq)3 (s/f 1)

3

(kinematic viscosity f = = (0.15 / 1.0) 2500 (11.83 / 33)3 (2700 / 1000 1)

1.00 . 106 m2/s) at a concentra-

= 0.15 13.6 0.0461 1.70 = 0.16

tion of cT = 15% with a centri-

fugal pump (hydraulic data as H = 0.16 57.5 = 9.2 m

per 8.1, specific speed nq = 33, Under the above conditions the pump discharge head of Hw, opt =

head coefficient = 1.0). 57.7 m would be reduced by 16%, i.e. 57.5 9.2 = 48.3 m.

Average Density

where

Given: Hydrotransport as de-

f w = 998,2 kg/m3 for water at 20 C

scribed in exercise 8.45.

m = 0.15 2700 + 0.85 998.2 = 1253 kg/m3

Sought: The average density

The pressure differential according to equation (46)

m and its effect on the pump

p = m g (H H)

discharge pressure; will it rise

= 1253 9.81 (57.5 9.2) = 593 700 Pa = 5.94 bar

or fall?

This is higher than the discharge pressure for handling water

( p = 5.25 bar) as per exercise 8.1. Hence, the characteristic curve

p = f (Q) has increased by 13% for hydrotransport of solids.

8.48 Sought: The useful volume VN of the pump sump according to equa-

Pump Sump tion (48) (all flow rates in m3/h):

Given: The pump sump for a

pump as per 8.1 with the fol- VN = Qin (Qm Qin) / (Qm Z)

lowing data:

Inlet flow Qin = 120 m3/h where

Flow rate at switch-on pressure Qm = (Qon + Qoff) / 2 = (220 + 150) / 2 = 185 m3/h

Qon = 220 m3/h and

Flow rate at switch-off pressure VN = 120 (185 120) / (185 10) = 4.22 m3/h

Qoff = 150 m3/h

The maximum permissible

number of start-ups of a pump

unit is given in Table 10 (section

3.3.3.1, dry motor with P

> 30 kW, in this case Z = 10/h).

76

Calculation Examples 8

8.50 Sought: The minimum submergence Smin in the open suction tanks.

Minimum Submergence The flow velocity vs in the suction pipe inlet is

Given: The vertical unflanged vs = Q/A = (Q/3600)/( dE2/4) = (200 / 3600) ( 0.21012/4) = 1.60 m/s

suction pipe according to 8.9

Eq. (50) gives the minimum submergence as

and Fig. 8D, inside pipe diame-

ter d = dE = 210.1 mm at a flow Smin = dE + 2.3 vs dE / g

rate of Q = 200 m3/h. = 0.2101 + 2.3 1.60 0.2101 / 9.81

= 0.75 m.

The same result can be obtained faster from the diagram in Fig. 67.

Fig. 66 provides the required distance to the wall with > 0.21 m,

the channel width with > 1.26 m and the distance to the floor with

> 0.150 m.

8.52 Sought: The volume of the suction tank according to Eq. (52):

Suction Tank Volume VB = (ds2 /4) Ls pb / (pb g Hs)

Given: A centrifugal pump sys- The suction lift Hs is defined by Eq. (53):

tem, data according to 8.1 and Hs = Hs geo + HL,s

8.9, including a suction tank as Given is Hs geo = 2.60 m, the suction pipe head loss HL,s is to be cal-

per Fig. 74. The straight length culated from HL,s1 and HL,s2 as follows:

of the air-filled suction pipe

1) Head loss HL,s of the pipe as per 8.9:

DN 200 (inside diameter ds =

210.1 mm according to Table HL,s1 = (L / ds) vs2 / 2g

4) is Ls = 3.00 m, with Hs geo where

= 2.60 m (= vertical distance = 0.016 from 8.9

between pump reference plane L = Hs geo = 2.6 m (not 3.0 m because the elbow length is taken

and water level for positive inlet into account in HL,s2)

pressure operation). The atmos- ds = 0.2101 m.

pheric pressure pb = 989 mbar = vs = 1.60 m from exercise 8.9.

98900 Pa; density of the water HL,s1 = 0.016 (2.60 / 0.2101) 1.602 / (2 9.81) = 0.026 m

at 20 C = 998.2 kg/m3, vapour

HL,s2 covers the 180 elbow (2 x 90 elbow according to Table 6 as

pressure pv = 2337 Pa.

in 8.15) and inlet pipe fittings according to Table 7.

Loss coefficient of 180 elbow (factor 1.4) = 1.4 0.10 = 0.14

Loss coefficient of inlet pipe fitting (broken inlet edge) = 0.20

HL,s2 = vs2 / 2g = (0.14 + 0.20) 1.602 / (2 9.81) = 0.044 m

3) The total head loss HL,s = Hvs1 + HL,s2 = 0.026 + 0.044 = 0.070

m

and therefore

Hs = Hs geo + HL,s = 2.60 + 0.07 = 2.67 m

The example shows that the head loss HL,s (= 0.070) can be neglect-

ed for short suction pipes, since Hs geo (2.60 m) is considerably high-

er. This simplifies the calculation. The volume of the suction tank VB

can be calculated using Eq. (52) or can simply be determined using

the graphs of Fig. 75 (provided the head loss HL,s is neglected).

77

8 Calculation Examples

= (0.21012 /4) 3.0 98 900 / (98 900 998.2 9.81 2.67)

= 0.141 m3

The chosen tank size is 2.8 times the volume of 0.40 m3 (cf. example

in Fig. 75).

Check

The lowest pressure is = pb gHs = 72 828 Pa

The vapour pressure is 0.02337 bar = 2337 Pa

This means the pressure does not fall below vapour pressure during

venting.

78

Additional Literature 9

9. [1] Product literature (KSB sales literature)

Additional Literature

[2] KSB Centrifugal Pump Lexicon

[3] Cavitation in Centrifugal Pumps. KSB publication No.

0383.051

[4] Gebudetechnik von KSB. Pumpenregelung und Anlagenau-

tomation. Planungshinweise. (Building Services Products from

KSB. Pump Control and Plant Automation. Planning Informa-

tion). KSB publication No. 2300.024 (2005)

[5] Bernauer J., M. Stark, W. Wittekind: Improvement of Propeller

Blades Used for Handling Liquids Containing Fibrous Solids.

KSB Technische Berichte 21e (1986), pp. 16 21

[6] Bieniek K., Grning N.: Controlling the Output of Centrifugal

Pumps by Means of Electronic Speed Control. KSB Technische

Berichte 22e (1987), pp. 16 31

[7] Bieniek K.: Submersible Motors and Wet Rotor Motors for

Centrifugal Pumps Submerged in the Fluid Handled. KSB Tech-

nische Berichte 23e (1987), pp. 9 17

[8] Holzenberger K., Rau L.: Parameters for the Selection of

Energy Conserving Control Options for Centrifugal Pumps.

KSB Technische Berichte 24e (1988), pp. 3 19

[9] Holzenberger K.: A Comparison of Two Conversion Methods

Applied to the Characteristics of Centrifugal Pumps While

Pumping Viscous Liquids. KSB Technische Berichte 25e (1988),

pp. 45 49

[10] Holzenberger K.: How to Determine the Starting Torque Curve

of Centrifugal Pumps by Using Characteristic Factors. KSB

Technische Berichte 26 (1990), pp. 3 13

[11] Kosmowski I., Hergt P.: Frderung gasbeladener Medien

mit Hilfe von Normal- und Sonderausfhrungen bei Kreisel-

pumpen (Pumping Gas-laden Fluids by Standard and Special

Design Centrifugal Pumps). KSB Technische Berichte 26

(1990), pp. 14 19

[12] Schreyer H.: Glandless Chemical Pump with Magnetic Drive.

KSB Technische Berichte 24e (1988), pp. 52 56

79

10 Specific Speed

10.

Technical Annex

Example: Qopt = 66 m3/h = 18.3 l/s; n = 1450 rpm, Hopt = 17.5 m. Found: nq = 23 (metric units).

80

Pipe Friction Factor

81

Fig. 10: Pipe friction factor as a function of the Reynolds number Re and the relative roughness d/k

10

82

d =1

5m

m

20

25

32

40

50

65

Fig. 11: Head losses HL for new steel pipes (k = 0.05 mm)

80

10

0

12

5

15

0

17

5

20

25

0

30

0

35

0

40

0

50

0

60

0

70

0

80

0

90

10 0

00

12

00

14

00

16

0

d = 180 0

2 0

000

mm

Head Loss in Steel Pipes 10

Head Loss for Hydraulically Smooth Pipes

HL correction

for plastic pipe

Temperature factor

Temperature t

Fig. 12: Head losses HL for hydraulically smooth pipes (k = 0)

83

For plastic pipe when t = 10 C multiply by the temperature factor

10

10 Vapour Pressures

hide

is ulp

ond

rb

Ca

Fig. 35: Vapour pressure pv of various fluids as a function of the temperature t

84

Kinematic Viscosity 10

Values required to

DIN 51 507 (transformer oils)

DIN 51 603 (fuel oils)

DIN 51 601 (Diesel fuel)

Lubricating ISO viscosity classification

oils BC to DIN 51 519

Lubricating

oils BB

N

Fu

oil

ar

el

Ge

oil

sS

Lubricating

s

r oil oils BA

M ot o

Su per

s

oil

pe

LP

Su

ar

rh

,H e

ea ted

HL eg

Su

bil

ted

ils

he

o mo

pe

lic s

oil

ste

to

rhe

u

dra Au or L,

am

s

ate

Hy s

ste

re VD L

m p L,

cy

ds

a

Co C, VC B, VB

lin

tea

de

cy

V V

ro

ind

cy

ils

er

lin

ZD

oil

ne

de

rbi

sZ

ro

Fu

Tu s TD

B

ils

el

oil g

oil

ZA

tin C

Tra

era ils K

sM

Fue

nsf

f r ig o

Re hine

l oi

orm

c

ls L

m a ing

er

rat KA N

ige oils L-A

Fue

oils

f r

Re hine ils CL

P

l oi

o L

ma

c ing sC ils

ls E

icat oil g o

br

in g tin

L

Lu cat sC ca

bri oil bri

L u ing Lu

cat

el bri

l fu Lu

se

Die

Fig. 47: Kinematic viscosity of various mineral oils as a function of the temperature t

85

10 Density and Kinematic Viscosity

t = 100 C

= 2.01 mm2/s

t = 92.5 C t = 98.3 84.2 72.5 44.5 C t =18.3 50 70 C

= 2.35 mm2/s = 15.8 7.76 4.99 2.33 mm2/s = 11.87 3.32 1.95 mm2/s

Form

ic

acid

Fig. 48: Density and kinematic viscosity of various fluids as a function of the temperature t

86

Viscous Fluids Pump Characteristics 10

1/min

= Hw = Hw fH, w 1,03 Hw fH, w Hw fH, w

1)

2)

2)

Fig. 51: Spreadsheet for calculating the pump characteristics for a viscous fluid using the KSB method

87

10

Flow rate Q

88

Velocity head

Velocity head

Flow rate Q

2

Velocity Head

Flow rate Q

Velocity Head

Velocity head differential

Flow rate Q

89

Velocity head differential (v2/2 g) as a function of flow rate Q and inside pipe diameters d1 and d2

10

11

11. Excerpt of Important Units for Centrifugal Pumps

Physical Sym- Units Units not Recom- Comments

dimension bol SI units Other units to be used mended

(not complete) any longer units

Length l m Metre km, dm, cm, m Base unit

mm, m

Volume V m3 dm3, cm3, mm3, cbm, cdm m3

litre (1 l = 1 dm3)

Flow rate, capac- Q, m3/s m3/h, l/s l/s and

ity, volume flow

V m3/s

Time t s Second s, ms, s, ns, s Base unit

min, h, d

Speed of rotation n 1/s 1 /min (rpm) 1 /s, 1 /min

Mass m kg Kilogram g, mg, g, Pound, kg Base unit

metric ton hundred- The mass of a commercial

(1 t = 1000 kg) weight commodity is described as

weight.

Density kg/m3 kg/dm3 kg/dm3 The term

und spezifice gravita must no

kg/m3 longer be employed, because

it is ambiguous

(see DIN 1305).

Mass moment of J kg m2 kg m2 Mass moment, 2. order

inertia

Mass rate of flow m kg/s t/s, t/h, kg/h kg/s and t/s

Force F N Newton kN, mN, N, kp, Mp, N 1 kp = 9.81 N. The weight

(= kg m/s2) force is the product of the

mass m by the local gravi-

tational constant g.

Pressure p Pa Pascal bar kp/cm2, at, bar 1 at = 0.981 bar

(= N/m2) (1 bar=105 Pa) m w.c., = 9.81 104 Pa

Torr, 1 mm Hg = 1.333 mbar

1 mm w.c. = 0.098 mbar

Mechanical Pa Pascal N/mm2, N/cm2 kp/cm2, N/mm2 1 kp/mm2 = 9.81 N/mm2

stress (= N/m2)

(strength)

Bending mo- M, Nm kp m, Nm 1 kp m = 9.81 N m

ment, torque T

Energy, work, W, J Joule kJ, Ws, kWh, kp m J und kJ 1 kp m = 9.81 J

quantity of heat Q (= N m 1 kW h = kcal, cal, 1 kcal = 4.1868 kJ

= W s) 3600 kJ WE

Total head H m Metre m l. c. m The total head is the work

done in J = N m applied to

the mass unit of the fluid

pumped, referred to the

weight force of this mass

unit in N.

Power P W Watt MW, kW, kp m/s, PS kW 1 kp m/s = 9.81 W

(= J/s 1 PS = 736 W

= N m/s)

Temperature T K Kelvin C K, deg. K Base unit

difference

Kinematic m2/s St (Stokes), m2/s 1 St = 104 m2/s

viscosity E, 1 cSt = 1 mm2/s

Dynamic Pas Pascal P (Poise) Pa s 1 P = 0.1 Pa s

viscosity second

(= N s/m2)

Specific speed nq 1 1 Qopt

nq = 333 n

(g Hopt)3/4

Sl units (m und s)

90

91

E 46,

ISBN 3-00-017841-4

KSB Aktiengesellschaft

D-67225 Frankenthal (Pfalz) / Germany

Telephone +49 6233 86-0 Fax +49 6233 86-3401 www.ksb.com

92

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