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ACI318M-05

ACI 318M-05 BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE AND COMMENTARY

A B C D

ACI 318M-05 2004 10


27 ACI 318M-02ACI 318M-05
ACI 318-05
2005




1 3
1.1 3
1.2 8
1.3 9
1.4 11

2 13
2.1 13
2.2 19

3 26
3.1 26
3.2 26
3.3 26
3.4 27
3.5 28
3.6 32
3.7 32
3.8 33

4 37
4.1 37
4.2 37
4.3 39
4.4 40

5 42
5.1 42
5.2 43
5.3 43
5.4 48
5.5 48
5.6 48
5.7 52
5.8 53
5.9 53
5.10 54
5.11 55
5.12 56

5.13 56

6 57
6.1 57
6.2 57
6.3 59
6.4 60

7 62
7.1 62
7.2 62
7.3 63
7.4 63
7.5 64
7.6 65
7.7 66
7.8 69
7.9 70
7.10 70
7.11 73
7.12 73
7.13 75

8 77
8.1 77
8.2 77
8.3 78
8.4 80
8.5 81
8.6 81
8.7 82
8.8 82
8.9 82
8.10 T 83
8.11 84
8.12 85

9 86
9.1 86
9.2 86
9.3 88
9.4 91
9.5 92

10 99
10.1 99
10.2 99
10.3 101
10.4 103
10.5 103
10.6 104
10.7 107
10.8 107
10.9 108
10.10 109
10.11 110
10.12 113
10.13 117
10.14 120
10.15 120
10.16 121
10.17 124

11 125
11.1 125
11.2 128
11.3 129
11.4 130
11.5 133
11.6 137
11.7 148
11.8 152
11.9 153
11.10 156
11.11 158
11.12 158

12 168
12.1-- 168
12.2-- 169
12.3-- 171
12.4-- 172
12.5-- 172
12.6-- 174
12.7 174
12.8 175
12.9-- 175

12.10 177
12.11 180
12.12 181
12.13 182
12.14 184
12.15 185
12.16 188
12.17 189
12.18 191
12.19 191

13 193
13.1 193
13.2 194
13.3 194
13.4 197
13.5 198
13.6 200
13.7 205

14 210
14.1 210
14.2 210
14.3 210
14.4 212
14.5 212
14.6 213
14.7 213
14.8 214

15 216
15.1 216
15.2 216
15.3 216
15.4 217
15.5 217
15.6 218
15.7 219
15.8 219
15.9 221
15.10 221

16 222
16.1 222

16.2 222
16.3 223
16.4 223
16.5 224
16.6 225
16.7 226
16.8 227
16.9 227
16.10 228

17 229
17.1 229
17.2 229
17.3 229
17.4 230
17.5 230
17.6 231

18 232
18.1 232
18.2 233
18.3 234
18.4 235
18.5 238
18.6 238
18.7 240
18.8 241
18.9 242
18.10 244
18.11 245
18.12 245
18.13 246
18.14 16mm 251
18.5 253
18.16 253
18.17 254
18.18 254
18.19 256
18.20 256
18.21 256
18.22 257

19 259
19.1 259

19.2 261
19.3 263
19.4 263
19.5 265

20 266
20.1 266
20.2 267
20.3 268
20.4 268
20.5 269
20.6 270
20.7 270

21 271
21.1 271
21.2 273
21.3 278
21.4 281
21.5 286
21.6 289
21.7 291
21.8 296
21.9 297
21.10 300
21.11 302
21.12 304
21.13 308

22 309
22.1 309
22.2 309
22.3 310
22.4 310
22.5 311
22.6 312
22.7 313
22.8 315
22.9 315
22.10 315

A 317
A.1 317
A.2 323

A.3 324
A.4 327
A.5 328

B 331
B.1 331

C 337
C.1 337
C.2 337
C.3 338

D 342
D.1 342
D.2 344
D.3 345
D.4 347
D.5 352
D.6 359
D.7 365
D.8 365
D.9 367

E 369

F 371



Helvetica

R

318
ACI318M-05

2005




ACI

ACI
ACI301








ASTM E 329-03
(ASTM)



ACI 340
SP-17(97),1997 482




ACI 2004ACI 315
SP-66(04)ACI2004 212


ACI 201ACI
1992 41 CT.1994,252
ACI 318

R4.1.1
ACI201.2R92
ACI 362
ACI1997 47
SkokieIL 1978 48
5000
60PCA
2002 648
Mu/ Pu/
PCI /
IL1999 630


/
IL1988 270

1997 100
AZ1990
406

2001 38

2
1


1.1 R1.1

1.1.1 ACI
318M-05

2002

fc 17MPafc




21
1.1.8

1999 A


1999

B 0.75b

1999
B
B

3
1


C 1999

1.1.2 R1.1.2

1.1.3

1.1.4 R1.1.4

22.1.2

ACI 307
[1.1]



ACI 313 [1.2]


ACI 350 [1.3]








ACI 349 [1.4]




4
1


ACI 359


ACI-ASME 359 [1.5]

1.1.5 R1.1.5



21.10.4

ACI 543 [1.6]



ACI 336 [1.7]
0.75


PCI
[1.8]

1.1.6 R1.1.6

ACI 360 [1.9]







PTI[1.10]


5
1


1.1.7 R1.1.7

1.1.7.1 R1.1.7.1

1.1.7.2 R1.1.7.2

1 7
ANSI/ASCE 3[1.11]
ANSI/ASCE 3


ANSI/ASCE 9[1.12]

1.1.8 R1.1.8

1971 ACI
A 1977


1983
1983 21

1.1.8.1 R1.1.8.1


318

1.1.8.2 R1.1.8.2
21
21.2.1
21.12

6
1


21


21.13

1 18 22



22.10.1 21.2
21.10
21.11 21


R21.2.1

1.1.8.3 R1.1.8.3


1999



1991 NEHRP[1.15]
BOCA NBC[1.13]
SBC[1.14]

SPC

2000 2003
IBC[1.16][1.17] 2003 NFPA5000
[1.18]
IBC NFPA
SDC SDC
R1.1.8.3


ASCE 7
NEHRP

7
1


R1.1.8.3




(21.2.1.2) (21.2.1.3) (21.1.1.4)
IBC2000,2003;NFPA
SDC
5000,2003;ASCE SDCA,B SDC C
D,E,F
7-98,7-02;NEHRP 1997,2000
BOCA 1993
19961999
199419971999 SPCA,B SPC C SPC D,E
ASCE 7-937-95;NEHRP
1991,1994
19911994
1997 01 2 34

SDC=
SPC=

318


1.17,1.19
1.20

1.2 R1.2

1.2.1 R1.2.1

a
b
c

d
e
f

g
h
i

8
1


j 22

k
l
m 21.10.3.4

1.2.2 R1.2.2








1.2.3 R1.2.3

ACI



1.3 R1.3






ACI

1.3.1 R1.3.1



9
1


ACI


1.3.2 R1.3.2


(a)

(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)

(h)


10
1

311.1.21
(

)

ACI311 ACI
1.12


)

1.3.3 40C 350C R1.3.3




1.3.4 1.3.2 1.3.3 R1.3.4



1.3.5 R1.3.5


1.4 R1.4

11
1

1.2.2
20

12
2


2.1 11
Aps = mm218B
a = mm1010.2.7.1 As = mm210-12
av = 141518B
mm11A As=mm2A
Ab = , mm2,1011 Asc = mm211.9.3.5
Abrg= mm2D 11
Ac = , mm2, 11 Ase = mm2D
Acf = Ash = sbc
mm218 mm221
Ach .= Asi = i
1021 i mm2A
Acp = mm211.6.1 As,min=mm210.5 10
11 Ast =mm21021
Acs = Asx =
mm2A mm210
Act = mm2 At = smm2
18 11
Acv = Atp =mm2A
mm221 Atr =s
Acw =mm2 mm212
21 Ats = mm2A
Af = mm2 Av = smm21117
11.911
Ag = AVc =
11.6.19-1114-1621 mm2D.6.2.1D
22BC AVco=
Ah =
mm211.911 mm2D.6.2.1D
Aj = Avd =mm2
mm2 21.5.3.121 21
Al = mm211 Avf =mm211
Al,min = 11.6.5.3 Avh =s2
11 mm211
An = Nucmm2 Av,min=s , mm2
11.911 11.5.6.311.5.6.411
A1 = mm21022
Anz =
A2 =
mm2A

ANc=
12mm2
mm2D.5.2.1D
10
ANco =
b = mm10B

bc = Ash
mm2D.5.2.1D
mm21
Ao = mm211
bo = mm11.12.1.2
Aoh= mm2

13
2

1122 dt =
bs = mmA mm910C
bt = D =8920
mm11 21C
bv = mm17 e =18
bw = mm10-1221 eh = J- or L-boltmm
22B D
b1 = bomm eN=
13 eND
b2 = bob1mm eV=
13 eV
Bn =N22 D
Bu =N22 E =921
c = mm910 C
1421 Ec =MPa8.5.18-101419
cac =
Ecb =MPa13
mmD.8.6D Ecs =, MPa13
ca,max=mmD EI =Nmm210.12.310
ca,min =mmD Ep =MPa8.5.38
ca1 = Es =MPa8.5.281014
ca1
ca1mmD fc=MPa458-12
ca2 =ca1 1418192122es A-D
mmD f ' c =MPa8911
cb = aba 1218192122D
b fce =MPa15
mm12 A
cc =mm10.6.410 fci=MPa
ct = c1 718
c1mm21 '=
f
c1 = ci

, MPa, 18
mm1113 21
f cr=
c2 =
MPa5
mm1113
fct = MPa59
C =13.6.4.2
111222
13
fd =
Cm =10
MPa11
d = 7
fdc =
9-1214171821esBC

d=918
MPa18
C
fpc =
db =mm7

1221

do =

mmD.8.4D

do=dommD.8.4

D
11
dp =mm1118
fpe =
B

dpile=mm15

14
2

MPa11 Isx =
fps = MPa mm410
1218 k = 1014
fpu = MPa1118 kc = D
fpy = MPa18 kcp =D
fr = MPa9.5.2.391418 K = 18
B Ktr =12.2.312
fs = MPa1018 l = mm
8.79
fs=MPaA la = mm12
fse = lc =
MPa12 18A mm101422
ft = ld =
MPa18.3.318 mm7121921
futa =MPaD ldc = mm12
fy = , MPa379-121417-19 ldh =
21esA-C
fya = MPaD []
fyt = fyMPa10-1221 mm12.521.5.41221
F = le = mmD.6.2.2D
ln = mm8-1113
9C 161821
Fn = NA lo =
Fnn =NA , mm, 21
Fns =NA lpx =m18.6.2
Fnt =NA 18
Fu = lt = a
NA bab
h = mm9-12141718
20-22esAC 20
ha = lu = mm10.11.3.110
mmD lv = mm
hef =mmD.8.5D 11
hv =mm11 lw = mm
hw = 111421
mm1121 l1 =mm
hx = mm21 13
H = l2 = l1mm
9C 13.6.2.313.6.2.413
I = mm41011 L = 892021
Ib = mm4 13.2.4 C
13 Lr = 9
Icr =mm49 M = P
14 Nmm14
Ie = mm49.5.2.39 Ma =Nmm9
14 14
Ig = , mm4 Mc =
10 Nmm10.12.310
Is = ft Mcr =Nmm9.5.2.3914
m413 Mcre=
Ise = mm410 Nmm11

15
2

Mm =Nmm Ncbg=N
11.3.2.211 D.5.2.1D
Mmax=Nmm11 Nn = ND
Mn =Nmm11121418 Np = N
2122 D.5.3.4D.5.3.5D
Mnb=Nmm Npn=N
21.4.2.221 D.5.3.1D
Mnc= Nsa =
Nmm21.4.2.221 ND.5.1.1D.5.1.2D
Nsb =ND
Mo = Nmm13 Nsbg=ND
Mp = Nmm11 Nu =VuTu
Mpr = N11
Nua =ND
1.25fy Nuc =Vu
=1.0Nmm21 N11
Ms =N pcp =mm11.6.111
mm10 ph = mm
Msa =Nmm14 11
Pb =N10.3.2910
Mslab=Nmm21 esBC
Mu =Nmm1011131421 Pc =N10.12.310
22 Pn =N9101422es B
Mua= C
Nmm14 Pn,max= PnN10.3.610
Mv =Nmm11 Po = N10
M1 = Ppj =N18
Nmm10 Ppu =N18
M1ns=M1 Ppx =lpxN18
Ps = N
Nmm10 14
M1s=M1 Pu =N1014
2122
Nmm10 qDu =13
M2 =Nmm qLu =13
10 qu = 13
M2,min = M2Nmm10 Q = 10.11.410
M2ns=M2 r = mm10
R = 9
Nmm10 s =
M2s=M2 10-1217-21D
N si = immA
mm10 so =lomm
n = 21
5111218D ss = MPa5D
Nb = s2 = mm
ND.5.2.2D 11
Nc = S = 921
N18 Se =
Ncb =
ND.5.2.1D

16
2

21 =1121A
Sm = mm322 c =21.7.4.1
Sn= 21 21
Sy = fy f =
21 13.6.1.6
t = mm11 913
T = fm =f9
9C f 1 = l1f13
Tn =Nmm11 f 2 = l2f13
Tu =Nmm11 i =iA
U = 9 px =
C 18
vn = MPa11.12.6.21121 s =Vc11
Vb = v =
ND.6.2.2D.6.2.3D 11.12.4.511
Vc =N8111321 =9.5.3.322.5.4

Vcb =, 11.12.2.115.4.4.29
N, D.6.2.1, D 111522
Vcbg= b =12
ND.6.2.1D d =10.11.110.13.610
Vci = n =
N11 A
Vcp =ND.6.3 p =Vc11
D s =
Vcpg=ND.6.3 A
D t =
Vcw =
N11 13.6.4.213
Vd = N11 1 =
10.2.7.31018B
Ve =N f =
21.3.4.121.4.5.121 13.5.3.2111321
Vi = Mmax p =18.7.218
N11 s =15.4.4.2
Vn =N810112122D 15
Vnh =N17 v =
Vp = N11 11.12.6.111
Vs = N11 ns =
Vsa = 10
ND.6.1.1D.6.1.2D s =
Vu =N11-13172122 10
Vua =ND u =mm21
Vus =N10 fp =MPa
wc =kg/m389 A
wu =8 fps=
W =9C MPa18
x = mm13 o =
y = mm13
yt = 10.11.1 mm10
mm911 r =

17
2

mm20 ed,N =D.5.2.5D


s = ed,V =D.6.2.6D
mm14 s = 12.2.412
u =mm14
1 =mm20.5.2 t =12.2.412
20 =18.7.218B
2 = =18.7.218B
mm20.5.2 p =B.18.8.1B
t = pw=B.18.8.1B
8-10C w =B.18.8.1B
=, w=B.18.8.1B
11, A
=111217-19 R2.1
A
=9.5.2.59
=11.7.4.311
p =18
=9.5.2.59 ca1=1.5 hef
= Asbd111321 ca1(RD.6.2.4)D
B C = NA
= Asbd9 fsi = MPaA
B hanc= , mm,
b = Asbd10.3.2 18
101314B hef=1.5 hef
l = hef(RD.5.2.3)D
111421 Kt =
p = Apsbdp18 R13.7.513
s = K05 = 5D
1021 lanc = mmA
t = lb = mmA
111421 R = NA
v = 17.5.3.3 T = NA
17 ws = mmA
w = Asbwd11 wt = mm
= 9.38-11131417-22 A
es A-D wtmax=, mm, A
c,N= fpt =fps
D.5.2.6D MPaR11.6.3.10
c,P= 11
D.5.3.6D K = R10.12.310
c,V= o =
D.6.2.7D NEHRP21.1 SEI/ASCE21.48IBC
cp,N = 21.5UBC21.221
D.5.2.7
D
e =12.2.4
12
ec,N =
D.5.2.4D
ec,V =
D.6.2.5D

18
2


2.2 R2.2



ACI116

1120 kg/m3





ACI
AASHTO

R18.13.1(b)

15mm
18.21.1ACI 423.6

15mm18.21.1AASHTO
I 9.21.7.2.2 9.21.7.2.4

1.2.3

19
2




14.4




(fc)
MPafc
MPa
2000 ASTMC567
3.3
1840 kg/m3
ASTMC567

ASTMC567




3.5.3.1

3.5.3.33.5.3.43.5.3.5 3.5.3.6




9.3.3

20
2


1/4

18.17

(d)





8.1.19.2 9.5

factoredFactored
9.2
1971
1977

factored

1977

21.2.2.3
21.12

21
2


18

21.2
21.5
21.221.6

3.4.5

121

22
2


A C

3.5

8.7

18.15.1 AASHTO PTI AASHTO


2 10.3.2.3
18.15.1
AASHTO

ASTM
C330 ASTM C496
5.1.4

LU

9.3

9.3.3

23
2



9.1.1 nPn
MnVn





9.2
uPu
MuVu



PnPu
MnMu
VnVu

1 18 21
13
1 18

22

21 8
21 2

21 2
21 7

24
2

0.005

ASTM A 185 A 497M

ASTM

25
3

3

3.1
R3.1
3.1.1

3.1.2 3.8

3.1.3 R3.1.3


3.2

3.2.1

aASTM C 150

bASTM C 595 S
SA

cASTM C 845

dASTM C 1157

3.2.2 R3.2.23.2.2
5.2
[3.1]

3.3 R3.3

3.3.1 R3.3.1 ASTM



ASTM C 33
a

bASTM C 330

26
3

3.3.2 R3.3.2

a 1/5

b 1/3

c
3/4

3.4 R3.4

3.4.1 R3.4.1






3.4.2

4.4.1

3.4.3

3.4.3.1

3.4.3.2 7 28
90%

2 50 ASTM
C109M

27
3


3.5 R3.5

3.5.1 R3.5.1
440 FRP

3.5.2 R3.5.2
ASTM ASTM A 706M ANSI/AWS D1.4

AWS D1.4



ASTM A 703M
ASTM A
706M A 706M
ASMT A 706M

A706M
A 706M

ASTM A 706M
A 706M
A 706M

ANSI/AWS D1.4
A



ANSI/AWS D1.4

A 706M 19 19
15022 22
200
A 706M
45%~55%
ANSI/AWS D1.4

28
3





ANSI/AWS D1.4



ASTM A 185 A 497M

3.5.3

3.5.3.1 R3.5.3.1ASTM A 615M



aASTM A S
615M ASTM A 706M

bASTM A W
706M ASTM A 615M A 706M S
W
cASTM A ASTM A 996M R
996M R R R

3.5.3.2 fy 420MPa R3.5.3.2 ASTM A 615M 19 57


ASTM 3.5.3.1 520 0.35% 10.2.4
0.35% 9.4
0.35% 420MPa
420MPa 280MPa

420MPa
10.2.4


420MPa

3.5.3.3
ASTM A 184
ASTM A 618M A 706M

3.5.3.4

29
3


ASTM A 496 MD25 fy
420MPa 0.35%

3.5.3.5 R3.5.3.5
ASTM A 185fy 420MPa ASTM A 82ASTM A 82 485MPa
0.35% 420MPa
12.13.2 0.35%
300mm

3.5.3.6 R3.5.3.6
ASTM A 497fy 420MPa ASTM A 497ASTM A 497M
0.35% 485MPa 420MPa
12.13.2 0.35%
400mm

3.5.3.7 R3.5.3.7A767MA 775M


ASTM A767M 1983 A934M
ASTM A 775M 1995
ASTM A 934M
3.5.3.1

3.5.3.8
ASTM A
884M 3.5.3.4
3.5.3.5 3.5.3.6

3.5.4 R3.5.4

3.5.4.1 3.5.3.1ab

3.5.4.2
ASTM A 84fy 420MPa
0.35%

3.5.5 R3.5.5

3.5.5.1 R3.5.5.1 ASTM A 421M



ASTM

30
3


a
ASTM A 421M

(b)

ASTM A 421M

(c)
ASTM A 416M

(d)
ASTM A 722M

3.5.5.2 ASTM A 421MA 416M A722M

ASTM
A421MA416M A722M

3.5.6

3.5.6.1 10.16.7 10.16.8

aASTM A 36M

bASTM A 242M

cASTM A
572M

4 100mm
d
50ksi(345Mpa)(ASTM A 588M)

(e)ASTM
A992M

3.5.6.2 10.16.6

a

ASTM A 53M B

31
3


bASTM A
500

cASTM A 501

3.6 R3.6

3.6.1

3.6.2 5.2

3.6.3 R3.6.3


4.3.2 4.4.1

3.6.4
ASTM
C 260

3.6.5
ASTM C 1017M

3.6.6

ASTM C 618

3.6.7 R3.6.7 ASTM C 989


ASTM
C 989 ASTM C 150 ASTM C 898
ASTM C 595
ASTM C 595
ASTM C 989

3.6.8 C845

3.6.9 ASTM C 1240


3.7

32
3


3.7.1

3.7.2

3.8 R3.8

3.8.1 ASTM

A 36/A 36M-04

A 53/A 53M-02

A 82-02

A 184/A 184M-01

A185-02

A 242/A 242M-04

A 307-04 60000 ksi


A 416/A 416M-02

A 421/A 421M-02

A 496-02

A 497/A 497M-02

A 500-03a

A 501-01

A 572/A 572M-04

A 588/A 588M-04b 4 100 mm

33
3


50 ksi345 MPa

A 615/A 615M-04b

A 706/A 706M-047 b

A 722/A 722M-982003

A 767/A 767M-00 b

A 775/A 775M-04 a

A 884/A 884M-04

A 934/A 934M-04

A 992/A 992M-04

A 996/A 996M-04

C 31/C 31M-03 a

C 33-03

C 39/C39M-03

C 42/C 42M-04

C 94/C 94M-04

C 109/C 109M-02
2 50

C 144-03

C 150-04 a

34
3


C 172-04

C 192/C 192M-02

C 260-01

C330-04

C 494/C 494M-04

C 496/C 496M-04

C 618-03

C 685/C 685M-01

C 845-04

C 989-04

C 1017/C 1017M-03

C 1157-03

C 1218/C 1218M-99

C 1240-04

3.8.2 ANSI/AWS
D1.4-98

3.8.3 SEI/ASCE R3.8.3SEI/ASCE 7 ASCEBox79


7-02 2.3.3 2.3.4 404,Balttimore,MD,21279-0404

35
3


3.8.4ACI423.6-01
423.6R-01

3.8.5AASHTOAASHTO 17 R3.8.52002 17 AASHTO


2002 9.21.7.2 9.21.7.3 AASHTO444 North Capital Street,N.
10.3.2.3 W.Suite 249,Washington,DC,20001
18.15.1

3.8.6 R3.8.6ACI318-05
ACI355.2-04 D ACI355
ACI355.2

3.8.7 AWS
D1.1/D1.1M-2004

3.8.8

36
4

4

4.1 R4.1

1989
fc


0.40.5
fc 35MPa28MPa
fcr fc
3.5MPa5MPa
fc





21MPa0.45





4.1.14.2.24.3.1 R4.1.1
ASTM C150C595C845C1157ASTM C618
ASTM C989ASTM 4.2.34.3
C1240 ASTM C 618
4.2.3 FASTM C 1012

4.2 R4.2

4.2.1 R4.2.1
4.2.1 (ACI 211.1).4.3
1.535MPa
4.2.1
1.0
4.2.1

37
4


4.2.1

mm

9.5 7.5 6
12.5 7 5.5 4.2.135MPa
19.0 6 5 1
25.0 6 4.5
37.5 5.5 4.5
50 5 4
75 4.5 3.5
*ASTM C 33

37.5mm37.5mm
37.5mm

R4.2.2
4.2.24.2.2

fc
4.2.3


4.2.2




* fc ,
,
MPa*
,

0.50 28

0.45 31

0.40 35

*4.3.14.2.2

4.2.3 R4.2.34.2.34.2.3
4.4 4.6

4.2.3

38
4


4.2.3


*
ASTM C 618 25
ASTM C 989 50
ASTM C 1240 10
50
35
*ASTM C 150ASTM C 595ASTM C 845
ASTM C 1157

aIPIPMASTM C
595ASTM C 1157
bISI(SM)ASTM C595 ASTM C
1157
cASTM C 1240

2510
R4.3
4.3
R4.3.1
4.3.1
4.3.1
4.3.1

4.3.1
C3A
ASTM C 150IIC3A
8.0ASTM C 595

4.3.1



SO4 , ppm
SO4 MPa*
0.00 SO4 < 0.10 0 SO4 < 150
II, IP(MS),

150 SO4 < IS(MS), P(MS),
0.10 SO4 < 0.20 0.50 28
1500 I(PM)(MS),

I(SM)(MS)
1500 SO4
0.20 SO4 2.00 V 0.45 31
10,000

V
SO4 > 2.00 SO4 > 10,000 0.45 31

*4.3.14.2.2


V

39
4


ASTM C 595
IP(MS)IS(MS)I(PM)(MS)I(SM)(MS)
VC3A5
IIII
C3A85



(ASTM C 618, F)
4.9FIP
C3A8

4.3.1
SO4 1500ppm0.4
C3A10

ASTMC 10124.2





4.3.24.3.1

4.4 R4.4

4.4.1 R4.4.1ACI
2842 2014.10ACI2224.11
4.4.1 ASTM C 1218M
ASTM C 1218M.

4.4.1ACI 201
ASTM C 1218M


2842
4.4.1

40
4


4.4.1 4.4.1ACI 201.2R4.10
ACI 222 R4.11
1

4.4.10.150.30

0.06 ACI 201.2R4.10 0.10
0.15 0.15ACI 222 R4.11
0.080.20
1.00

0.30
4.4.1

R4.4.24.2.2
4.4.2


4.2.2

7.7
7.7
18.16
ASTM C 989
ASTM C 618
ASTM C 1240
ASTM C494M Types F G ASTM C
1017MASTM C 12024.13

41
5

5

5.1 R5.1







5.25.35.4
5.6

5.1.15.3.2fcr R5.1.1

5.6.3.3 fc
fc 17MPa
5.3.2
5.1.2fc 5.6.3

5.1.3fc 28
28fc

5.1.49.5.2.311.212.2.4 R5.1.49.5.2.311.2
12.2.4
ASTM C 330fct
fct
fc
fct

5.1.5 R5.1.55.1.4

5.6

42
5


5.2 R5.2


5.1
(ACI 211.1)



(ACI 211.1) 5.2

5.2.1 R5.2.1
5.35.4
a

b
c5.6

5.2.2

5.2.35.35.4 R5.2.3
5.3

5.3 R5.3




Fig.R5.3

43
5


1000psi

15 29
30 (30)
ss

ss ss ss 5.3.1

5.3.2.1 5.3.2.2

10

5.3.3.2




5.4()

R5.3:

44
5

5.3.1 R5.3.1

5.3.1.1
ssss 30
a

( xi x ) 2
1/ 2

b ss =
7MPa (n 1)
c305.6.2.4
30 ss = MPa
5.3.1.25.3.1.1 xi = 5.6.2.4
1529ss x = n
5.3.1.2 n =
5.3.1.1ab 5.3.2.1.
45
30
5.3.1.2 30
1/ 2
(n 1)( s s1 ) 2 + (n 2 1)( s s 2 ) 2
15 5.3.2.2 ss = 1
15 1.16 (n1 + n 2 2)
20 1.08
25 1.03
30 1.00 s s =
*
5.3.2.1 fcr ss1, s s2 =
ss
n1, n2 =
3015
5.3.1.2
5.3.1.2



5.3.1.1a


7MPa,
5.3.1.1b

45
5

5.3.2 R5.3.2

5.3.2.1 R5.3.2.1 fc
fcr5.3.2.15.3.1.15.3.1.2 35MPa fcr 515
2 fc 35MPa
fcr 515351
5.3.2.1 100
fc 52
, MPa MPa 3.5MPa
(5-1) (5-2) 53 100 1
fc 35 0.9 fc
fcr = fc +1.34ss (5-1)
fcr = fc +2.33ss 3.5 (5-2) 100
(5-1) (5-3) 30

fc >35 100 1
fcr = fc +1.34ss (5-1)
fcr =0.90 fc +2.33ss (5-2) 100 1

5.3.2.25.3.1.1
5.3.1.2ssfcr 5.3.2.2
5.3.3

5.3.2.2

MPa , MPa

fc < 21 fcr = fc + 7

21 fc 35 fcr = fc + 8.3

fc > 35 fcr = 1.10fc + 5

46
5


5.3.3 R5.3.3

fcr
fcr

5.3.3.1
fcr 5.3.2


451030 10

5.3.3.1

5.3.3.2 35MPa
5.3.2.2 fcr
a
b
3
fcr
c20mm
0.5
d
3
ASTM C 192M
28fc
e

f
5.3.2

47
5


5.4 R5.4

5.4.15.3 R5.4.15.3.3.1
5.3.3.2
fc
8.3MPafc 35MPa fc 35MPa
fc 8.3MPa
5.4.2
5.6

5.5


fcr
fc
a30
5.3.2.15.3.1.1

b1529
5.3.2.15.3.1.2

5.6 R5.6


5.6

5.6.15.6.25.6.5 R5.6.1


5.3
ACI 1 ASTM C1077

ACI
ASTM C
1007

48
5

5.6.2 R5.6.2

5.6.2.1 R5.6.2.1
3
110m :
2
460m (a),
3
(b) 110 m ,
2
(c) 460m

3
245mm ,(c) 110 m

5.6.2.2 R5.6.2.2
5.6.2.1 5
5 5


3
5.6.2.3 38m ,
5.6.1.4 ASTM D
5.4
3665

5.6.2.4
28
fc

5.6.3 R5.6.3

5.6.3.1
(ASTM C 172)

5.6.3.2
(ASTM C 39M)

5.6.3.3 R5.6.3.3

(a)
fc fc, fc35MPa

49
5


(b) fc 35MPa
fc 3.5MPa; fc
35MPa , 0.10fc

5.6.3.45.6.3.3 R5.6.3.45.6.3.3
5.6.3.3(b)
5.6.5 155.3

15





a
b
c
d
e
f


5.3



(A2LA)AASHTO
(AMRL)(NVLAP)
(CCRL)
ASTM C10775.3

50
5


5.6.4 R5.6.4

5.6.4.1 R5.6.4.1

5.6.4.2
ASTM C
31M

5.6.4.3

5.6.4.4 fc R5.6.4.4

85%
fc3.5MPa 85% 85%



fc
85%

5.6.5 R5.6.5

5.6.5.1
5.6.4.2 fc 6.5.3.3b

5.6.4.4


5.6.5.2


ASTM C 42M

5.6.3.3b

51
5


5.6.5.3

48 7

20
5.6.5.4 fc
85% fc
75%

5.6.5.5 5.6.5.4
20

85%
fc

5.6



fc

5.7 R5.7

5.7.1
a ACI Committee 3045.10
b

c
d

e


52
5

5.8 R5.8

5.8.1


5.8.2 ASTM C 94M
ASTM C 94M
ASTM C 685M

5.8.3

ASTM C 94M

d
ASTM C 94M

e
1
2
3
4

5.9 R5.9

5.9.1

53
5


5.9.2

5.9


5.11
50%


5.10 R5.10

5.10.1


5.10.2
ASTM C
94M
5.10.3
1917 5.10.4

5.10.4
25mm 1977

5.10.5

6.4

5.10.6

5.10.7 6.4 ACI


Committee3095.12

5.10.8

54
5


5.11 R5.11

5.11.1 5.11.3 ACI


7 Committee3085.13
10

5.11.2 5.11.3
3 10

5.11.3 R5.11.3

5.11.3.1



5.11.3.2 Ec


5.11.3.3 5.11.1 5.11.2

5.11.4 5.6.4 R5.11.4


5.6.4

28

85%





5.6.4




5.6.5

55
5


5.12 R5.12

5.12.1 ACI Committee 3065.14




5.12.2

5.12.3

5.13 R5.13

ACI Committee 3055.15





56
6


6.1 R6.1

6.1.1
6

6.1.2
Committee
6.1.3 3476.1



6.1.4

6.2 ACI Committee 347


6.1.5
a ACI 347R
b
c

6.1.6

6.2 R6.2

6.2.1



6.2.2 a

6.2.2.1 6.2.2.3 ASTM C 8736.4
125mm 300mm

6.2.2.1

57
6


a b
ASTM C 803M6.5

c
b ASTM C 9006.6

d
ASTM C 10746.7

c bcd



6.2.2.2 12

10 12

6.2.2.3



12

58
6

6.3 R6.3

6.3.1 R6.3.1
6.3.6 6.3
6.3

ANSI/ASME
B31.1 6.9
B31.3

6.3.2 R6.3.2



6.3.3

6.3.4
4%

6.3.5

6.3.5.1 1/3

59
6


6.3.5.2 3

6.3.5.3

6.3.6

6.3.6.1

6.3.6.2
40

6.3.6.3 50mm
3

6.3.7 R6.3.71983
1.4MPa,

6.3.8 32 0.35MPa

6.3.9

6.3.10
40mm
20mm.

6.3.11
0.002

6.3.12

6.4 R6.4

6.4.1

60
6


6.4.2 R6.4.21977





6.4.3 R6.4.3

11.7.9
11.7
6.4.4
1/3

6.4.5 2

6.4.6 R6.4.6

6.4.7 R6.4.7 6.4.3



61
7


7.1 R7.1


ACI Committee 3157.1
7.1.1 180 4db
65mm


7.1.2 90 12db ASTM
ASTM

7.1.3

a16 90 R7.1.3 25
6db 90 6db 16
b19 22 25 90
90 12db 6db
c25 135
6db

7.1.4 21.1

7.2 R7.2

7.2.1 10 16
7.2

7.2.2 16 R7.2.2 4db


4db 16 90 135
7.2 16

7.2.3 R7.2.3
4db 40mm
2db 4db 4
4db
ASTM A 82 A 496

62
7


7.2

10 25 6db
29 32 36 8db
43 57 10db

7.3 R7.3

7.3.1 R7.3.1

ASTM

7.3.2 R7.3.2


7.2 7.3 A 615 M 280 420


7.2
90 820

7.4 R7.4

7.4.1 7.4
3.5.3.7 3.5.3.8 7.4


7.4.2

ASTM 3.5

63
7


7.4.3 R7.4.3 7.5

7.5 R7.5

7.5.1 R7.5.1
7.5.2



7.5.2 R7.5.2 ACI Committee


1177.6

7.5.2.1 d



d

d200mm 10mm 10mm

d200mm 13mm 13mm

6mm


7.7
7.5.2.2
50mm
13mm25mm
7.5.2.1

64
7


7.5.3 3m
30mm 30mm

7.5.4 R7.5.4


7.6 R7.6

7.6.1 db, 12
25mm 3.3.2 1989

7.6.2

25mm.

7.6.3
1.5db 40mm 3.3.2

7.6.4

7.6.5
3 450mm

7.6.6 R7.6.6

7.6.6.1 7.8
4

7.6.6.2
36
7.6.6.3 36
43 57
7.6.6.4 10.6 36
40db

65
7


7.6.6.5
db L


7.6.7 R7.6.7

7.6.7.1 R7.6.7.1
4db5db 28MPa 7.107.11
fci28MPa
13mm45mm
15mm50mm3.3.2

7.6.7.2 R7.6.7.2



25mm


7.7 R7.7

7.7.1


7.7.57.7.7
mm
(a)
......................................................75

(b)
19 57 ..............................50
16 MW200 MD200
........................40

(c)

: 1.4
43 57 .....................................40
36 ......................................20

66
7




..40 12

No.19 ............................................20
No.16 , MW 200 MD 200
......................................................13

7.7.2

7.7.5,7.7.5.1 7.7.7
mm
a
................................................75
(b)
....................................................25
....................................................................40
(c)
..........................................................20

.....................................................40
.........................................25

16 , MW 200 MD200
.........................10
....................................db 20mm

7.7.3 R7.7.3



7.7.5,7.7.5.1 7.7.7
mm
a

43 57 40mm
.....................................................40
36
40mm W200 D200 ,
.........................................................................20

67
7



43 57 40mm
.....................................................50
19 36 40mm
.....................................................40
16
16mm W 200 D 200
.........................................................................30

b

43 57 40mm
.....................................................................30
40mm......................... 20
36 W 200 D200
.........................................................16

.............................db 16mm
40mm
.........................................10

...................................................20
16 ......................................16
16 W 200 D200
...................................................10

7.7.4

50mm;
75mm.

7.7.5 R7.7.5



. 4



50mm 65mm;
40mm 50mm

68
7


7.7.5.1 R7.7.5.1 4.4.2 R4.4.2
18.3.3 T ACI362.1R-97,PP.21-26
C 50

7.7.6

7.7.7

7.7

7.8 R7.8

7.8.1

7.8.1.1
16

7.8.1.2

7.8.1.3

1.5 .
150mm

7.8.1.4
7.3

7.8.1.5 75mm

12.17

69
7


7.8.2 R7.8.2

50


7.8.2.1

7.8.2.2
50

7.8.2.3
15.8

7.8.2.4

7.9 R7.9

7.9.1
(7.137.14)

7.9.2

7.10 R7.10

7.10.1
7.10.4 7.10.5
11

7.10.2 10.16

18.11

7.10.3 R7.10.3 40mm


7.10 ,10.16 18.11 ACI

.W25
D25

70
7


s
10.9.3

7.10.4 R7.10.4

10.9.3
10mm, 10mm

7.10.4.1 10mm 40mm,
21Mpa

7.10.4.2
10mm 1013 16

7.10.4.3 75mm
25mm 3.3.2

7.10.4.4
1.5

7.10.4.5 7.9


(a) 300mm (1)-(5)
1989
(1)...........................48db
(2)...............................72db
16mm
(3)...........................72db
(4) 500mm 3
7.1.3 500750mm 3
48db 750mm 4
(5)
, 7.1.3 16mm
48db 600mm 3
(b) 600mm 4
12.14.3

7.10.4.6 1999

71
7


7.10.4.7
150mm

7.10.4.8

7.10.4.9
150mm

R7.10.5

7.10.5 R7.10.5



7.10.5.1 10.9.3
32 10 ;
36.43.57 13 7.10.4.3

.
1956 ACI
901963
7.10.5.2 16 90 135
48 150mm R7.10.5

7.10.5.3
135

150mm R7.15

7.10.5.4


7.9




7.10.4

72
7


7.10.5.5
75mm

7.10.5.6 R7.10.5.6 2002



125mm
13 10

7.11 R7.11

7.11.1 7.10.5 R7.11.1



7.11.2

7.11.3

B 1.3ld
12.13

7.12 R7.12

7.12.1 R7.12.1


7.12.1.1
7.12.2 7.12.3

7.12.1.2 R7.12.1.2 7.12


8.2.4 9.2.3

7.12.1.2
7.16

R7.10.5.5 1983

73
7

7.12.2 3.5.3 R7.12.2




7.12.2.1 12.1 ,12.15 ,12.18 . 12.19
0.0014

(a) 280 350


.............. .........................0.0020
(b) 420
.............. .....0.0018
(c) 420Mpa,

0.0018 420
0.35%
fy

7.12.2.2 5
450mm

7.12.2.3
fy 12

7.12.3 3.5.5 R7.12.3



0.7Mpa
7.12.3.1
0.7Mpa 1.4m
18.6
7.12.3
7.12.3.2 1.8m R7.12.3

7.12.3.3 1.4m
7.12.2

74
7


7.12.2 * T bw+16h
8.10
0.7Mpa. T


7.13 R7.13

7.13.1





7.13.2 R7.13.2
7.13.2.1
12.14.3


7.13.2.2
a 1/6
12.2.3
b 1/4 12.11.1

7.13.2.3

A
12.4.3

75
7


135 U 2002
135
7.13.2.2(a) 7.13.2 2002
7.13.2.2(b) 135 U

7.13.2.4 7.13.2.3
1/4
2
A 12.4.3

7.13.2.5 13.3.8.5

7.13.3 R7.13.3

16.5



7.13.4 13.3.8.6 7.17
18.12.6

R7.18

76
8


8.1 R8.1

8.1 .1 R8.1 .1
9

8.1 .2 B R8.1 .2 B

8.1 .3 R8.1 .3 2002


D

8.2 R8.2

8.2.1
ANSI A58.1

8.2.2 ASCE7

ASCE7

77
8


8.2.3 R8.2.3





21

8.2.4 R8.2.4

8.3 R8.3

8.3.1 8.4 R8.3.1




8.1~8.9

8.3.2

8.3.3 R8.3.3



a;
b
20;
c;
d L D 3 ;
e

ln

78
8


..wuln2/11
..wuln2/14
wuln2/16

..wuln2/9
....wuln2/10

................wuln2/11

3m

8
....................wuln2/12

wuln2/24
................wuln2/16

1.15wuln/2

...wuln/2

8.3.4 R8.3.4 A
A




79
8


8.4 R8.4

8.4.1



1000 t 20


8.4.2


8.4.3 t 0.0075

20

R8.4 Cohn Mattock





13.6.1.7

R8.4

80
8


8.5 R8.5

R8.5.1 8.5.1
8.5.1 EC WC 1.50.043 fc ' (
Ec 0 0.45fc
3 3 120 80
MPa) WC 1440 kg m 2480 kg m
R8.6

EC 4700 fc '

8.5.2 ES 2.0
105MPa

8.5.3 EP

8.6 R8.6

8.6.1 R8.6.1, EcI GJ


. ,
! .
.
.

,
EcI ,
EcI/2 EcI
.

, EcI .
. EcI
R10.11.1 .


:(1);(2)

.
,.
, .

8.6.2 R8.6.2
. R8.7

81
8


8.7 R8.7

8.7.1
8.8

8.7.2

8.7.3

8.7.4
3

8.8

8.8 R8.8

8.8.1 8.8

8.3.3 8.8.4

8.8.2

8.8.3

8.8.4


8.9 R8.9

8.9.1

a

b

82
8


8.9.2

a


10.1110.12
10.13

8.10 T R8.10T

8.10.1 T ACI
T
11.6.1
8.10.2 T1/4

a8

b1/2

8.10.3

a1/12

b6

c1/2

8.10.4 T
1/2
4

8.10.5 T

8.10.5.1
T

83
8

8.10.5.2
450mm

8.11 R8.11

8.11.1
8.11.18.11.3

8.11.2 100 mm
3.5

8.11.3 750mm R8.11.3


,
8.11.4 8.11.1~8.11.3

8.11.5
fc

8.11.5.1

8.11.5.2
1/1240mm

8.11.5.3
7.12

8.11.6 8.11.5

8.11.6.1 1/12
50mm

8.11.6.2

7.12

84
8


8.11.7 6.3

25mm

8.11.8 Vc R8.11.88.11.8
1110%
(1) ACI

(2)

8.12 R8.12

8.12.1 17
.

8.12.2

17



7.7

85
9


9.1 R9.1

9.1.1 1999
2002 C SEI/ASCE 7-02.9.1
1999 1999 C

9.1.2

9.3
9.1.3 1999
C
C

9.2 R9.2

9.2.1 9-19-7 U U

U = 1.4(D + F ) 9-1
U = 1.2(D + F + T) + 1.6(L + H) + 0.5(Lr or S or R) 9-2
U = 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (1.0L or 0.8W) 9-3
U = 1.2D + 1.6W + 1.0L + 0.5(Lr or S or R) 9-4
U = 1.2D + 1.0E + 1.0L + 0.2S 9-5
U = 0.9D + 1.6W + 1.6H 9-6
U = 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H 9-7

86
9




a 4.8N/
,9-39-5
0.5
U
b W 9-4
9-6 1.6W 1.3W 0.9D

c E
9-59-7 1.0E 1.4E

d
H
W E H
9-69-7
H

SEI/ASCE 7-029.1 IBC 20039.2


0.85
1.3/0.85=1.531.6

1.3


1.0(ASCE7-939.3
BOCA/NBC939.4SBC949.5UBC979.6 IBC 20009.2)

1.4

9.2.2 R9.2.2
L
L+ L

9.2.3 R9.2.3

9.2.4 R9.2.4
SEI/ASCE 7

87
9


9.2.5 R9.2.5
1.2 1.2
113%
96%

9.3 R9.3

9.3.1 9.3.29.3.4 9.3.5 R9.3.1 ACI



1

1
2
3
4
[9.79.8]

SEI/ASCE 79.1
2002
1995
C 0.8~0.9

9.3.2 9.3.2.1 9.3.2.7

9.3.2.1 10.3.4 ..0.90 R9.3.2.1 9.3.2.1 9.3.2.2


9.3.2.7

9.3.2.2 10.3.3 R9.3.2.2 2002



a 10.9.3 .0.70

b.........0.65

t t
t 0.65~0.9
t
Pn Mn
B fy420MPa (d d)/h0.7 10.3.3
Pn 0.10fcAg 10.3.4 t

88
9


0.90Pn 0.10fcAg t0.002t 0.005
Pb 0.002t0.005
0.90 0.9 0.65
0.65 0.9 t
R9.3.2t
9.3.2.3 ......0.75 R10.3.3

9.3.2.4 10.2.3 0.003


....0.65 t c/d t C
d t c/d t 0.6
c/d t 0.375 420
c/d t 0.6 R9.3.2 c/d t

1999
/b 420
t =0.005 /b 0.63 1999
9.3 9.10

R9.3.2 420
t c/d t

9.3.2.5 . 0.85 R9.3.2.5 0.85


18.13.4.2
0.7fci 0.850.7fci0.6
fci

9.3.2.6 A R9.3.2.6
...0.75

89
9

9.3.2.7 12.9.1.1 R9.3.2.7




a.....0.75 R9.3.2.7ab

b 0.75 ~ 0.90

12.9.3

R9.3.2.7a

R9.3.2.7b 12.9.3

90
9




0.75
0.9
R9.3.2.7
12.9.3

9.3.3 12

9.3.4 R9.3.4
ac 9.3.4

a E 9.3.4

0.60 E
9.3.4a

b

1994 Northridge
c
0.85 9.3.4b 0.60
0.60

9.3.5 22 R9.3.5
0.55


9.4 R9.4

fy fy t 550MPa 550MPa
10.9.3

11.5.211.6.3.411.7.6
fy 420MPa fy ASTM
A 497M 550MPa

19.3.2 21.2.5 21
fy 420MPa

91
9


9.5 10.6 fy

9.5 R9.5

9.5.1 R9.5.1 9.5




9.5a

9.5.3.19.5.3.2 9.5.3.3




9.5b

9.5.2 R9.5.2

9.5.2.1 R9.5.2.1 9.5.2


9.5a 9.5.5 9.5a

420
fy
420MPa
ab

a 9.12
1920~2320kg/ m3
1

b fy
280~550MPa fy

92
9


9.5a

h









l l
l /24 l /28
/20 /10


l
l /18.5 l /21 l /8
/16

wc=2320kg/m3 420

a wc 1440~1920kg/m3
1.65-0.003 wc 1.09
b fy 420MPa 0.4+
fy /700

9.5.2.2 R9.5.2.2
EcIg

9.5.2.3 R9.5.2.3 9.13


8.5.1 [9.14-9.16]
Ec Ig Ie Ie Ig Ic r
3
3
Ie Mc r /Ma Ie
M cr M cr
l e = l g + 1 l c r 9 8 Ig
Ma Ma

frlg
M cr = (9 9 )
yt
,
f r = 0.62 f c (9 10)

a fct 5.2
1.8fct 9-10
f c fr

93
9


1.8fct
f c

b fct fr
0.75fr 0.85

9.5.2.4 Ie 9-8 R9.5.2.4


Ie
Ie 9-8
ACI 435
[9.179.18] SP-43[9.11]

9.5.2.5 R9.5.2.5




= (9 11)
1 + 50 9.5b

5 5 ..2.0 9.199-11
12 ....1.4 2.0 5
6 ..1.2 R9.5.2.5
3 ..1.0 5

9.139.14
9.19 9.20

R9.5.2.5

94
9


9.5.2.6 9.5.2.2 9.5.2.5 R9.5.2.6
9.5b
9.5.1 9.16


R9.5.2.5

9.5.3 R9.5.3

9.5.3.1 13 13.6.1.2
9.5.3
9.5.3.2
9.5.3.4
9.5.3.3 9.5.3.4

9.5.3.2 R9.5.3.2 9.5c


2 9.5c


a 13.2.5 ....125mm

b 13.2.5 ....100mm

9.5.3.3 h R9.5.3.3 2
9-129-13

afm 0.2 9.5.3.2 9.5.2

b 0.2fm2.0 h 9.5.3.3afm 0.2 ACI


fy 318-89 9-13 9.5c9-13
l n 0 . 8 + fm 0 . 2
1400
h = 9 12
36 + 5 ( f m 0 . 2 )
125mm

cfm 2.0 h

fy
l n 0 . 8 +

1400
h = 9 13
36 + 9
90mm

95
9


9.5b


L l / 180*


L l/360


l /480



l /240

*

9.5.2.5 9.5.4.3

I/480
I/240

9.5c


fy, MPa


280 ln/33 ln/36 ln/36 ln/36 ln/40 ln/40
420 ln/30 ln/33 ln/33 ln/33 ln/36 ln/36
520 ln/28 ln/31 ln/31 ln/31 ln/34 ln/34
* l n
fy
f 0.8

df 0.8
9-129-13
10 %

b
c ln
b
c

96
9


9.5.3.4 9.5b R9.5.3.4
9.5.3.19.5.3.29.5.3.3 9.5.2.3
Ec Ie [9. 16]

Ec 8.5.1 9-8 EcI

9.5.2.5

9.5.2.5

9.5.4 R9.5.4


9.5b

9.5.4.1 18 R9.5.4.1
8.5.1
18.3.3 U U
Ig

9.5.4.2 C T 18.3.3 R9.5.4.2 C T 18.3.3


-
9-8 Ie 9.21 9.22

9.23 Ie
T
9.23 9.16 9.24

9.5.4.3 R9.5.4.3

97
9


9.169.259.26
9.27
9.5.4.4 9.5.4.1 9.5.4.2 9.5.4.3
9.5b

9.5.5 R9.5.5

9.5.5.1 9.5.5.1
9.5.5.2 ACI 318


9.5.4
9.5a
9.5a 9.5b

17

9.5.5.2

9.5a
9.5
a

9.5.5.3 9.5.5.1 9.5.5.2


9.5b

98
10

10


10.1

10

10.2 R10.2

10.2.1 R10.2.1
10.2.210.2.7 (1) (2)


10.2

10.2.2 R10.2.2
10.7.1

10.711.8 A

10.2.3 R10.2.3
0.003 0.003 0.008

0.003 0.004

10.2.4 fy Es R10.2.4
fy fy
fy

s <y ()
As fs = As Ess
sy
As fs = As fy
s
Es 200 000 MPa(8.5.2)

99
10


10.2.5 18.4 R10.2.5
1015%


10.2.6 R10.2.6
-

-
0 0.0015-0.002
0.003
0.008 R10.2.3
0.003

10.2.7 R10.2.7
10.2.6
0.85fc a = 1
10.2.7.1 0.85fc c .fc 28 MPa 1 0.85fc
28 MPa , 7 MPa1 0.05,
a =1c

10.2.7.2 c 1976197155 MPa


1 0.65
10. 1,10. 255 MPa 1 0.65
10.2.7.3 17 MPafc28 MPa 1 =0.85fc 1971
28 MPa 1 7MPa 1 1
0.05 1 0.65

,
10. 3

100
10


10.3 R10.3

10.3.1 R10.3.1
10.2
10. 3 10.3

10.3.2 R10.3.2
fy 0.003
0.003 f y /Es b

10.3.3 0.003 R10.3.3 0.003


t

420

0.002 Fig. R10.3.3

(
0.005)
()
()

,


9.3.2

0.003

dt

Fig.R10.3.3-

101
10


b

0.005
()

0.005

8.4

0.0075

T t

10.3.4 0.003
t
0.005t
0.005

10.3.5
0.10fcAg t R10.3.5
0.004 2002 0.75b
0.00376
10.3.5.1 0.004

10.3.6 Pn
(10-1) (10-2)Pn,max R10.3.6 R10.3.7 1963 1971
1977
10.3.6.1 7.10.4 0 (
10.16 10.12.3.2)

Pn,max = 0.85[ 0.85fc(Ag Ast)+ fy Ast ] (101)
fc
10.3.6.2 7.10.5
8580
Pn,max = 0.80[ 0.85fc(Ag Ast)+ fy Ast ] (102) 10.3.6

102
10

0.05 0.10 1963 1971


10.3.6.3 Pn 10.5.1
0.85 0.80 (
)Po

10.3.7
Pu
10.3.6 10.10
Mu
10.13.7


ACI 10. 4CRSI
10. 5
10. 610.710. 8 , 10. 9
10.2.7

Pni10. 6

1 1 1 1
= +
Pni Pnx Pny Po

Pni =
Po =
Pnx = X
Pny = Y

Pnx Pny
Pb
10.4
R10.4
10.4.1 50 bb
10. 10 , 10. 11

10.4.2



50b
10.5
R10.5

103
10


10.5.210.5.310.5.4
As


0.25 fc '
As,min bwd (103)
fy
1.4bwd/fy 10.5.1
35
MPa1.4/fy(10-3)
10.5.2 As,min fc31 MPa1.4bwd/fy
(10-3) bw 2bw

2


10.5.3 As
10.5.1 10.5.2 R10.5.3 (10-3)


10.5.1 10.5.2
10.5.4 As,min
7.12 R10.5.4
450mm 7.12

10.5
5h 3h
13.3.2 2h
10.6
R10.6
10.6.1
R10.6.1



104
10

280 MPa


420 MPa

10. 12 - 10. 14


10.6.2 13.3

10.6.3 10.6.4
R10.6.3

10.6.4 s
R10.6.4 2005
2002
10. 15, 10. 16, 10.
280
s = 380 2.5cc 104 17
42050
fs mmfs = 280MPa250 mm
s300(280/fs)cc
1999
(10-4) s
0.4 mm
fs
fs2/3fy

10. 18 , 10. 19



10.6.5 10.6.4
R10.6.5



10.6.6 T
8.10 R10.6.6 T
(1)
(2)

105
10


10.6.7 h900 mm R10.6.7
10. 20 , 10 . 21 (
h /2s10.6.4cc Fig. R10.6.7.)
2005


10 . 21 No. 10 No. 16
210 mm2

s
s h/2
s
h h s
s
s
h/2
s
s

Fig.R10.6.7- h > 900 mm

106
10


10.7 R10.7

10.7.1 1999
1946195310.7.1
11.8.1
(a) ln D-(A)200210.7.1
(b) 11.8.1
A(
11.8.1 12.10.6)
10.22, 10.23, 10.24.
10.7.2 Vn 11.8

10.7.3 As,min
10.5

10.7.4 A.3.3
11.8.4 11.8.5

10.8 R10.8

10.8.1 1971


7.7

10.8.2 R10.8.2, R10.8.3 R10.8.4 10 . 25





40mm 10.8.2, 10.8.3, 10.8.4

10.8.3 10.9.1



10.8.4

107
10


AgAg

10.9 R10.9

10.9.1 Ast R10.9.1


0.01Ag 0.08Ag

R9.4

4









ACI
105 10. 26
0.010.005
1936
0.01

ACI10. 26
0.0617


ACI105 10. 26
0.08
0.0319360.080.041956
0.08
1963
0.08

10.9.2 10.9.2
10.9.3 4 4
3 6

108
10

10.9.3 s R10.9.3
(10-5) fyt

(10-5)
Ag fc '
s = 0.45 1 105
Ach fyt ACI 105 10. 26 1963
(10-5) ACI 105
700 MPafyt 420MPa
7.10.4.5(a) 10.27-10.29
700 MPa 2005
420 MPa 700 MPa

10.10 R10.10

1995
(
)10. 30 10.10.1
10.1110.12 10.13

sMs

10.10.1 10.10.2 R10.10.1



10%


10 15


1
K 10.13.4.1 K
0.8 K R10.12.3

10.10.2 10.10.1 R10.10.2 10.10.1


10.11 10. 31 ,

109
10


10. 32

R10.13.4.1

10.11 R10.11




PuPc10.12 10.13
10.11

10.11.1 PuM1M2 R10.11.1 EIEI


o
EI



(a) ................... Ec 8.5.1
10.11.1EcIgAg
(b)I
.................................................. 0.35Ig Ec
.............................................. ...0.70Ig
................................0.70Ig 10.330.875
................................... 0.35Ig 2025
.............................................0.25Ig 0.800.85KK
R10.12.3
(c).......................................... 1.0Ag
b T8.10T
10.13.6 I (1 + d) Ig Ig 22 (bw h3/12 )
d
10.13.6 0.70Ig
d
I =0.35Ig

10.11.1

10.11.1

110
10

10.1110.13

10. 34 ,10. 35






1/0.70 = 1.4310.11.1

10.11.2 r
0.30
0.25
r

10.11.3

10.11.3.1 lu

10.11.3.2 lu

10.11.4 R10.11.4
10.12 10.12, 10.13
10.13

10.11.4.1
5

10.11.4.1
10.11.4.2 10.11.4.210.11.4.1
P
510. 3310.11.4.2

111
10



Q=
Puo 106 QQPuPu
Vuslc Vus0

0.05PuVus
oVus 10.11.1
(10-6)
Q1.2
1.43

10.11.5 k lu /r 100 R10.11.5 10.11


10.10.1 10.1310.10.1
k lu/r = 100

10.11.6 R10.11.6

Pc Pc
k lu EI

112
10

10.12 R10.12

10.12.1k R10.12.1
1.0k Pc klu
10.11.1EcI
kJackson
Moreland Alignment .R10.12.1
k
10. 36 , 10. 37



k

0.35Ig0.70Ig

113
10


(EI/lc)(EI/l)
l

.R10.12.1 k

(A-E)
(A)(B)(E)1972
10.38,10.39
(C)(D)
10.25

k = 0.7 + 0.05(A + B) 1.0 (A)

k = 0.85 + 0.05 min 1.0 (B)

A B min

114
10



20 m
m< 2 k = 1 + m (C)
20
m2 k = 0.9 1 + m (D)

k = 2.0 + 0.3 (E)

10.12.1 k <1.0

10.12.2 10-7 R10.12.2 10-710-9


5%10.31
10-7
klu
34 12( M 1 M 2) (10-7) k 1.0
r
[34 12M1/M2] 40
M1/M2 M1/M2

10.12.3 Pu R10.12.3
Mc 98
EI
Mc = nsM 2 (10-8)

0.70 0.75 10.40
Cm
ns = 1 .0 (10-9) K
Pu
1 89
0.75 Pc
K
0.7510-910-18
2 EI
Pc = (10-10) 0.75 K 89
( kl u ) 2
10-910-18
K

EI EI

10-11

115
10

EI
0.2 Ec I g + E s I se
EI = (10-11)
1 + d

Pc EI (1 +
0 .4 E c I g d ) EI10-11
EI = (10-12) (1 + d )
1+ d

10-1110-12 EI 10-12
10-1110-1110.41
d= 0.6 10-12
10-12

EI = 0.25Ec I g (F)

d 2.1
d

10.12.3.1 Cm R10.12.3.1 Cm

M1
C m = 0 .6 + 0 .4 0 .4 (10-13)
M2
CmM2
M1/M2
Cm 1.0

10-8 M2
10.12.3.1 Cm 1.0

10.12.3.2 10-8 M2 R10.12.3.2




M 2,min = Pu (15 + 0.03h) (10-14)

15 h mm M2,min M2
10-13 Cm 1.0 M1 M2

116
10

10.13 R10.13

95

(1) sMs
( 10.13.4.1)

s

(2) sMs Mns (


10.13.3)Mns

(3)
10.13.5 k =
1.0 k < 1.0 ns
P c

10.13.1 k R10.13.1 10.12.1


10.11.1 Ec I 1.0

10.13.2 kl u 22
r

10.13.3 M1 M2 R10.13.3

M 1 = M 1ns + s M 1s (10-15)

M 2 = M 2 ns + s M 2 s (10-16)

sM1s sM2s 10.13.4

10-13 M1/M2

10.13.4 sMs R10.13.4 sMs

10.13.4.1 sMs 10.11.1. R10.13.4.1


sMs

117
10


10.11.1 Ec Ig

d 2.1


10.0 d=0d
0

89 b s
K
10.11.1 Ec I
20~25%
P 0.80~0.85 K

9.3.2.2

10.13.4.2 sMs 10-17 R10.13.4.2 P


(10-17) 10.33
Ms
sM s = Ms (10-17) 10.42 s1.5 (10-17)
1 Q

s1.5s Ms 10.13.4.1
10.13.4.3 P
(10-17)

P P / l c

P
15%
10-171- Q
1-1.15 Q
10-17 1.15

(10-17) Q
10.11.4

89 b s
K

118
10

Q 10.11.1 Ec Ig
10.13.4.1
k
10-17
9.3.2.2

10.13.4.3 sMs 10-18 R10.13.4.3 s Pu /Pc


Ms
sM s = Ms (10-18) P
1
P u

0.75 P c

Pu Pc
Pc 10-10 10-19
k 10.13.1EI 10-11 10.13.5
10-12



10-18 0.75 10.12.3


k

EI
d=0
10.13.4.1

10.13.5 10-19 R10.13.5


lu 35
> (10-19)

r Pu

fc Ag 10-19
Pu Mc 1.5
Pu Mc 10.12.3 M1 10-19
M2 10.13.3d k 5%
10.12.1

10.13.6 R10.13.6

(a) sMs 10.13.4.1 sMs

2.5

119
10

(b) sMs 10.13.4.2 2.5


Pu Q 0.60
(c) sMs 10.13.4.3
Pu Pc s 2.5
abcd
10.13.4.2 sMs
Q 0.60 s= 2.5
Q Vu Vu
10.11.4.2 Q 0.2
0.2 10.13.6

10-18 sMs s 2.5


s EI
s 2.5 sPu

s= 2.5

10.13.7 R10.13.7


10.13.7

10.14

13.1

10.15 R10.15

fc 1.4
10.15.1, 10.15.2 10.15.3 10.43
40%
10.15.1
10.15.2 10.15.1, 10.15.2,
10.15.3

120
10

10.15.1 R10.15.1 10.15.1


600mm

6.4.6 6.4.7





83
600mm

10.15.2

10.15.3 R10.15.3 10.44


2.5
75%
35% 10.15.3
2.5

10.16 R10.16

10.16.1 R10.16.1

10.16.2 R10.16.2

ACI SP-710.45 ACI
1.0

10.16.3 R10.16.3 R10.16.4





121
10

10.16.4

10.16.5 r R10.16.5 10-20 10.11.2


10-20 r

( E c I g / 5) + E s I sx
r= (10-20)
( E c Ag / 5) + E s Asx

10-10
EI 10-1110-21
EI (10-11)
( E c I g / 5)
EI = + E s I sx (10-21)
1+ d

1980 10-11

10.16.6 R10.16.6

10.16.6.1
f y
b
3E s

b h f y h
8E s

10.16.6.2 Asx Isx

10.16.7 R10.16.7


10.16.7.110.16.7.5

10.16.7.1 fc 1.1.1

10.16.7.2
350 MPa

10.16.7.3 10.9.3

122
10

10.16.7.4
0.01 0.08

10.16.7.5 Asx Isx

10.16.8 R10.16.8


10.16.8.110.16.8.8

10.16.8.1 fc 1.1.1


10.16.8.2
350 MPa
0.0018 360
10.16.8.3 MPa

10.16.8.4
0.02 10 16

10.16.8.5 16
48 0.5

10.16.8.6
0.01 0.08

10.16.8.7

10.16.8.8
Asx Isx

123
10

10.17 R10.17

10.17.1 (0.85fc R10.17.1


A1 ) 0.85fc 10.46
A2 2
A1
11.12



R10.17 A2


A1

10.17.210.17 R10.17.2 18.13


10.17 A2

124
11

11


11.1 R11.1

11.1.1 A
-11.7
11.811.9
Vn Vu (11-1)
11.10
Vu Vn 11.12
11-2
bwd
Vn = Vc + Vs (11-2)

Vc 11.311.4 11.12
Vs 11.511.10.9 11.12

Vc

11.111.2 11.3

11.1.1.1 Vn R11.1.1.1
11.1 4.7 11.4 11.5

11.1.1.2 Vc R11.1.1.2

1940 11.6

11.1.2 f c 11.1.2.1 R11.1.2 70 MPa


8.3 MPa 89
f c 8.3 MPa


70 MPa
f c 8.3 MPa

125
11

11.1.2.1 11.5.6.3 11.5.6.4 R11.1.2.1 11.711.811.911.10 11.11


11.6.5.2
VcVciVcw 8.3
MPa f c fc 0.35 MPa
89
70105 MPa
70 MPa
fc 11-13
Av

11.1.3 Vu 11.1.3.1
11.1.3.2
(a)
(b)
(c) 11.1.3.1 11.1.3.2

11.1.3.1 d R11.1.3.1 11.1.3.1 a


d Vu d

11.1.3.1 a
d

d Vu
h/2
d

11.1.3 b

126
11

11.1.3.1(a)

11.1.3.1b

11.1.3.1(c), (d),(e),(f) Vu

127
11

d
(1) 11.1.3.1(c)(2)
11.1.3.1(d)


(1) 11.1.3.1 (e)


(2) 11.1.3.1 (b)



(3) d
d
11.1.3.1(f)

11.1.3.2 h /2 R11.1.3.2 d
h /2 Vu h/2

11.1.4
11.811.12

11.2 R11.2

11.2.1
f c 11.5.5.3 11
11.5.7.911.6.3.111.12.3.2 11.12.4.8 f c
11

11.2.1.1 fct 5.2 f c R11.2.1.1


1.8fct 1.8fct f c fct
fc
fct f c /1.811.10,11.11

11.2.1.2 fct f c R11.2.1.2


0.75 0.85
11.12

128
11

11.3
11.3.1 Vc 11.3.2
11.3.1.1 11.3.1.3

11.3.1.1 Vc

V c = 0 . 17 f c b wd (11-3)

11.3.1.2 Vc
Nu
Vc = 0.17(1 + ) fc bwd (11-4)
14 Ag

11.3.1.3 Vc 0
11.3.2.3

11.3.2 Vc 11.3.2.1 11.3.2.3

11.3.2.1 Vc R11.3.2.1 11-5


Vud 11.3
11.1,11.14
11-5
Vc = (0.16 fc + 17 w )bwd (11-5)
Mu fc w Vud/Mu
11-5 fc
0.29 fc bwd(11-5) Vc
w Vud/Mu
Vud/Mu 1.0 Mu 11.15
Vu

11.3.2.2 Vc(11-5) R11.3.2.2


Mu Vud/Mu Mm (11-6) (11-7)ACI-ASCE 326
1.0Mm Nu(11-5) (11-6)
( 4h d ) Vc(11-6)Mm
Mm = Mu Nu (11-16)
8 (11-7)
Mm(11-5)Vc
Vc 117Vc Vc(11-7) (11-4)
Vc
R11.3.2.2

129
11

0.29 Nu
Vc = 0.29 f c bwd 1 + (11-7) 11.2
Ag
(11-5) (11-6)
Nu /AgMPaMm(11-6)Vc (11-4)
(11-7)

11.3.2.3 Vc11 R11.3.2.3 (11-8)


8 VcVn Vc
0.29 Nu
Vc = 0.17(1 + ) f c bwd (11-8)
Ag
NuVcNu /AgMPa

11.3.3 Vc R11.3.3
d
0.80 11.1, 11.16, 11.17

11.4

11.4.1 11.4d
0.80h

R11.3.2.2

11.4.2 R11.4.2 119Vc


11.4.3
(11-9)
Vudp
Vc = (0.05 fc + 4.8
)bwd (11-9)
Mu
Vc0.17 f c 0.42 f c (11-9) Vudp/Mu
11.4.4 11.4.5Vu dp/Mu
1.0MuVu
V ud p d p (l 2 x )
=
Mu x (l x )

130
11

lx
fc35 MPa11.4.2Vc11.4.2
11.18.

11.4.3 Vc 11.4.3.1 11.4.3.2 R11.4.3


Vc Vci Vcw R11.4.3

11.4.3.1Vci110
VlMcre
Vcl = 0.05 fc bwdp + Vd + (11-10)
M max
dp0.80h1111

Mcre = (1 / yt )(0.5 fc + fpe fd ) (11-11)

Mmax Vi
Vci0.14 f c bwd

11.4.3.2Vcw1112

Vcw = (0.29 fc + 0.3 fpc)bwdp + Vp (11-12)

dp0.80hVcw R11.4.2(11-9)

0.33 f c

R11.4.3



(11-10) 11-12)
Vc
VciVcw (11-10)(11-12)

131
11

11.19

(11-10)Vci

Vi M cre
V=
M max


Vi Mmax
Mcre(11-10)I yt


fdVd
ViVd



Vi Mmax
Vc = Vu Vd
Mmax = Mu Md
Vu Mu
Mdfd

(11-10)

VuMct
Vcl = 0.05 fcbwd +
Mu

Mct = ( I / yt )(0.5 fc + fpe)

Mct
(11-10)
(11-10)
(11-10)

Mu Vu Mu


132
11

0.5
f c

(11-12)
0.33 f c
Vp

11.4.4 R11.4.4 R11.4.5


h/2Vcw
Vcw(11-9) 11.4.4

50d100d. 11.4.5

11.4.5
11.4.2 11.4.3Vc
Vcw
(11-9)

50d
100d.

11.5 R11.5

11.5.1

11.5.1.1
a
b
c

11.5.1.2

a45
b30

11.5.2 fy fyt R11.5.2 fy fyt


420 MPa fy fyt 420 MPa 1995

133
11

550 MPa 420MPa550MPa


11.20-11.22
11.21
520 MPa

420

11.5.3 11.5d R11.5.3 d


11.2d
0.80h

11.5.4 R11.5.4
d12.13
12.13

11.5.5

11.5.5.1
d/20.75 h
600 mm

11.5.5.2
d/245

11.5.5.3 Vs0.33 f c 11.5.5.1


11.5.5.2

11.5.6 R11.5.6

11.5.6.1 Av,min R11.5.6.1



VuIVc0.5
a
b8.11 Vu 0.5Vc
c h 250mm,2.5 0.5 (11-13)(11-14)

134
11


11.23

(11-3) Vc

h 315 mm 315 mm
(11-12) (11-10)

(11-12)

(11-10)

Vu0.5Vc










1.5h 1.2 m
11.5.5 11.5.6




(11-13) (11-14)

11.5.6.2 Mn R11.5.6.2
Vn11.5.6.1
(=
1.0) Vn Mn

135
11

11.5.6.3 11.5.6.1
11.6.1
11.5.6.4
1113
bw s
Av , min = 0.062 f c
(11-13)
fyt
(0.35bws)/fyt.

11.5.6.4 R11.5.6.4 11.26 (11-13)(11-14)



(11-13)(11-14)

Apsfpus d
Av , min = (11-14)
80 fytd bw

11.5.7 R11.5.7

11.5.7.1 VuVc
(11-1) (11-2)Vs11.5.7.2
11.5.7.9 45

11.5.7.2 1115
Avfytd (11-15), (11-16), (11-17)Vs
Vs = (11-15)
s
Avs :
Av (Vu Vc )
=
s fytd
11.27,11.28

11.5.7.3 R11.5.7.3
Vs(11-15)d (11-15)d11.3.3.11.16,
11.3.3Avs 11.17
,s
fyt

11.5.7.4
Avfyt (sin + cos )d
Vs = (11-16)
s

136
11

11.5.7.5

Vs = Avfy sin (11-17)


0.25 f c 1117

11.5.7.6
(11-16)

11.5.7.7 3/4

11.5.7.8
Vs

11.5.7.9 Vs0.66
f c

11.6 R11.6
11.6.1 11.6.6, 11.6.7 11.6.1 11.6.6

R11.6(a)




t
q = t q 11.6(a)


=
T/(2Aot) Ao
11.6(b)t
Ao

137
11

Ao

R11.6(a)b

1995Vc

Vc

11.29 11.30

11.6.1 R11.6.1
Tu Tcr
Tcr
Acp 2
a 0.083 fc ( ) t
Pcp
Ao2Acp /3
b 0.33 f c
= T/(2Aot)
Acp 2 fpc
0 . 083 fc ( ) 1+ 0.33 f c Tcr
Pcp
0 . 33 fc

c
Acp 2
Tcr = 0.33 fc ( )
A cp 2 Nu Pcp
0 .083 fc ( ) 1+
P cp 0 .33 A g f c

138
11


11.6.10.25Tcr

0.33 f c

0.33
f c


1 + f pc /(0.33 f c )
11.6.1 (c)

Ag/Acp 0.95
11.6.1



0.25Tcr 25

2002 11.6.1
1995
(Ag/Acp) 11.31

(Ag/Acp)
(Ag/Acp)

11.6.2 11.6.2.1 11.6.2.2



11.6.2.1 Tu a
11.6.1
11.6.3 11.6.6Tu

139
11

11.6.2.2 R11.6.2.111.6.3
Tu 11.6.6
(a), (b), (c)
b
a11.6.2.4

Acp 2
0.33 fc ( )
Pcp

b11.6.2.4 R11.6.2.2

Acp 2 fpc
0.33 fc ( ) 1+
Pcp
0.33 fc 11.6.1
c
0.33 f c
Acp2
Nu
0.33 fc ( ) 1+
Pcp 0.33 Ag fc

(a), (b), (c)


Acp
11.6.2.2Ag

. R11.6.2.1(11.6.2.1)

R11.6.2.2(11.6.2.2)

140
11



11.6.1
AgAcp

11.6.2.2


11.6.1

11.6.2.3

11.6.2.4 d R11.6.2.4 R11.6.2.5


dTu

11.6.2.5 h/2
h/2Tu

11.6.3 R11.6.3

11.6.3.1 R11.6.3.1
a
2 (11- 18)(11-19)
V TP V
( u ) 2 + ( u h 2 ) 2 ( c + 0.66 fc ) 11-18
bw d 1.7 Aoh bw d
0.66 f c
b 11.5.7.9
Vu TP V Vc
( ) + ( u h 2 ) ( c + 0.66 fc ) (11-19)
bw d 1.7 A bw d
oh

d 11.5.3
11.6.3.1(a)(11-19)

141
11

A
Vu R11.6.3.1(b)

(11-18)

R11.6.3.1

11.6.3.2 R11.6.3.2
(11-19)(11-19) R11.6.3.1(a)A
11.6.3.1
(a)BC(11-19)

11.6.3.3 Aoh /ph(11-19)

Tu
( )
1.7 Aoht
t

11.6.3.4 fy fyt420 R11.6.3.4 fy fyt


MPa 420 MPa

142
11

11.6.3.5 Tu R11.6.3.5 Tn
1120 TuTu
Tc = 0
Tn Tu 11-20
VcVu
Vc0.8
1989Vu

11.6.3.6 Tn1121 R11.6.3.6 (11-21)R11.6.3.6(a)


2 Ao At f yt
Tn = cot (11-21)
s

Ao0.85Aoh
3060 Ao
a b Aoh
45 Aoh
b 40 R11.6.3.6(b)I-,T-L-Aoh
37.5 R11.6.3.6(b)

R11.6q
V1 V4
R11.6.3.6(a)

11.3411.6.3.6(a)
(b)(11-21)
(11 -22)(11-21)
(11-22)

R11.6.3.6(a)

143
11

R11.6.3.6(b)Aoh

11.6.3.7 Al11 R11.6.3.7 R11.6.3.6(a)V1 V4


22 Vi
Di = Vi/sinNi = Vi
At f yt
Al = Ph ( ) cot 2 (11-22) (cot )Vi
s fy

R11.6.3.7
(11-21)At /s Ni
11.6.5.2 11.6.5.3(11-21) Di Nii
fytfy Ni
R11.6.3.7Vi
DiNiAlfy
NiNi

R11.6.3.7ViDi
Ni

(11-22)Ao
po

ph



11.6.3.7AlAt /s
(11-21)At /s

144
11

11.6.3.8 R11.6.3.8
Av
At

Av+t A A
Total ( )= v +2 t
s s s









d12db
d 12.10.3

11.6.3.9 Mu / (0.9dfy ) R11.6.3.9


Mu Tu
11.6.5.3
11.6.6.2.

11.6.3.10 R11.6.3.10 11.6.3.7


a Alfy
MuTu
Alfy Alfy
b 11.6.6.2

Alfy
Alfy

fps

fse fps

145
11

Alfy
Apsfptfpt
fps
Mu
0.9dpAps)fpt420 MPa
Alfy11.6.6.2

11.6.3.11 11.6.3.9
11.6.3.10

11.6.4 R11.6.4

11.6.4.1 R11.6.4.1
,

(a),
,
(b), (11.35),
(11.36)., U

(c),

11.6.4.2 R11.6.4.2,
, R11.6.4.2(A),
(a), 135 (11.35),
, 21.1 90 ,135
,
(b) 12.13.2.1,12.13.2.2 12.13.2.3, , R11.6.4.2(B)
,

146
11

11.6.4.3 R11.6.4.3,

,
U

11.6.4.4 R11.6.4.4,
0.5 Aoh ph Aoh ph --

11.6.5 R11.6.5

11.6.5.1 11.6.1 R11.6.5.1 R11.6.5.2 Tu


Tu 11.6.1 ,
(0.35bW s ) f yt AV At
11.6.5.2 11.6.5.1 AV At --

bW s
( AV + 2 At ) = 0.062 fC' (11-23) (11.9) , ,
f yt

,,,
(0.35bW s ) f yt

11.6.5.3 11.6.5.1 R11.6.5.3


1989

0.42 f c' Acp A f yt
Al ,min = t ph (11-24)
fy S fy 11-24 0.5

At S 0.175bW f yt f yt

147
11

f y

11.6.6 R11.6.6

11.6.6.1 ph 8 300mm R11.6.6.1,



ph 8 , d 2 ,
11.5.5.1

11.6.6.2 R11.6.6.2 R11.6.3.7


300mm
,
0.0042
10mm

11.6.6.3 (bt + d ) R11.6.6.3 (bt + d ) ,


,,

11.6.7 R11.6.7

h bt 11.37 11.39,
3 . 11.37
11.38 ACI3181995
11.6.4 11.6.6 PCI ()
11.35 11.36.
, 11.41

11.7 R11.7

11.7.1 11.7 R11.7.1 11.7 ,


11.7
(
,,
,
), 11.42
11.43

11.7.2 11.7.1

148
11

11-1 Vn
11.7.3 11.7.4

11.7.3 R11.7.3
AVf 11.7.4 ,
,
,
,
,
.
Avf f y ,

11.7
(11.18.11.42)


11.7.4 (11-25)(11-26)
.

(11.18,11.44,11.45) 11.7.3 ,
, Vn
(11.44,11.45)

Vn = 0.8 Avf f y + Ac K1

Ac ( mm2 )

K1 =2.8MPA, K1 =1.4MPA,

K1 =1.7MPA K1

, 11.7.9

,
(0.8 ).

,
, Vn

Vn = Avf f y (0.8sin + cos ) + Ac K1 sin 2

149
11

--( 0 < < 90o .)


o

,
Avf f y Ac Avf f y sin Ac 1.4MPA

11.7.3.1 11.7.5 11.7.10

11.7.4 R11.7.4.

11.7.4.1 Vn R11.7.4.1-- Avf


Vu
Avf =
fy
Vn = AVf f y 11-25

11.7.4.3

11.7.4.2 R11.7.4.2-- ,
Vn , R11.7.4 ,
(11.45)
,
R11.7.4 ,(11-26) 90 ,
Vn = AVf f y ( sin + cos ) 11-26
,(11-27)

--

11.7.4.311-2511-26 R11.7.4.3,

150
11

------- 1.4 ,
11.7.9
,
1.0 (11.46)
= 0.6

0.6 ,


11.7.10---- 0.7 ,

=1.0 =0.85 , 11.47
=0.75
,

11.7.5 Ac Vn R11.7.5 Vn
'
0.2 f c Ac 5.5 Ac (11-25)(11-26)

11.7.6 f y
420MPA

11.7.7, , R11.7.7,
,
AVf f y ( AVf ) ,
,

,
AVf f y ,

,
(11.48)

(11.43),
AVf f y
,
,

11.7.8 , R11.7.8,
f y ,
,,

151
11

,
, ,


,

11.18

11.7.9 11.7 ,
,
= 1.0 ,,
6mm

11.7.10
,

11.8 R11.8

11.8.1 11.8 ln R11.8.1-- 11.5 11.45


4 , ,
12.10.6
,

11.8.2 10.7.1 , R11.8.2,


A 10.7.1,,

' R11.8.3 1999 ,


11.8.3 Vn 0.83 f c bW d


11.8.4 AV , R11.8.4 11.8.5 1999 ,


0.0025bW s ,S d 5 300mm

450mm 300mm

11.8.5 AVh ,

152
11

0.0015bW s2 , s2 d 5 300mm

11.8.6 A.3.3
11.8.4 11.8.5

11.9 R11.9

1 ,
11.3

R11.9.1
, , ,

11.1 11.9
R11.9.2

a d
R11.9.111.9.3 11.9.4 V 1
11.9.1 aV d 2, A aV d
, 1,
11.9.3 11.9.4 , 11.9.4 ,
, a d
V 1
N uc N
, uc
aV d Vu N
(A) 1 uc

(B) N uc , Vu

11.9.2,11.9.3.2.1,11.9.3.2.2,11.9.5,11.9.6 11.9.7
d

153
11

11.9.2 0.5 d R11.9.2,





(11.52)

V
11.9.3 , u ,
[Vn aV + Nuc (h d )] Nuc

11.9.3.1 11.9 ,, R11.9.3.1,


=0.75 =0.75

'
11.9.3.2.1, Vn 0.2 f c bW d
5.5bW d

11.9.3.2.2 , Vn R11.9.3.2.2 (11.53) ,


a d
(0.2 0.07 aV d ) f c bW d (5.5 1.9aV d )bW d
' '
f c V
,

11.9.3.3 [Vn aV + N uc ( h d ) ] A f R11.9.3.3


10.2 10.3

11.9.3.4 N uc An , An f y N uc R11.9.3.4
, N uc
, N uc

154
11

0.2Vu N uc ,,
,

11.9.3.5 Asc ( Af + An ) R11.9.3.5 (11.53) ,


(2 AVf 3 + An ) ( Asc + Ah ) (A) 11.9.3.2
AVf 11.9.3.4 An ,(B) 11.9.3.3
A f 1.5 11.9.3.4 An (A)
, Asc = (2 Avf 3 + An ) ,
Avf 3 , Asc
Asc 2d 3 .11.9.4
Ah = 0.5(2 Avf 3) (B) ,
Asc = ( Af + An ) , Af 2
, Asc Asc
2d 3 11.9.4

11.9.4 Ah R11.9.4
0.5( Asc An ) , Ah (2 3) d
Ah = 0.5( Asc An ) ,
11.9.3.5

'
11.9.5 Asc bd 0.04( f c f y ) R11.9.5
N uc ,

11.9.6 , R11.9.6 R11.9.1


,

(A),
,
f y

(B)

(C)

155
11

(B)
,

R11.9.6 11.53
12

R12.10.6

11.9.7 R11.9.7- G
,()
G

11.10 R11.10-

11.10.1, 11.12 R11.10.1-



11.10.2 11.10.9 ,
2
A 11.10.9.2 11.10.9.5

11.10.2(11-1)
(11-2) , Vc 11.10.5
11.10.6 . Vs 11.10.9

11.10.3 Vn R11.10.3- lw 25
'
0.83 f c' hd h -, d - 11.10.4 0.83 f c

11.10.4, d = 0.8lw
, d ,

11.10.5 11.10.6 R11.10.5 R11.10.6-11-2911-30


' '
, Vc 0.17 f c hd , 0.17 f c hd 11-29
'
, Vc 11.3.2.3 0.33 f c
11-30 lw 2
'
0.5 f c

11.10.6 Vc M u lw

Vu 2
Nu d
Vc = 0.27 f c' hd + (11-29) 11-29
4lW

156
11

11-29

N
lW 0.1 f c' + 0.2 u
lW h
Vc = 0.05 f c' + hd 11-30
M u lW

V 2
u

LW N u

. ( M u Vu lW 2) ,(11-30)

11.10.7 lW 2 R11.10.7- hw 2 lW 2 ()
, lW 2 (11-29)(11-30) Vc ,
Vc
Vu 11.10.3 Vn
11.10.8 Vu 0.5Vc ,
11.10.9 14 Vu 0.5Vc ,
11.10.9

11.10.9 R11.10.9

11.10.9.1 Vu Vc , 2005
(11-1) (11-2) , Vs 11
: 14 21
t l
AV f y d
Vs = (11-31)
s
[11.55]
11.10.9.2 t 11-32
, 0.0025 hw lw 0.5
hw lw 2.5
11.10.9.3 lW 5 , 3h (0.0025sh)
450mm
11-31 Vs
11.10.9.4 l 11-111-2
,
11.10.9.4 11.10.9.5
hW
l = 0.0025 + 0.5 2.5 ( t 0.0025 )
lW
0.0025 , 11.10.9.1

t (11-32), lW , hW

157
11

11.10.9.5 lW 3 3h
450mm lW

11.11 R11.11

11.11.1,, R11.11.1-[11.56]
,


11.11.2 [11.57]
,
(11-13)
,
, 7.9 21

11.12 R11.12-

11.12.1, R11.12.1-
,

11.12.1.1 ,
,
11.1 11.5

11.12.1.2., R11.12.1.2-
bo , [11.3]
d 2 A
d 2
(A), ,
,
(B)., d 2 11.12.1.3

, 11.12.2 11.12.6
,
,,
11.12.1.3,,

,
11.12.2 ,

(11-1)(11-2), Vc 11.12.2.1,

158
11

11.12.2.2. 11.12.3.1 Vs
11.12.3 ,
11.12.4
, 11.12.6

R11.12.2.1-,
11.12.2.1 , Vc '
0.33 f c ,[11.58],

2.0 ,
0.33 f c' ,
2
(A) Vc = 0.17 1 + f ' b d (11-33) ,
c o 0.33 f c' 0.17 f c'
[11.59], Vc bo d
,
(11-33) (11-34)
11.12.2.1(b)
sd
(B) Vc = 0.083 + 2 f c' bo d (11-34)
bo

s 40, 30 , 20 R11.12.2 L


(C) Vc = 0.33 f c bo d (11-35)
'

R11.12.2.2--
11.12.2.2 18.9.3
11-3311-36[11.60

11.61]
11-3611-36 Vc
(
Vc = p )
f c' + 0.3 f pc bo d + V p (11-36) 11.12.1.2
11-37

p 0.29 0.083(ASD/BO+1.5) s
40, 30, 20 bo 11.12.1.2 f c' f pc
11-36
f pc f pc f pc
V p
, Vc (11-36) ,
11.12.2.1
11-36 V p
a, V p
4 V p

(b)(11-36), f c' 0.5MPA


4

159
11


c f pc 0.9MPA, bo
3.5MPA

11.12.3 R11.12.3 11.62-11.66 ,


d 150mm, 16 ,
11.12.3.1
11.12.3.4 11.12.3.3 ,
12.13.2 12.13.3
11.12.3.1 Vn (11-2) , Vc
0.17 f c' bo d , Vs 11.5 12.13 250mm
(11-5) , AV
,


'
11.12.3.2 Vn 0.5 f c bo d R11.12.3(d)
11.12.3.3 R11.12.3(d)
11.12.3.3 (e)
d 2 , R11.12.3(e)
2d AD BC AB
, AD BC
d 2

11.12.3.4 12.13 ,

160
11

11.12.4. R11.12.4[11.67]
,, 11.12.4.1
11.12.4.9 , 11.12.6.3
11.12.6.3

11.12.4.1
,

11.12.4.2 70

11.12.4.3
30 ,,

161
11

11.12.4.4-- 0.3 d

11.12.4.5-- R11.12.4.5 R11.12.4.6-- R11.12.4.5


c 2 + d v 0.15
vvc / n
11.12.4.6-- Vu / n
Mp (vc / n)(1 v )

Vu c1
Mp = hv + v lv 1137 Vu / n 1137 vc Vu
2 n 2
Mp
n Vu lv
lv 11.12.4.7 11.12.4.8 c1 / 2

162
11

11.12.4.7-- R11.12.4.711.67
3/4,
3 / 4 lv ( c1 / 2 ) b 0 0.33 fc '
0.33 fc ' ,

0.33 fc '

3 / 4 lv ( c1 / 2 )
d/2 R11.12.4.7

163
11


11.12.4.811.12 .4 .7

Vn 0.33 fc ' b 0 d

11.12.1.2 (a) Vn

0.6 fc ' b 0 d

11.12.4.9-- R11.12.4.9---
Mv Vc Vu

vVu c1 Mv 1138
Mv = lv 1138
2n 2

n lv

Mv

( a 30%
( b lv
( c 1137Mp

11.12.4.10---, R11.12.4.10R11.1.26.
Mp

11.12.5--- R11.12.5--
11.3
1013
11.12.1.2 11.12.4.7 Rll.12.5(l1.39)

11.12.5.1---

11.12.5.2---
11.12.5.1

164
11

11.12.6-- R11.12.6--

11.12.6.1-- R11.12.6.1--11.68

Mu 13.5.3 6011.12.1.2
40
fMu vMu

11.12.2.1
131

11.68

R13.6.2.5

11.12.6.2--- R11.12.6.2---Rl1.12.6.2
11.12.2.1 ABCD11.12.1.2
Vu Mu c-c.
VuMu Vn

(a) Vu vMucAB
Vu ( AB ) = +
Vn = Vc / ( b0 d ) 1140
Ac Jc
Vu vMucCD
Vu ( CD ) = +
Vc 11.12.2.1 11.12.2.2 Ac Jc
(b) ()
v 1139 AcJc

165
11



Vn = (Vc + Vs ) / ( b 0 d ) 1141
Ac
Vs 11.12.3.1
2d(c1+c2+2d)

0.17 fc ' d/2 Jc

d ( c1 + d ) ( c1 + d ) d ( c 2 + d )( c1 + d )
3 2

+ +
6 6 2

AcJc

13.5.3

(13.5.3.2)

11.68

11.69
11.12.613.5.3


( R11.12.3(d)(e))
11.66

11.12.6.3--- R11.12.6.3--- 11.48 11.12.1.2 a


11.12.4.7 11.12.1.3

166
11


11.12.1.2
a 11.12.1.3
0.33 fc '

167
12

12

12.1-- R12.1--

12.1.1-- 1917





12.1.2--- fc ' 8.3MPa






12.10.2

168
12


12.2-- R12.2--

12.2.1-- ld 12112.2.3
12.2.212.2.3300mm 408
121 cb
12.2.2--ld
Ktr
19 22

t
e et

s


db

db
ld fyte fy t e (cb + Ktr ) / db 2.5 (cb + Ktr ) / db < 2.5
db db
2.1 fc ' 1.7 fc'
2.5


2 db

121
db

f y t e f y t e
db db
1.47 fc ' 1.1 fc '

12.2.212.2.3
12.2.3--- ld
(cb + Ktr ) / db ld 12.2.3

fy t e s
ld = db (12--1) 12.2.2 (cb + Ktr ) / db ld
1.1 fc ' cb + Ktr

db
12.2.2
(cb + Ktr ) / db 2.5
(cb + Ktr ) / db 1.5
Atrfyt
Ktr = (12--2) db
10sn
2 db db
n

Ktr = 0
( )
ld = [ fyet / 1.7 fc ' ]db

ACI31895
19
s 0.82012.2.2

7.6.17.77.7
cb db

169
12

121 (cb + Ktr ) / db 1.0


1.0 e 1.0

22 t 1.0 fc ' 28MPa420

ld

(420)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0)
ld = db = 47db
1.1 28

(420)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0)
ld = db = 72db
1.1 28
db 2 db
db db
ld 47 db
ld 72 db .
12.2.3
12.2.2
2 db
4 db

(cb + Ktr ) / db 2.5 28 db

12.2.4-- R12.2.4
198912.4.12.5
1.3
(a)
300 mme 1.5e 1989
1.0
(b) 3d 1.3
6 db e 1.2 12.2.4
e 1.0 t e .5.1.4
1.7
(c)19 s 0.822 12.6-12.8
s 1.0

(d) 1.3 fct


0.56 fc ' / fct
12.9
1.0 1.0

170
12




1.7


12.10.12.11

25 26 fc '

105MPa

12.2.5-- R12.2.5--

fy fy

21.2 .1.4 12.11.2


7.12.2.3 7.13
As/As
13.4.8.5

12.3-- R12.3--

12.3.1-- ldc 12.3.2


ldc 12.3.3
ldc 200mm .

25%.
12.3.2---ldc (0.24 fy / f c ' ) / db

(0.34 fy ) / db 0.34mm2/N.

12.3.3-- ldc

(a) As / As )

(b) 6mm
100mm 7.10.5
100mm 0 . 75

171
12


12.4-- R12.4--

12.4.1--, R12.4.1--
20%33% ,

7.6.6.4
12.14.2.2 12 .14.2 .2
12.4
12.5

12.4.2---12.2 R12.4.2--
20% 33%

12.5-- R12.5

12.5.1---7 .1 1983
ldh 12.5.2 ldh 12.5.3
ldh 8 db
150mm
db 7.1
12.5
12.5.2-- ldh (0.24 e / fc ' ) / db )
R12.5.1
., e 1.2;, e ldh
1.3; e 1.0

12.5.3-- ldh ldh 12.5.2 ldh 12.5.3



12.5.3.2 12.5.3.3
(a)36 36
65m90
50mm0.7

(b)363690, 12.2 12.3
ldh
3 db , 12.12,
db 0.8 ,,,12.5.3(b)
12.5.3(a)(b),12.5.3(a),
(c) 36 36 180, , ldb 12.5.3(b)
ldh ,
3 db 0.8 ,

172
12


12.5.3(d)
(d) fy ,
ACI318.83 12.2.3.3
18% 33%
( As / As )
,.
12 .5 .3(b)(c), db ,
2 db ldb

12.13 ,,
20%,.

173
12


12.5.4---- R12.5.4

65mm ldh R12.5.4
3 db
db 12.5.3.3





12.5.4

12.5.5 R12.5.5--,

12.6-- R12.6--

12.6.1-- R12.6.1--

12.6.2--

12.6.3-- R12.6.3--

12.7 R12.7

12.7.1-- ld , R12.7
12.2.2 12.2.3 ASTMA497
12.7.2 12.7.3 ld 12.5.2 ASTMA 185

174
12


12.18 ld
200mm. 12.7.2 12.7.2
12.7.3 e 1.0 ,
12.7.2 12.2
200mm 1
12.7.2--- ld
50mm, 1983 ldb
fy 240 5db 1.0s
fy
s
12.14

12.7.3--- ld 1.0
50mm,
1.0, ld

12.7.4---
, 12.8

12.8 R12.8
12.8
50mm ld
50mm 50mm
As fy
3.3 ld
s fc '

s
ld 12.2.5 12.19
ld 150mm

12.9-- R12.9--

175
12


12.9.1--- 12.9.1.1 7 50mm

fse fps fse
ld = ( )db + ( )db (124)
21 7

124

fse

fps








12.9


12.9.1.1---ld R12.9.1.1--- R12.9 124


124 ld
ld 12.1712.18

fps fse

6913

fps 1900

12.1912.2012.21

12.9.2--- R12.9.2---

12.17 12.18



176
12

12.9.3--- R12.9.3--1965 12.19


18.4.2
2.9.1 12.9.1


12.22
18.4.2


12.10 R12.10

12.10.1

12.10.2 R12.10.2 R12.10.2 c x


12.11.3 12.11.3

12.10.3 R12.10.3
d 12db

d

177
12


d 12db

R12.10.2

12.10.4 R12.10.4
ld R12.10.2 x

fy
ld

178
12


12.10.5 R12.10.5 12.10.2


12.10.5.1 2/3

12.10.5.2 3/4
12.10.5.1
0.42bws/fyt s d/8 b 12.10.5.2
12.10.5.3
12.10.5.3 36 12.2 13.13.5 12.15

3/4

12.10.6 R12.10.6
fs

12.11.4 12.12.4 R12.10.6
fy
12.1




U

179
12


12.11 R12.11

12.11.1 1/3 R12.11.1


1/4
150mm

12.11.2 R12.11.2
12.11.1

fy

12.11.3 R12.11.3 R12.10.2 P.I.


12.2 fy ld
ld 125 Mn/Vula 1.3Mn/Vu
la R12.10.2
125
ld
M
ld n + la 125 Mn/Vu
Vu
Mn
Mn fy

Vu Mn/Vu o=V/ujd
La u
d 12db jd 1971

Mn/Vu 30 la Mn/Vu 30

12.2
la ld 1.3Mn/Vula

la d 12db
R12.11.3(b) la


12.11.4 R12.11.4
fy
A A.4.3

180
12

12.12 R12.12

12.12.1 R12.12
R12.5

12.12.3
12.12.2 12.1 R12.10.3 12.10.3
12.10.3

12.12.3
1/3 d
12db ln/16

181
12

12.13 R12.13

12.13.1 R12.13.1

12.13.2 U U R12.13.21989


12.13.2.1 16 MD200 R12.13.2.1 16 7.1.3


fy 280MPa 19 22 25 1989

12.13.1 fyt

182
12


280MPa

12.13.2.2 fy 280MPa 19 22 25 R12.13.2.2 19 22 25


280MPa

0.17 d b f yt / f c'

12.5.2

Fyt 280MPa
12.13.2.1

135 180
7.1.3 12
90

12.13.2.3 U R12.13.2.3 R12.13.2.3


a U
50mm
b d/4
50mm

8db

12.13.2.4 R12.13.2.4
50mm d/2 d/4 PCI/WRI Ad Hoc
50mm

183
12


12.24



R12.13.2.4

12.13.2.1
12.13.2.3
12.13.2.2
12.13.2.4

12.13.2.5 8.11 13 R12.13.2.5


MD130

12.13.3 U U

12.13.4
d/2 12.2
fyt 1117

12.13.5 U R12.13.5 U
1.3ld 450mm 12.15

Abfyt 40kN

12.14 R12.14

12.14.1 12.15

12.14.2 R12.14.2
12.14.2.1 36 R12.14.2.1 43 57
12.16.2 15.8.2.3
12.16.2 15.8.2.3 43

184
12


57

12.14.2.2 R12.14.2.2
12.4

12.14.2.3 R12.14.2.3
1/5 150mm
51 150mm

12.14.3 R12.14.3
12.14.3.1

12.14.3.2 R12.14.3.2
fy 1.25

25

12.14.3.3 R12.14.3.3 R3.5.2


ANSI/AWS D1.4

12.14.3.4 R12.14.3.4
fy 1.25 19
1.25
R12.14.3.2 1995
ANSI/AWS D1.4 22

ANSI/AWS D1.4

12.14.3.5 12.14.3.2 12.14.3.4 16 R12.14.3.5 12.15.4


12.15.4 1.25

1995
16

12.15 R12.15

12.15.1 A B R12.15.1 A B

185
12


300mm ld fy
A 1.0ld ld
B 1.3ld 12.2.5 As
ld 12.2 fy
12.2.5
R12.15.1(a)
R R12.15.1(b)

1989

C
318
ACI408


12.15.2 B R12.15.212.15.1
A
a 12.15.2

b

186
12


R12.15.2
As
As*/

As
50 100
2 A B
2 B B
*

12.15.3 R12.15.3
2 12.14.3.2 12.14.3.4
fy 1.25

12.15.4 16 R12.15.4 R12.14.3.512.15.4


12.14.3.2 12.14.3.4 fy 1.25
12.15.14.1 12.15.4.3
12.15.4.1 600mm

12.15.4.2
fy
fy ld
fy

12.15.4.3
2 140MPa ANSI/AWS D1.4

12.14.3.2 12.14.3.4

12.15.5 R12.15.5
12.14.3.2 12.14.3.4
750mm

187
12


12.16 R12.16



1956

1979

12.16.1 fy420MPa R12.16.1 1963


0.071fydb fy>420MPa 0.13fy-24db

300mm f c' <21MPa 1/3


1971 1963
550MPa
12.1,12.25
420MPa

420MPa 520MPa
10

12.16.2 R12.16.2
ldc
43 57 36 43 57
43 57 36

12.16.3
12.14.3.2 12.14.3.4

12.16.4 R12.16.4
12.16.4.1 R12.16.4.1

12.16.4.2 R12.16.4.21971
1.5 3 57

12.16.4.3 R12.16.4.3 1971


188
12


12.17 R12.17

12.17.1
12.17.2 12.17.4 R12.17
12.17

1989
1/4fy

12.17.2 R12.17.2
12.17.2.1 R12.17.2.11989
12.16.1 12.16.2
12.17.2.4 12.17.2.5

12.17.2.2
0.5fy
B
ld A

12.17.2.3 0.5fy
B

12.17.2.4 R12.17.2.4
0.0015hs,
0.83 300mm
h
R12.17.2

12.17.2.5 R12.17.2.5
0.75 300mm
7.10.4 10.9.3

189
12


12.17.3 R12.17.3
12.14.3.2 12.14.3.2 12.14.3.4
12.14.3.4 fy 1.25



12.16.4 12.17.4

12.17.4 R12.17.4
25
12.16.4
fy 0.25fy 12.16.4

190
12


12.18 R12.18

12.18.1
1.3ld 200mm 12.26 1971 1976
50mm ld 12.7
fy 1.3ld ld 12.7
200mm 200mm
12.18.2 R12.18

12.18.3

12.19

12.19 R12.19

12.19.1
12.19.2
50mm
12.19.1 As 2

50mm 1.5ld 150mm
ld 12.8 fy 150mm
ld 12.8
12.19.2 As 150mm R12.19
2
1.5ld 50mm ld 12.8
fy

191
12

192
13

13

13.1 R13.1

13.1.1 13.113.7


13.1.2 c1c2 ln

11
45


13.1.3


13.1.3 9.5.3





13.2.3

ACI 13.8

193
13

13.2. 13.2.

13.2 R13.2

13.2.1 0.25l2
0.25l1

13.2.2

13.2.3 13.2.

13.2. 13.2.
13.2.

13.2. 13.2. 13.2.


1/4 13.2.
1/6 .. 13.2.

13.3 R13.3

13.3.1
7.12

13.3.2 R13.3.2
2
7.12
R10.6
13.3.3 R13.3.3R13.3.5

150mm

194
13


13.3.4

12

13.3.5

13.3.6 af 1
13.3.6.1 13.3.6.4

13.3.6.1

13.3.6.2

13.3.6.3
1/5

13.3.6.4

13.3.7
13.2.5

1/4

13.3.8 R13.3.8

13.3.8.1 13.3.8 , 89 , 13.3.8


13.3.8
13.3.8.3
83 13.4.8

195
13

13.3.8 12.11.1

196
13


13.3.8.2 13.3.8

13.3.8.3 450

13.3.8.4 R13.3.8.4
, 13.3.8
13.3.8

13.3.8.5 R13.3.8.5
A
12.14.3 13.3.8

02

13.3.8.6 R13.3.8.6 92
13.3.8.5

A




13.4 R13.4
R11.12.5
13.4.1 9.2 9.3

13.4.213.4.1
13.4.2.1 13.4.2.4

13.4.2.1

13.4.2.2
1/8

13.4.2.3

197
13


1/4

13.4.2.4 11.12.5

13.5 R13.5

13.5.1 R13.5.1
9.2
9.3





13.5.1.1 13.6 13.7 R13.5.1.1 13.6 13.7






13.5.1.2 R13.5.1.2







l2/l1,c1/l1, c2/c1
13.12



1/2 1/4




13.5.1.3

198
13


13.5.2

13.5.3 R13.5.3

13.5.3.2 13.5.3.3 1.5
1.5
11.1.2
13.5.3.1 11.12.6 R11.12.1.2 R11.12.2.1

13.5.3.2

1.5 1.5 Mu

1
f = 13-1
1 + (2 / 3) b1 / b2
13.5.3.3 R13.5.3.3
Vu 0.75Vc 89
Vu 0.5Vc 131
1.0 Vc 11.12.2.1

Vu 0.4Vc 4 3 2 95
25% 13.5.3.2 97
0.375bf

11.12.2.1 75% 50%
fMu

fMu fMu




11.12.2.1 VC
40% 25%


199
13



0.375 b
13.5.3.3
13.5.3.3 131
13.5.3.3


2
13.5.3.4 13.5.3.2

13.5.4
11

13.6 R13.6



1 13.6.2
2
13.6.3
3
13.6.4 13.6.6

13.7
13.6.1 R13.6.1

13.6.1.1 13.6.1.8


13.6.1.1 R13.6.1.1


13.6.1.2 R13.6.1.2 2
2

13.6.1.3
13.3.8

13.6.1.4 R13.6.1.4
10% 20%

200
13


13.6.1.5 R13.6.1.5
2

15.10
95
32
2

13.6.1.6 132 R13.6.1.6

f 1l2 2
0.2 5.0
f 2l1 2 (13-2)

af1 af2 133

Ecb I b
f =
Ecs I s (13-3)

13.6.1.7 8.3 R13.6.1.7 8.3


13.6.7 13.6.7
10%
13.6.1.8 13.5.1 R13.6.1.8
13.6.1


13.6.1.5

13.6.2 R13.6.2

13.6.2.1
M0

13.6.2.2 R13.6.2.2 134 Nichol


134 M0

qu l2ln 2
M0 = (13-4)
8
ln

13.6.2.3

201
13


134 l2

13.6.2.4 134
L2

13.6.2.5
13.6.2.5 ln R13.6.2.5
134 ln 0.65l1
13.6.2.5

13.6.3 R13.6.3

13.6.3.1

13.6.3.2 MO

0.65
0.35

13.6.3.3MO R13.6.3.3 13.18.13.19 13.20










MO

2
3 4

97
MO
13.6.3.3
13.6.3.4 R13.6.3.4


202
13


13.6.3.5 R13.6.3.5

13.6.3.6
13.5.3.1 0.3MO

13.6.4 R13.6.413.6.5 13.6.6



13.6.4.1
:


134 ln
Ib

13.6.4.2 R13.6.4.2t
:

t Ecb/2

f1l2/l1

t t 0
C 13 13 t 2.5

EcbC
t =
2 Ecs I s (13-5)

x x3 y
C = (1 0.63 ) (13-6)
y 3
T L 13.2.4
C

13.6.4.3
M0 3/4l2 l2

13.6.4.4
:

203
13

13.6.4.5

13.6.5 R13.6.5

13.6.5.1f1l2/l1 1
85% 13 qu

13.6.5.2f1l2/l1 1 0
85% 0

13.2.4
13.6.5.3 13.6.2.213.6.5.1 13.6.5.2

13.6.6

13.6.6.1

13.6.6.2

13.6.6.3

13.6.7

M0 10%
134

13.6.8 R13.6.8

204
13


13.6.8.1f1l2/l1 1 R13.6.8 f1l2/l1 1


45 13.6.8.4
13.6.8.1 13.6.8.3
13.6.8.2f1l2/l1 1
f1=0

13.6.8.3 13.6.8.1 13.6.8.2

13.6.8.4
13.6.8.1 13.6.8.2

R13.6.8
13.6.8.5

13.6.9 R13.6.9
137
13.6.9.1


13.6.9.2
137

M u = 0.07[(qDu + 0.5qLu )l2ln qDu ' l2 '(ln ') 2 ] (13-7)


qDul2 ln

13.7 R13.7

13.7.1 13.7.2 ,.
13.7.6 , 13.6.4(), 13.6.5() 13.6.6(),

13.18, 13.19 13.20
13.7.1.1 1998
1995

13.7.1.2

205
13


13.7.2 R13.7.2
R13.7.2
13.7.2.1


13.7.2.2


1
13.7.2.3 2
3

13.7.2.4

13.7.2.5

13.7.2.6

R13.7.2

13.7.3 R13.7.3

13.7.3.1

13.7.3.2

13.7.3.3 R13.7.3.3

(1-c2/l2)2 c2 l2

206
13


13.7.4 R13.7.4

13.7.4.1


13.7.4.2

13.7.4.3


R13.7.4

R13.7.4
13.7.5 R13.7.5

13.7.5.1 13.7.2. 3
abc T L

a 4

13.7.5.1
ba 1989 136
Kt 1995 Kt

c 13.2.4

13.7.5.2
R13.7.5

207
13


13.1813.19 13.20

9 ECS C
Kt =
c2
l 2 (1 2 ) 3
l

R13.7.5 R13.7.4 AA

13.7.6 R13.7.6

13.7.6.1


13.7.6.2 3/4

13.7.6.3 13.7.6.2

3/4

3/4

13.7.6.4

13.7.7 R13.7.7

13.7.7.1 R13.7.7.1 R13.7.7.3


,
0.175l1 R13.6.2.5

13.7.7.2

208
13


1/2

13.7.7.3

13.7.7.4 13.6.1 R13.7.7.4



134 13
4
13.7.7.5 13.6.1.6
13.6.413.6.5
13.6.6

209
14

14

14.1 R14.1

14.1.1 14 14
10
14 11.10
14.1.2 10
14.3.3
1977 14 10.15
1983 14

14.2 R14.2

14.2.1
14.5.1 14.4

14.2.2
14.214.3 14.414.514.8

14.2.3 11.10

14.2.4

14.2.5 10.8.2

14.2.6

14.2.7
14.314.5

14.2.8 15.8

14.3 R14.3

14.3.1 11.10.8 11.10.9 14.3 14.414.5


14.3.2 14.3.3 14.8

210
14


11.10.9.2 11.10.9.4 14.3

14.3.2
2005
14 11 21
(a) NO.16 ft 420MPa

0.0012

(b) 0.0015 t

(c) MW200 MD200

0.0012

14.3.3 t

(a) NO.16 fy 420MPa


0.0020

(b) 0.0025

(c) MW200 MD200

0.0020

14.3.4 250mm

(a) 50

(b)
20mm

14.3.5
450mm

14.3.6 0.01

211
14

14.3.7 14.3.1
NO.16
600mm

14.4

14.5
10.210.310.1010.1110.12
10.1310.1410.1714.2 14.3

14.5 R14.5

14.5.1
14.314.5 14.4
4.5
u
14.5.2 14.5.1 n
q.(14-1) 14.4 h/6
2 u q.(14-1),
n = 0.55 f c' Ag [1 kle ] (14-1) un n
32h 1980 q.(14-1)
9.3.2.2 977


0.80.9
a

..0.8

b.1.0
14.1 1977
.2.0
q.(14-1) K
K
0.8 EI/l

212
14

k=0.8

k=0 Cm
.8 =0
.6
Cm
=0
.8

k=
0 .8
fc=28MPa
h/6
Eq(14-1)
k=
0 .2
Cm
=1
.0

k=
0 .2
:R14.5 q.(14-1) 144
q.(14-1)
14.3 14.4
R14.5

14.5.3 R14.5.3

14.5.3.1 14.4
1/25 100mm

14.5.3.2 190mm

14.6
14.6.1 100mm
1/30

14.7

14.7.1 10.210.7
11

14.7.2 14.3

213
14

14.8 R14.8

14.8.1 14.8 14.8 UBC


10.10 10.10

14.8.2 14.8 14.8.2.1 14.8.2.6
UBC

14.8.2.1

14.8.2.2 14.5
14.6

14.8.2.3 R14.8.2.3 2005


2002 10.3
14.8.2.4
0.6bal
MnMcr (14-2)

Mn fr Eq.(9-10)

14.8.2.5

(a) 21

(b)

(c)

14.8.2.6 Pu/Ag

0.06fc

14.8.3

Mn Mu (14--3)

Mn = Mua + Pu u (14-5)

Mua

214
14

2
s = (14--5)
( + 1)
Mu q.(14-6)

M ua
Mu = (14--6)
5 pu ec2
1
(0.75)48Ec I cr

Es P e c3
As + u ( d c ) + w
2
I cr = (14--7)
Ec fy 3
ES/EC 6

14.8.4 S P

ec 150 /
S

s =
( 5M ) ec2 (14-8)
48Ec I e

M sa
M= (14-9)
5P e2
1 S c
48Ec I e

le 9.5.2.3 M Malcr

Eq.(14-7).

215
15

15


15.1 R15.1
15
15.1.1 15

15.1.2 15.10

15.2 R15.2

15.2.1
15

15.2.2

D,L,W E

15.2.3

10.12.3.2
15.3

qs=U/Af

15.2.2 U

Af

qs

216
15


15.4 R15.4

15.4.1

15.4.2 Mu 15.4.1

(a)

(b)

(c)

15.4.3

15.4.4 15.4.4.115.4.4.2 R15.4.4


Eq.(15-1).

15.4.4.1

15.4.4.2

sAs

(1-s)As

2
s = (15-1)
( + 1)

15.5 R15.5

15.5.1 11.12 R15.5.1 15.5.2 11.12.1.1


11.12.1.2
15.5.2

217
15


11 11
15.4.2C

11.12.1.2

bo


R15.5

15.5.3 R15.5.3
11.12 15.5.4 A
A 11.12 15.5.4

A fce A3.2.2

15.5.4
15.5.4.115.5.4.2 15.5.4.3

15.5.4.1 dpile/2

15.5.4.2 dpile/2

R15.5
15.5.4.3 dpile/2
R15.5.4 d d/2
dpile/2

CRSI
15.6

15.6.1 12

15.6.2

15.6.3
15.4.2

218
15


12.10.6

15.7

150mm 300mm

15.8 R15.8


15.8

15.8.1 15.8.1 15.8.2


15.8.3

15.8.1.1 R15.8.1.1
10.17

0.85fc

0.85fc 11.7

0.85fc

15.8.1.2 R15.8.1.2


(a)

(b)
15.8.2 15.8.3

219
15


15.8.1.3 R15.8.1.3
12.17 0.85

fc

15.8.1.4 11.7 R15.8.1.4 11.7



15.8.2.115.8.3.1 11.7

15.8.2 15.8.1

15.8.2.1 R15.8.2.1 15.8.2.2



0.005Ag Ag

0.005
15.8.2.2
14.3.2

15.8.2.3 43 57 R15.8.2.343 57
15.8.1 15.8.2.3 36
36
a

45 57
edc
43 57 b

15.8.2.4
15.8.1 15.8.3
12.14.2.1 43 57
15.8.3
15.8.1
D

12.16.2

15.8.3.1 R15.8.3.1 15.8.3.2 15.8.2.1

16.5.1.3a 0.005Ag ()


15.8.3.2

220
15

16.5.1.3bc Asfy=1.4 Ag 16.5.1.3a,



15.8.3.3

D

15.9

15.9.1
12.10.6
15.9.2

15.10 R15.10

15.10.1 R15.10.1

15.1
15.2.2
15.10.2 13

15.10.3

ACI 336.15.1
15.2

221
16

16

16.1 R16.1

16.1.1 R16.1.1 2 .2




17 18

16.1 16.7

16.8

16.2 R16.2

16.2.1 R16.2.1




16.2.2
R16.2.2

16.2. 3


R16.2.3



7.5

(PCI) 16.9 16.11
16.12

16.2.41.2 R16.2.4

222
16

(a)

(b)

16.3 R16.3

16.3.1 R16.3.1

()
T
16.13 16.19

16.3.2 R16.3.2


16.3.2.1

16.3.2.2

16.4 R16.4

16.4.1 R16.4.1 3.7m


3.7m
7.12
3.7m

223
16




T T
R16.4.2PCI16.4 16.20
14.3


16.5 R16.5

16.5.1ac R16.5.1 7.13.3


16.5.1 16.5.2 7.13.3
a 1.4Ag N



b
R16.5.1.1
44KN

c 16.5.1.3

b

R16.5.1.2

R16.5.1.4
16.5.1.4




1.4

R16.5.2
16.5.2

16.5.2.1-16.5.2.5
16.2.1

16.5.2.1 R16.5.2.1

224
16



22KN


600mm

16.5.1
3

3 16.5.2.1
16.5.2.216.5.2.316.5.2.4 16.5.2.5
Fig.R16.5.2
PCI

16.5.2.2
3m

16.5.2.3 R16.5.2.3

16.5.2.4 R16.5.2.4
1.2m 71KN

16.5.2.5

44KN

16.6 R16.6
16.6.1 R16.6.1

225
16


16.6.1.1

11.7

R16.6.1.2
16.6.1.2

16.6.2
16.6.2.1 16.6.2.2

R16.6.2.1
16.6.2.1

16.4
10.17

R16.6.2.2
16.6.2.2
16.6.2
ab

a


ln/180
11.9.7
..50mm

75mm
b 13mm

16.6.2.3 12.11.1
R16.6.2.3
7.5.2.2 16.2.3

1/3

16.7 R16.7

16.7.1 16.7.1.1 R16.7.1 16.7.1 7.5.1

16.7.1.216.7.1.3

226
16


16.7.1.1

16.7.1.2

16.7.1.3

16.8

16.8.1

16.8.2

16.9 R16.9

R16.9.1
16.9.1



PCT

227
16


16.9.2 R16.9.2

16.10 R16.10

16.10.1 16.10.1.1 16.10.1.2 20

16.10.1.1

16.10.1.2

20.3.2

16.10.2 20.5

228
17

17


17.1 R17.1

17.1.1 17 R17.1.1 17



17.1
17.1.2
17

17.2 R17.2
17.2.1

17.2.2

17.2.3

17.2.4 R17.2.4


17.2.5

17.2.6 R17.2.6

17.2.7 9.5.5 R17.2.7


17.3 R17.3

229
17


9.5.5

17.4

17.4.1
11

17.4.2 12.13

17.4.3

17.5 R17.5

17.5.1 R17.5.1

17.5.2 17.5 d R17.5.2



0.80h 11
d

17.5.3 17.5.4 R17.5.3 9


VnVnh Vnh
Vnh 17.5.3.1
17.5.3.4

17.5.3.1
Vnh 0.55bvd

17.5.3.2 17.6
Vnh 0.55bvd

17.5.3.3 17.6 R17.5.3.3 6mm


6mm Vnh 17.2 17.4
1.8+0.6vfybvd 3.5bvd

11.7.4.3 v = Av / by S v

230
17


17.5.3.4 Vu 3.5bvd
11.7.4

17.5.4 17.5.3

Vu 17.5.3.1 17.5.3.4 Vnh


bvd

17.5.4.1 17.5.4 R17.5.4.1







17.5.5 R17.5.5
17.6

17.6 R17.6

17.6.1 17.2 17.6


11.5.6.3
4 600mm

17.6.2

17.6.3 12.13

231
18

18


18.1 R18.1

18.1.1 18 R18.1.1 18
3.5.5


18.1.2 18

18.1.3 R18.1.3
6.4.47.6.58.10.28.10.38.11
10.510.610.9.1 10.9.2 13 14.314.5
14,6 18.4.4 10.6 6.4.4

1/3
6.4.4 1/3
6.4.4

7.6.5 7.6.5

18.9 18.12

8.10.28.10.3 8.10.4 8.10.28.10.3 8.10.4


T


8.10.28.10.3 8.10.4
T

8.10.28.10.3 8.10.4

8.10.2

8.10.1 8.10.5 T

232
18

8.11

R8.11
8.11

10.510.9.1 10.9.2 18.8.3


18.9 18.11.1 10.510.9.1
10.9.2

10.6 18.4.4
10.6.4 10.6.7 C

13

13
13
18.2

14.5 14.6 14.5 14.6


18.2 R18.2

18.2.1 R18.2.1 R18.2.2


1
18.2.2

23



233
18

18.3.2

18.2.3

18.2.4

18.2.5 R18.2.518.2.5

18.2.6 R18.2.6




18.3 R18.3

18.3.1
10.2 3.5.3 10.2.4

18.3.2
18.3.2.1 18.3.2.2

18.3.2.1

234
18


18.3.2.2

18.3.3 ft U T R18.3.3
C U C
T

aU f t 0.62 f c R18.3.3 R18.3.3

bT 0.62 f c < ft 1.0 f c ;

cC f t > 1.0 f c
U
U f t 0.50 f c



18.3.4 U T R18.3.4 18.1


C

18.3.5 9.5.4 R18.3.5 18.2


18.4 R18.4

18.4.1 R18.4.1

(a) 0.60fci

(b) (c)0.25

(c) .0.5
R18.4.1(b) (c)
ft(b)(c)

0.6fy

235
18


R18.3.3


U T C



18.3.4 18.3.4 18.3.4

18.4.1 18.4.1 18.4.1

18.4.2 18.4.2

0.62 0.62 < ft 1.0

9.5.4.1 9.5.4.2 9.5.4.2 9.5.29.5.3




10.6.418.4.4.1
10.6.4

M/As

0.6fy

10.6.7 10.6.7

210MPa


18.4.2 U T R18.4.2(a) (b)


( 0.45fc
)
(a)
0.45fc
(b) 1995
0.60fc


0.60fc 1/3




18.4.2(a) 0.45fc

236
18


18.4.2(b)

0.45fc

18.4.318.4.1 R18.4.3
18.4.2
1.4

18.4.4 C R18.4.4 1.0 f c


2002
10.6.4
(
), 7.7.2


18.4.4.1 R18.4.4.1
Cc
2/3
2/3

10.6.4
5/6 18.4.4.3 10.6

18.4.4.2 Eq.(10-4)fs R18.4.4.2 fdc fse


fpsfps
fdc
fdc
fse 18.4.4.3

18.4.4.3 Eq.(10-4)fps R18.4.4.3 fps 250MPa


250MPa fps 140MPa fps 140MPa 2002
18.4.4.1 18.4.4.2

18.4.4.4 900mm R18.4.4.4


10.6.7

237
18


18.5 R18.5

R18.5.11983
18.5.1
ASTMA 421 A 416
(a) 0.94fpy
0.80 fpu
0.80fpu fpy 0.90fpu
0.94fpy 0.82fpy 0.85fpu 0.74fpu 1986
(b) 0.82fpy 0.74fpu 1989
(c) 0.70fpu 0.80fpu
0.74fpu

0.70fpy
fpy 0.85fpu
0.94fpy 0.82fpy 0.80fpu 0.70fpu1977
fpy 0.80fpu
0.94fpy 0.82fpy 0.75fpu
0.66fpu

1983

18.6 R18.6

18.6.1 fse R18.6.1 18.3 18.61983



a
b R18.6 R18.6
c 0.7fpu
d
e
f

238
18

18.6.2 R18.6.2
18.6.2.1 lpx Ppx R18.6.2
( Kl px + p px )
Ppx = Ppj e 18-1
K
(Klpx+ppx)0.3Ppx

Ppx = Ppj (1 + Kl px + p px ) 1 18-2

18.6.2.2K
pKp

R18.6.2


0.0033-
0.15-0.25
0.0049
0.0003-
0.08-0.30
0.0020
7 0.0016-
0.15-0.25
0.0066
0.0033-
0.05-0.15
0.0066
7 0.0033-
0.05-0.15
0.0066

0.0010-
0.05-0.15
0.0066
7 0.0010-
0.05-0.15
0.0066

()
R18.6.2.3--
18.6.2.3--,K UP
18.4

18.5

18.6.3--

239
18


18.7 R18.7

18.7.1-- R18.7.1-
fps 1983
f y T



MN -
10.2 -

18.7.2- fps R18.7.2-18-3


fps fse 0.5fpu
(a)
p f pu 18-3
d
f ps = f pu {1- [p + ( ' ) ] }(18-3)
1 '
fc d

'

f y ' fy
'
f c' f c' 18-3 f ps

f py f py f pu d
P 0.55 ( 0.80), 0.28 ( p '
+ ( ' )
f pu f pu f c d
0.90)
18-3 fps f pu d
f pu
f ps p + ( ' )
d f '
d
[ p '
+ ( ' ) ] 0.17 c
f c d
f pu d
0.17 p + ( ' )
'
'
d 0.15d p f c
'
d
b 35
0.17 f ps

f c' '
d
f ps = f se + 70 + (18-4)
100 p
'
183 f ps d
18-4 f ps f py ( f se + 420)
0.15 18-3
f pu d
c 35 18-3 p '
+ ( ' )
f c d
'
f
f ps = f se + 70 + c
18-5
300 p

240
18

18-5 f ps f py ( f se + 210) f pu fv f
p + s 's v
f c' bd p f c' bd p f c'

18-5
35
18-4

18-4

18.7.3-3.5.3

f y

18.8 R18.8

18.8.1 - 10.3.3 10.3.4 R18.8.1-10.3.3 10.3.4



9.3.2 1999
10.3.4

1999 P

0.005 P = 0.32 1

18.8.2- R18.8.2--
1.2

9.5.2.3 f r


a
b 9.2

18.8.3- R18.8.3-

241
18




18.9

18.9 R18.9

18.9.1 - R18.9.1
18.9.2 18.9.3


.



21.2.1
18.6
18.8

18.9.2- 18.9.3 R18.9.2-



18.9.2
s = 0.004 ct 18-6

Act -

18.9.2.1-18-6

18.9.2.2-

18.9.3- R18.9.3-
ACI-ASCE Committee 423 ,
.
18.9.3.118.9.3.2 18.9.3.3
ACI-ASCE Committee 423 1983 18.9
18.9.3

18.9.3.1- R18.9.3.1 ACI-ASCE Committee


'
f t 0.17 f c 423 1963
18.9.3.1

242
18


'
18.9.3.2- R18.9.3.2- 0.17 f c
0.17 f c' : 0.50 f c' 18-7
c N c
s = 18-6
0.5 f y

f y -- 420Mpa,
.

18.9.3.3 - R18.9.3.3- ACI-ASCE Committee 423



: 0.00075

s = 0.00075 cf 18-7
13.7.2 R13.7.2
18-8
As --
18-8

As 1.5h

16mm
300mm



18.1118.15

18.9.4- 18.9.218.9.3 R18.9.4-12


18.9.4.118.9.4.218.9.4.3 18.7.3
18.9.3.2
18.9.4.1- 18.9.2
18.9.3.3
l n 1/3
18.7.3

18.9.4.2-
1/6

18.9.4.3- M n 18.7.3

18.9.3.2
12

243
18


18.10 R18.10

18.10.1-

18.10.2-

18.10.3- R18.10.3-
1.0 18.16 18.18
18.10.4





a
b
c


18.10.4-

18.10.4.1- 18.9
8.4

18.10.4.2- R18.10.4.2-8.4
18.19 ACI-ASCE
Committee 423 1999 18.10.4

18.10.43-

18.9

244
18


18.11 R18.11

18.11.1-

18.11.2-

18.11.2.1-
1.6Mpa 7.10.10.9.1 10.9.2
14.3

18.11.2.2-
1.6Mpa

a 7.10.4
b 10


c


d
75mm

18.11.2.3 - R18.11.2.3-14.3
1.6Mpa,14.3

1.6Mpa .

18.12 R18.12

18.12.1- R18.12.1-
13.7 13.7.7.4 13.7.7.5
.

18.11 18.13 18.20
18.22
13.7.7.4

18.10.4
13.7.7.5 13.7.7.5

245
18

18.12.2- 9.218.10.3 18.10.4;9.3 R18.12.2-



M n M u 9.2
18.11 18.13 18.20
18.22
11.111.12.2 11.12.62 Vn

Vu

18.12.3- R18.12.3--
18.10.2 42 48

48 52

.
30 46

18.12.4- R18.12.4-
8 1.5m
0.9Mpa

18.12.5- 18.9.3
18.9.4

18.13 R18.13

1999 18.13 1996


NCHRP

246
18


1994 ACI-
Committee318
AASHTO ACI- Committee318
ACI-
Committee318 AASHTO

18.13.1- R18.13.1-
R18.13.1
a a


.
b 2.2 R18.13.1(b)

247
18

18.13.2- R18.13.2--





AASHTO

p pu

1.29.2.5 18.5.1

0.94 f py

0.8 f pu

p pu = (1.2)(0.80) f pu A ps = 0.96 f pu A ps

18.13.2.1 p pu 9.2.5

9.3.2.2

18.13.2.2--

18.13.2.3-- 18.14.1 18.15.1


18.15.2

18.13.3-- R18.13.3-

R18.13.1b
.

248
18



.

18.13.3

18.13.3.1- p pu 9.2.5

9.3.2.5

18.13.3.2-

18.13.3.3- 18.13.418.13.518.13.6
18.13.3.2 18.14.218.14.3
18.15.3

18.13.4- R18.13.4-


18.13.4.1- 18.24
18-3
f y f py

18.7.2bc
f ps = f se + 70
18.24


18.13.4.2-10-5


0.7f cf'

17Mpa
18.13.4.3-

50% 1/3 1/2

28Mpa,17Mpa

18.13.5-- R18.13.5-18.13.5.1 18.23 18.24



249
18



18.13.5.2
18.2318.24

Tburst R18-1

R18-2Tburst d burst R18.13.5.

R18-1R18-2

hanc
Tburst = p pu (1 )
h

d burst = 0.5(h 2eanc )

p pu - p pu N

hanc -mm

eanc -- p pu , mm

h- mm

1.5

0.4
2%
.

AASHTO
9.21.4 9.21.5,AASHTO 18.23
9.21.3.4

18.13.5.1--

a
b
c
d 18.13.5.2

250
18


e
1-1/2

18.13.5.3-- R18.13.5.3--


.

18.13.5.4-- R18.13.5.4--


18.13.5.5-- R18.13.5.5--

0.35 p pu
0.35 p pu 0.6 f y

25%.

18.13.5.6--

18.13.5.7--

2%

18.13.5.8--

18.13.5.6--

18.14 16mm R18.14 16mm


18.14.1--

251
18


16mm
ACI 432.6 18.15.2

18.14.2-- R18.14.2
ACI-ASCE Committee 423
18.14.22

18.24 13mm
1860Mpa
ACI-ASCE
Committee 423

18.24 18.25
300mm 18.14.2.3
ahead of R18.13.1 18.15

18.14.2.1-- 13mm
18.14.2.2 18.14.2.3
18.13.5

18.14.2.2-- 2 13 13

0.5h
150mm.

18.14.2.3-- 300mm
6
n+1 u n

90
3/8h 1/2h.

18.14.2.4-- 18.14.2.1
18.13.5

252
18


18.14.3 R18.14.3
18.13.3 1.5
18.13.5
18.13.5.2 18.13.5

18.25 18.26

18.5 R18.5
18.15.1 R18.15.1-- R18.13.2
AASHTO
9.21.7.2.2 9.21.7.2.4
AASHTO

18.15.2 -- R18.15.2--



18.16 R18.16

18.16.1-- R18.16.1--
18.26.5.1

18.16.2-- R18.16.2--

18.16.3--

18.16.4-- ACI423.6 R18.16.4-- 1989



2002 ACI423.6.

253
18


18.17 R18.17

18.17.1--

18.17.2-- 6mm

18.17.4-- 0 R18.17.4--0


18.18 R18.18

R18.18.2
R18.18.1 18.18.3.2

18.18.1--

18.18.2-- 18.18.2.1 18.18.2.4 R18.18.2-- 3.6



.
5% 10%

18.18.2.1-- 3.2

18.18.2.2-- 3.4

18.18.2.3-- 3.6

254
18

18.18.3-- R18.18.3-- 50mm


7 17Mpa28
28Mpa

18.18.3.--1 ab
a
b

18.18.3.2--

18.18.3.3--
0.45

18.18.3.4

18.18.4
2 16
5 5.5 16
2

32

18.18.4.1--

18.18.4.2 2
2 50mm 5.5Mpa

18.18.4.3 32

255
18


18.19 R18.19

18.20 R18.20

18.20.1--ab R18.20.1--
a
---
b 1989 18.18.1
7%
ab
5% 7%,

5% 1958
ACI-ASCE Committee 423 1963


5%

18.20.2--

18.20.3

18.20.4 R18.20.4
20%

18.21 R18.21

18.21.1 R18.21.11986 1983 18.19.1


18.19.2
95% 18.19.1
1989
100%

256
18


95%
ASTM 3.5.5





ACI30118.31 18.14 2%
100%


18.21.2
18.32

18.21.3 R18.21.3 18.33


18.9 4.1.3 18.31 15.2.2

18.21.4 R18.21.4 18.9 4.2 4.2


18.26 3.43.6 8.3

18.22 R18.22

18.22.1

18.22.2 18.34

18.22.3 R18.22.3



18.22.4 R18.22.4

257
18

258
19

19


19.1 R19.1


1964 ACI 334

1971 19 1982
ACI.344 R.1 1964
(IASS)

19


19.1.119 R19.1.1
ACI 33419.4
37319.5

19.1.2
19

R19.1.3 19.6 19.7



19.1.3
19.7 19.8 19.8
19.8 19.8

R19.1.4 19.6 19.7 19.7



19.1.4


259
19


R19.1.5 19.8 19.9

19.1.5


19.1.6 R19.1.6

19.1.7 R19.1.7



19.10
19.8 19.8
19.11

19.1.8 R19.1.8
-





19.1219.13

19.1.9

260
19


19.2 R19.2

19.2.1 R19.2.1





19.2.2 R19.2.2
19.12.19.13

19.2.3

19.2.4 R19.2.4


19.2.5 R19.2.5


19.2.6 R19.2.6




261
19


19.2.7 R19.2.7
8.1.1
8.1.2

19.2.8

19.2.8 R19.2.8





1
2
345
67

IASS
19.5
19.15

19.2.9 8.10

8.10.5 T

262
19


19.2.10 R19.2.10
-


19.2.11 R19.2.11
0.4fc

19.3

19.3.1 28
21MPa

19.3.2
420MPa

19.4 R19.4

19.4.1 R19.4.1




19.4.2 R19.4.2




1.0 1.0
0.85 0.75

263
19

19.4.3 R19.4.3
7.12

19.4.4
10.11 13

19.4.5 R19.4.5 10.3.3



19.4.6 R19.4.6


19.4.7 10 R19.4.7 10

19.44


ACI 22419.20


19.4.8 R19.4.8



0.0035

264
19


19.4.9 R19.4.9




19.4.10 450mm
5 R19.4.10 9.3.2.1

0.33
'
f c
3

19.4.11 R19.4.11 R19.4.12


12
1.2ld 450mm 19.4.11 19.4.10

19.4.12 12
12 1.2
450mm
ld
1/3

19.5 R19.5

19.5.1 R19.5.1
Ec
Ec

8.5.1

19.5.2 R19.5.2




265
20

20


20.1 R20.1

20.1.1 20

16.1020



20

20.1.2 R20.1.2

20.2



20.2

20.1.3 R20.1.3



266
20


20.1.4 R20.1.4




a)
bc d


20

20.2 R20.2

20.2.1 R20.2.1

20.2.2 R20.2.2


5%

f y
0.15
fc,
0.2.3 R20.2.3


20.2.4 R20.2.4

267
20


20.2.5 R20.2.5 20.2.5 9
20.1.2 9.3

20.3 R20.3

20.3.1 R20.3.1

20.3.2 R20.3.2

0.85 (1.4D +
1.7L)L2002 L
20.2.5
9 /

2002
9
C

20.3.356

20.4 R20.4

20.4.1 R20.4.3


20.4.2
24

268
20

20.4.3 20.4.4

20.4.4 24

20.5 R20.5

20.5.1

20.5.2 R20.5.2
2
lt
1 201
20000h

1
r 202 2
4 lt /( 20000h)

72 r r

2
r 203
5

20.5.3 R20.5.3





269
20


20.5.4 R20.5.420.5.4

20.5.5 R20.5.5


20.6 R20.6

20.1.220.5.2 20.5.3 20.5



20.7

20.7.1

20.7.2

270
21

21


21.1 R21.1

21.7.6
21.9.5.3

90
6
90



NEHRP21.1ASCE 7-95ASCE
9.2 The American Society of Civil Engineers
UBC21.2
BOCA/ BOCA21.3

SBC 21.4 50 90%


90

271
21

Aj 21.5.3.1

3.3

21.2.2.3 21.12


1 18

21.2.2.321.2.3 21.6
21.2.7 21.3 21.5
21.2.2.321.2.3 21.2.7
21.3 21.6

hh

135 90
6
75mm

272
21


21.7.6.2 21.7.6.3

1 18 21.13
21.13
1 18 1 18
21.13 21.8
22

21.8 21.8

21.2.2.3 21.2.3 21.2.7 21.7

21.2.2.3
21.2.3 21.2.7 21.7

21.2 R21.2

21.2.1 R21.2.1
21.2.1.1 21 21

273
21



1.1.1
21.2.4.1 IBC 21.5UBC 21.2
NEHRP21.1
21.2.1.2 21.1,21.6-21.8
1 18 22

21


21.8
21.2.1.3 21.2


1 18 22
21
21

21.2.1.4

21.2.2 21.2.8 21.3 21.10
1.1.8.3R1.1.8.3 R1.1.8.3 2000 IBC21.5
21.11 2000NEHRP21.9 1997NEHRP21.1

21.2.1.5








1 18 22

21

21

21.2.1.321.12 21.13

274
21


21.13






21.2.2 21.2.8 21.3 21.11



21 22 R21.2.1

21





ACI T1.1-01
21

21.2.1.5
R21.2.1 2122 *






21.2.1.3 21.2.1.4
21.221.321.4
21.12
21.5
21.221.7
21.13 21.221.8
21.221.9
21.221.10

2.11

22.4 22.422.10.1
*
1 18 21

275
21

21.2.2 R21.2.2
21.2.2.1



21.2.2.2




21.2.2.3
21 2

21.1 21.2
21.2.2.4
21.11

21 21.2.2.1
21.2.2.2

21.2.2.3

21.2.3
9.3.4

276
21


21.2.4 R21.2.4
21.2.4.1 f c ' 21MPa

21.2.4.2 f c ' 35MPa
35MPa



21.2.5 R21.2.5

ASTM A 706MASTM
A 615M280 420

(1) f y [ 21.2.5(1)]
125MPa 146MPa
(2) 1.25 [21.2.5(2)]
f yt
420MPa
21.10

21
1.25


21.2.6 R21.2.6
21.2.6.1 1 2
2
(1) 1 12.14.3.2
1 2
(2) 2 12.14.3.2 1

277
21


21.2.6.2 1 1
12.14.3.2

2

2

21.2.7 R21.2.7
21.2.7.1 R21.2.7.1 3
12.14.3.4 ANSI/AWS D1.4

12.14.3.4

21.2.7.2 R21.2.7.2



21.2.8
21.2.8.1

D D.3.3

21.3 R21.3

21.3.1 R21.3.1
21.3 (1)
(2) ( Ag f c ' / 10 )
21.3.1.1 21.3.1.4 21.4

21.3.1.1 Pu 21.11
Ag f c ' / 10 4

21.3.1.2 l n 4

278
21


21.3.1.3bw 0.3 h 250mm 4

21.3.1.3 21.3.1.4
21.3.1.4 bw

21.3.2 R21.3.2
10.3.5 t






0.003


21.3.2.1 10.5.3 R21.3.2.10.025



(10-3) 1.4bw d / f y
0.025

21.3.2.2

21.3.2.3 R21.3.2.3

d / 4 100mm

(1)
(2)

279
21


(3)

21.3.2.4 21.2.6
21.2.7

21.3.3 R21.3.3
21.3.3.1
(1)
R21.3.3
(2)



21.3.3.2
50mm (1)(2) (3)
(4) 21.3.3.5
(1) d / 4
(2)
(3) 24
(4)300mm

21.3.3.3
7.10.5.3

21.3.3.4
d / 2

21.3.3.5 21.3.3 21.4.4 21.5.2

21.3.3.6

90

90

R21.3.3

280
21


21.3.4 R21.3.4
21.3.4.1 R21.3.4.1
Ve

M pr 3~4




21.3.4.1 R21.3.4



1.25 f y

21.3.4.2 R21.3.4.2
21.13 21.14

21.3.3.1
(1) (2)
Vc = 0
(1) 21.3.4.1

21.3.4.2
(2) Pu
Ag f c ' / 20





21.4 R21.4

21.4.1 R21.4.1
(1) 21.4.1
(2) Ag f c ' / 10 21.3.1
Pu

281
21


21.4.1.1 21.4.1.2 21.4.1.1 21.4.1.2
21.12
R21.3.4
21.4.1.1 1. V e
300mm
2. M pr 1.25 f y f y
21.4.1.2
0.4
3. M pr M pr
V e

R21.3.4

282
21


21.4.2 R21.4.2
21.4.2.1 Pu 21.4.2.2
21.4.2.2 21.4.2.3 Pu
Ag f c ' / 10


21.4.2.2
21.11

21.4.2.2(21-1) 21.4.2.2
(21-1)
M nc (1.2 ) M nb (21-1)
1995
M nc =


M nb = T

21.15 8.10
M nb 8.10

21.4.2.2
(21-1)

21.4.2.3 21.4.2.2
21.4.4.1 21.4.4.3

21.4.3 R21.4.3
21.4.3.1Ast 0.01Ag
0.06 Ag

21.4.3.2 21.2.6
21.2.7

21.4.4.2
21.4.4.3

283
21




21.16

21.4.4 R21.4.4
21.4.4.1(1)(5)
21.4.3.2 21.4.5

(1) s
(21-2) 21.17

s = 0.12 f c ' / f yt (21-2)

(10-5)
(2) Ash 21.18(10-5)(21-3)
(21-3)(21-4)

[ ]
Ash = 0.3(sbc f c ' / f yt )(Ag / Ach ) 1 (21-3)
(21-2)(21-4)

Ash = 0.09sbc f c ' / f yt (21-4)


R21.4.4
(3) 90
135
90

(4) E
(21-3) (10-5)

(5)
100mm 300mm

100mm

21.4.4.2(1)(2)(3)

(1)
(2)6
(3)(21-5) s 0

hx 350mm
hx = h x
R21.4.4

284
21


21.4.4.2 21.4.4.3
350 hx
s 0 = 100 + (21-5)
3 6
s 0 150mm 100mm 100mm

21.4.4.3 200mm 21.4.4.2 100mm
hx 350mm 150mm

21.4.4.4 21.4.4.1 21.4.4.3


l 0 l 0

l 0 (1)(2)(3)

(1) 21.4.4.4

(2)
(3)450mm 50%

21.4.4.5

Ag f c ' / 10
21.4.4.1 21.4.4.3
21.4.4.1 21.4.4.3 21.4.4.5
l d l d
21.5.4
21.4.4.6
21.4.4.1 21.4.4.3
l d l d

21.4.4.1 21.4.4.3
300mm

21.4.4.6 21.4.4.1 21.4.4.3 R21.4.4.6 21.4.4.6


1989
s s 6
150mm

285
21


21.4.5 R21.4.5
21.4.5.1 R21.4.5.1
Ve 21.3.4.1

M pr
Pu
1.0
M pr Ve 1.25 f y

R21.3.4 M pr
21.4.5.2 21.4.4.4
l 0
(1)(2) Vc = 0
(1) 21.4.5.1
l 0
(2) Pu
Ag f c ' / 20

21.5 R21.5

21.5.1 R21.5.1
21.5.1.1
1.25 f y
1.25 f y
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21.5.1.3
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20
26
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286
21


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h
21.4.4.1
21.4.4.2 21.5.2.3
150mm

21.5.2.3

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21.5.3 R21.5.3
21.5.3.1 Vn 21
21.10
21.20 21.11
1.7 fc 'Aj
ACI
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1.2 fc 'Aj ACI Committee 35221.10 318
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A j R21.5.3 A j

21.5.3.1
ACI Committee 35221.10
A j 21.28 1983
21.5.3.1

(1)(2)

287
21


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21.5.3.2
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21.5.2.3 21.5.3.1
3/4
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21.5.4 R21.5.4
21.5.4.1 90
216 8d b 21-621-6
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l dh = f y d b /( 5 .4 f 'c ) 21-6
0.8 12.5
10 36

90
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90
21-6
21.5.4.210 36
(a)(b)
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21.5.4.3 21.5.4.2
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288
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291
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Fig.R21.7.4.5

292
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294
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295
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296
21

21.9 R21.9

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21.9.5 R21.9.5

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297
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21.4.4.3
c

2000 NEHRPSEI/ASCE 7-022003 IBC


0.2 f c ' 1997 UBC
0.5 f c ' , 0.15 f c ' 0.4 f c '


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299
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301
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302
21

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21.5121.52 21.5121.52

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303
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21.11.5
11.12.1.2

21.12 R21.12

21.12.1 21.12.3

21.12.2 21.12.3a
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21.12.6 R21.12.3

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ab R21.12.3
a

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21.12.3a
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b
c
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304
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21.12.3
21.12.4 21.12.5

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13.5.3.2

305
21

21.12.5

21.12.5.1 7.10.4
21.12.5.2 21.12.5.421.12.5.5 21.12.6.1 R21.12.6.2 R21.12.6.3

21.12.5.2
a bcd

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11.5.5.1

21.12.5.5 11.11.2
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13.2.1

21.12.6.213.5.3.2
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=45

Ct
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21.12.6.4 1/4

306
21

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307
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1
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308
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309
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310
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:

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, Sm
.
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311
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312
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313
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314
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315
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318
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25
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324
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A.3.2.1 s =1.0 RA.3.2.1 A.3.2.1 s


A.3.2.2 RA.3.2.2A.3.2.2 s RA.1.3


RA.1.8

a A.3.3 s =0.75

b A.3.3 s =0.60 A.3.2.2b s


11.7.4.3

A.3.2.3 s =0.40 RA.3.2.3A.3.2.3 s



s

A.3.2.4 s =0.60 RA.3.2.4 A.3.2.2 s A.3.2.1 A.3.2.2


A.3.2.3 RA.3.2ab


A.3.2.4 s

325
A

RA.3.2

A.3.3 A.3.2.2a s RA.3.3 RA.1.8(b)A.3.3



2:1
RA.1.8(b) 2:1
f c ' 40MPa (A-4)
A.3.3.1 f c ' 40Mpa A.3.3
(A-4)
RA.3.3
A
b Ssi sin i 0.003 (A-4) i
s i
Asi f si
sin i
bs S i
Asi Si i i
i i 1 2(A-4)

A.3.3
A.3.3 f ce A.3.3.2(a)

A.3.3.2A.3.3 RA.3.3.2 1.0


1 2 .11.9.2
40 A.3.3

326
A

RA.3.2

A.3.4 RA.3.4
A. 4 A.8

A.3.5 RA.3.5(A-5)

7.10 280 420 f s ' = f y

Fns = f cu Ac + Ac ' f s ' (A-5)

A.4 RA.4

A.4.1 Fnt

Fnt = Ats f y + Atp ( f se + f p ) A-6


( f se + f p ) f tp , Atp =0

(A-6) f p
=420MPa f p =70
MPa f p

A.4.2 RA.4.2 Wt

327
A

(a) 5
.RA.1.6(a)

(b)
Fnt
Wt ,max =
( f ce bs )
fce A.5.2(a)

.RA.1.6(b)

A.4.3 RA.4.3
A.4.3.1
A.4.3.4 l anc .RA.1.6(a)
(b)
A.4.3.1 .RA.1.5(c)
90

A.4.3.2


A.4.3.3
.RA.4.3

A.4.3.4A.3.3 12.13

A.5 RA.5

A.5.1 Fnn RA.5.1



Fnn = f ce Anz A-7
fce A.5.2 Anz
(a)(b)

328
A

RA.3.2

(a) Fu
Anz A.5.1(a)
(b)
.RA.1.6(b)
Ac
An A.5.1(a)

A.5.1(b)

A.5.1(a) A.5.1(b)

A.5.2 RA.5.2
fce C-C-C
C-C-T .RA.1.4
C-C-C C-C-T C-T-T T-T-T
f ce = 0.85 n f c ' (A-8) A.5.2.1 A.5.2.3 A-8
n A.5.2.1 A.5.2.3

n
A.5.2.1 n =1.0 A.5.2.1 A.5.2.3
A-8

329
A

A.5.2.2 n =0.80

A.5.2.3 n =0.60

A.5.3 RA.5.3
A.5.1

330
B

B.1 RB.1

B B
B B.4B.8.4.1B.8.4.2 B.8.4.3 8 B
10.3.5.1 B.10.3.3 10.3.310.3.4
10.3.5B.18.1.3B.18.8.1B.18.8.2 B.18.8.3
18.10.418.10.4.1 18.10.4.2 B

9 C

B.8.4 RB.8.4

B.18.10.4

B.8.4.1



'
20(1 )%
b

20%Cohn Mattock
B.8.4.2


B.8.4.3 ' 0.50 b

0.85 1 f c ' 600


b = ( )
fy 600 + f y
13.6.1.7
B-1

331
C

RB.8.4

B.10.3 RB.10.3

B.10.3.3 Pn min RB.10.3.3


0.10 f c ' Ag Pb
0.75 b
b 0.75



fy
f y fc =
fc

fy
=
fc



0.75 b

B.8.4

0.5 b

332
C


B.18.1 RB.18.1

B.18.1.3 RB.18.1.3
6.4.47.6.5B.8.48.10.2 8.10.3
8.10.48.11B.10.3.310.510.610.9.1 10.9.2
13 14.314.5 14.6 6.4.4
6.4.4

6.4.4

7.6.5 18.9 18.12


7.6.5

B.8.4
B.8.10.4
8.10.2 8.10.3 8.10.4 T
8.10.2 8.10.3 8.10.4


8.10.2 8.10.3 8.10.4
T

8.10.2 8.10.3 8.10.4
8.10.2

8.10.1 8.10.5 T

8.11 R.8.11


8.11

333
C

B.10.3.310.510.610.9.1 10.9.2
B.18.8 18.9 18.11.2
B.10.3.310.510.610.9.1 10.9.2

10.6 10.6


13
13

13
18.12

14.5 14.6

B.18.8 RB.18.8

B.18.8.1 18.8.2 RB.18.8.1 a

p p p + (d d p )( ' )

p + (d d p )( ' ) 0.361 pw + (d d p )( w w ' ) 0.85 a d p ,


10.2.7.1
pw + (d d p )( w w ' ) 0.361

p = p f ps f c '

w pw p p
bw b
As Aps w ' ' '
bw b

B.18.8.2 B.18.8.1 RB.18.8.2


1983

334
C

B.18.8.3 9.5.2.3 RB.18.8.3


1.2



(a)

(b) 9.2 2



18.9.3 18.9.4

B.18.10 RB.18.10

B.18.10.1

B.18.10.2

B.18.10.3 RB.18.10.3

B.18.10.4



335
C

(a)
(b)(c)


B.18.10.4 RB.18.10.4

B.18.10.4.1 18.9


d
wp + ( w w' )
dp
20(1 )%
0.36 1

B.18.10.4.2
18.4 0.24 1 p

p + (d d p )( ' ) pw + (d d p )( w w ' )
B.18.10.4.3
B.8.4
p p + (d d p )( ' )
0.5 b
pw + (d d p )( w w ' ) 0.24 1
a

B.18.10.4.1 B.10.4.3 p p + (d d p )( ' )

pw + (d d p )( w w ' ) 0.85 a d p ,

B.18.10.4.1
B.18.10.4.3

B.18.10.4.4

18.9

336
C

C

C.1 RC.1

C.1.1 C RC.1.1 2002


20

C.2 RC.2
7-98 IBC2000C.1
C.2.1 D L U 0.85

U = 1.4D + 1.7L (C-1) (1.3/ 0.85 = 1.53 1.6)

C.2.2 W U 1.3
(C-1), (C-2), (C-3)

U = 0.75(1.4D + 1.7L) + (1.6W 1.0E) (C-2) 1.0
U = 0.9D + (1.6 W 1.0E) (C-3) 7-93C.2BOCA/NBC93C.3; SBC 94C.4;
UBC 97C.5; IBC 2000C.1
W
(C-2) (C-3) 1.6W 1.3W E 1.4
(C-2) (C-3)
1.0W 1.4E

C.2.3 RC.2.3 H
H U
(C-1) (C-4): U = 1.4D + 1.7L + 1.7H D
U = 1.4D + 1.7L + 1.7H (C-4) L H U = 1.4D + 1.7L + 1.7H
(C-4) D L H DLH U = 1.4D + 1.7L
1.4D 0.9DL 0
U

C.2.4 RC.2.4
F F 1.4
L F

R8.2

U = 1.4D + 1.7L + 1.4F
D L F

337
C


U = 0.9D + 1.4F
D L F
U = 1.4D + 1.7L

C.2.5 RC.2.5
L
L+ L

C.2.6 RC.2.6
T T
U (C-5) (C-6)
U = 0.75(1.4D + 1.4T + 1.7L) (C-5)
U = 1.4(D + T) (C-6)
(C-6)
T U = 0.75 (1.4D + 1.4T + 1.7L)
U = 1.05 (D + T)

C.2.7 RC.2.7 1.2


1.2
113
96

C.3 RC.3

C.3.1 RC.3.1

1
C.3.2,
C.3.4, C.3.5. 1
2
3
4





C.3.2

C.3.2.1 10.3.4 RC.3.2.1 C.3.2.1 C.3.2.2


C3.2.7

338
C


C.3.2.2 10.3.3 RC.3.2.2 2002
a 10.9.3
0.75
b0.70

t

t 0.9
0.005

B fy 420 MPa
(d d )/h 0.70
0.9Pn 0.10fcAg 0. Pn Mn
0.90 Pn 10.3.3 10.3.4
0.10fcAg Pb 0
0.005
t
RC3.2
t R10.3.3

10.2.3
0.003 c/dt,
c
dt
. c/dt
0.6 0.3750.6
420 RC.3.2
c/dt.

R.3.2 420 t
c/d t

339
C


/b
1999
420 /b 0.63
0.005 1999
9.3 C.6

C.3.2.3..0.85

C.3.2.4
.0.70

C.3.2.5 ..0.85 RC.3.2.5 0.85


18.13.4.2
0.7fci
0.85 0.7fci
0.6fci

C.3.2.6 A
.0.85

C.3.2.7 RC.3.2.7
12.9.1
0.85

C.3.3

C.3.4 RC.3.4 C3.4


E ac

a ) E C3.4

0.6.
C.3.4(a)

b


1994
C.3.4(b) 0.60

340
C


0.60

C.3.5 22 RC.3.5
0.65


341
D


D.1 RD.1
-
,
,(J L ),,

---

14
14 30

14 30
A307

342
D

RD.1

5 K 0.5 5

X - K 0.5 S S n X

S S K 0.5 n

1.645, n 40 2.010, n 10 2.568


5 5 D4.2
95 90 ACI 355.2

eh

3do 90 L 180
J

AWS D1.1

RD.1

343
D

D.2 RD.2

D.2.1 D ab RD.2.1 D







D.2.2 D RD.2.2

D
D

D.2.3 RD.2.3 /
1.4NpNp (D-15)
B1.1, D1.1 B18.2.1, d .2 B18.2.6D.3

1.4Vp
Vp (D-16)

344
D


ACI 355.2
ACI 355.2
ACI 355.2

D.2.4 RD.2.4

D.3.3

D.3 RD.3
D.3.1 RD.3.1






D.4 D.6

D.3.2 9.2

D.3.3 RD.3.3
D.3.3.1 D.3.3.5 ACI 355.2.

ACI 355.2.
D

N n Vn

0.75





345
D

D.3.3.1 D RD.3.3.1 ACI 355.2


3.1 D


D.3.3.2
D.2.3
ACI 355.2

D.3.3.3

0.75Nn 0.75Vn, D.4.4 D.4.5 Nn


Vn D.4.1

D.3.3.4

D.3.3.5

D.3.3.5 D.3.3.4

D.3.3.3

D.3.4

N n Vn

fc 0.75

0.85

D.3.5 fc RD.3.5
70 MPa 55 MPa D.7
fc 55 MPa 75 85MPa
,
fc 70MPa
ACI 355.2
fc 55MPa

346
D



55MPa

D.4 RD.4
D.4.1 D.4.2 D.4.1
5 RD.4.1(a) RD.4.1(b)

(a)(D.5.1) D.8 D.10 D.4.2 D.4.3
b (D.6.1)
c(D.5.2) D.5.2
d(D.6.2) D.6.2 D.5.3
e(D.5.3) D.5.4 D.8
f(D.5.4)
g(D.6.3) D.9

D.8. ACI 355.2


D.4.1.1 D.3.3 D.4.2

Nn Nua (D-1) 5 5
Vn Vua (D-2)

D.4.1.2 (D-1)(D-2)Nn Vn
Nn
Nsa, nNpn, Nsb Nsbg, Ncb
Ncbg
Vn Vsa,Vcb Vcbg
Ncp Ncpg

D.4.1.3 Nua Vua D.4.3.

D.4.2 RD.4.2 RD.4.3 D.4.2 D.4.3



D.4.2
5

347
D

348
D


D4.2.1- RD.4.2.1-
, D4.2 ,
.

,
D.8,D.11
D.12
ACI355.2 D5.2 D6.2


.

D4.2.2

,


,
RD.6.2.1

D4.2.2- 50mm , RD4.2.2- D4.2


635mm, (D.9,D.10),
D5.2 D6.2 K ,,,


.,,,

K
35 [RD4.2.2(a)(b)].

D4.3-
,
D.7

349
D

RD4.4- f uta
D4.4 9.2 ,
: (D5.1 D6.1)
a)
fya f uta fya
1) ----0.75
2) ----0.65


b) :
1) ----0.65 0.75( D3.3.4)
2) ----0.60 ,
.
( A),( B).
c) , , RD.4.2.1 D.8,D.11, D.12,D.15
: RD.4.5
A B
1) 0.75 0.70 ACI355.2
2) . ACI355.2
, , ,
0.75 0.70 ,,

350
D


ACI335.2
1 1:
() 0.75 0.65

2 2:
() 0.65 0.55

3 3:
() 0.55 0.45

A
, A
=0.75, B =0.70
B

D4.5 C , RD 4.5 R9.1 ,2002


: 7-98 1999 C 9.2
9.3
a) : D 1999
1) ----0.80 9.2 9.3 D4.5
2) -----0.75 2002 C
b) : .1999 C , 1999 C
1) ----0.70 .D4.4
2) -----0.65 2002.9.2 .,
c) , , D C
: ,
A B D
1) 0.85 0.75
2)
C
0.65 =0.75
0.85 0.75 D.16 ,=0.65

0.05 ,
=0.65
,=0.75
( A),
(
ACI349D.15 ) 0.85

351
D


ACI335.2
1
() 0.85 0.75

2
() 0.75 0.65

3
() 0.65 0.55

B
.

D.5 RD.5

D.5.1 RD5.1

D5.1.1, N sa

D.5.1.2 N sa RD5.1.2 Ase f uta



Ase f ya ,
N sa = nAse f uta (D-3)
,, 1986

n, f uts 1.9 f ya Ase f uta (D-3) 9.2

860MPa . D4.4
.

f uta 1.9fya
, f ys f uta 1.9fya

LRFO
, 9.2

f uta f ya 1.4/0.75=1.87, C ,
( 0.75),

352
D

1.55(1.4D+1.6L ), f uta f ya

1.55/0.8=1.94., f uta

1.9fya. f uta f ya

f ya

( f uta f ya
1.6).


, ,

,, Ase

0.9743 2
Ase = (d 0 )
4 nt

nt mm


D.5.2 RD.5.2

D.5.2.1 RD.5.2.1 ,
NcbNcbg,
(a) ANc/ANco ed ,N (D-4) and (D-5)
Anc Figure RD.5.2.1(a) ANco Eq. (D-6)ANco
Ncb = ed ,n c ,n cp ,n N b (D-4)
Anco
(b) Figure RD.5.2.1(b)
Anc ANc
Ncbg = ec ,n ed ,n c ,n cp ,n N b (D-5)
Anco ANco
ec,N, ed,N, c,N,cp,N D.5.2.4, n, Eq (D-4) (D-5)
D.5.2.5, D.5.2.6, D.5.2.7
ANc ANc
1.5hef
ANc nANcon
ANco
1.5hef

Anco = 9hef 2
(D-6)

353
D

354
D


D.5.2.2 RD.5.2.2 D.9-D.11,D.14
35
Nb = k c fc ' hef 1.5 (D-7)

k=10 ; kc
kc=7 D.9
kc ACI 355.2 kcD.10,D.19 ACI 355.2
7 10 kc
280 mm hef 635 (hef > 280 mm),
mm Nb
hef1.5

Nb = 3.9 fc ' hef 5 / 3 (D-8)
(Eq.
(D-8))
hef5 3 280 mm hef 635mm
635mm
Eq.
(D-8) D.4.2.

D.5.2.3 RD.5.2.3 1.5hef


1.5hef Eq. (D-4)(D-11) hef Eq. (D-4 (D-11) CCD
ca,max /1.5 D.20
ANc /ANco
hef
(D-4) (D-11) ca,max/1.5
1.5hef
ca,max
hef

Fig. RD.5.2.3
hef = ca,max/1.5 hef
hef = hef=100 mm. hef

D.5.2.3
hef
Eq. (D-4D-11) hef
1
2 Fig.
RD.5.2.3 A
hef

355
D

356
D


D.5.2.4 RD.5.2.4 RD.5.2.4(a)
1
ec , n = 1 . 0
2e' N [ RD.5.2.4(b)]
(1 + )
3 hef eN.

eN Ncbg
ec,N

D.5.2.5- RD.5.2.5-

ed , n = 1 c a , min 1 . 5 hef D-10
ANc /A Nco.
1.5hef
C a , min
ed , n = 0 .7 + 0 .3 (ed,N = 1).
1 . 5 hef
1.5hefed,N

c a , min 1 . 5 hef D-11

D.5.2.6- RD.5.2.6- ACI 355.2



c,N = 1.25
c,N = 1.4 7.12.1.2)ACI 355.2 0.3 mm
Eq. (D-7) kc 17Eq. (D-7) kc 0.3
ACI 355.2 mm
c,N 1.0. Eq. (D-7) and (D-8)
(c,N = 1.0) c,N kc = 10
c,N 1.0. ACI 355.2 , 7 (
)c,N 1.25
10.6.4 , 1.4 c,N kc =13
, 10 (
)

D5.2.7 D.5.2.6 RD5.2.7-D.5


ca,min, 1.5hef

cp , n = 1 c a , min c ac D-12


C 1 . 5 hef
cp , n = a , min
1.5hef
C ac C ac

D.5.2.1
c a , min c ac D-13

357
D


Cac D.8.6
cp,N 1.0 ca,min caccp,N

1.0
A B D.4.4 D.4.5.

D.5.3 RD.5.3

D.5.3.1Npn,

Npn =c,P*Np
c,P D.5.3.6.

D.5.3.2Np RD.5.3.2- D.5.3.4 D.5.3.5


ACI 355.2


D.5.3.3 D.5.3.4. RD.5.3.3-


JL D.5.3.5
ACI
355.2 Np

D.5.3.4(D-14) RD.5.3.4-(D-15)
Np D.8,D.1

Np = 8 Abrg f c ' D-15

D.5.3.5Np,(D-14) RD.5.3.5-(D-16) Lutz D.22




Np = 0.9 f c ' eh d o D-16
eh D.22.

D.5.3.6

c,P = 1.4
c,P = 1.0

358
D


D.5.4

ReferenceD.23.

ACI355.2

D.5.4.1(ca1 < 0.4hef )


,Nsb ,

Nsb = 13C a1 Abrg fc' D-17

ca2 3ca1Nsb
(1 + ca2/ca1)/41.0 ca2/ca1 3.0.

D.5.4.2(ca1 < 0.4hef )


6ca1
Nsbg

s
Nsbg = (1 + ) Nsb D-18
6C a1
S Nsb (D-17)

D.6
D.6.1-

D.6.1.1-Vsa

D.6.1.2Vsa D.6.1.2- Ase futa


Ase fya 0.6Ase
(a) futa
Eq. (D-19) (D-20)
Vsa = nAsefuta D-19
AISC Load and Resistance Factor Design
N futa 1.9fya 860MPa Specification1.9fyafuta
futa1.9fyafuta
(b) LRFD RD.5.1.2

ANSI/ASME B1.1D.1 Ase
Vsa = n0.6 Asefuta D-20
0.9743 2
N futa 1.9fya 860MPa Ase = (d 0 ) nt mm.
4 nt

359
D


(c)Vsa ACI
355.2. D-20

D.6.1.3 D.6.1.2
0.80

D.6.2 RD.6.2

D.6.2.1 RD.6.2.1- CCD


,Vcb Vcbg, 35 ( Fig.
(a) RD.4.2.2(b)),
Avc
Vcb = ed ,v c ,vVb D-21
Avco AVc /AVcoec,V (D-21) and
(b) (D-22Eq). (D-22).
Avc D.6.2 D.6.1D.6.3
Vcb = ed ,vec, v c ,vVb D-22
Avco Fig. RD.6.2.1(a) AVco (D-23)
(c) Vcb Vcbg AVco
Eq. (D-21) (D-22) .RD.6.2.1(b)
ed,V 1.0 .
(d) AVc
AVco
ec,V,ed,V,c,V D.6.2.5,D.6.2.6,
D.6.2.7Vb
AVc (D-22) Fig. RD.6.2.1(b)
AVc ca1

AVc nAVco n
AVco 1.5ca1

3ca11.5ca1 Fig. RD.6.2.1(b).PCI Design Handbook
AVco approachD.17

Avco = 4.5(ca1) 2 D-23
,D.11 D.6.2
1.5ca1

ca1 Fig. RD.6.2.1(b)



ReferenceD.8

360
D





Reference D.11

D.6.2.1(a)
D.6.1D.6.3
Fig.RD.6.2.1(c)
Fig. RD.6.2.1(d)

D.6.2.2 RD.6.2.2
Vb (ca1)2
le 0.2 (ca1)1.5
Vb = 0.6( ) d0 fc ' (Ca1)1.5 D-24
do 0.6
Le

le=hef
le=2do
le 8do

D.6.2.3 RD.6.2.3-
10mm
Vb
le 0.2
Vb = 0.7( ) d0 fc ' (Ca1)1.5 D-25
do ReferencesD.8,
le D.6.2.2. D.11, D.12

(a)

(b),s, 65mm;
(c) ca2 1.5hef

361
D

D.6.2.4-Eq. (D-23) RD.6.2.4-


(D-28) ca1 ca2 /1.5 1.5ca1 CCD
ha/1.5 .
Lutz.
Eq. (D-21) (D-28) ca1
ca2 /1.5ha /1.5

362
D





Fig. RD.6.2.4.ca1
ca2 /1.5ha /1.5

ca1 Vcb or Vcbg,
ca1
D.6.2.4 Eq. (D-21)
to(D-28) ca1
(a)
(b)
A ca1

D.6.2.5- RD.6.2.5-

1
ec ,v = 1 D-26
2ev'
(1 + )
3ea1
Figure RD.6.2.5 ev
ec,V

ev Eq.(D-22). Vcbg

363
D

D.6.2.6

ed ,v = 1.0 Ca 2 > 1.5ca1 D-27

Ca 2
ed ,v = 0.7 + 0.3 Ca 2 < 1.5ca1 D-27
1.5Ca1

D.6.2.7

ec ,v = 1.4

c,V = 1.0
No.13
c,V = 1.2 No.13

c,V = 1.4 No.13


100mm

D.6.3 RD.6.3

D.6.3.1Vcp or Vcpg Reference D.9 hef 65


(a) mm

Vcp = KcpNcb D-29

(b)

Vcpg = KcpNcbg D-30

364
D

Kcp = 1 hef 65mm

Kcp = 2 hef 65mm


Ncb Ncbg Eq. (D-4) (D-5)

D.7 RD.7

D.4.3,
D.7.1 D.7.3 Nn Nua Vua
( ) +( ) 1.0
Vn D.4.1.2. Nn Vn
1 2 . =
D.7.1 Vua0.2Vn, : 5/3(Fig. RD.7)
Nn > Nua.

D.7.2 Nua0.2Nn, : D.4.3
Vn > Vua.

D.7.3 Vua>0.2Vn Nua>0.2Nn,:

Nua Vua
+ 1.2
Nn Vn

D.8 RD.8



ACI 355.2
ACI 355.2

365
D


D.8.1 D.8.4
4do
6do

D.8.2 D.8.4 RD.8.2


7.7 D.5.4
6do.

D.8.3 D.8.4 , RD.8.3


7.7 ACI 355.2

ACI 355.2

. 6do
8do
10do

D.8.4 RD.8.4 D.8.1 D.8.3


do D.8.1
D.8.3 do
do

D.8.5 hef 2/3 RD.8.5


100 mm . Appendix D


2/3.

D.8.6 ACI 355.2 RD.8.6 cac ACI 355.2



2.5hef ca,min=1.5hef
. 4hef
4hef
cac

D.8.7

366
D


D.9 RD.9
D.9.1 RD.9.1
ACI355.2.






ACI 355.2
.

367
E

E
ACI



*
mm mm2 kg/m
10 9.5 71 0.56
13 12.7 129 0.994
16 15.9 199 1.552
19 19.1 284 2.235
22 22.2 387 3.042
25 25.4 510 3.973
29 28.7 645 5.060
32 32.3 819 6.404
36 35.8 1006 7.907
43 43.0 1452 11.38
57 57.3 2581 20.24



*
mm mm2 kg/m
6.4 23.2 0.182 6
7.9 37.4 0.294 8
17 9.5 51.6 0.405 9
1725 11.1 69.7 0.548 11
12.7 92.9 0.730 13
15.2 139.4 1.094 15
9.53 54.8 0.432 9
17 11.11 74.2 0.582 11
1860 12.70 98.7 0.775 13
15.24 140.0 1.102 15
4.88 18.7 0.146 NA
4.98 19.5 0.149 NA

6.35 31.7 0.253 NA
7.01 38.6 0.298 NA
19 284 2.23 NA
22 387 3.04 NA
25 503 3.97 NA
29 639 5.03 NA
32 794 6.21 NA
35 955 7.52 NA

369
E

15 181 1.46 NA
20 271 2.22 NA
26 548 4.48 NA

32 806 6.54 NA

36 1019 8.28 NA
46 1664 13.54 NA
65 3331 27.10 NA
*
NA=


mm2/m
W&D
mm
mm kg/m 50 75 100 150 200 250 300
MW290 MD290 19.22 2.27 5800 3900 2900 1900 1450 1160 970
MW200 MD200 15.95 1.5700 4000 2700 2000 1300 1000 800 670
MW130 MD130 12.90 1.0204 2600 1700 1300 870 650 520 430
MW120 MD120 12.40 0.9419 2400 1600 1200 800 600 480 400
MW100 MD100 11.30 0.7849 2000 1300 1000 670 500 400 330
MW90 MD90 10.70 0.7064 1800 1200 900 600 450 360 300
MW80 MD80 10.10 0.6279 1600 1100 800 530 400 320 270
MW70 MD70 9.40 0.5464 1400 930 700 470 350 280 230
MW65 MD65 9.10 0.5102 1300 870 650 430 325 260 220
MW60 MD60 8.70 0.4709 1200 800 600 400 300 240 200
MW55 MD55 8.40 0.4317 1100 730 550 370 275 220 180
MW50 MD50 8.00 0.3925 1000 670 500 330 250 200 170
MW45 MD45 7.60 0.3532 900 600 450 300 225 180 150
MW40 MD40 7.10 0.3140 800 530 400 270 150 120 130
MW35 MD35 6.70 0.2747 700 470 350 230 175 140 120
MW30 MD30 6.20 0.2355 600 400 300 200 150 120 100
MW25 MD25 5.60 0.1962 500 330 250 170 125 100 83
MW20 5.00 0.1570 400 270 200 130 100 80 67
MW15 4.40 0.1177 300 200 150 100 75 60 50
MW10 3.60 0.0785 200 130 100 70 50 40 33
MW5 2.50 0.0392 100 67 50 33 25 20 17

370
E


MPa Kgf/cm2 / psi

1 MPa 10Kgf/cm2 psi

f c' =21MPa f c' =210Kgf/cm2 f c' =3000psi

f c' =28MPa f c' =280Kgf/cm2 f c' =4000psi

f c' =35MPa f c' =350Kgf/cm2 f c' =5000psi

f c' =40MPa f c' =420Kgf/cm2 f c' =6000psi

f y =280MPa f c' =2800Kgf/cm2 f c' =40000psi

f y =420MPa f c' =4200Kgf/cm2 f c' =60000psi

f pu =1725MPa f c' =17600Kgf/cm2 f c' =250000psi

f pu =1860MPa f c' =19000Kgf/cm2 f c' =270000psi

f c' in MPa 3.18 f c' in Kgf/cm2 1.2 f c' in psi

0.313 f c' in MPa f c' in Kgf/cm2 3.77 f c' in psi

0.083 f c' in MPa 0.27 f c' in Kgf/cm2 f c' in psi

0.17 f c' in MPa 0.53 f c' in Kgf/cm2 2 f c' in psi

f c'r = f c' +2.33 ss -3.5 f c' r = f c' +2.33 ss -35 f c'r = f c' +2.33 ss -500
(5-2)
Table
f c'r = f c' +7.0 f c'r = f c' +70 f c'r = f c' +1000
5.3.2.2

f c'r = f c' +8.3 f c'r = f c' +84 f c'r = f c' +1200

f c'r =1.10 f c' +5.0 f c' r =1.10 f c' +50 f c' r = f c' +700

371
E

Section
0.0018.420 0.0018.4200 0.0018.60000
7.12.2.1(c
fy fy fy
)
Section
Ec = wc1.5 0.043 f c' Ec = wc1.5 0.14 f c' Ec = wc1.5 33 f c'
8.5.1
Section
Ec = 4700 f c' Ec = 15100 f c' Ec = 57000 f c'
8.5.1
(9-10)
f r =0.62 f r f r =2 f c' f r =7.5 f c'

(9-12)
fy fy fy
l n 0.8 + l n 0.8 + l n 0.8 +
1400 14000 200000
h=
125 m h=
12.5 cm h=
5i
36 + 5 ( fm 0.2) 36 + 5 ( fm 0.2) 36 + 5 ( fm 0.2)
m n
(9-13) fy fy fy
l n 0.8 + l n 0.8 + l n 0.8 +
1400 14000 200000
h=
90 mm h=
9 cm h=
3.5 in
36 + 9 36 + 9 36 + 9
(10-3)
0.25 fc' 1.4 0.8 f c' 14 3 f c' 200
As,min = bwd bwd As ,min = bw d bw d As ,min = bw d bw d
fy fy fy fy fy fy

(10-4) 280 280 2800 2800 40000 40000


s = 380 2.5cc 300( ) s = 38 2.5cc 30( ) s = 15 2.5cc 12( )
fs fs fs fs fs fs

M 2, min = pu (15 + 0.03h ) M 2, min = pu (15 + 0.03h ) M 2, min = pu (0.6 + 0.03h )


Section
10.12.3.2
Section
f c' 8.3 MPa f c' 27 Kgf/cm2 f c' 100 psi
11.1.2
(11-3)
vc = 0.17 f c' bw d vc = 0.53 f c' bw d vc = 2 f c' bw d
(11-4)
Nu Nu ' Nu '
v c = 0 . 17 1 + f c' b w d vc = 0.531 + f c bw d vc = 21 + f c bw d
14 Ag 140 A 2000 A
g g

(11-5) V d V d V d
vc = 0.16 f c' + 17 w u bwd vc = 0.5 f c' + 176 w u bwd vc = 1.9 f c' + 2500 w u bwd
Mu Mu Mu
0.29 f c' bwd 0.93 f c' bwd 3.5 f c' bwd

(11-7)
0.29Nu Nu Nu
vc = 0.29 fc' bwd 1 + vc = 0.93 fc' bwd 1 + vc = 3.5 fc' bwd 1+
Ag 35Ag 500Ag

(11-8) 0.29Nu ' N N


vc = 0.171 + fc bwd vc = 0.531 + u fc' bwd vc = 21+ u fc' bwd
A 35A 500A
g g g

0 0 0

372
E

(11-9)
Vd Vd Vd
vc = 0.05 f c' + 4.8 u p bwd vc = 0.16 f c' + 49 u p bwd vc = 0.6 f c' + 700 u p bwd
Mu Mu Mu

(11-10) vi Mcre vi Mcre vi Mcre


vci = 0.05 fc' bwd p + vd + vci = 0.05 fc' bwd p + vd + vci = 0.05 fc' bwd p + vd +
Mmax Mmax Mmax
0.14 fc' bwd 0.14 fc' bwd 0.14 fc' bwd

( ) ( ) ( )
(11-11)
I I I
Mcre = 0.5 fc' + f pe fd M cre = 1.6 fc' + f pe f d M cre = 6 fc' + f pe f d
yt yt yt
(11-12) ( )
vcw = 0.29 f c' + 0.3 f pc bw d p (
vcw = 0.93 f c' + 0.3 f pc bw d p ) ( )
vcw = 3.5 f c' + 0.3 f pc bw d p
+ v p 0.33 f c' + v p 1.1 f c' + v p 4 f c'
Section
0.33 f c' bw d 1.1 f c' bw d 4 f c' bw d
11.5.5.3
(11-13) bw s bw s bw s
Av , min = 0.062 f c' Av , min = 0.2 f c' Av , min = 0.75 f c'
f yt f yt f yt
bw s bw s bw s
0.35 3.5 50
f yt f yt f yt
(11-17)
vs = Av f y sin 0.25 fc' bwd vs = Av f y sin 0.8 fc' bwd vs = Av f y sin 3 fc' bwd
Section
0.66 f c' bw d 2.2 f c' bw d 8 f c' bw d
11.5.7.9
Section Acp2 Acp2 Acp2
11.6.1(a) Tu < 0.083 f ' Tu < 0.27 f '
Tu < f '
p
c p c p c
cp cp cp
Section Acp2 f pc Acp2 f pc A2 f
11.6.1(b) Tu < 0.083 fc' 1+ Tu < 0.27 fc' 1+ Tu < fc' cp 1+ pc
p 0.33 fc' p fc' p 4 fc'
cp cp cp
Section Acp2 Acp2
Nu Nu Acp2
Tu < 0.083 f 1+
'
Tu < 0.27 f 1+'
1+ N
11.6.1(c) p
c
0.33Ag fc' p c
Ag fc' Tu < f '
cp cp p c
4 Ag
cp

Section Acp2 Acp2 Acp2


11.6.2.2(a Tu = 0.33 f ' Tu = f '
Tu = 4 f '
p
c p c p c
) cp cp cp
Section A2 f pc A2 f Acp2 f pc
11.6.2.2(b Tu < 0.33 fc' cp 1+ Tu < fc' cp 1+ pc Tu < 4 fc' 1+
p 0.33 fc' p fc' p 4 fc'
) cp cp cp

373
E

Section Acp2 Acp2 Acp2


Nu Nu Nu
11.6.2.2(c Tu < 0.33 f 1+
'
Tu < f 1+
'
Tu < 4 f 1+
'
p
c
0.33Ag fc' p c
Ag fc' p
c
4Ag fc'
) cp cp cp

(11-18) 2 2 2 2 2 2
vu Tu ph vu Tu ph vu Tu ph
+
2
+
2
+
2
b d
w 1.7 Aoh b d
w 1.7 Aoh b d
w 1.7 Aoh

v v v
c + 0.66 f c' c + 2 f c' c + 8 f c'
bw d bw d bw d
(11-19) vu Tu ph vu Tu ph vu Tu ph
+
2
+
2
+
2
b d
w 1.7 Aoh b d
w 1.7 Aoh b d
w 1.7 Aoh

v v v
c + 0.66 f c' c + 2 f c' c + 8 f c'
bw d bw d bw d
(11-23) bw s bw s bw s
( Av + 2 At ) = 0.062 f c' ( Av + 2 At ) = 0.2 f c' ( Av + 2 At ) = 0 . f c'
f yt f yt f yt
0.35bw s 3.5bw s 3 .5 bw s

f yt f yt f yt

(11-24)
0.42 f c' Acp At f yt 1.33 f c' Acp A f 5 f c' Acp A f
Al , min = Ph Al ,min = t Ph yt Al ,min = t Ph yt
fy s fy fy s fy fy s fy
At 0.175bw At 1.75bw At 25bw
> > >
s f yt s f yt s f yt

Section
5.5 Ac 5.5 Ac 800 Ac
11.7.5
Section
0.83 f c' bw d 2.65 f c' bw d 10 f c' bw d
11.8.3
Section
0.83 f c' hd 2.65 f c' hd 10 f c' hd
11.10.3
Section
0.17 f c' hd 0.53 f c' hd 2 f c' hd
11.10.5
(11-29)
Nud Nud Nud
vc = 0.27 f c' hd + vc = 0.88 f c' hd + vc = 3.3 f c' hd +
4l w 4l w 4l w

374
E

(11-30)
vc = vc = vc =
0.2Nu 0.2Nu 0.2Nu
lw0.1 fc' + lw 0.33 f c' + lw1.25 fc' +
lwh l w h lwh
0.05 fc + 0.16 f c + 0.6 fc +
' ' '
Mu lw hd M l
hd Mu lw h
u
w
Vu 2 Vu 2 Vu 2

(11-33)
2 2 4
vc = 0.171 + f c' bo d vc = 0.531 + f c' bo d vc = 2 + f c' bo d

(11-34)
d d d
vc = 0.083 s + 2 f c' bo d vc = 0.27 s + 2 f c' bo d v c = s + 2 f c' bo d
bo bo bo
(11-35)
vc = 0.33 f c' bo d vc = f c' bo d vc = 4 f c' bo d
(11-36)
(
vc = p )
f c' + 0.3 f pc bo d + v p (
vc = 3.16 p )
f c' + 0.3 f pc bo d + v p ( )
vc = p fc' + 0.3 f pc bod + vp
p p p

Section
0.17 f c' bo d 0.53 f c' bo d 2 f c' bo d
11.12.3.1
Section
0.5 f c' bo d 1.6 f c' bo d 6 f c' bo d
11.12.3.2
Section f y t e f y t e
td = d f y t e td = d
= d
12.2.2
2.1 f ' b td 25 f ' b
c 6 .6 f ' b c
c
Section f y t e f y t e f y t e
12.2.2 td = d td = d td = d
1.7 f ' b 5.3 f ' b 20 f ' b
c c c
Section f y t e f y t e f y t e
12.2.2 td = d td = d td = d
1.4 f ' b 4.4 f ' b 50 f ' b
c c c
Section f y t e f y t e f y t e
12.2.2 td = d td = d td = d
1.1 f ' b 3.5 f ' b 40 f ' b
c c c
(12-1) fy t e s fy t e s 3fy t e s
td = db td = db td = db
1.1 f c' cb + k tr
3.5 f c' cb + k tr
40 f c' cb + k tr

d d d
b b b

375
E

(12-2)
Atr f yt Atr f yt Atr f yt
k tr = k tr = k tr =
10sn 105sn 1500sn
Section 0.24 f y 0.075 f y 0.02 f y
12.3.2 d (0.044 f )d d (0.0044 f )d d (0.0003 f )d
f c' b y b
f c' b y b
f c' b y b

Section 0.24 e f y 0.075 e f y 0.02 e f y


12.5.2 l dh = d l dh = d l dh = d
f c' b f c' b f c' b

Section fy 240 fy 2460 fy 35000
12.7.2
f f f
y y y
(12-3)
A f y A f y A f y
l d = 3.3 b ld = b l d = 0.27 b
s f c' s f c' s f c'
(12-4)
f f ps f se f f ps f se f f ps f se
l d = se d b + d b l d = se d b + d b l d = se d b + d b

21 7 210 70 3000 1000

Section d b f yt d b f yt d b f yt
12.13.2.2 0.17 0.053 0.014
f c' f c' f c'
Section 0.073 f y d b 0.0073 f y d b 0.0005 f y d b
12.16.1
(0.13 f y 24 )d b (0.013 f y 24 )d b (0.0009 f y 24 )d b
Section
17.5.3.3
(1.8 + 0.6 p f )b d 3.5b d
v y v v (1.8 + 0.6 p f )b d 35b d
v y v v (260 + 0.6 p f )b d 500b d
v y v v

Section
(a )Uf t 0.62 f c' (a )Uf t 2 f c' (a )Uf t 7.5 f c'
18.3.3
(b )T
7.5 f c' f t 12 f c'
(b )T
0.62 f c' f t 1.0 f c
'
(b )T
2 f c' f t 3.2 f c
'

(c )Cf t > 12 f c'


(c )Cf t > 1.0 f c' (c )Cf t > 3.2 f c'

Section
f t 0.50 f c' f t 1.6 f ci' f t 6 f ci'
18.3.3
Sention
0.25 f ci' 0.8 f ci' 3 f ci'
18.4.1(b)
Sention
0.50 f ci' 1.6 f ci' 6 f ci'
18.4.1(c)
(18-4)
f c' f c' f c'
f ps = f se + 70 + f ps = f se + 700 + f ps = f se + 10000 +
100 p 100 p 100 p

376
E

(18-5)
f c' f c' f c'
f ps = f se + 70 + f ps = f se + 700 + f ps = f se + 10000 +
300 p 300 p 300 p
Section
f ps = f se + 70 f ps = f se + 700 f ps = f se + 10000
18.13.4.1
Section
1.4bw d 14bw d 200bw d
21.3.2.1
fy fy fy
(21-5)
350 hx 35 hx 35 h x
s 0 = 100 s 0 = 10 s 0 = 0
3 3 3
Section
1.7 f c' A j 5.3 f c' A j 20 f c' A j
21.5.3.1
Section
1.2 f c' A j 4 f c' A j 15 f c' A j
21.5.3.1
Section
1.0 f c' A j 3.2 f c' A j 12 f c' A j
21.5.3.1
(21-6) f y db f y db f y db
l dh = l dh = l dh =
5.4 f c' 17.2 f c' 65 f c'
(21-7)
(
v n = Acv c f c' + t f y ) v n = A cv c( f c' + t f y ) (
v n = Acv c f c' + t f y )
hw hw hw
c = 0.25 1.5 c = 0 . 5 1 .5 c = 3.0 1.5
lw lw lw
hw hw hw
c = 0.17 2.0 c = 0 . 17 2 .0 c = 2.0 2.0
lw lw lw

Section
0.66 Acv f c' 2.12 Acv f c' 8 Acv f c'
21.7.4.4
Section
0.83 Acw f c' 2.65 Acw f c' 10 Acw f c'
21.7.4.4
Section
0.83 Acw f c' 2.65 Acw f c' 10 Acw f c'
21.7.4.5
Section 2.8 28 400
21.7.6.5(a fy fy fy
)
Section
0.083 Acv f c' 0.27 Acv f c' Acv f c'
21.7.6.5(b
)
Section
0.33 f c' Acw f c' Acw 4 f c' Acw
21.7.7.3
(21-9)
v n = 2 Avd f y sin 0.83 f c' Acw v n = 2 Avd f y sin 2.65 f c' Acw v n = 2 Avd f y sin 10 f c' Acw

377
E

(21-10)
(
v n = Acv 0.17 f c' + t f y ) (
v n = Acv 0.53 f c' + t f y ) (
v n = Acv 2 f c' + t f y )
Section
0.29 f c' bo d 0.93 f c' bo d 3.5 f c' bo d
21.11.5
(22-2)
M n = 0.42 f c' S m M n = 1.33 f c' S m M n = 5 f c' S m
(22-7)
M u Pu M u Pu M u Pu
0.42 f c' 1.33 f c' 5 f c'
S m Ag S m Ag S m Ag

(22-9)
Vn = 0.11 f c' bw h Vn = 0.35 f c' bw h 4 f c'
Vn = bw h
3
(22-10) 2 2 4 8 '
Vn = 0.111 + f c' bo h Vn = 0.351 + f c' bo h Vn = + f c bo h
3 3
0.22 f c' bo h 0.71 f c' bo h 2.66 f c' bo h
B 600 6120 87000
0.851 f c' 0.851 f c' 0.85 1 f c'
B.81 b = 600 + f
b = 6120 + f
b = 87000 + f
fy y fy y fy y

(D-7)
N b = kc f c' her1.5 N b = kc f c' her1.5 N b = kc f c' her1.5
k c = 107 k c = 107 k c = 2417
(D-8) 5 3 5 3 5 3
N b = 3.9 f c' her N b = 5.8 f c' her N b = 16 f c' her
(D-17)
N sb = 13c a1 Abrg f c' N sb = 42.5c a1 Abrg f c' N sb = 160c a1 Abrg f c'
(D-24) 0.2 0.2
l l
0.2
l
vb = 0.6 e f (c a1 ) vb = 1.9 e f (c a1 ) f c' (c a1 )
1.5 1.5
' '
v b = 7 e 1.5
do c do c do
do do do

(D-25) 0.2 0.2 0.2


l l l
vb = 0.66 e f (c a1 ) vb = 2.1 e f (c a1 ) vb = 8 e f c' (c a1 )
' 1.5 ' 1.5 1.5
do c do c do
do do do

()

378