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FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEMAND FOR DOMESTIC TOURISM IN KENYA

DAVID KINYANGI

SBE/EMTH/003/13

RESEARCH PROPOSAL SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF TOURISM,


HOSPITALITY AND EVENTS MANAGEMENT FOR THE AWARD OF MASTER OF
TOURISM MANAGEMENT DEGREE OF MOI UNIVERSITY

JANUARY 2015
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DECLARATION

DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE


This proposal is my original work and has not been presented for the award of a degree in this
University or any other Institution of higher learning for examination.

Signature Date
DAVID KINYANGI

SBE/EMTH/003/13

DECLARATION BY THE SUPERVISORS

This proposal has been submitted for examination with my approval as the University
Supervisor.
Signature Date
Dr. Rita Nthiga

Lecturer,

School of Tourism, Hospitality and Events Management,

Moi University.

Signature Date
Mr. James Kamwea

Lecturer,
School of Tourism, Hospitality and Events Management
Moi University.
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DEDICATION
I would like to dedicate this research proposal to my family members, colleagues and friends
who have been very supportive during my time of study.

This research proposal is dedicated to all those who believe in the richness of learning.
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ABSTRACT
Tourism is recognized as a key sector in the economic development strategy of Kenya, and there
has been an increasing interest in understanding the main factors which influence visitation
levels. Domestic tourism is less susceptible to external factors as compared to international
tourism and is therefore less volatile. Increased demand for domestic tourism will mitigate the
negative effects of seasonality associated with international tourism. Even though the
government through its policy pronouncements to increase domestic tourism bed nights from
30% to 50% by year 2012, the policies fall short of explaining the strategies to achieve these
targets. Based on the research studies limited of them have captured the factors influencing the
demand for domestic tourism in Kenya. This study therefore seeks to examine the factors
influence the demand for domestic tourism in Kenya. The objectives of the study will be to
examine the effect of disposable income on domestic tourism demand in Kenya, to establish the
effect of cost of services on domestic tourism demand in Kenya, to analyze the effect of
awareness levels on domestic tourism demand in Kenya, and to investigate the influence of
government policy and infrastructure development on domestic tourism demand. A descriptive
study will be used to carry out the research. The population of the study will be the staff of
planning division, research and policy planning and strategy at Ministry of Tourism (MOT),
Marketing and research department at Kenya Tourist Board (KTB), Managers, assistant
managers and food and beverage managers at classified hotels in Nairobi and Owners/ managers
of licensed tour firms with current licenses in Nairobi. Data will be collected mainly by use of
questionnaire method. The questionnaire will have both open ended and closed questions. Data
will be analyzed using descriptive statistics and be represented by use of frequency charts,
graphs, and pie charts to tabulate the information gathered appropriately.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION.............................................................................................................................II

DEDICATION...............................................................................................................................III

ABSTRACT..................................................................................................................................IV

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT..........................................................................................................VIII

LIST OF ACRONYMS.................................................................................................................IX

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS.................................................................................X

CHAPTER ONE..............................................................................................................................1

INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................1

1.1 Overview................................................................................................................................1

1.2 Background of the Study........................................................................................................1

1.3 Statement of the Problem.......................................................................................................3

1.4 Objective of the Study............................................................................................................5

1.4.1 Main Objective................................................................................................................5

1.4.2 Specific Objectives..........................................................................................................5

1.5. Research Questions...............................................................................................................5

1.6. Justification of the study.......................................................................................................5

1.7. Significance of the study.......................................................................................................6

1.8. Limitation of the study..........................................................................................................6

1.9. Scope of the study.................................................................................................................7

1.10.Assumptions of the study.....................................................................................................7


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CHAPTER TWO.............................................................................................................................8

LITERATURE REVIEW.................................................................................................................8

2.0 Introduction............................................................................................................................8

2.1. Tourism in Kenya..................................................................................................................8

2.2 The concept of domestic tourism...........................................................................................9

2.3. Tourism Demand.................................................................................................................11

2.3.1 Disposable income........................................................................................................12

2.3.2 Cost of tourism Services................................................................................................14

2.3.3 Awareness levels............................................................................................................15

2.3.4 Government Policy........................................................................................................16

2.3.5 Infrastructure development............................................................................................17

2.4 Theoretical Review..............................................................................................................18

2.4.1 Consumer demand theory..............................................................................................18

2.5. Conceptual Frame Work......................................................................................................19

2.6 Summary of literature review..............................................................................................21

CHAPTER THREE.......................................................................................................................22

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY..................................................................................................22

3.1 Introduction..........................................................................................................................22

3.2 Research Design...................................................................................................................22

3.3. Target Population................................................................................................................22

3.4 Sampling Techniques/design................................................................................................23

3.5 Data Collection methods......................................................................................................24


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3.6. Pilot study...........................................................................................................................24

3.7. Data collection instruments.................................................................................................24

3.7.1 Validity of the data collection Instruments....................................................................25

3.7.2 Reliability of data collection Instruments.....................................................................25

3.8 Data Analysis.......................................................................................................................25

3.9 Ethical Considerations.........................................................................................................26

REFERENCES..............................................................................................................................27

APPENDIX I.................................................................................................................................32

QUESTIONNAIRE...................................................................................................................32

SECTION A: BACKGROUND INFORMATION................................................................32

SECTION B. FACTORS AFFECTING DEMAND FOR DOMESTIC TOURISM.............32

APPENDIX II: WORK PLAN FOR THE STUDY...................................................................38

APPENDIX III: STUDY BUDGET..........................................................................................39


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all, I would like to thank the Almighty God for giving the strength and health to carry out
this demanding and challenging task when all seemed impossible.

I am greatly indebted to my family members for their financial and moral support.
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LIST OF ACRONYMS
GDP - Gross Domestic Product

EU - European Union

UN - United Nations

UN WTO - United Nations World Tourism Organizations

MOT - Ministry Of Tourism


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Operational Definition of Terms


Domestic tourism - is tourism involving residents of one country traveling only within that
country

Disposable income - Disposable income is money that you have to spend after your taxes and
all of your fixed expenses are paid.

Tourism - Tourism is travel for recreation, leisure, religious, family or business


purposes, usually for a limited duration
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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview

This chapter gives a general background of the research study. It contains a detailed background
of the dependent variable: domestic tourism demand, the statement of the problem, the objective
of the study as well as the specific objectives, the research questions, the significance of the
study and the justification of the study.

1.2 Background of the Study

The development of tourism as an international business is an ongoing activity. Though modern


mass tourism has developed in different contexts, its origins can be traced to the affluence of the
industrialized countries of Western Europe, North America and, more recently, Japan (World
Tourism Organization, 2010). International tourism has also expanded significantly in Eastern
Europe and is becoming an important sector in many developing countries in Asia, Africa, Latin
America, the South Pacific and the Caribbean. In many developing countries tourism is one of
the leading foreign exchange earners. Gross domestic receipts amount to more than 20% of the
total value of merchandise exports and is the most important export of goods and services (World
Bank 1972).

Most of industrialized countries are faced with uncertain world market prospects for primary
products, and strict limits to the amount of manufactured exports that the industrialized nations
are willing to accept. Tourism is, thus, one of the few viable industries available to them and it
provides for many useful elements in diversifying their sources of foreign exchange earnings.
For some, it is one of the few export opportunities available. Tourism is, therefore, a powerful
force in the economic development of industrialized countries. Increased awareness of the
potential that tourism seems to hold has been growing, and many developing countries have
actively supported its development, Kenya being one of them.

In many developing economies the sector has become a major source of foreign currency and
due to its labour intensive nature it makes a huge contribution to employment. As such, tourism
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has been identified as a key sector for the achievement of shared economic growth and poverty
alleviation in Africa (Muchapondwa and Pimhidzai, 2011). In Kenya, the sector is estimated to
contribute about 11 per cent to the GDP and is one of the leading foreign exchange earners (First
medium term plan, 2013). Tourism has been recognized as one of the economic pillars of
Kenyas Vision 2030. The Vision recognizes the importance of the industry and envisages Kenya
to be among the 10 best tourist destinations in the world, offering a high-end, diverse and
distinctive visitor experience (Ministry of Planning, 2006). The sector earned the country 73.8
billion in revenue in 2010 (Ministry of Tourism, 2011) and it is projected to earn upwards of 200
billion by 2012 annually (Ministry of Tourism, 2008). According to the Sector Plan for Tourism
2008 2012, the country targets to raise international tourists while raising the average
expenditure per visitor from the present and earn the country more income. Some of the goals of
the vision include quadruple tourism contribution to GDP by 2012, raise the number of
international visitors to 3 million and increase hotel bed capacity from 40,000 to 65,000. The
blueprint has no mention of domestic tourism.

The tourist industry in Kenya is the second largest source of foreign exchange revenue after
agriculture. The main tourist attractions are the wildlife in their natural habitats and photo safaris
through the 19 national parks and game reserves (Riley, 2010). Other attractions include the
renowned scenery of the Great Rift Valley; the coffee plantations at Thika; a view of Mt.
Kilimanjaro, across the border into Tanzania; and the white sand coastal beaches along the Indian
Ocean. Since the late nineties, the travel and tourism sector is the largest export earner in the
world and generates foreign exchange that exceeds those from products such as petroleum, motor
vehicles, textiles and telecommunication equipment (Eita et al 2010). In their studies Giacomelli
(2006) and Eilat and Einav (2004), indicate that tourism is a labour intensive industry, employing
about 100 million people around the world thereby accounting for 8.3 % of world employment.
The World Travel and Tourism Council (2006) indicated that tourism accounts for about 10 % of
World Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The sector is important in the economical welfare of a
country as it generates revenues required to finance infrastructure and other projects that promote
economic development. Tourism expenditure can also enhance domestic tourism construction
and increase physical capital (Lee and Chang, 2008).Domestic tourism is very important as it
acts as an intermediary to international tourism. The UN World Tourism Organization (2010)
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estimated that domestic tourism worldwide represents four times the volume of international
tourism. There were 4 billion domestic tourist arrivals compared to 880 million international
arrivals registered in 2009. Recent empirical literature has also pointed out that, in the world,
domestic tourism accounts for the greater part of total tourism flows (Bigano et al. 2006). This
evidence implies that tourism demanded by people in their own country is greater than
international tourism in terms of both size and economic indicators (Massidda and Etzo, 2010).
However, currently Kenyas annual domestic visitors represent only 30% which challenges the
demand for domestic tourism (Ministry of Tourism, 2008). Undermine.

Domestic Tourism can be a significant form of tourism in Kenya because it can cushion off the
tourism industry during low periods of international tourist arrivals. The industry has however
received minimal attention since it is not viewed as an income generator as well as a boost to the
economy. These and other factors have contributed to the low demand for domestic tourism. The
purpose of this study is therefore to establish the factors influencing the demand for domestic
tourism in Kenya with specific objectives of examining the effect of disposable income on
domestic tourism demand, establishing the effect of cost of services on domestic tourism
demand, analyzing the effect of awareness levels on domestic tourism demand, and investigate
the influence of government policy and infrastructure development on domestic tourism demand.

1.3 Statement of the Problem

The demand for domestic tourism in Kenya has remained very low compared to international
tourism. The sector represents only 30 per cent of annual total hotel bed nights (Ministry of
Tourism, 2011). This has led to overdependence on international tourism which is faced with
many challenges such as seasonality, terrorism, diseases, economic crises, international political
events, negative publicity and inflationary pressures punctuated by a major rise in fuel prices
(Ministry of Tourism, 2011). Consequently, the hospitality industry has been experiencing
temporally closures of some tourist facilities during the low tourist seasons and hence loss of
business and government revenues. Moreover, many industry workers are laid off at this time
and this has impacted negatively on employees livelihood. The underutilization of tourism
facilities such as hotels has led to their dilapidation and thus affecting their quality. The investors
have to pump in more money to refurbish the hotels for the next high tourist season.
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Domestic tourism is less susceptible to external factors as compared to international tourism and
is therefore less volatile. Increased demand for domestic tourism will mitigate the negative
effects of seasonality associated with international tourism. Even though the government through
its policy pronouncements to increase domestic tourism bed nights from 30% to 50% by year
2012, the policies fall short of explaining the strategies to achieve these targets.

The perception that the international tourists are superior to the domestic tourists makes the latter
lose the appeal of visiting destinations within the country. This reduces the number of domestic
tourists in the country since a sizeable portion of them can afford to visit destinations outside the
country. The ones who cannot afford may prefer to engage in other exciting activities which are
not related to tourism. This leads to international tourists outnumbering the domestic tourists
hence more reliance on international market by the players in the industry thus becoming a cycle.
The consequences of this cycle are heavily experienced by the industry players during the low
season or when the industry is faced by such challenges as terrorism threats, travel bans, political
uncertainties and bad publicity. The international tourists being very sensitive to such challenges
avoid the destination, leading to loss of expected income and jobs in the tourism industry ( Telfer
and Sharpley, 2008).

The industry can tap from the local market during such low seasons but better promotion
strategies need to have been put in place long before the season. This means that domestic
tourism should be promoted to a level where it can sustain the industry during such seasons.
There is, therefore, an urgent need to develop a better framework to operationalize the domestic
tourism industry. The framework should focus on the needs of the domestic market, thus
designing products and delivering them in a way that meets the taste of the local people. The
framework should aim at creating and stimulating demand among the local people to participate
in domestic tourism. This will first require an extensive and intensive research on the factors that
influence the appeal of the domestic market. It is against this problem of low domestic tourism
participation compared to international participation that the study seeks to investigate the factors
that influence demand for domestic tourism in Kenya.
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1.4 Objective of the Study

1.4.1 Main Objective

To examine factors that influence domestic tourism demand in Kenya.

1.4.2 Specific Objectives

The specific study objectives are;


i. To examine the effect of disposable income on domestic tourism demand in Kenya
ii. To establish the effect of cost of services on domestic tourism demand in Kenya.
iii. To analyze the effect of awareness levels on domestic tourism demand in Kenya
iv. To investigate the influence of government policy and infrastructure development on
domestic tourism demand

1.5. Research Questions


i. What are the effects of disposable income on domestic tourism demand Kenya?

ii. What are the effects of cost of services on domestic tourism in Kenya?

iii. What are the effects of awareness levels on domestic tourism in Kenya?

iv. What are the effects of government policy and infrastructural development on domestic
tourism in Kenya?

1.6. Justification of the study


The tourism industry in recent years has been a focus of critical examination and an item of

debate. It seems an appropriate time for local citizens and workers in the tourism industry to take

stock of the tourism experience. The developing world has changed in the past years. Some

developing countries, particularly in Africa have grown rapidly in the recent past.

The study seeks to put into perspective the factors influencing domestic tourism in Kenya

bearing in mind the arrangements for and against it while trying to clearly outline the
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understanding of its main objective. This will enlighten both existing and potential customers

and would make them appreciate the importance of the existing and potential tourist's attractions

to them and the future generations hence the need to conserve and preserve them.

1.7. Significance of the study


The findings and recommendations of this research will be useful to various participants and

stakeholders in the economy. These include:

1. The potential entrepreneurs; this research is meant to enlighten them on the factors that

affect domestic tourism in Kenya. This will eventually increase creation of job

opportunities and wealth creation.

2. The policy makers and government; the policy makers will formulate and institute

policies that are meant to harness the growth of domestic tourism in Kenya. The central

government and county government will ensure laws and rules enacted does protect the

tourist, for instance fair taxes and levies that will not reduce the tourist influx.

3. Academic advancement; the findings will be used to further research and knowledge in

the tourism industry and help to fill the gaps that exist in the industry

1.8. Limitation of the study


This study is not free from limitations, though the findings and conclusions are not affected, it is

important to highlight some of the limitations.

First like most surveys study will only capture the circumstances prevailing at the time of the

interviews.
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Secondly it is possible that some of the respondents will not provide their true opinions in the

questionnaire because they will regard some of the questions as sensitive. However this group

will be regarded to be small and we can assume that they will not affect the overall results and

conclusions.

Lastly, a proper research that is more accurate might not be achieved by the researcher since all

the stakeholders will not be involved, for instance the tourists.

1.9. Scope of the study

The study will be limited to the factors that influence domestic tourism demand in
Kenya.

The research study is to be carried out within Kenya to assess factors affecting domestic
tourism.

The results of the study will be influenced by the available resources and time of the
researcher

1.10.Assumptions of the study


1. Tourism has been essential in the development of recreational and infrastructure sectors
in Kenya.

2. Foreign exchange from tourism has contributed to the growth of Kenyas economy

3. Growth of tourism has undermine other sectors of the economy


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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

This chapter reviews the available literature on the topic under study. The review states tourism
in Kenya, the concept of domestic tourism, tourism demand, theoretical review, tourism demand
model and the conceptual framework.

2.1. Tourism in Kenya

Kenya has long been recognized as big game country, with the huge numbers of wild animals in
over forty National Parks and Reserves, the country has a long and illustrious history of
protecting its varied wildlife (Kenya Wildlife Service, 2013). All this has provided the Kenyans
visitors a range of experiences in all sorts of terrain. A wildlife safari in Kenya is indeed a
magical experience, Kenyan tourism has been a focus of attention for its varied wildlife for many
years. Kenya has its fair share of international publicity globally reknown for wild experience in
tourism, although South Africa has good infrastructural development as compared to Kenya, the
experience of a Kenyan wildlife Safari is more real, engaging and eventful right from the local
counties interactions to the local guide interpretations, hence the need to involve them in the
sensitization of communities coexistence with the wildlife to get involved in management so as
to utilize their heritage sustainably. According to Balala (2011) Kenyan tourism is much more
authentic flavored than what one can experience in other developed states like South Africa.

Kenya is mainly depicted for big-game hunting expeditions while other visitors come for
solitude, these expeditions are locally known as safari thus bequeathing to the travel world
literature with a new vocabulary. A Safari is such a popular product that has enabled the country
to continue recording remarkable growth in the volume of visitors. Kenya domestic tourism
registered well over 1,000,000 visitors arrivals in 1997 while the bed capacity rose to over
73,000 beds in classified hotels. The sector is a major employer as it currently employs
approximately over 219,000. This figure represents about 11% of the total workforce in the
country. However soon after independence, Kenya realized the enormous potential of the nascent
tourism industry and hence undertook the role of upgrading the existing infrastructure and
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superstructure as well as investing in additional facilities. To achieve its goals, the government
encouraged the locals and foreign investors/ entrepreneurs to take role of investing in tourism
and hospitality establishment thus paving the way for the future development of the Tourism
industry (Nyanjui, 2009).

Inspite of increased competition from other destinations, especially the developed nations like
South Africa, Kenya is still one of the foremost tourist destinations in Africa. Tourism in Kenya
is mainly based on natural attractions which include wildlife in its natural habitats as well as
idyllic beaches. Approximately 10% of the country has been set aside for conservation of
wildlife and biodiversity. Game viewing is a very popular pursuit since most visitors to Kenya
are predominantly interested in seeing "the big five" namely the Elephant, Rhino, Lion, Buffalo,
and the Leopard, not to mention other lesser and unique game the Africa's savanna and forests
(Kenya Wildlife Service, 2013).

2.2 The concept of domestic tourism


Page and Connell (2009), define domestic tourism as tourist travel within one's own country.
Weaver D. & Lawton L, (2006), defines a domestic tourist as a person who travels beyond his
usual environment but within his usual country of residence. Middleton Victor et al (2009) add
that domestic tourists are visitors who travel and stay overnight within the boundaries of their
own country while international tourists are visitors who travel to and stay in countries other than
their normal country of residence for less than a year. Domestic tourism comprises of visitors
who stay overnight and a very much larger number who take day visits from their homes.

Tourism is defined by Woods et al (2001) as essentially an export industry that provides domestic
services and experiences of domestic resources to foreign consumers in exchange for foreign
currency. Instead of staying home and importing goods and services, tourists visit the exporting
country and enjoy the experiences and activities on site. Tourist expenditure, therefore, enters
directly into the domestic economy through the firms and activities that cater to tourist needs.
Countries the world over, particularly developing countries with fledgling economies, have come
to recognize the importance of tourism to local economies. Tourism has thus become one of the
fastest growing industries in the world. According to Nyanjui (2009), international tourism can
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be defined as traveling or visiting other countries for pleasure while domestic tourism is traveling
or visiting parts of your country for pleasure.

Domestic tourism is very important to any destination. In Kenya, it has been acknowledged that
domestic tourism indirectly impacts and potentially benefits the local communities of Kenya
(Marshall, 2004). For example, during the low tourism season in Kenya (from April to August)
when many tourism workers have to be laid off, a strong domestic tourism sector can diminish
this threat as the seasonality of tourist expenditure would become less defined and workers
could keep their jobs year round (Sindiga, 1996; Marshall, 2004). Domestic tourism leads to an
understanding of what ones country has to offer and this can benefit the people greatly. In
discussing the current situation in Kenya, Marshall (2004) underlines that such an understanding
will empower the people of Kenya and equip them for future national and regional decisions
Nyanjui (2009) argues that domestic tourism can enhance political, social, and cultural
developments by overcoming social and psychological differences between Kenyas many tribes.
According to Nyanjui, moving from normal daily home areas to other areas within Kenya would
eliminate feelings based on ethnic or intellectual differences.

Domestic tourism is the backbone of economic development for a country. For instance,
domestic tourists support small-scale enterprises and informal sectors in developing countries
because they purchase more locally produced goods and services. Furthermore, the boom in
mass domestic tourism in Kenya makes a significant contribution to local employment, and
redistributes tourism revenue to the local sectors [Xu (1999)]. For developed countries, such as
Australia, domestic tourism generates more job opportunities and state revenues than
international tourism [West and Gamage (2001).

There is a growing concern about the stagnant growth of domestic tourism. Mazimhaka (2007)
argued that, in Rwanda, a lack of variety of tourism products offered to the local travellers has
caused a significant barrier to the development of Rwandan domestic tourism. Furthermore, the
costs of domestic travel could be the cause of this concern. For instance, Sindiga (1996) asserted
that Kenyans could not afford to pay for domestic tourism facilities due to the high costs of travel
in Kenya. Similarly, Wen (1997) has noticed that Chinese domestic travellers tend to be frugal in
spending because of relatively high travel costs in China. To overcome the problem, these
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authors suggested that the government should develop tourism facilities which can cater for the
needs and affordability of domestic travellers.

2.3. Tourism Demand

Demand is defined as the quantity of a good or service that consumers are willing and able to
buy at a given price in a given time period. Individuals have demands for particular goods and
services and the level of demand at each market price reflects the value that consumers place on
a product. The level of demand also reflects the expected satisfaction that would be gained from
purchase and consumption (Hall and Page 2002).

Empirical literature reviews on tourism demand recommend that tourist demand is measured in
tourist arrivals and departures, with tourist arrivals as the dependent variable. In addition,
empirical model of tourism demand use consumers income, the price of services, exchange rate
and distance as explanatory variables. There is a significant positive relationship between
tourism demand and income, trade and population. However, there is a negative relationship
between tourism demand and distance and also tourism prices (Pearce and Connell 2009).

Based on the survey papers by Lim (2000), most of the empirical research hypothesized that the
following factors (or determinants) can influence international tourism demand: income, relative
prices between prices of origin and destination, exchange rates, relative prices between a
destination and its competing destinations, cost of transportation, marketing expenditures,
consumers preferences, the effects of special events and other factors such as the effects of word
of mouth. Increasing income and wealth, emerging new motives and changing lifestyles are
important factors in explaining the nature of globalization in tourism demand. Tourists are more
experienced and knowledgeable, for example, in languages, use of transportation and booking.
The changing lifestyles influence tastes and preferences that the supply side always seeks to
offer. Age distribution, income distribution, occupation and gender were also found to be
statistically significant in determining domestic tourism demand. Disposable income is another
critical factor influencing the demand for tourism. According Wu (2000), the growth of domestic
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tourism in China can be attributed to the growth in per capita income, increase of leisure
particularly in cities and structural adjustment of the national economy.

Demand for tourism related services such as accommodation is usually difficult to predict given
the complexity of the destination or product decision making process and the uncertainty factor.
To achieve a better understanding and thus a higher level of control of the demand portion of the
supply/demand equation, the tourism manager must identify the daily, weekly, seasonal and long
term patterns in demand.
Although the demand patterns generated for a particular region within any specific country are
unique to that area, the same set of external demand determinants affect individual operators
such as hotels, tour operators, airlines and attractions (Middleton Victor et al, 2009). The main
determinants of demand for travel and tourism include disposable income, Cost of tourism
services, awareness levels, government policies, and infrastructure development. Others include,
media communications, technology, ecological factors, and political factors.

2.3.1 Disposable income

The participation of local populations in Africas tourism industries, however, is often limited to
employment opportunities (Witt and Witt, 1987). Travel by local tourists is often overlooked by
members of the tourism industry, and is often considered a luxury by many in the local
population. The role of domestic tourism and its importance for the creation of a sustainable
tourism industry has been widely acknowledged, but limited writings on the subject exist and
few tourism policies include domestic tourism, neglecting its potential. Income and prices are the
most commonly used variables (Lim, 2000). As their income increases, people are more inclined
to travel although there are some cases whereby people dont travel regardless of income
increment as they consider other activities more important than travelling.

According to (Lim, 2000), Current income is positively related to tourism demand. Even income
from a year ago impacts the current demand for tourism. As was the case in the long-run, relative
prices are positively related to tourism demand higher prices are not likely to discourage
tourists from travelling, as most holidays are planned well in advance. As expected, coups are a
major deterrent to the demand for tourism. On the other hand, major cyclones are insignificant in
explaining tourism demand.
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The emergence of a new African middle-class, equipped with more of a disposable income and
influenced by Western lifestyles, has proven that such potential does in fact exist. Those living in
Africa as well as members of the Diaspora have shown more of an interest in leisure travel and
represent a new tourism market. Globally, the impact of domestic tourism has been shown to
have had a great impact on the tourism economies of several countries, demonstrating that
African countries can only serve to benefit from participating in domestic tourism. Countries like
South Africa and Rwanda which have seen the recent emergence of a new middle-class with a
more disposable income are facing a growing sector of the population that is now enthusiastic
about travel, resulting in more journeys within each of the two countries (Mazimhaka, 2007).

According to consumer demand theory, an increase in real household income will encourage
more people to travel. As for prices, Seddighi and Shearing (1997) argued that there are two
elements of tourism prices, namely the cost of travel to the destination and the cost of living in
the destination. Given this fact, transportation costs and the consumer price index in a destination
are the vital proxy variables used in modeling tourism demand. Furthermore, price of competing
destinations is also an important determinant of tourism demand because it represents the
substitute price of a destination in relation to its competitors.

According to the Domestic Travel Survey (DTS) domestic travel activity fell sharply in\the last
quarter of 2007 around the same time as house prices started falling, interest rates continued to
rise, finance companies started failing and fuel and food prices soared. The slump in domestic
tourism continued well into 2008 as disposable incomes continued to be eroded by higher living
costs. Declining rates of domestic tourism are a global trend, driven by low disposable incomes
and greater competition in the international travel market. For many Kenyans it has been
observed tourism or leisure is not a priority and that disposable income would rather be spent on
investments and other priority areas (Domestic Travel Survey, 2010).

2.3.2 Cost of tourism Services

Tourists are sensitive to prices, either in the form of transportation costs (airfares), or cost of
living (accommodation, meals etc) at the destination. Tourism price refers to the price of all
goods and services consumed by tourists at the destination. The calculation of tourism price is
based on the consumer price index (CPI) of the visited country divided by the CPI of the country
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of origin. Consequently, pricing is an important factor in domestic tourism demand (Maurer et al.
2006).

The arrival of low-cost air travel has radically transformed tourism as a whole, but the industry
has expressed serious concern over the current system of bilateral aviation agreements, arguing
that protectionism severely limits tourism potential (Cooper et al 2008).

The advent of low-cost air travel, following the arrival of wide-bodied jets in the 1980s, and the
resulting rapid increase in the number of passengers, has been the major factor of recent change
in the tourism industry. Currently, the primary issues facing the transport aspect of tourism as a
whole include fleet planning (i.e. efficiently matching supply with demand), congestion, safety
and security, and environmental impact.

The costs of domestic travel could be the cause of this concern in Kenya. For instance, Sindiga
(2006) asserted that Kenyans could not afford to pay for domestic tourism facilities due to the
high costs of travel in Kenya. Similarly, Wen (2007) has noticed that Chinese domestic travelers
tend to be frugal in spending because of relatively high travel costs in China. To overcome the
problem, these authors suggested that the government should develop tourism facilities which
can cater for the needs and affordability of domestic travelers. The question is how much
domestic travelers are willing to pay for accessing such tourism facilities?

Consumers in a market economy are influenced by various factors in deciding what to buy. One
of these factors is price, and the law of demand that defines the typical relationship between
price and quantity demanded states that consumers will demand more of a particular product at a
lower price, and less at a higher price. However, the price elasticity of demand extends this and
examines the extent of such changes in demand in relation to price. How much demand contracts
or expands in response to a price change is of importance to businesses and governments, and
hence methods such as the total outlay method have been developed to test the price elasticity of
demand at various price levels.

Regarding domestic tourism prices, the costs of living at the region concerned, such as the prices
of tourist accommodation, recreation and restaurants, are the most crucial factors for domestic
tourism demand. This is because consumers decide to travel based on their financial capability to
15

afford to stay at the destination. Hence, if the prices of these items increase and ceteris paribus, it
is most likely that domestic tourism demand will decline. Furthermore, as overseas travel is a
popular substitute product for domestic tourism, the prices of overseas holidays could influence
the demand for domestic tourism.

In the context of domestic tourism demand, a study of how income and tourism prices affect the
demand is crucial. Maurer et al. (2006) analyzed the causal relationships amongst economic
variables and Kenyan domestic tourism variables and found that the main drivers of domestic
tourism demand are discretionary income, consumer confidence indices and prices. They
conclude that tourism stakeholders should assess the domestic tourism market by examining the
consumers financial constraints. Another important determinant linking origin and destination is
given by transportation costs. They are intended as the costs for travelling between the origin and
destination country and are supposed to discourage tourist demand when are high or increasing
(negative elasticity). Closely related to transportation costs is the distance between origin and
destination, which matters for at least two reasons. On the one hand it can be interpreted as a
proxy for travel costs. On the other hand distance can matter simply because tourists may be
discouraged from going too far from their own residences. At international level, for instance, it
seems that tourists prefer to avoid long distance indeed.

2.3.3 Awareness levels

The Australian government has outlined several strategies to increase awareness of Australian
tourism domestically and globally as well as to improve tourism products in Australia. The
strategies focus on four main areas, namely promoting and marketing Australian tourism,
developing new tourism markets, expanding tourism businesses, and upgrading transport and
infrastructure facilities.

Several domestic tourism fairs held at Nairobi, Mombasa, Eldoret and Kisumu, have been
developed in order to encourage Kenyans to explore their country for themselves, and to
consider travelling in Kenya before jetting off on an overseas holiday (Magical Kenya, 2003).
Awareness and interest in domestic tourism in Kenya (particularly among the middle class) is
still lacking. Nyanjui (2009) argues that there is a perception by locals that tourism is mainly for
16

foreigners. This implies that awareness levels are still very low. As a major determinant of
domestic tourism demand, awareness is very important.

2.3.4 Government Policy

Fiscal and monetary policy is both directed by government but their effects may be unpredictable
and they do not control all aspects of the economy. In order to influence the economy in areas
other than demand the government may wish to use direct controls. There is a wide range of
controls that government can use in order to influence the economy. These include regional
policy and monopoly policy. A government is able to influence not only where a firm locates but
also the way in which it competes both domestically and internationally. In other words, a
countrys economic growth might make positive contributions to domestic tourism demand. The
government can invest more money in improving infrastructure facilities which could encourage
more tourism businesses within the state. Hence, to enrich the current study, it would be
worthwhile to use gross state product (GSP) to examine whether a countrys income growth can
promote its domestic tourism demand

There is a growing concern about the stagnant growth of domestic tourism. Mazimhaka (2007)
argued that, in Rwanda, a lack of variety of tourism products offered to the local travelers has
caused a significant barrier to the development of Rwandan domestic tourism. Furthermore, the
costs of domestic travel could be the cause of this concern. For instance, Sindiga (1996) asserted
that Kenyans could not afford to pay for domestic tourism facilities due to the high costs of travel
in Kenya. Similarly, Wu (1997) has noticed that Chinese domestic travelers tend to be frugal in
spending because of relatively high travel costs in China. To overcome the problem, these
authors suggested that the government should develop tourism facilities which can cater for the
needs and affordability of domestic travelers.

The importance of domestic tourism in Kenya has not been overlooked as was indicated in a
speech by the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife (Nabutola, 2005)
where she stated that, domestic tourism forms the basis for a stronger international tourism. It
bridges the seasonality gap and therefore creates jobs and stability in the employment sector.
This ties in appropriately with the government goals of poverty reduction and wealth creation
hence leading to social harmony. Ensuring the long-term sustainability of the tourism industry,
17

particularly in developing countries, is therefore critical. It also creates tourism awareness and a
tourism culture within the host country, providing the people with a greater understanding and
appreciation of what their country has to offer and instilling pride among the people of the
particular nation.

The Vision 2030 for Kenya has recognized the importance of tourism in the economic
development of the country. The vision has set three main goals or the tourism industry for 2012
as: Quadruple tourism gross domestic product (GDP) contribution to more than 200 billion, raise
international visitors from 1.6M to 3M by 2012. The other goal is to increase hotel bed capacity
from 40,000 to 65,000. The goals however, target the foreign tourism market without any
mention of domestic tourism. As an important factor in domestic tourism demand, government
policy needs to be clear on government plans for the sub sector.

2.3.5 Infrastructure development

The amount of tourism demand is also likely to depend positively on tourism infrastructures
(hotels, restaurants) and attractiveness (climate, culture, history, and natural environment).
Complementarily, promotion (marketing expenditure), cultural initiatives and public investment
on cultural supply turn out to be relevant as well. Moreover, internet plays an increasingly
propulsive role on tourism through marketing information, on line booking and electronic
commerce (Naud-Saayman, 2005) infrastructure connected with tourism such as good road
communication, good hotels and safari resorts, water sports, tents and other logistics for eco-
tourism should be developed. Infrastructure is an important factor in tourism demand.

Tourism infrastructure includes: Water supply, sewage, telecommunications, roads and power
generation. It also includes New and/or refurbished tourism accommodation (hotels, integrated
resorts, guesthouses, and camping sites Others are specialized ethnic or regional restaurants as
the expectations of tourists expand; transport facilities (airports, ports, harbours, road systems
and car parks, transport vehicles, other maritime vessels, aircraft, helicopters and bicycles.
Visitor attractions, natural attractions, cultural attractions and recreational facilities form part of
the infrastructure. For any destination to attract visitors, the infrastructure must be in place. In
Kenya for example the current total bed capacity is 40,000 beds Nyanjui (2009) against a
18

population of 40 Million. The supply of accommodation facilities will be very important in


stimulating demand for the sector.

2.4 Theoretical Review

2.4.1 Consumer demand theory

The study of tourism demand determinants is the earliest stage of research in the tourism
literature. Based on the survey papers by Lim (2000), most of the empirical research
hypothesized that the following factors (or determinants) can influence international tourism
demand: income, relative prices between prices of origin and destination, exchange rates, relative
prices between a destination and its competing destinations, cost of transportation, marketing
expenditures, consumers preferences, the effects of special events and other factors such as the
effects of word of mouth. Hence, Lim (2000) provides a general international tourism demand
model as follows:

DTij= f (Yj, TCij, RPij, ERij, QFi)

Where:

DTij= demand for international travel services by origin j for destination i;

Yj= national income of originj;

TCij=transportation cost between destination and originj;

RPij= relative prices, the ratio of prices in destination to prices in originj;

ERij= exchange rate, measured as units of destination is currency per unit of origin js currency;

QFi= qualitative factor in destination country i.

According to consumer demand theory, an increase in real household income will encourage
more people to travel. As for prices, Seddighi and Shearing (1997) argued that there are two
elements of tourism prices, namely the cost of travel to the destination and the cost of living in
the destination. Given this fact, transportation costs and the consumer price index in a destination
are the vital proxy variables used in modelling tourism demand. Furthermore, price of competing
19

destinations is also an important determinant of tourism demand because it represents the


substitute price of a destination in relation to its competitors.

In the context of domestic tourism demand, a study of how income and tourism prices affect the
demand is crucial. Maurer et al. (2006) analyzed the causal relationships amongst economic
variables and Kenyan domestic tourism variables and found that the main drivers of domestic
tourism demand are discretionary income, consumer confidence indices and prices. They
conclude that tourism stakeholders should assess the domestic tourism market by examining the
consumers financial constraints,

Regarding domestic tourism prices, the costs of living at the region concerned, such as the prices
of tourist accommodation, recreation and restaurants, are the most crucial factors for domestic
tourism demand. This is because consumers decide to travel based on their financial capability to
afford to stay at the destination. Hence, if the prices of these items increase and ceteris paribus, it
is most likely that domestic tourism demand will decline. Furthermore, as overseas travel is a
popular substitute product for domestic tourism, the prices of overseas holidays could influence
the demand for domestic tourism.

2.5. Conceptual Frame Work

Mugenda defines conceptual framework as a concise description of the phenomenon under study
accompanied by a graphical or visual depiction of the major variables of the study (Mugenda,
2008). According to Young (2009), conceptual framework is a diagrammatical representation that
shows the relationship between dependent variable and independent variables. In the study, the
conceptual framework will look at the factors affecting the demand for domestic tourism in
Kenya.
Figure 2.1. Conceptual framework

Disposable income

Price
Personal income
Cost of Distribution of incomes
tourism services

Potential barriers to trade


Cost management
Lack of information
20

Domestic tourism demand

Tourism influx

Economy rise

Travel prices
decease
Awareness levels Affects

Beliefs

Attitude

Government policy

Controls
Regional policy
Monopoly policy

Infrastructure development
Accessibility
Topography
Climate

Independent variable Dependent variable

(Author 2015). Conceptual framework

From figure 2.1 above, the dependent variable is domestic tourism demand which will be
measured by its indicators which are tourism influx, economy rise, decrease in travel prices
among others. Independent variables are disposable income, price, awareness levels, government
policy and infrastructure development. The independent variables variation would influence the
dependent variable. If there is increased disposable income, it can enhance demand for domestic
tourism. If price of tourism products and services are reduced, it can enhance demand for
domestic tourism. If awareness levels on domestic tourism are increased, more people will be
21

informed and it can enhance demand for domestic tourism. If government policy is there and is
supportive of domestic tourism development, promotion and marketing, it can enhance demand
for domestic tourism. If there is a well-developed infrastructure that is supportive of domestic
tourism, it can enhance demand for domestic tourism. The limitation of the model is that there is
no intervening variable to intervene between the independent variables and how their influence
affect the dependent variable.

2.6 Summary of literature review

This chapter has discussed an overview of tourism, domestic tourism, tourism demand and their
research concerning their methodological development. It found that the literature has employed
advanced time-series econometric approaches in tourism demand analysis but has largely
neglected the application of a panel data approach. Furthermore, this chapter discussed two
methodologies, namely the application of consumer demand theory and use of leading indicators,
in tourism demand analysis.

The review of this project has highlighted two main critical issues in the literature. First, most of
the published journal papers focused on the empirical analysis of international tourism demand
which has downplayed the empirical research on domestic tourism demand. Second, domestic
tourism encounters several challenges such as a strong competition with other household
products and stagnant growth in domestic tourism demand. Hence, this suggests that more
empirical studies are required to understand the nature of domestic tourism and how to sustain
this tourism industry by addressing the factors that affect it.
22

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction
This chapter outlines the methods, which will be used in carrying out the research. It states the
research design, target population, sampling techniques, methods that will be used in data
collection, data collection instruments used, validity of data collection instruments, reliability of
data collection instruments, data analysis, and the ethical issues.

3.2 Research Design


A descriptive survey will used to carry out the research. According to Orodha and Kombo,
(2002) it can be used when collecting information about peoples attitudes, opinions, habits or
any of the variety of education or social issues. This type of design is the most ideal in that the
intentions of the research will be to describe the phenomena of domestic tourism in the Kenya.
As a quantitative study, the research will seek to find out the factors affecting the demand for
domestic tourism in the Kenya.

3.3. Target Population


According to Kombo and Tromp (2006), population is the larger group from which a sample is
taken and it should capture variability to allow more reliability to the study. Research population
is also the aggregate of the unit of study and is the population affected by the problem under
investigation and therefore in a position to give information regarding the said problem.
According to Sekaran and Bougie, (2011) the target population for this case, will target staff of
planning division, research and policy planning and strategy at Ministry of tourism (MOT),
Marketing and research department at Kenya Tourist Board (KTB), Managers, assistant
managers and food and beverage managers at classified hotels in Nairobi and Owners/ managers
of licensed tour firms with current licenses (current year) in Nairobi making a target population
of 1144 (Business List, 2014).

3.4 Sampling Techniques/design

From the above population of 1144, a sample of 114 will be obtained using census and stratified
random sampling. According to Kothari (2000) a census is normally useful as it gives every
23

member of the population an equal chance to be included in the study. The author also posits that
a sample of 10 percent is representative sample because a representative sample should have at
least 10 percent of the population of interest since it ensures small groups of population are
included. Stratified sampling is used when the population of interest is not homogenous.

Population category Frequency Percentage

Planning division staff 18 16

MOT staff 14 12

KTB marketing 15 13
research department

Administrative 19 17
Managers

Assistant 15 13
Administrative
managers

Food and beverage 12 11


managers

Owners of tourist 21 18
firms

Total 114 100

3.5 Data Collection methods

The study will employ both secondary and primary data. Data will be collected mainly by use of
questionnaire. The questionnaire will have both open ended and closed questions. The researcher
will adopt a drop and pick method and where the questionnaires will be dropped to the
respondents and they will be collected after having been completed by the respondent. Secondary
data will be obtained from publications dealing with tourism, journals, articles, and websites of
24

the ministry of tourism among others. The collected data will be both qualitative and quantitative
data which will be obtained from the sample population.

3.6. Pilot study


The researcher carry out a pilot study to pretest the validity and reliability of data collected using
the questionnaire. The researcher will select a pilot group 2 classified hotels in Nairobi from a
different management group rather than the target sample to test the validity and reliability of the
research instrument. The pilot study will be allowed for pre-testing of the research instrument.
The clarity of the instrument items to the respondents is necessary so as to enhance the
instruments validity and reliability. The aim is to correct inconsistencies arising from the
instruments, which ensures that they measure what was intended.

3.7. Data collection instruments


Data collection instruments are used by researchers and practitioners to help in the assessment or
evaluation of subjects, clients or patients. The instruments are used to measure or collect data on
a variety of variables ranging from physical functioning to psychosocial wellbeing. Types of
measurement tools include scales, indexes, surveys, interviews, questionnaires and informal
observations. According to Creswell (2003), the researcher should ensure that the instruments
chosen for the study are valid and reliable. The validity and reliability of a research project
depend largely on the type of the research instruments chosen. Before a research study is
executed the researcher should ensure that the instruments chosen should give the desired results

3.7.1 Validity of the data collection Instruments

Validity is defined as the extent to which the instrument measures what it purports to measure.
Creswell (2003) notes that validity is about whether one can draw meaningful and useful
inferences from scores on the instrument. To ensure content validity, the researcher will review
theoretical and empirical literature to come up with the relevant dimensions of the research
variables to measure the study variables. A rational analysis of the instrument by experts familiar
with the constructs of interest will also be done. The experts will review all the items for
readability, clarity and comprehensiveness and will give advice as to which items should be
included in the final instrument. To ensure criterion-related validity, the study will specify the
25

domain of indicators which are relevant to measuring of study variables. The researcher will
ensure construct validity through proper operationalization of study variables. To do this the
researcher will review previous studies and finding out how these studies operationalized the
variables of interest.

3.7.2 Reliability of data collection Instruments

Reliability is concerned with the question of whether the results of a study are repeatable. A
construct composite reliability co-efficient (Cronbach alpha) of 0.6 or above, for all the
constructs, will be considered to be adequate for this study. The acceptable reliability coefficient
is 0.6 and above (Rousson, Gasser and Seifer, 2002).

3.8 Data Analysis

The researcher will mainly use descriptive studies in data analysis. This will include the use of
frequency distribution tables, percentages and pie charts. According to Breakell (2006),
descriptive study design is commonly represented by use of frequency charts, graphs, and pie
charts to tabulate the information gathered appropriately. In addition to the above, inferential
statics especially regression will also be considered in order to establish the nature of relationship
between variables.

3.9 Ethical Considerations

While conducting the study, the researcher will ensure that research ethics are observed. This
will be achieved by the researcher obtaining the necessary permits from the relevant authority to
ensure that the study is done in line with regulations. Participation in the study will be voluntary.
Privacy and confidentiality will be observed. This will be achieved by ensuring that the
information given by the respondents remains confidential. The objectives of the study will be
explained to the respondents with an assurance that the data provided will be used for academic
purpose only.
26

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31

APPENDIX I

QUESTIONNAIRE

SECTION A: BACKGROUND INFORMATION

1. Gender Male ( ) Female ( )

2. What position do you hold at firm

3. For how long have you held the position?

[ ] Less than one year

[ ] 1 3 years

[ ] 4 6 years

[ ] 7 years and above

4. What are your highest academic qualifications?

[ ] Diploma [ ] Bachelors Degree

[ ] Masters Degree [ ] PhD

SECTION B. FACTORS AFFECTING DEMAND FOR DOMESTIC TOURISM

Disposable Income

5. a) Do you think income affects the demand for domestic tourism in Kenya?

No ( ) Yes {}

b) If yes, to what extent does income affect demand for domestic tourism in Kenya?

No extent []

Less extent []

Moderate extent []

Great extent []

Very great extent []


32

6. Please indicate your level of agreement on the following statements of disposable income in
demand for domestic tourism

Strongly disagre Neutral Agree Strongly


disagree e agree

Supply is a basic economic principal and a very


important factor in determining the income

Demand is a basic economic principal and a very


important factor in determining the income

lack of forward inflation results to low disposable


income growth and hence decreased demand for
domestic tourism

An increase in real household income will


encourage more people to travel hence high
demand

Price of competing destinations an important


determinant of tourism demand because it
represents the substitute price of a destination
in relation to its competitors

Cost

1. To what extent would you rate the influence of costs of domestic travel on domestic
tourism in Kenya?

No extent []

Less extent []

Moderate extent []

Great extent []

Very great extent []

2. Please indicate the extent to which the following factors influence cost on demand for
domestic tourism

No Low Moderate Great Very great


extent extent extent extent extent

Influence of security on cost

Decrease in investment areas/


33

opportunities

Influence of recreation choices


on cost

Influence of Inflations on cost

Influence of consumer choice


on cost

Influence of the foreign tourists

Influence of consumer income


on cost

Awareness levels

3. Do you think that the level of awareness and interest in domestic tourism (particularly
among the middle class) is lacking?

Yes []

No []

4. Which areas needs to be improved in order to enhance awareness to facilitate domestic


tourism

Promoting and marketing []

Developing new tourism markets []

Expanding tourism businesses []

Upgrading transport and infrastructure facilities []

5. Please indicate your level of agreement on the following statements on influence of


awareness levels on demand for domestic tourism

Strongly disagree Neutral Agree Strongly


disagree agree

Awareness provides grounds for


investment opportunities hence enhancing
tourism
34

An increase in awareness enhances


adoption of new domestic tourism
investment strategies

Awareness results to creation of a wide


network for cultural integration which
promotes domestic tourism

Awareness forms the basis for stronger


international tourism which encourages
domestic tourism

Awareness creates jobs and stability in the


domestic tourism employment sector

Awareness ensures long-term


sustainability of domestic tourism industry,
particularly in Kenya

Awareness provides the people with a


greater understanding and appreciation of
their country hence supporting domestic
tourism

Government policies

6. Do you think government policies affect the demand for domestic tourism in Kenya?

No []

Yes []

7. Please indicate your level of agreement on the following statements on influence of


government policies on demand for domestic tourism

Strongly disagree Neutral Agree Strongly


disagree agree

An increase in transaction costs means


that prices tend to increase hence low
demand

The value of currency affect the domestic


tourism investment
35

Price stability is a prerequisite for a


healthy economy therefore encouraging
domestic tourism

The most effective tool for price


regulation is to adjust interest rates by the
government, which supports domestic
tourism

If a government raises the interest rates it


means tours prices become more
expensive hence decreased domestic
tourism

Infrastructure development

8. To what extent is the amount of demand for domestic tourism dependent on tourism
infrastructures (hotels, restaurants) and attractiveness?

No extent []

Low extent []

Moderate extent []

Great extent []

Very great extent []

9. To what extent do the following factors tourism infrastructures influence demand for
domestic tourism

Factors No Low Moderate Great Very great


extent extent extent extent extent

Hotels/restaurants

Climate

Culture and cultural


initiatives

Natural environment
36

Promotion

Internet

Security

Currencies stability

Transportation

Tourist sites
37

APPENDIX II: WORK PLAN FOR THE STUDY

Activity August Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb

Literature search

Proposal writing and


presentation
Piloting/ pre-testing
instruments and data
collection
Data analysis

Report writing and


editing
Submission of report
38

APPENDIX III: STUDY BUDGET

Particulars Amount in Kshs

Stationary 4,000

Typing and Printing 20,000

Binding 5,000

Photocopying 6,000

Research permit 1,000

Travelling costs 6,000

Data analysis 18,000

Miscellaneous expense 5,000

Total 65,000