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Department of Electrical Engineering

Electromagnetics Chair

 This exam paper consists of three questions.

 This exam paper is accompanied by a formula sheet, which you may use without reference.

 The number succeeding a sub-question indicates the number of points to be earned. The final mark
is determined upon dividing the sum total of the number of points by four, and adding the points
earned by way of the assignments you did in 2014, and by completing the EM II Lab.

Good luck.

1. REFLECTIONS IN A TRANSMISSION LINE

t D0
I0 I`
C C
50 V0 V`
fc D 3  108 m=s; Z D 150 g 50
32 V

` D 0:9 m
zD0 zD`
A 32 V battery with internal impedance 50 is connected to a 0:9 m long transmission line via a switch
that is switched on at t D 0. As a consequence a TEM wave starts to propagate along the transmission
line towards the 50 load located at z D ` D 0:9 m. The characteristic impedance of the transmission
line is 150 .

1a Determine the voltage V .0; t / D Vinj .t / (which stands for inj(ection)), at an arbitrary moment in
time just after the switch has been activated, but before possible reflections from the end of the line
have returned. (1)

1b Because the line has not been terminated properly at either end, the waves that arrive at the termi-
nations will be partially reflected. Determine the reflection coefficients at z D 0 and z D `, which
we shall call 0 and ` , respectively. (1)

In principle, this process of successive reflections will go on forever. Thanks to the finite travel time and
the fact that the moduli of the reflection coefficients do not exceed unity, convergence will occur.

1c Determine the voltage and current amplitudes of the forward propagating waves that have reflected
2n times, with n integer (starting at n D 0). For simplicity, you may omit the step functions that
describe the time delay due to the finite travel time. (1)

1d Determine the voltage and current amplitudes of the backward propagating waves that have re-
flected 2n C 1 times, with n integer (starting at n D 0). For simplicity, you may again omit the
step functions that describe the time delay due to the finite travel time. (1)

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1e Sketch the bounce diagram for 0 < t < 15 ns, and sketch the voltage amplitude V .z; t / at z D
0:6 m for 0 < t < 15 ns. (1)

1f For t ! 1 a steady-state is reached for both the forward and backward propagating waves. Give
the steady-state voltage and current amplitudes V .z; t /j t !1 and I .z; t /j t !1 of these forward
and backward propagating waves. (1)

2. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS, PLANE WAVES IN A CAVITY AND POWER

The figure below is a sketch of an open one-dimensional cavity. The cavity may be regarded as being one-
dimensional because we only consider plane-wave propagation in the positive or negative z-directions.
The dielectric media in the cavity, z 2 0; d , and above it are instantaneously reacting, homogeneous and
p
lossless with  D 0 throughout. The indices of refraction in the two regions are given by n1 D "rI1
p
and n2 D "rI2 . At z D 0, a perfect electric conductor is located.
An electric current source density Js0 .z/ D JsS .z d /, with surface
current source density JsS D JsS ax , generates a time-harmonic electro-
magnetic field with angular frequency !, consisting of plane waves that
propagate upwards and downwards. At the interface z D 0, total reflec-
tion occurs, while the waves incident on the interface z D d from below
are partially reflected and partially transmitted. The corresponding electric z
and magnetic fields in the two regions .0; d / and .d; 1/ may be cast in "2 ;  0
the following form
zDd
Es .z/ D Vs .z/ax and Hs .z/ D Is .z/ay ;

in which "1 ;  0
8
< jZ1 Is .0/ sin.k1 z/ for 0 < z < d ,
Vs .z/ D zD0
:
Vs .d /e j k2 .z d / for d  z.

where Is .0/ is an as yet unknown current amplitude. The other quantities are introduced below. Above,
we have made use of the fact that in source-free regions the fields may alternatively be represented as
linear combinations of exponential functions, or as linear combinations of sines and cosines. Thus we
have already made sure that the boundary conditions at z D 0 are satisfied.
2a Express the wavenumbers k1 and k2 , the wave impedances Z1 en Z2 and the wave admittances
Y1 en Y2 in terms of the wavenumber, k0 , and wave impedance, Z0 , in vacuum and the refractive
indices n1 and n2 . (1)

2b Give the transmission line equations for Vs .z/ and Is .z/ in the regions 0 < z < d and d < z.
Here, you are asked to use 0 D k0 Z0 =! and "0 D k0 =.Z0 !/ to express !L D ! and
!C D !" in terms of k0 , Z0 , n1 and n2 . (2)

2c Use one of the transmission-line equations to determine the current amplitude Is .z/ of the mag-
netic field in the two regions in terms of the quantities introduced above. (1)

2d Give the boundary conditions at the level z D d . Use these boundary conditions to deduce that
(2)
JsS
Is .0/ D n2 :
cos.k0 n1 d / C j sin.k0 n1 d /
n1
Although this equation expresses the initially unknown complex quantity Is .0/ in terms of the known
source strength JsS , it is easier to perform the calculations below in terms of Is .0/.

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2e Compute the complex Poynting vector for z > d . (1)
Now, consider a generator domain Vsource consisting of a part of the cavity that is restricted to unit area
in the transverse directions, e.g., the region 0 < x < 1, 0 < y < 1, 0 < z  d (including the surface
current source density at z D d ). The domain Vsource is bounded by the closed surface Ssource . Often,
one is interested in the so-called quality factor Q D !hWem iT =hPr iT of a cavity.1 In the lossless non-
dispersive configuration under consideration, the electromagnetic field energy averaged per period may
be calculated using
1
Z
hWem iT D 0 jHs j2 C "1 jEs j2 dV:
4 Vsource
2f Compute the quality factor. (2)
3. WAVES (FREE AND GUIDED)
3a. A particular electric field E.r/ is found to be:

E.r/ D A1 e j'1 ax e 1 z j1 z
C A2 e j'2 ay e 2 xCj2 z ;
where Ai , 'i , i and i (i D 1; 2) are real constants.
Indicate the necessary and sufficient conditions for the values of these constants in order to get:
(2)

i. A travelling wave in the Cz direction.

ii. An inhomogeneous plane wave.
iii. A linearly x polarized evanescent wave.
iv. A right-handed (clockwise) circularly polarized travelling wave.

3b. A plane wave is incident at the angle  i D =6 on a large planar interface that separates region
1(air) from region 2 (a lossless plastic with parameters 0 and 6"0 ). The frequency of the incident
wave is 1 GHz. (2)

i. Calculate the reflection and refraction angles.

ii. If the incident electric field is parallel to the plane of incidence and has a complex amplitude

of E0i D 100e j 4 V/m, find the magnitudes jE0r j and jE0t j of the reflected and transmitted
electric fields.
iii. If  i is changed at will, which special angles of incidence could (in principle) be achieved?:
- Brewster angle
- Critical angle
- Both
- None.

3c. A rectangular waveguide has its cross-section in the xy-plane and therefore propagation occurs in the
longitudinal direction along z. Its width is a and height b. For the TE modes, after the separation
of variables technique, we get:

HO z .x; y/ D Ax cos.kx x/ C Bx sin.kx x/ 

Ay cos.ky y/ C By sin.ky y/

Apply the proper boundary conditions at the four walls of the waveguide in order to find Bx , By ,
kx and ky . (2)
1 One usually considers a mode of the cavity, rather than the field generated by a source, but that scenario is not considered

here.

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3d. The figure below sketches the electric and magnetic fluxes inside a waveguide. (2)

i. Which group of lines correspond to the electric flux and which ones to the magnetic flux?
Distinguish them in terms of purely transverse lines and longitudinal-transverse lines.
ii. Indicate which type of mode it is and its modal indexes m and n.

4. ANTENNAS

4a. Recall the field radiated by an electric point dipole, expressed in spherical coordinates:

 
1 I0 L 1 exp. j kr/
Er D jk C cos./
j!" 2 r r2

 
1 I0 L 2 jk 1 exp. j kr/
E D k C C 2 sin./
j!" 4 r r r

 
1 exp. j kr/
H' D I0 L j k C sin./
r 4 r
and all the other components equal to zero. (3)

i. Indicate what is the direction of propagation and polarization of these waves.

ii. Under which conditions can the field radiated by such a dipole be considered a plane wave?
iii. Consider we would like to provide a man on the moon with wireless internet access from a
router placed on the earths surface. The man on the moon has a laptop with an extremely
sensitive equipment that can work satisfactorily with electric field strengths (amplitudes) of
about 1 mV/m. The antenna of our router is a point dipole of length L D 0:02. Know-
ing that the average distance from the earth to the moon is d  384400 km, estimate the
minimum necessary current on the point dipole.

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4b. The following figures show polar plots of the power density radiated by two antennas for the  D
=2 plane. The antenna on the left panel is an isotropic point source, and the one in the right panel
is an unknown antenna. Knowing that the two antennas are transmitting the same amount of total
power, calculate, from the plots, the maximum directive gain of the unknown antenna. (2)

4c. Design a two-element (N=2) dipole array that will radiate equal intensities in the ' D 0, =2, ,
and 3=2 directions. Provide all the necessary details, like location and orientation of the dipole
elements, relative current phasing and spacing. (2)

BPdH/RS