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BRAZILIAN ABNT NBR

STANDARD 6118
First Edition
03.31.2003

Second edition
03.31.2004

Valid starting
03.30.2004

Design of structural concrete -


Procedure

Descriptor: Design. Structural. Plain concrete. Reinforced concrete.


Prestressed concrete. Concrete

ICS 91.080.40

Reference number
ABNT NBR 6118:2003
221 pages
[Brazilian Association of Technical Standards]
ABNT 2005

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

ABNT 2004
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or through any electronic or
mechanical means, including photocopy and microfilm, without written permission by ABNT.

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Summary Page

Preface ........................................................................................................................................................... iv

1 Objective ........................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................... 1

3 Definitions......................................................................................................................................... 4

4 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................ 6

5 General requirements of structural quality and project conformity evaluation ...................... 13

6 Guidelines for structural concrete durability .............................................................................. 15

7 Project criteria that aim at durability............................................................................................ 17

8 Material properties ......................................................................................................................... 21

9 Combined material behavior......................................................................................................... 30

10 Safety and limit states ................................................................................................................... 50

11 Actions ............................................................................................................................................ 51

12 Resistances .................................................................................................................................... 63

13 Limits for dimensions, displacements and crack openings...................................................... 66

14 Structural analysis ......................................................................................................................... 73

15 Instability and 2nd order effects .................................................................................................... 88

16 General dimensioning, verification and detailing principles................................................... 103

17 Dimensioning and verification of linear elements .................................................................... 106

18 Detailing of linear elements ........................................................................................................ 133

19 Dimensioning and verification of slabs ..................................................................................... 144

20 Detailing of slabs.......................................................................................................................... 157

21 Special regions............................................................................................................................. 161

22 Special elements .......................................................................................................................... 166

23 Dynamic action and fatigue ........................................................................................................ 176

24 Plain concrete............................................................................................................................... 184

25 Project interface with construction, use and maintenance ..................................................... 191

ANNEXES

A Effect of time on structural concrete .....................................................................................................189

B General index ...........................................................................................................................................198

C Index of figures and tables .....................................................................................................................205

D Remissive index .......................................................................................................................................207

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Preface
ABNT Associao Brasileira de Normas Tcnicas [Brazilian Association of Technical Norms] is the
National Normalization Forum. The Brazilian Norms, whose content is the responsibility of the Comits
Brasileiros [Brazilian Committees] (ABNT/CB) and the Organismos de Normalizao Setorial [Sector
Normalization Organisms] (ABNT/ONS), are elaborated by Comisses de Estudo [Study Commissions] (CE),
formed by representatives from the sectors involved, where producers, consumers and neutral parties
(universities, laboratories and others) form part of them.

ABNT NBR 6118 was elaborated in the Comit Brasileiro de Construo Civil [Brazilian Committee of Civil
Construction] (ABNT/CB-02), by the Comisso de Estudo de Estruturas de Concreto Simples, Armado e
Protendido [Study Commission of Simples, Reinforced and Prestressed Structural Concrete] (CE-02:124.15).
The Review Project circulated for Public Query according to Special Proclamation of 08/31/2001, under
Project number NBR 6118.

This Norm contains annexes A, B, C and D, which are informative in character.

Due to the scope change of this Norm with relation to the document of origin (ABNT NBR 6118:1980), the
need for review of ABNT NBR 7187:1987 Project and execution of reinforced and prestressed concrete
bridges Procedure and also ABNT NBR 8681:1984 Actions and safety in structures, besides the
elaboration of ABNT NBR 14391:2003 Structural concrete execution Procedure was established. This
information aims to alert users with respect to the convenience of consulting the updated editions of the cited
documents.

In order to facilitate the query and application of this Norm, having in view its extent and scope, the tables
and figures are identified in function of the section in which they are introduced. This way, the identification
number of each table or figure initially has the section number, followed by the sequential numbering within
the section.

This corrected Version incorporates erratum 1 of 03.31.2004.

Introduction
For the elaboration of this Norm the philosophy of the previous Norms was maintained: ABNT NBR 6118
(historically known as NB-1), ABNT NBR 7197, ABNT NBR 6119 and ABNT NB-49, so that it is the
responsibility of this to define general criteria that govern the structural concrete project, whether they are
buildings, bridges, hydraulic projects, ports or airports, etc. Therefore, it must be complemented by other
norms that set criteria for specific structures.

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BRAZILIAN STANDARD ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Structural concrete project - Procedure

1 Objective
1.1 This Norm sets the basic demandable requirements for simple, reinforced and prestressed structural
concrete project, excluding those in which light, heavy or other special concretes are employed.

1.2 This Norm is applied to normal structural concretes, identified by dry specific mass greater than 2000
kg/m, which do not exceed 2800 kg/m, of resistance (C10 to C50) group I, according to the classification of
ABNT NBR 8953. Among the special concretes excluded from this Norm are the mass concrete and no-fines
concrete.

1.3 This Norm establishes the general requirements to be satisfied by the project as a whole, as well as the
specific requirements referring to each of its stages.

1.4 This Norm does not include demandable requirements to avoid the limit states generated by certain
types of action, like earthquakes, impacts, explosions and fire.

1.5 In the case of special structures, such as precast elements, bridges and viaducts, hydraulic projects,
arches, silos, chimneys, towers, off-shore structures, or where non-conventional constructive techniques are
used, such as sliding techniques, successive balances, progressive placements and projected concrete, the
conditions of this Norm are still applicable, however they must be complemented and eventually adjusted at
determined points, by specific Brazilian Norms.

2 Normative references
The listed norms that follow contain dispositions that, as they are cited in this text, consist of prescriptions for
this Norm. The indicated editions were in effect at the time of this publication. Since all norms are subject to
review, it is recommended to those who execute agreements based on this to verify the convenience that the
most recent editions of the cited norms that follow are used. ABNT has the information of the norms in effect
at a given time.

ABNT NBR 5674:1999 Building maintenance Procedure

ABNT NBR 5732:1991 Common Portland cement Specification

ABNT NBR 5733:1991 Initial high resistance Portland cement Specification

ABNT NBR 5735:1991 High kiln Portland cement Specification

ABNT NBR 5736:1991 Portland pozzolanic cement Specification

ABNT NBR 5737:1992 Sulfate resistant Portland cement Specification

ABNT NBR 5738:1994 Molding and curing of concrete cylindrical or prismatic specimens Procedure

ABNT NBR 5739:1994 Concrete Cylindrical specimen compression test Test method

ABNT NBR 6004:1984 Steel wires Alternate bending test Test method

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ABNT NBR 6120:1980 Loads for calculation of building structures Procedure

ABNT NBR 6122:1996 Foundation project and execution Procedure

ABNT NBR 6123:1988 Wind forces on buildings Procedure

ABNT NBR 6153: 1988 Metallic product Semi-guided bending test Test method

ABNT NBR 6349:1991 Steel wires, bars and cordages for prestressing reinforcements Traction test
Test method

ABNT NBR 7190:1997 Structural wood project

ABNT NBR 7222:1994 Mortar and concrete Determination of traction resistance through diametral
compression test of cylindrical specimens Test method

ABNT NBR 7477: 1982 Determination of surface conformation coefficient of steel bars and wires intended
for reinforcements of reinforced concrete Test method

ABNT NBR 7480:1996 - Steel bars and wires intended for reinforcements of reinforced concrete
Specification

ABNT NBR 7481:1990 Welded steel screen Concrete reinforcement Specification

ABNT NBR 7482:1991 Steel wires for prestressed concrete Specification

ABNT NBR 7483:1991 Steel cordages for prestressed concrete Specification

ABNT NBR 7484:1991 Steel wires, bars and cordages intended for prestressed reinforcements
Isothermal relaxation tests Test method

ABNT NBR 7680:1983 Extraction, preparation, testing and analysis of structural concrete reference
markers Procedure

ABNT NBR 8522:1984 Concrete Determination of modulus of static deformation and stress-deformation
diagram Test method

ABNT NBR 8548:1984 Steel bars intended for reinforcements of reinforced concrete with mechanical or
welded joints Determination of traction resistance Test method

ABNT NBR 8681:2003 Actions and safety in structures Procedure

ABNT NBR 8800:1986 Building structural steel project and execution (Limit states method) Procedure

ABNT NBR 8953:1992 Concrete for structural purposes Resistance group classification Classification

ABNT NBR 8965:1985 Steel bars CA 42S with weldability characteristics intended for reinforcements of
reinforced concrete Specification

ABNT NBR 9062:2001 Precast structural concrete project and execution Procedure

ABNT NBR 11578:1991 Compound Portland cement Specification

ABNT NBR 11919:1978 Verification of metallic joints of reinforced concrete bars Test method

ABNT NBR 12142:1991 Concrete Determination of traction resistance in bending of prismatic specimens
Test method

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ABNT NBR 12654:1992 Technological control of concrete component materials Procedure

ABNT NBR 12655:1996 Concrete Preparation, control and reception Procedure

ABNT NBR 12989:1993 White Portland cement Specification

ABNT NBR 13116:1994 Low heat of hydration Portland cement Specification

ABNT NBR 14859-2:2002 Prefabricated slab Requirements. Part 2: Bidirectional slabs

ABNT NBR 14931:2003 Execution of structural concrete Procedure

ABNT NBR ISO 6892:2002 Metallic materials Traction test at room temperature

ABNT NBR NM 67:1998 Concrete Determination of consistency by cone bolt slump test

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3 Definitions
For the effects of this Norm, the following definitions are applied:

3.1 Structural concrete definitions


3.1.1 structural concrete: Term that refers to the complete spectrum of concrete application like structural
material.

3.1.2 simple structural concrete elements: Structural elements elaborated with concrete that does not
have any type of reinforcement, or that has it in quantity lesser than the minimum required for the reinforced
concrete (please see 17.3.5.3.1 and table 17.3).

3.1.3 reinforced concrete elements: Those whose structural behavior depends on the adherence between
concrete and reinforcement, and in which no initial tensionings of reinforcements are applied before the
materialization of this adherence.

3.1.4 prestressed concrete elements: Those in which part of the reinforcements is previously tensioned by
special prestressing equipments for the purpose of, under service conditions, impeding or limiting structure
cracking and displacements and propitiating better reutilization of high resistance steels in the ultimate limit
state (ULS).

3.1.5 negative reinforcement: Any reinforcement that is not used for producing prestressing strengths, that
is, which is not previously tensioned.

3.1.6 positive (prestressing) reinforcement: Constituted by bar, isolated wires or cordages, intended for
the production of prestressing strengths, that is, in which an initial pretensioning is applied.

3.1.7 concrete with positive reinforcement subjected to pre-traction (prestressing with initial
adherence): Prestressed concrete in which the pretensioning of the positive reinforcement is performed by
using independent supports of the structural element, before the concrete placement, which is the
connection of the prestressing reinforcement with the referred supports undone after concrete hardening; the
anchorage in the concrete is performed only through adherence.

3.1.8 concrete with positive reinforcement subjected to post-traction (prestressing with posterior
adherence): Prestressed concrete in which the pretensioning of the positive reinforcement is performed after
concrete hardening, where parts of the structural element itself are used, as supports, creating afterwards
adherence with the concrete permanently, through the injection of the sheaths.

3.1.9 concrete with positive reinforcement subjected to post-traction without adherence


(prestressing without adherence): Prestressed concrete in which the pretensioning of the positive
reinforcement is performed after concrete hardening, where parts of the structural element itself are used, as
supports, but adherence is not created with the concrete, such that the reinforcement is connected to the
concrete only at determined points.

3.1.10 expansion joint: Any concrete interruption for the purpose of reducing the internal stresses that can
result in impediments to any type of movement of the structure, mainly as consequence of retraction or
lowering of temperature.

3.1.11 partial expansion joint: Thickness reduction equal to or greater than 25% of the concrete cross
section.

3.2 Limit state definitions


3.2.1 ultimate limit state (ULS): Limit state related to collapse, or to any other form of structural destruction,
which determines the paralysis of use of the structure.

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3.2.2 limit state of crack formation (ELS_F): State in which the formation of cracks is started. It is admitted
that this limit state is reached when the maximum traction stress in the transversal cross section is equal to
fct,f (please see 13.4.2 and 17.3.4).

3.2.3 limit state of crack opening (ELS-W): State in which the cracks are presented with openings equal to
the maximum specified in 13.4.2 (please see 17.3.3).

3.2.4 limit state of excessive deformations (ELS-DEF): State in which the deformations reach the
established limits for normal use given in 13.3 (please see 17.3.2).

3.2.5 limit state of decompression (ELS-D): State in which the normal stress is null in one or more
transversal cross section, where there is no traction in the rest of the cross section. Usual verification in the
case of prestressed concrete (please see 13.4.2).

3.2.6 limit state of partial decompression (ELS-DP): State in which compression is assured in the
transversal cross section, in the region where there are positive reinforcements. This region must be extent
up to a distance ap of closest face of the cordage or the prestressing sheath (please see 3.1 and table 13.3).

Prestressing Compressed
sheath region

Region subjected
to traction

Figure 3.1 Limit state of partial decompression

3.2.7 limit state of excessive compression (ELS-CE): State in which, the compressive strengths reach the
established conventional limit. Usual in the case of prestressed concrete at the occasion of prestressing
application (please see 17.2.4.3.2.a).

3.2.8 limit state of excessive vibrations (ELS-VE): State in which the vibrations reach the established
limits for normal construction use.

3.3 Definition relative to those involved in the constructive process


3.3.1 CONTRACTING PARTY: Natural person or legal entity of public or private right that, through
opportune instrument of commitment, promotes the execution of services and/or works through technically,
legally and financially qualified contracted party.

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4 Symbols
4.1 Generalities
The symbols adopted in this Norm, in what refer to structural concrete, is composed of base-symbols (same
size and on the same level of current text) and subscript symbols.

The base-symbols used with more frequently in this Norm are set forth in 4.2 and the subscript symbols in
4.3.

The general symbols are established in this section and more specific symbols of some parts of this Norm is
presented in the pertinent sections, so as to simplify understanding and, therefore, the application of
established concepts.

The magnitudes represented by the symbols included in this Norm must always be expressed in units of the
International System (IS).

4.2 Base-symbols

4.2.1 Generalities

Some base-symbols presented in 4.2.2 to 4.2.4 are accompanied by subscript symbols, so as not to
generate doubts in the understanding of their meaning.

4.2.2 Lower case letters

a Distance or dimension

- Smaller dimension of a rectangle

- Maximum displacement (arrow)

b Width

- Dimension or distance parallel to the width

- Smaller dimension of a rectangle

bw Web width of a beam

c Reinforcement cover in relation to the elements face.

d Useful height

- Dimension or distance

e Calculation eccentricity originating from stressing strengths MSd and NSd

- Distance

f Resistance (please see section 8)

h Dimension

- Height

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i Minimum radius of rotation of the rough portion of concrete of the analyzed part

k Coefficient

- Total height of the structure or a column side

- Length

- Span

n Number

- Number of vertical runs of columns

r Internal radius of curvature of the hook

- Stiffness

s Spacing between reinforcement bars

t Length of the support parallel to the analyzed beam span

- Time

u - Perimeter

w Crack opening

x Height of neutral line

z Lever arm

- Distance

4.2.3 Upper case letters

A Full cross section area

Ac Concrete transversal cross section area

As Transversal cross section area of the longitudinal traction reinforcement

As - Longitudinal compressive reinforcement cross section area

D diameter of bending pins of steel bars

E Modulus of elasticity (please see section 8)

(EI) Stiffness

F Force

- Actions (please see section 11)

G Permanent actions (please see section 11)

Gc Concrete transversal modulus of elasticity

H - Height

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Ic Moment of inertia of the concrete cross section

K Coefficient

M Moment

- Bending moment

M1d Calculations 1st order bending moment

M2d Calculations 2nd order bending moment

MRd Calculations resisting bending moment

MSd Calculations stressing bending moment

Nd Calculations normal force

NRd Calculations normal resisting force

NSd Calculations normal stressing force

Q Variable actions (please see section 11)

R Support reaction

Rd Calculations resisting strength

Sd Calculations stressing strength

T Temperature

- Torsional moment

TRd Calculations resisting torsional moment

TSd Calculations stressing torsional moment

Vd Calculations shear force

4.2.4 Greek letters

Angle

- Instability parameter

- Coefficient

- Factor that define the bonding conditions in the supports

Angle

- Coefficient

c Weighted coefficient of concrete resistance

f Weighted coefficient of actions (please see section 11)

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m Weighted coefficient of resistances (please see section 12)

p Weighted coefficient of loads originating from prestressing (please see table 11.1 and 17.2.4.3)

s Weighted coefficient of steel resistance

Coefficient of redistribution

- Displacement

Specific deformation

c Specific concrete deformation

p Specific positive reinforcement deformation

s Specific negative reinforcement steel deformation

Rotation

- Angle of inclination

- Divergence from perpendicularity

Slenderness index

Coefficient

- Adimensional reduced bending moment

Poissons coefficient

- Adimensional normal force

Geometric rate of prestressing reinforcement

c Specific mass of the concrete

min Minimum geometric rate of longitudinal reinforcement of beams and columns

p Geometric rate of prestressing reinforcement

s Geometric rate of negative adherent reinforcement

c Compressive strength in the concrete

ct Traction stress in the concrete

p Tension in the prestressing steel

Rd Calculations normal resisting tensions

s Normal stress in the negative reinforcement steel

Sd Calculations normal stressing tensions

Rd Calculations resisting shear tensions

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Sd Calculations stressing shear tension

Td Calculations shear tension, by traction

wd Calculations shear tension, by shear force

- Diameter of reinforcement bars

- Diameter of longitudinal structural part reinforcement bars

n Equivalent diameter of a bundle of bars

p Nominal wire or cordage diameter

t Diameter of transversal reinforcement bars

vibr Diameter of vibrator needle

Coefficient of flow

4.3 Subscript symbols

4.3.1 Generalities

The subscript symbols are presented only in 4.3.2 to 4.3.4 in the same size of the current text, so as to
facilitate their visualization.

4.3.2 Lower case letters

apo support

c concrete

cor corrected

d calculation value

ef effective

e equivalent

eq equivalent

f bundle

fad fatigue

fic fictitious

g permanent actions

h horizontal

i sequential number

inf lower

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j age (referring to concrete curing)

k characteristic value

- sequential number

lim limit

m average

max maximum

min minimum

nec necessary

nom nominal

p positive reinforcement steel

q variable actions

r radial

s negative reinforcement steel

sec secant

ser service

sup upper

t traction

- transversal

tot total

u ultimate

- of rupture

v vertical

- beam

vo - span

vig beam

w web

- transversal

x and y orthogonal directions

y steel drainage

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4.3.3 Upper case letters

R resistances

S stresses

4.3.4 Numbers

0 start

- instance of load application

28 in 28 days

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5 General requirements of structural quality and project conformity


evaluation
5.1 Structural quality requirements

5.1.1 General conditions

The structural concretes must comply with the minimum quality requirements classified in 5.1.2, during their
construction and service, and with the additional requirements established along with the structural projects
author and contracting party.

5.1.2 Classification of structural quality requirements

The quality requirements of a structural concrete are classified, for effect of this Norm, into three distinct
groups, listed in 5.1.2.1 and 5.1.2.3.

5.1.2.1 Resisting capacity

It consists basically of safety from rupture.

5.1.2.2 Service performance

It consists of the capacity of a structure to be maintained in full conditions of use, where it must not present
damage that may compromise in part or totally the use for which it was designed.

5.1.2.3 Durability

It consists of the capacity of a structure to resist the foreseen and defined environmental influences along
with the structural projects author and the contracting party, at the start of the projects elaboration works.

5.2 Project quality requirements

5.2.1 Quality of adopted solution

The adopted structural solution in the project must comply with the quality requirements established in the
technical norms, referring to structures resisting capacity, service performance and durability.

The quality of the adopted solution must further consider the architectonic, functional, constructive (please
see ABNT NBR 14931), structural conditions, for integration with the other projects (electrical, hydraulic, air
conditioning and others) explained by the technical leaders of each specialization with the contracting partys
approval.

5.2.2 Conditions imposed on the project

5.2.2.1 All conditions imposed on the project, described in 5.2.2.2 to 5.2.2.6 must be set forth previously and
in common accord between the structural projects author and the contracting party.

5.2.2.2 In order to comply with the quality requirements imposed on structural concretes, the project must
satisfy all requirements established in this Norm and in other complementary and specific Norms, as the
case may be.

5.2.2.3 The demands referring to resisting capacity and service performance are not satisfied, when the
respective limit states are exceeded (please see sections 3 and 10).

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5.2.2.4 The demands of durability are not satisfied when the project criteria defined in section 7 are not
observed.

5.2.2.5 For special types of structures, particular demands established in specific Brazilian Norms must be
satisfied.

NOTE Particular demands may, for example, consist of resistance to explosions, impact, earthquakes, or
even relative to sealing, thermal and acoustic insulation.

5.2.2.6 Supplementary demands may be set in the project.

5.2.3 Documentation of adopted solution

5.2.3.1 The final project of the structural project is composed of designs, specifications and project criteria.
The specifications and the project criteria can be included in the appropriate designs or consist of separate
document.

5.2.3.2 The document listed in 5.2.3.1 must contain clear, correct, consistent information among them and
with the requirements established in this Norm.

5.2.3.3 The structural project must provide the needed information for the execution of the structure.

5.2.3.4 With the objective of assuring the quality of execution of a work, based on a particular project,
preventive measures must be taken since the beginning of the works. These measures must cover the
discussion and approval of the decisions made, their distribution and other information for the pertinent
elements of the multidisciplinary team and the coherent scheduling of activities, observing the logical rules of
precedence.

5.3 Project conformity evaluation


5.3.1 Depending on the size of the work, the project conformity evaluation must be required and contracted
by the contracting party to a qualified professional who must be registered in specific document that
accompanies the project documentation cited in 5.2.3.

5.3.2 The project conformity evaluation must be carried out before the construction phase and, preferably,
simultaneously with the project phase, as essential condition so that its results may become effective and
consequent.

5.3.3 Section 25 establishes the acceptance criteria and the corrective procedures, when needed.

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

6 Guidelines for structural concrete durability


6.1 Durability requirements
The structural concretes must be designed and constructed such that under planned environmental
conditions during the time of the project and when used as pre-established in the project they may preserve
their safety, stability and aptitude in service during the period corresponding to their useful life.

6.2 Useful project life


6.2.1 By useful project life, it is understood as the period of time during which the characteristics of the
structural concretes are maintained, as long as the requirements of use and maintenance prescribed by the
project engineer and the constructor are satisfied, according to 7.8 and 25.4, as well as the execution of the
necessary repairs resulting from accidental damages.

6.2.2 The concept of useful life is applied to the structure as a whole or to its parts. This way, determined
parts of the structures may deserve special consideration with useful life value different from the whole.

6.2.3 The durability of the structural concrete requires coordinated cooperation and efforts from all those
involved in the project, construction and utilization processes, where what ABNT NBR 12655 establishes
must, as a minimum, be followed, where the dispositions of 25.4 with relation to the conditions of use,
inspection and maintenance must also be obeyed.

6.3 Aging and deterioration mechanisms

6.3.1 Generalities

Within this approach, at least, the aging and deterioration mechanisms of the structural concrete, listed in
6.3.2 to 6.3.4 must be considered.

6.3.2 Predominating deterioration mechanisms relative to the concrete

a) lixiviation: due to action of pure, aggressive carbonic or acidic waters that dissolve and drag along
hydrated compounds of the cement paste;

b) expansion due to action of waters and soils that contain or are contaminated with sulfates, causing
expansive and deleterious reactions with the hydrated cement paste;

c) expansion due to action of reactions between the cement alkalis and certain reactive aggregates;

d) deleterious surface reactions of certain aggregates resulting from transformations of ferruginous products
present in its mineralogical constitution.

6.3.3 Predominating deterioration mechanisms relative to the reinforcement

a) depassivation due to carbonation, that is, due to action of the carbonic gas from the atmosphere;

b) passivation due to elevated chlorine ion (chloride) content.

6.3.4 Deterioration mechanism of the structure itself

They are all those related to mechanical actions, movements of thermal origin, impacts, cyclic actions,
retraction, flow and relaxation.

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6.4 Aggressiveness of the environment


6.4.1 The aggressiveness of the environment is related to physical and chemical actions that act on
structural concretes, regardless of mechanical actions, volumetric variations of thermal origin, hydraulic
retraction and others provided in the dimensioning of the structural concrete.

6.4.2 In the project of current structures, environmental aggressiveness must be classified in accordance
with that presented in table 6.1 and can be evaluated, simply, according to the exposure conditions of the
structure or its parts.

Table 6.1 Classes of environmental aggressiveness

General classification of the


Class of environmental Structures risk of
Aggressiveness type of environment for effect
aggressiveness deterioration
of the project
Rural
I Weak Insignificant
Submerged
1), 2)
II Moderate Urban Small
Marine 1)
III Strong Large
Industrial 1), 2)
1), 3)
Industrial
IV Very strong Elevated
Tide spatters
1)
A microclimate with a milder class of aggressiveness (one level above) may be admitted for dry internal environments
(rooms, bedrooms, bathrooms, kitchens and service areas of residential apartments and commercial offices or
environments with mortar and paint-coated concrete).
2)
A milder class of aggressiveness (one level above) can be admitted in: works in regions with dry climate, with relative
air humidity of lesser than or equal to 65%, parts of the structure protected from rain in predominantly dry environments,
or regions where it rarely rains.
3)
Chemically aggressive environments, industrial tanks, galvanoplasty, whitening in cellulose and paper industries,
fertilizer warehouses, chemical industries.

6.4.3 The person responsible for the structural project, in possession of data relative to the environment in
which the structure is built, may consider classification more aggressive than that established in table 6.1.

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7 Project criteria that aim at durability


7.1 Specific symbols of this section
So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the
most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

The symbols presented in this section follow the same orientation set in section 4. This way, the subscript
symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

cmin Minimum cover

cnom Nominal cover (minimum cover added from the execution tolerance)

RH Relative air humidity

c Execution tolerance for the cover

7.2 Drainage
7.2.1 The presence or water accumulation coming from rain or resulting from cleaning and washing water,
on surfaces of structural concretes, must be avoided.

7.2.2 The exposed surfaces that need to be horizontal, such as rooftops, yards, garages, parking areas and
others, must be conveniently drained, with disposition of drains and conductors.

7.2.3 All movement and expansion joints, on surfaces subject to the action of water, must be conveniently
sealed, so as to make them impassable to water passage (percolation).

7.2.4 All tops of platbands and walls must be protected by base plates. All roof projections must have
dripping pans and the junctions at different levels must be protected with casings.

7.3 Architectonic and structural forms


7.3.1 Architectonic or constructive dispositions that can reduce the structural durability must be avoided.

7.3.2 Access for inspection and maintenance of structural parts with useful life lesser than the rest, such as
supporting equipments, boxes, inserts, waterproofing devices and others, must be planned in the project.

7.4 Quality of cover concrete


7.4.1 The durability of the structures is highly dependent on the characteristics of the concrete and thickness
and quality of cover concrete of the reinforcement, once the other conditions established in this section are
satisfied.

7.4.2 Corroborative performance tests of the structural durability against the type and level of
aggressiveness planned in the project must establish the minimum parameters to be fulfilled. In their lack
and due to the existence of a strong similarity between water / cement ratio, compressive resistance of the
concrete and its durability, the adoption of the minimum requirements expressed in table 7.1 is permitted.

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Table 7.1 Correspondence between class of aggressiveness and concrete quality

Class of aggressiveness (table 6.1)


Concrete Type
I II III IV
Water / cement ratio CA 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.45
in mass CP 0.60 0.55 0.50 0.45
Class of concrete CA C20 C25 C30 C40
(ABNT NBR 8953) CP C25 C30 C35 C40
NOTES
1 The concept employed in the execution of the structures must comply with the requirements established in ABNT NBR
12655.
2 CA corresponds to structural components and elements of reinforced concrete.
3 CP corresponds to structural components and elements of prestressed concrete.

7.4.3 The requirements of tables 7.1 and 7.2 are valid for concretes executed with Portland cement that
complies, according to their type and class, with the specifications of ABNT NBR 5732, ABNT NBR 5733,
ABNT NBR 5735, ABNT NBR 5736, ABNT NBR 5737, ABNT NBR 11578, ABNT NBR 12989 or ABNT NBR
13116, with minimum cement consumptions per cubic meters of concrete in accordance with ABNT NBR
12655.

7.4.4 The use of additives containing chloride in its composition is not permitted in reinforced or prestressed
structural concretes.

7.4.5 The protection of external positive reinforcements must be assured through sheaths, completed by
grout, Portland cement broth without additions, or grease especially formulated for this purpose.

7.4.6 Special attention must be dedicated to protection against corrosion of the anchorages of positive
reinforcements.

7.4.7 For the cover, what is prescribed in 7.4.7.1 to 7.4.7.7 must be observed.

7.4.7.1 In order to satisfy the requirements set forth in this Norm, the minimum reinforcement cover is the
least value that must be observed along the entire element considered and that is constituted in an
acceptance criterion.

7.4.7.2 In order to assure the minimum cover (cmin) the project and the execution must consider the nominal
cover (cnom), which is the minimum cover added from the execution tolerance (c). Therefore, the
dimensions of the reinforcements and the spacers must respect the nominal covers, established in table 7.2,
for c = 10 mm.

7.4.7.3 In current works the value of c must be greater than or equal to 10 mm.

7.4.7.4 When there is adequate quality control and strict tolerance limits of measurement variability during
the execution the value of c = 5 mm can be adopted, but the rigorous control requirement must be
explained in the project designs. Therefore, the reduction of the nominal covers prescribed in table 7.2 by 5
mm is permitted.

7.4.7.5 The nominal and minimum covers are always referred to the external reinforcement surface, in
general to the external face of the stirrup. The nominal cover of a particular bar must always be:

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

a) cnom bar;

b) cnom bundle = n = n

c) cnom 0.5 sheath.

7.4.7.6 The maximum characteristic dimension of the full grained aggregate used in the concrete cannot
exceed by 20% the nominal cover thickness, that is:

dmax 1.2 cnom

Table 7.2 Correspondence between class of environmental aggressiveness and


nominal cover for c = 10 mm
Class of environmental aggressiveness (table 6.1)
Component or I II III IV 3)
Type of structure
element Nominal cover
mm
Reinforced Slab 2) 20 25 35 45
concrete Beam / Column 25 30 40 50
Prestressed
1) All 30 35 45 55
concrete
1)
Nominal cover of negative reinforcement that involves the sheath or the wires, cables and cordages, always greater
than that specified for the reinforced concrete element, due to risks of unstable corrosion under stress.
2)
For the upper face of slabs and beams that will be coated with base mortar, with final carpet and wood dry cover, with
cover and finishing mortar such as high performance floors, ceramic floors, asphalt floors and many others, the
requirements of this table can be substituted by 7.4.7.5, where a nominal cover 15 mm is observed.
3)
In the lower faces of the slabs and beams of tanks, water and sewer treatment stations, sewer ducts, troughs of
effluents and other works in chemically and intensely aggressive environments, the reinforcement must have nominal
cover 45mm.

7.4.7.7 In the case of prefabricated structural elements, the values relative to the cover of reinforcements
(table 7.2) must follow what is disposed in ABNT NBR 9062.

7.5 Reinforcement details


7.5.1 The bar must be disposed inside the structural component or element, so as to permit and facilitate the
good quality of concrete placement and thickening operations.

7.5.2 In order to assure good thickening, it is vital to plan in the details of the disposition of reinforcements
sufficient space for entry of the vibrator needle.

7.6 Cracking control


7.6.1 The risk and the evolution of steel corrosion in the region of flexural cracks transversal to the main
reinforcement depends essentially on the quality and the thickness of the reinforcements cover concrete.
Characteristic limit openings of cracks on the concrete surface given in 13.4.2, in reinforced concrete
components or elements, are satisfactory to the durability requirements.

7.6.2 Due to its greater sensitivity to corrosion under stress, the control of cracks on the concrete surface in
the region of positive reinforcements must obey that disposed in 13.4.2.

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

7.7 Special measures


In adverse exposure conditions special protection and conservation measures must be taken of the type:
application of water-resistant covers and waterproofing paints on concrete surfaces, mortar and ceramic
covers or others on the concrete surface, reinforcement galvanization, reinforcement cathode protection and
others.

7.8 Inspection and preventive maintenance


7.8.1 The set of projects relative to a work must be oriented under an explicit strategy that may facilitate
inspection and preventive maintenance procedures of the construction.

7.8.2 The utilization, inspection and maintenance manual must be produced according to 25.4.

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

8 Material properties
8.1 Specific symbols of this section
So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the
most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

The symbols presented in this section follow the same orientation set in section 4. This way, the subscript
symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

fc Concrete compressive resistance

fcd Concrete compressive calculation resistance

fcj Concrete compressive resistance in j days

fck Characteristic concrete compressive resistance

fcm Average concrete compressive resistance

fct Average direct traction resistance

fct,m Average concrete traction resistance

fct,f Flexural traction concrete resistance

fct,sp Concrete indirect traction resistance

fst Traction resistance of negative reinforcement steel

fy Drainage resistance of negative reinforcement steel

fpt Traction resistance of positive reinforcement steel

fpy Drainage resistance of positive reinforcement steel

Eci Modulus of elasticity or modulus of initial tangent deformation of the concrete, which always refers to
the chord modulus at 30% fc

Ecs Concrete secant modulus of elasticity, also call as modulus of concrete secant deformation

Eci (t0) Modulus of elasticity or modulus of initial concrete deformation at instance t0

Eci28 Modulus of elasticity or modulus initial concrete deformation at 28 days

Ep Modulus of elasticity of positive reinforcement steel

Es Modulus of elasticity of negative reinforcement steel

Gc Concrete modulus of transversal elasticity

u Specific steel deformation at rupture

y Specific steel drainage deformation

Poissons coefficient

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

8.2 Concrete

8.2.1 Classes

This Norm is applied to concretes included in the Group I classes of resistance, indicated in ABNT NBR
8953, that is up to C50.

Class C20, or higher, is applied to concrete with negative reinforcement and class C25, or higher, to
concrete with positive reinforcement. Class C15 can be used only in foundations, according to ABNT NBR
6122, and in provisional works.

8.2.2 Specific mass

This Norm is applied to concretes of normal specific mass, which are those that, after they have been oven-
dried, they have a specific mass (c) inclusively between 2000 kg/m and 2800 kg/m.

If the real specific mass is unknown, for effect of calculation, the value of 2400 kg/m can be adopted for
plain concrete and 2500 kg/m for reinforced concrete.

When the specific mass of the concrete used is known, the specific mass of plain concrete added by 100
kg/m to 150 kg/m can be considered for that of the reinforced concrete.

8.2.3 Coefficient of thermal expansion

For effect of structural analysis, the coefficient of thermal expansion can be admitted as being equal to 10-
5
/C.

8.2.4 Compressive resistance

The prescriptions of this Norm refer to the compressive resistance obtained in molded cylinder tests
according to ABNT NBR 5738, carried out in accordance with ABNT NBR 5739.

When the age is not indicated, the resistances refer to the age of 28 days. The estimated average
compressive resistance, fcmj, corresponding to a specified resistance fckj, must be done as indicated in ABNT
NBR 12655.

The evolution of the compressive resistance with age must be obtained through tests specially executed for
such purpose. In the absence of these experimental results the values indicated in 12.3.3 can be adopted as
directive in character.

8.2.5 Traction resistance

The indirect traction resistance fct,sp and the flexural traction resistance fct,f must be obtained in tests
performed according to ABNT NBR 7222 and ABNT NBR 12142, respectively.

The direct traction resistance fct can be considered equal to 0.9 fct,sp or fct,f or, in the lack of tests for
obtainment of fct,sp and fct,f, its average or characteristic value can be evaluated through the following
equations:

fct,m = 0.3 fck2/3

fctk,inf = 0.7 fct,m

fctk,sup = 1.3 fct,m

where:

fct,m and fck are expressed in megapascal.

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

When fckj 7 MPa, these expressions can also be used for ages different from 28 days.

8.2.6 Resistance in the multiaxial stress state

When the concrete is submitted to main stresses 3 2 1, the following must be obtained:

1 -fctk

3 fck + 4 1

where the compressive stresses are considered positive and those of traction negative (please see figure
8.1).

Figure 8.1 Resistance in multiaxial stress state

8.2.7 Fatigue resistance

Please see 11.4.2.3 and 23.5.4.

8.2.8 Modulus of elasticity

The modulus of elasticity must be obtained according to the test described in ABNT NBR 8522, where the
modulus of initial chord tangent deformation at 30% fc is considered in this Norm, or another stress specified
in the project. When tests are not performed or there are no more accurate data about the concrete used at
the age of 28 days, the modulus of elasticity value can be estimated by using the expression:

Eci = 5600 fck 1/2

where:

Eci and fck are given in megapascal.

The modulus of elasticity at an age j 7 days can also be evaluated through this expression, by replacing fck
for fckj.

When it is the case, this is the modulus of elasticity to be specified in the project and controlled in the work.

The secant modulus of elasticity to be used in the project elastic analyses, especially for determination of
stressing strengths and verification of service limit states, it must be calculated through the expression:

Ecs = 0.85 Eci

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

In the evaluation of the behavior of a structural element of transversal cross section a single modulus of
traction and compressive elasticity, equal to the secant modulus of elasticity (Ecs) can be adopted.

In the evaluation of the overall behavior of the structure and for the calculation of the prestressing losses, the
modulus of initial tangent deformation (Eci) can be used in the project.

8.2.9 Poissons coefficient and modulus of transversal elasticity

For compression stresses lesser than 0.5 fc and traction stresses lesser than fct, the Poissons coefficient
can be taken as equal to 0.2 and the modulus of transversal elasticity Gc equal to 0.4 Ecs.

8.2.10 Stress - deformation diagrams

8.2.10.1 Compression

For compression stresses lesser than 0.5 fc, a linear ratio between stresses and deformations can be
admitted, where the secant value given by the expression established in 8.2.8 is adopted for the modulus of
elasticity.

For analyses in the ultimate limit state, the idealized stress deformation diagram shown in figure 8.2 or the
proposed simplifications in section 17 can be employed.

Figure 8.2 Idealized stress deformation diagram

Please see indication on the value of fcd in 12.3.3.

8.2.10.2 Traction

For the non-cracked concrete, the bilinear traction stress deformation diagram, indicated in figure 8.3 can
be adopted.

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Figure 8.3 Bilinear traction stress deformation diagram

8.2.11 Flow and retraction

In cases where great precision is unnecessary, the final coefficient of flow (t, t0) and specific retraction
deformation cs(t, t0) values of the concrete, submitted to stresses lesser than 0.5 fc at the time of first
loading, can be obtained, by linear interpolation, from table 8.1.

Table 8.1 provides the coefficient of flow (t, t0) and the specific retraction deformation cs(t, t0) value, in
function of environment humidity and fictitious thickness 2Ac/u, where Ac is the transversal cross section area
and u is the cross section perimeter in contact with the atmosphere. The values of this table are relative to
concrete temperatures between 10C and 20C, where, therefore, temperatures between 0C and 40C can
be admitted. These values are valid for plastic and common Portland cement concretes.

Specific deformations due to more accurate flow and retraction can be calculated according to the indication
of annex A.

Table 8.1 Characteristic values greater than the specific retraction deformation
cs(t, t0) and the coefficient of flow (t, t0)
Environment
humidity 40 55 75 90
%
Fictitious
thickness
20 60 20 60 20 60 20 60
2Ac/u
cm
5 4.4 3.9 3.8 3.3 3.0 2.6 2.3 2.1
(t, t0) 30 3.0 2.9 2.6 2.5 2.0 2.0 1.6 1.6
t0 60 3.0 2.6 2.2 2.2 1.7 1.8 1.4 1.4
days 5 0.44 0.39 0.37 0.33 0.23 0.21 0.10 0.09
cs(t,
t0 ) 30 0.37 0.38 0.31 0.31 0.20 0.20 0.09 0.09
60 0.32 0.36 0.27 0.30 0.17 0.19 0.08 0.09

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

8.3 Negative reinforcement steel

8.3.1 Category

In the structural reinforced concrete projects steel classified by ABNT NBR 7480 must be used with the
characteristic drainage resistance value in the categories CA-25, CA-50 and CA-60. The nominal diameters
and transversal cross sections must be those established in ABNT NBR 7480.

8.3.2 Type of surface

The wires and bars can be smooth or provided with corbels or notches. For each category of steel, the
minimum coefficient of surface conformation, b, determined through tests in accordance with ABNT NBR
7477, must comply with that indicated in ABNT NBR 7480. The configuration and the geometry of the
corbels or notches must also satisfy which is specified in this Norm in sections 9 and 23, as long as there are
important cyclic stresses.

For effects of this Norm, the surface conformation is measured by the coefficient 1, whose value is related to
the coefficient of surface conformation b, as established in table 8.2.

Table 8.2 Ratio between 1 and b


Coefficient of surface conformation
Type of bar
b 1
Smooth (CA-25) 1.0 1.0
Notched (CA-60) 1.2 1.4
High adherence (CA-50) 1.5 2.25

8.3.3 Specific mass

The value of 7850 kg/m can be adopted for specific mass of the negative reinforcement steel.

8.3.4 Coefficient of thermal expansion

The value 10-5/C can be considered for the coefficient of thermal expansion of the steel, for intervals of
temperature between 20C and 150C.

8.3.5 Modulus of elasticity

In the lack of tests or values provided by the manufacturer, the modulus of elasticity of the steel can be
admitted equal to 210 GPa.

8.3.6 Stress deformation diagram, drainage and traction resistance

The stress deformation diagram of the steel, the characteristic drainage resistance fyk, traction resistance
fstk and rupture deformation uk values must be obtained from traction tests performed according to ABNT
NBR ISO 6892. The value of fyk for steels without drainage level is the value of the stress corresponding to
the permanent deformation of 0.2%.

For calculation in the service and ultimate limit states the simplified diagram shown in figure 8.4 can be used,
for the steels with or without drainage level.

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Figure 8.4 Stress deformation diagram for negative reinforcement steels

This diagram is valid for temperature intervals between 20C and 150C and can be applied to traction and
compression.

8.3.7 Ductility characteristics

The steels CA-25 and CA-50, which respond to the minimum values of fyk/fstk and uk indicated in ABNT NBR
7480, can be considered as of high ductility. The steels CA-60 that also obey the specifications of this Norm
can be considered as of normal ductility.

In 180 bending tests, performed in accordance with ABNT NBR 6153 and using the pin diameters indicated
in ABNT NBR 7480, no rupture or cracking must occur.

8.3.8 Fatigue resistance

Please see 23.5.5.

8.3.9 Weldability

So that a steel is considered weldable, its composition must obey the limits established in ABNT NBR 8965.

The welded steel joint must be traction-tested according to ABNT NBR 8548. The minimum rupture load,
measured on the welded bar, must satisfy that specified in ABNT NBR 7480 and the tensioning under load
must be such that it may not compromise the ductility of the reinforcement. The total plastic tensioning
measured on the welded bar must satisfy a minimum of 2%.

8.4 Positive reinforcement steel

8.4.1 Classification

The characteristic traction resistance, diameter, wire and cordage area values, as well as the classification
with respect to relaxation, to be adopted in the project, are the nominal values indicated in ABNT NBR 7482
and in ABNT NBR 7483, respectively.

8.4.2 Specific mass

The value of 7850 kg/m can be adopted for specific mass of the positive reinforcement steel.

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

8.4.3 Coefficient of thermal expansion

The value 10-5/C can be considered for coefficient of thermal expansion of the steel, for temperature
intervals between 20C and 100C.

8.4.4 Modulus of elasticity

The modulus of elasticity must be obtained in tests or provided by the manufacturer. In the lack of specific
data, the value of 200 GPa can be considered for wires and cordages.

8.4.5 Stress deformation diagram, drainage and traction resistance

The stress deformation diagram must be provided by the manufacturer or obtained through tests
performed according to ABNT NBR 6349.

The characteristic conventional drainage resistance fpyk, traction resistance fptk and tensioning after rupture
uk values of the cordages must satisfy the minimum values established in ABNT NBR 7483. The values of
fpyk, fptk and tensioning after rupture uk of the wires must comply with what is specified in ABNT NBR 7482.

For calculation in the service and ultimate limit state, the simplified diagram shown in figure 8.5 can be used.

Figure 8.5 Stress deformation diagram for positive reinforcement steels

This diagram is valid for temperature intervals between 20C and 150C.

8.4.6 Ductility characteristics

The wires and cordages, whose value of uk is greater than the minimum indicated in ABNT NBR 7482 and
ABNT NBR 7483, respectively, can be considered as having normal ductility.

The minimum number of alternate bends of prestressing wires, obtained in tests according to ABNT NBR
6004, must comply with what is indicated in ABNT NBR 7482.

8.4.7 Fatigue resistance

Please see 23.5.5.

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

8.4.8 Relaxation

Wire and cordage relaxation, after 1000 hrs at 20C (1000) and for stresses varying from 0.5 fptk to 0.8 fptk,
obtained in tests described in ABNT NBR 7484, must not exceed the values given in ABNT NBR 7482 and
ABNT NBR 7483, respectively.

For effect of the project, the values of 1000 of table 8.3 can be adopted.

Table 8.3 Value of 1000 in percentage


Cordages Wires
po Bars
NR LR NR LR
0.5 fptk 0 0 0 0 0
0.6 fptk 3.5 1.3 2.5 1.0 1.5
0.7 fptk 7.0 2.5 5.0 2.0 4.0
0.8 fptk 12.0 3.5 8.5 3.0 7.0
Where:
NR is normal relaxation;
LR is low relaxation.

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

9 Combined material behavior


9.1 Specific symbols of this section
So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the
most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

The symbols presented in this section follow the same orientation set in section 4. This way, the subscript
symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

fbd Calculation adherence resistance of negative reinforcement

fbpd Calculation adherence resistance of positive reinforcement

k Coefficient of loss per meter of cable provoked by non-intentional curvatures of the cable

lb Basic anchorage length

lbp Baisc anchorage length for positive reinforcement

lbpd Anchorage length for positive reinforcement

lbpt Transfer length of pre-traction stressed reinforcement

loc Length of transfer section for isolated compressed bars

lot Length of transfer section for isolated traction stressed bars

lp Regularization distance of prestressing force

t Time counted starting at the end of prestressing operations

t0 Instance of load application

t - Useful life of the structure

x Abscissa counted starting at the cable cross section in which it is admitted that the prestressing has been
applied to the concrete

P(x) Normal prestressing force

P0(x) Force in the prestressing reinforcement at time t = 0, in the cross section of abscissa x

Pd,t Calculation prestressing force, at time t

Pi Maximum force applied to the prestressing reinforcement by the traction equipment

Pk,t(x) Characteristic force in the prestressing reinforcement, at time t, in the cross section of abscissa x

Pt(x) Force in the prestressing reinforcement, at time t, in the cross section of abscissa x

Coefficient for calculation of anchorage length

p Ratio between Ep and Eci

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

p Weighted coefficient of prestressing-originated loads

f Diameter of bars that constitute a bundle

n Equivalent diameter of a bundle of bars

t Diameter of transversal reinforcement bars

1, 2, 3 Coefficients for calculation of negative reinforcement adherence stress

p1, p2, p3 Coefficients for calculation of positive reinforcement adherence stress

cp Initial stress in the concrete at the level of the center of gravity of the prestressing reinforcement, due to
simultaneous prestressing of n cables

cg Stress in the concrete at the level of the center of gravity of the prestressing reinforcement, due to
permanent load mobilized by the prestressing or simultaneously applied with the prestressing

p Prestressing tension

pi Stress in the positive reinforcement immediately after prestressing application

p0 Stress in the positive reinforcement corresponding to P0

p - Stress in the positive reinforcement after all losses in the course of time

P(x) Prestressing losses due to friction, measured from Pi, in the cross section of abscissa x

P0(x) Immediate prestressing loss, measured from Pi at time t = 0, in the cross section of abscissa x

Pt(x) Prestressing loss in the cross section of abscissa x, at time t, calculated after time t = 0

p Average prestressing loss per cable due to immediate shortening of the concrete

9.2 General dispositions

9.2.1 Generalities

The requirements established in this section must be obeyed, in what refer to reinforcement adherence,
anchorage and joints. The specific conditions, relative to reinforcement protection, particular anchorage
situations and joints and their limitations before the nature of the applied stresses, in regions of discontinuity
and in special elements, are treated in sections 7, 18, 21 and 22, respectively.

9.2.2 Prestressing levels

The prestressing levels are related with the prestressing force intensity levels that, in turn, are function of
the proportion of positive reinforcement used in relation to the negative (please see 3.1.4 and table 13.3).

9.3 Adherence verification

9.3.1 Position of the bar during concreting

The bar sections that are in one of the following positions are considered in good situation with respect to
adherence:

a) with inclination greater than 45 over the horizontal;

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

b) horizontals or with inclination lesser than 45 over the horizontal, as long as:

- for structural elements with h < 60 cm, located at the maximum 30 cm above the lower face of the element
or closest concreting joint;

- for structural elements with h 60 cm, located at the minimum 30 cm below the upper face of the element
or the closest concreting joint.

The bar sections in other positions and at the time of use of the sliding forms must be considered in bad
situation with respect to adherence.

9.3.2 Adherence resistance values

9.3.2.1 The calculation adherence resistance between reinforcement and concrete at the anchorage of
negative reinforcements must be obtained through the following expression:

fbd = 1 2 3 fctd

where:

fctd = fctk,int/c (please see 8.2.5);

1 = 1.0 for smooth bars (please see table 8.2);

1 = 1.4 for notched bars (please see table 8.2);

1 = 2.25 for ribbed bars (please see table 8.2);

2 = 1.0 for situations of good adherence (please see 9.3.1);

2 = 0.7 for situations of bad adherence (please see 9.3.1);

3 = 1.0 for < 32 mm;

3 = (132 )/100, for 32 mm;

where:

is the diameter of the bar, in millimeters.

9.3.2.2 The calculation adherence resistance between reinforcement and concrete in the anchorage of
positive pre-traction stressed reinforcements, must be obtained through the following expression:

fbpd = p1 p2 fctd

where:

fctd = fctk,int/c (please see 8.2.5) calculated at the age of:

- prestressing application, for calculation of the transfer length (please see 9.4.5);

- 28 days, for calculation of the anchorage length (please see 9.4.5);

p1 = 1.0 for smooth wires;

p1 = 1.2 for three to seven wire cordages;

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

p1 = 1.4 for dented wires;

p2 = 1.0 for situations of good adherence (please see 9.3.1);

p2 = 0.7 for situations of bad adherence (please see 9.3.1).

9.3.2.3 On the skidding of the reinforcement, in bent structural elements, the adherence stress values given
in 9.3.2.1 and 9.3.2.2, multiplied by 1.75 must be adopted.

9.4 Reinforcement anchorage

9.4.1 General conditions

All reinforcement bars must be anchored so that the stresses to which they are submitted are integrally
transmitted to the concrete, whether by means of adherence or mechanical devices or combination of both.

9.4.1.1 Anchorage by adherence

It takes place when the stresses are anchored by means of a straight length or with large radius of curvature,
followed or not by a hook.

At the exception of regions situated on direct supports, the anchorages by adherence must be confined by
transversal reinforcements (please see 9.4.2.6) or by the concrete itself, where this case is considered when
the anchored bar cover is greater than or equal to 3 and the distance between anchored bars is greater
than or equal to 3 .

9.4.1.2 Anchorage by means of mechanical devices

It happens when the stresses to anchor are transmitted to the concrete by means of mechanical devices
coupled to the bar.

9.4.2 Anchorage of negative reinforcements by adherence

9.4.2.1 Rectilinear pretensioning of the bar or large radius of curvature

The traction stressed bars can be anchored along a rectilinear length or with large radius of curvature in its
extremity, in accordance with the conditions that follow:

a) obligatorily with hook (please see 9.4.2.3) for smooth bars;

b) without hook in those that have alternation of stress, traction and compression;

c) with or without hook in other cases, where the hook is not recommended for bars of > 32 mm or for
bundles of bars.

The compressed bars must be anchored without hooks.

9.4.2.2 Welded transversal bars

Several welded transversal bars can be used for the anchorage of bars, as long as (please see figure 9.1):

a) diameter of welded bar t 0.60 ;

b) the distance of the transversal bar to the starting point of the anchorage is 5 ;

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

c) the welding shear resistance must exceed the minimum force of 0.3 As fyd (30% of the resistance of the
anchored bar).

NOTE For single transversal bar, please see 9.4.7.1.

Figure 9.1 Anchorage with welded transversal bars

9.4.2.3 Hooks of traction reinforcements

The hooks of the extremities of longitudinal traction reinforcement bars can be:

a) semicircular, with straight tip of length not lesser than 2 ;

b) at 45 angle (inner), with straight tip of length not lesser than 4 ;

c) at right angle, with straight tip of length not lesser than 8 .

For smooth bars, the hooks must be semicircular.

The inner diameter of curvature of the hooks of longitudinal traction reinforcements must be at least equal to
that established in table 9.1.

Table 9.1 Diameter of bending pins (D)


Gage Type of steel
mm CA-25 CA-50 CA-60
< 20 4 5 6
20 5 8 -

For stirrup hooks, please see 9.4.6.1.

When there is welded bar transversal to the hook and the bending operation occurs after welding, the
diameters of the bending pins of table 9.1 must be maintained, if the welding point is situated at the straight
part of the bar, at a minimum distance of 4 from the start of the curve.

In case this distance is lesser, or the point is situated on the curved section, the diameter of the bending pin
must at the minimum be equal to 20 .

When the welding operation occurs after bending, the diameters of table 9.1 must be maintained.

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9.4.2.4 Basic anchorage length

Basic anchorage length is defined as the straight length of a negative reinforcement bar needed to anchor
the limit force Asfyd on this bar, where uniform adherence resistance and equal to fbd is admitted, along this
length, according to 9.3.2.1.

The basic anchorage length is given by:

lb = fyd
4 fbd

9.4.2.5 Necessary anchorage length

The necessary anchorage length can be calculated by:

Lb,nec = lb As,calc lb,min


As,ef

where:

= 1.0 for bars without hook;

= 0.7 for traction stressed bar with hook, with cover on the normal plane to that of the hook 3 ;

= 0.7 when there are welded transversal bars according to 9.4.2.2;

= 0.5 when there are welded transversal bars according to 9.4.2.2 and hook, with cover on the
normal plane to that of the hook 3 ;

lb is calculated according to 9.4.2.4;

lb,min is the largest value between 0.3 lb, 10 and 100 mm.

It is permitted, in special cases, the consideration of the reducing factors of the necessary anchorage length.

9.4.2.6 Transversal reinforcement on the anchorage

For effects of this subsection, where what is disposed in 9.4.1.1 is observed, the existing transversal
reinforcements along the anchorage length are considered, in case the sum of the areas of these
reinforcements is greater than or equal to those specified in 9.4.2.6.1 and 9.4.2.6.2.

9.4.2.6.1 Bars with < 32 mm

Along the anchorage length transversal reinforcement capable of resisting 25% of the longitudinal force of
one of the anchored bars must be planned. If the anchorage involves different bars, that of greater diameter
prevails for this effect.

9.4.2.6.2 Bars with 32 mm

The reinforcement in two transversal directions to the set of anchored bars must be verified. These
transversal reinforcements must support splitting tensile strengths according to the critical plans, observing
maximum spacing of 5 (where is the diameter of the anchored bar).

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When it deals with compressed bars, at least one of the constituting bars of the transversal reinforcement
must be situated at a distance equal to four diameters (of the anchored bar) beyond the extremity of the bar.

9.4.3 Anchorage of bundles of bars by adherence

The bundle is considered as a bar of equivalent diameter equal to:

n = f n

The constituting bars of bundles must have straight anchorage, without hooks, and comply with the following
conditions:

a) when the equivalent diameter of the bundle is lesser than or equal to 25 mm, the bundle can be treated as
a single bar, of diameter equal to n for which what is established in 9.4.2 is valid;

b) when the equivalent diameter is greater than 25 mm, the anchorage must be calculated for each isolated
bar, with a distancing its extremities so as to minimize the effects of concentrations of adherence stresses;
the distance between the extremities of the bars of the bundle must not be lesser than 1.2 times the
anchorage length of each individual bar;

c) when, for constructive reasons, it is not possible to proceed as recommended in b), the anchorage can be
calculated for the bundle, as if it were a single bar, with equivalent diameter n. The additional transversal
reinforcement must be obligatory and obey that established in 9.4.2.6, according to n whether lesser than,
equal to or greater than 32 mm.

9.4.4 Anchorage of welded screens by adherence

What is disposed in 9.3.1 to 9.4.2 is applied.

When the screen is composed of smooth wires or with notches, the same criteria defined for ribbed bars can
be adopted, as long as the number of welded transversal wires along the necessary anchorage length is
calculated according to the expression:

As ,calc
n 4
As ,ef

9.4.5 Anchorage of positive reinforcements (pre-traction stressed wires and cordages)


by adherence

9.4.5.1 Basic anchorage length

The basic anchorage length must be obtained by:

- for isolated wires:

f pyd
bp =
4 f bpd

- for three or seven wire cordages:

7 f pyd
bp =
36 f bpd

where:

fbpd must be calculated according to 9.3.2, considering the age of the concrete on the prestressing
date for the calculation of the transfer length and 28 days for the calculation of the anchorage length.
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9.4.5.2 Transfer length (lbpt)

The calculation of the necessary length for transferring, by adherence, the totality of the prestressing force to
the wire, inside the concrete mass, must simultaneously consider:

a) if at the act of prestressing, the release of the traction device is gradual. In this case, the transfer length
must be calculated through the expressions:

- for dented or smooth wires:

pi
bpt = 0.7bp
f pyd

- for three or seven wire cordages:

pi
bpt = 0.5bp
f pyd

b) if at the act of prestressing the release is not gradual. In this case the values calculated in a) must be
multiplied by 1.25.

9.4.5.3 Necessary anchorage length

The necessary anchorage length must be given by the expression:

f pyd p
bpd = bpt + bp
f pyd

9.4.5.4 Transversal reinforcement in the anchorage zone

The transversal reinforcement in the anchorage zone can be calculated in accordance with 21.2.

9.4.6 Anchorage of stirrups

The anchorage of stirrups must necessarily be assured through hooks or welded longitudinal bars.

9.4.6.1 Stirrup hooks

The stirrup hooks can be:

a) semicircular or at 45 angle (inner), with straight tip of length equal to 5 t, however not lesser than 5 cm;

b) at right angle, with straight tip of length greater than or equal to 10 t, however not lesser than 7 cm (this
type of hook must not be used for smooth bars or wires).

The inner diameter of the curvature of the stirrups must, at the minimum, be equal to the index given in table
9.2.

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Table 9.2 Diameter of bending pins for stirrups


Gage Type of steel
mm CA-25 CA-50 CA-60
10 3 t 3 t 3 t
10 < < 20 4 t 5 t -
20 5 t 8 t -

9.4.6.2 Welded transversal bars

As long as the welding shear resistance for a minimum force of Asfyd is verified through test, the anchorage
of stirrups can be performed, by means of welded transversal bars, in accordance with figure 9.2, obeying
the conditions given as follow:

a) two welded bars with diameter t > 0.7 for stirrups constituted by one or two branches;

b) a welded bar with diameter t 1.4 , for two-branch stirrups.

where:

Asfyd is the resistance of the anchored bar.

Figure 9.2 Anchorage of transversal reinforcement by means of welded bars

9.4.7 Anchorage by means of mechanical devices

When mechanical devices coupled to the reinforcements to anchor are used, the efficiency of the assembly
must be justified and, when it is the case, verified through tests.

The skidding between the bar and the concrete. Along with the anchorage device, must not exceed 0.1 mm
for 70% of the ultimate limit load, or 0.5 mm for 95% of this load.

The calculation resistance of the anchorage must not exceed 50% of the tested limit load, in the cases where
the fatigue effects are negligible, or otherwise, 70% of the limit load obtained in the fatigue test.

The project must plan the effects located in these devices, through the verification of the resistance of the
concrete and the disposition of adequate reinforcements to resist the generated stresses and maintain the
opening of cracks within the specified limits, as indicated in 21.2.

9.4.7.1 Single transversal bar

A welded transversal bar can be used an integral anchorage device of the bar, as long as:

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- t = anchored bar;

- is not greater than 1/6 of the least dimension of the structural element in the anchorage region or
25 mm;

- the spacing between the anchored bars is not greater than 20 ;

- the connection welding of the bars is carried out in the longitudinal and transversal direction of the
bars, surrounding completely the contact area of the bars;

- the welding observes what is prescribed in 9.5.4.

9.5 Bar joints

9.5.1 Types

- by transfer;

- by gloves with metallic threaded or pressed filling;

- by welding;

- by other properly justified devices.

9.5.2 Joints by transfer

This type of joint is not permitted for bars of gage greater than 32 mm, or for tie rods and lever arms (linear
structural elements of entirely traction stressed cross section).

In the case of bundles, the diameter of the circle of the same area, for each bundle, must not be greater than
45 mm, where the criteria established in 9.5.2.5 are observed.

9.5.2.1 Proportion of the joined bars

The joints that are overlapping each other or whose closest extremities are separated by less than 20% of
the length of the transfer section are considered as in the same transversal cross section.

When the bars have different diameters, the transfer length must be calculated for the bar of largest diameter
(please see figure 9.3).

Figure 9.3 Joints supposed as in the same transversal cross section

The maximum proportion of traction stressed bars of the main reinforcement joined by transfer in the same
transversal cross section of the structural element must be that indicated in table 9.3.

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The adoption of proportions greater than those indicated must be justified with respect to the concrete
integrity in the transmission of stresses and the resisting capacity of the joint, as a whole, before the nature
of the actions that stress it.

Table 9.3 Maximum proportion of joined traction stressed bars


Type of loading
Type of bar Situation
Static Dynamic
In one layer 100% 100%
High adherence
In more than one layer 50% 50%
< 16 mm 50% 25%
Smooth
16 mm 25% 25%

When it deals with permanently compressed or distribution reinforcement, all bars can be joined in the same
cross section.

9.5.2.2 Transfer length of isolated traction stressed bars

9.5.2.2.1 When the free distance between joined bars is inclusively between 0 and 4 , the length of the
transfer section for traction stressed bars must be:

l0t = 0t lb,nec l0t,min

where:

l0t,min is the largest value between 0.3 0t lb, 15 and 200 mm;

0t is the function coefficient of the percentage of joined bars in the same cross section, according to
table 9.4.

9.5.2.2.2 When the free distance between joined bars is greater than 4 , to the length calculated in
9.5.2.2.1 the free distance between joined bars must be added. The transversal reinforcement in the joint
must be justified, considering the combined concrete-steel behavior, satisfying what is established in 9.5.2.4.

Table 9.4 Coefficient 0t values


Joined bars in the same cross
section 20 25 33 50 > 50
%
Values of 0t 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

9.5.2.3 Length by transfer of isolated compressed bars

When the bars are compressed, the following expression is adopted for calculation of the transfer length:

l0c = lb,nec l0c,min

where:

l0c,min is the largest value between 0.6 lb, 15 and 200 mm.

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9.5.2.4 Transversal reinforcement in the joints by transfer, in isolated bars

9.5.2.4.1 Joints of traction stressed bars of the main reinforcement (please see figure 9.4)

When < 16 mm and the proportion of the joined bars in the same cross section is lesser than 25%, the
transversal reinforcement must satisfy 9.4.2.6.

In the cases where 16 mm or when the proportion of the joined bars in the same cross section is greater
than or equal to 25%, the transversal reinforcement must:

- be capable of resisting a force equal to that of a joined bar, considering the parallel branches to the
joint plane;

- be constituted by closed bars if the distance between the two closest bars of two joints in the same
cross section if < 10 ( = diameter of the joined bar);

- be concentrated in the extreme thirds of the joint.

9.5.2.4.2 Joints of compressed bars (please see figure 9.4)

The criteria established for the previous case must be maintained, with at least one transversal
reinforcement bar positioned 4 beyond the extremities of the joint.

traction stressed bars compressed bars

Figure 9.4 Transversal reinforcement in the joints

9.5.2.4.3 Joints of secondary reinforcement bars

The transversal reinforcement must obey what is established in 9.4.2.6.

9.5.2.5 Joints by transfer in bundles of bars

Joint by transfer in bundles of bars can be done when, where what is established in 9.5.2 is observed, the
constituting bars of the bundle are joined one at a time, as long as in any cross section of the joined bundle
more than four bars do not result.

The joints of the bars of the bundle must be separated from each other 1.3 times the length of the individual
joint of each one.

9.5.3 Joints by threaded gloves

For this type of joint, the threaded gloves must have resistance greater than the joined bars.

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9.5.4 Joints by welding

The joints by welding require special cares with respect to the welding operations that must comply with the
heating and cooling control specifications of the bar, according to specific norms.

The joints by welding can be:

- top, by cladding, for gage not lesser than 10 mm;

- top, with electrode, for gage not lesser than 20 mm;

- by transfer with at least two longitudinal welding cords, each one of them with length not lesser than
5 , separated at least 5 (please see figure 9.5);

- with other juxtaposed bars (splice), with longitudinal welding cords, where they cause to coincide
the center of gravity axis of the assembly with the longitudinal axis of the joined bars, where each cord must
have a length of at least 5 (please see figure 9.5).

Top by cladding

Top with electrode

By transfer

With juxtaposed bars

Figure 9.5 Joints by welding

The joints by welding can be performed in the totality of the bars in a transversal cross section of the
structural element.

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The joints that are separated from center to center from each other lesser than 15 measured in the
direction of the bar axis must be considered as in the same cross section.

The resistance of each joined bar must be considered without reduction.

In case of traction stressed bar and there is predominance of accidental load, the resistance must be
reduced by 20%.

9.6 Prestressing

9.6.1 Prestressing force

9.6.1.1 Generalities

The average force in the prestressing reinforcement in the abscissa x and at time t is given by the
expression:

Pt(x) = P0(x) - Pt(x) = Pi P0(x) - Pt(x)

where:

P0(x) = Pi P0(x)

9.6.1.2 Limit values of the force in the prestressing reinforcement

During the prestressing operations, the traction force in the reinforcement must not exceed the values
resulting from the limitation of the tensile strengths in the steel corresponding to this transitory situation,
provided in 9.6.1.2.1 to 9.6.1.2.3.

After the end of the prestressing operations, the safety verifications must be carried out in accordance with
the limit states according to section 10.

9.6.1.2.1 Limit values by occasion of the prestressing operation

For effect of this Norm the following must be considered:

a) pre-traction stressed reinforcement:

- by occasion of the application of force Pi, the tensile strength pi of the prestressing reinforcement
at the output of the traction device must observe the limits 0.77 fptk and 0.90 fpyk for steels of the class of
normal relaxation, and 0.77 fptk and 0.85 fpyk for steels of the class of low relaxation;

b) post-traction stressed reinforcement:

- by occasion of the application of force Pi, the tensile strength pi of the prestressing reinforcement
at the output of the traction device must observe the limits 0.74 fptk and 0.87 fpyk for steels of the class of
normal relaxation, and 0.74 fptk and 0.82 fpyk for steels of the class of low relaxation;

- in steels CP-85/105, provided in bars, the limits become 0.72 fptk and 0.88 fpyk, respectively.

9.6.1.2.2 Limit values at the end of the prestressing operation

At the end of the prestressing operation, the tensile strength p0(x) of the pre-traction or post-traction
stressed reinforcement, resulting from the force P0(x), must not exceed the limits established in 9.6.1.2.1-b).

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9.6.1.2.3 Tolerance of execution

By occasion of the application of force Pi, if irregularities in the prestressing are established, resulting from
executive failures in the structural elements with post-traction stressed reinforcement, the traction force in
any cable can be elevated, limiting the tensile strength pi to the values established in 9.6.1.2.1-b) increased
up to 10%, up to the limit of 50% of the cables, as long as the safety of the structure is assured, mainly in the
regions of the anchorages.

9.6.1.3 Representative values of the prestressing forces

The average values, calculated in accordance with 9.6.1.1 can be employed in the calculation of the
characteristic values of the prestressing hyperstatic effects.

For the works in general it is admitted that the characteristic values Pk,t(x) of the prestressing force may be
considered as equal to the average value, except when the maximum loss [P0(x) + Pt(x)]max is greater
than 0.35 Pi. In this case and in the special works that must be designed in accordance with specific norms,
which consider the upper and lower characteristic values of the prestressing force, the following values must
be adopted:

[Pk,t(x)]upp = 1.05 Pt(x)

[Pk,t(x)]low = 0.95 Pt(x)

9.6.1.4 Calculation values of prestressing force

The calculation values of prestressing force at time t are given by the expression:

Pd,t(x) = p Pt(x)

Where the value of p is established in section 11.

9.6.2 Introduction of prestressing forces

9.6.2.1 Generalities

The induced tensile strengths in the concrete by the prestressing anchorages can only be considered linearly
distributed in the transversal cross section of the structural element at a distance from the extremity of these
reinforcements, called regularization distance, determined based on what is established in 9.6.2.2 and
9.6.2.3.

The negative reinforcements in these zones of introduction of forces must be calculated in accordance with
the dispositions of section 21.

9.6.2.2 Post-traction cases

In the case of post-traction stressed elements, the regularization distance of the tensile strengths can be
determined by admitting that the diffusion of the force is performed from the anchorage, inside an opening
angle , such that tg = 2/3 (please see figure 9.6).

When such diffusion, starting from the web, reaches the middle plane of the prestressing bed, it can be
admitted that the diffusion along the prestressing bed is also performed according to the opening angle .

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

prestressing bed

web

cable

cable

prestressing bed

Figure 9.6 Introduction of prestressing

9.6.2.3 Pre-traction cases

In the case of pre-traction stressed elements, the regularization distance lp must be obtained through the
expression:

p = h 2 + (0.6lbpt ) bpt
2

where:

h is the height of the structural element.

For the non-rectangular cross sections, the regularization length can be calculated in a similar manner to that
indicated in 9.6.2.2.

9.6.3 Losses of prestressing force

9.6.3.1 Generalities

The project must plan the losses of prestressing force in relation to the initial value applied by the tensioning
device, occurred before the prestressing transfer to the concrete (initial losses, in the pre-traction), during
this transfer (immediate losses) and in course of time (progressive losses).

9.6.3.2 Initial losses of prestressing force

The losses occurred in the pre-traction are considered initial before the release of the traction device and
resulting from:

a) friction at the deviation points of the polygonal reinforcement, whose evaluation must be done
experimentally, in function of the type of deviation device employed;

b) skidding of the wires in the anchorage, whose determination must be experimental or the values indicated
by the manufacturer of the anchorage devices must be adopted;

c) initial reinforcement relaxation, function of the time elapsed between the reinforcement tensioning and the
release of the traction device;

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d) initial concrete retraction, considered the time elapsed between the concreting of the structural element
and the release of the traction device.

The evaluation of the initial losses must consider the effects provoked by temperature, when the concrete is
thermally cured.

9.6.3.3 Immediate losses of prestressing force

9.6.3.3.1 Pre-traction case

The variation of the prestressing force in structural elements with pre-traction, by occasion of the
prestressing application on the concrete, and due to its shortening, must be calculated in elastic mode,
where the deformation of the homogenized cross section is considered. The modulus of elasticity of the
concrete to consider is that corresponding to the date of prestressing, corrected, if there is thermal curing.

9.6.3.3.2 Post-traction case

For the usual prestressing systems, the immediate losses are those due to immediate shortening of the
concrete, the friction between the reinforcements and the sheaths or the concrete, the sliding of the
reinforcement along with the anchorage and the accommodation of the anchorage devices, as detailed in
9.6.3.3.2.1 to 9.6.3.3.2.3.

9.6.3.3.2.1 Immediate shortening of the concrete

In the structural elements with post-traction, the successive prestressing of each one of the n cables
provokes an immediate deformation of the concrete and, as consequence, relaxation of the previously
prestressed cables. The average prestressing loss, per cable, can be calculated through the expression:

9.6.3.3.2.2 Losses due to friction

In the structural elements with post-traction, the loss due to friction can be determined by the expression:

where:

Pi is the value defined in 9.6.1.2.1;

X is the abscissa of the point where P is calculated, measured from the anchorage, in meters;

is the sum of the angles of deviation between the anchorage and the point of abscissa x, in
radians;

is the coefficient of apparent friction between the cable and the sheath. In the lack of experimental
data, it can be estimated as follows (values in 1/radians):

= 0.50 between cable and concrete (without sheath);

= 0.30 between bars or wires with notches or corbels and metallic sheath;

= 0.20 between smooth wires or cordages and metallic sheath;

= 0.10 between smooth wires or cordages and lubricated metallic sheath;

= 0.05 between cordage and lubricated polypropylene sheath;

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is the coefficient of loss per meter provoked by non-intentional curvatures of the cable. In the lack
of experimental data the value of 0.01 (1/m) can be adopted.

9.6.3.3.2.3 Losses due to sliding of the reinforcement in the anchorage and accommodation of the
anchorage

The values indicated by the manufacturer of the anchorage devices must be determined experimentally.

9.6.3.4 Progressive losses

9.6.3.4.1 Generalities

The partial and total values of progressive prestressing losses, resulting from concrete retraction and flow
and prestressing steel relaxation, must be determined by considering the interaction of these causes, where
the processes indicated in 9.6.3.4.2 to 9.6.3.4.5 can be used. In these processes it is admitted that there
may be adherence between the reinforcement and the concrete and that the structural element stays in
stage I.

9.6.3.4.2 Simplified process for the case of single operation phases

This case is applicable when the following conditions are satisfied:

a) the concreting of the structural element, as well as the prestressing, are executed, each one of them, in
sufficiently close phases so that the reciprocal effects of one phase over another may be disregarded;

b) the cables have among them sufficiently small separations in relation to the cross sectional height of the
structural element, so that their effects may be supposed equivalent to that of a single cable, with transversal
cross section of area equal to the sum of the cross sectional areas of the component cables, situated at the
position of the resultant of stresses acting in them (resulting cable).

In this case, it is admitted that at time t the progressive losses and deformations of the prestressing concrete
and the steel, at the position of the resulting cable, with the tensile strengths on the concrete c,p0g positive
for compression and the tensile strengths on the steel p0 positive for traction, are given by:

where:

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where

c,p0g is the tensile strength in the concrete adjacent to the resulting cable, provoked by prestressing
and by the mobilized permanent load at the instance t0, where it is positive if of compression;

(t, t0) is the coefficient of flow of the concrete at the instance t for prestressing and permanent load,
applied at the instance t0;

p0 is the tensile strength in the positive reinforcement due to prestressing and mobilized
permanent load at the instance t0, positive if of traction;

(t, t0) is the coefficient of flow of the steel;

cs(t, t0) is the retraction at the instance t, subtracted the retraction occurred until the instance t0,
according to 8.2.11;

(t, t0) is the coefficient of relaxation of the steel at the instance t for prestressing and mobilized
permanent load at the instance t0;

c(t, t0) is the variation of the tensile strength of the concrete adjacent to the resulting cable
between t0 and t;

p(t, t0) is the variation of the tensile strength in the prestressing steel between t0 and t;

p is the geometric rate of the prestressing reinforcement;

ep is the eccentricity of the resulting cable in relation to the center of gravity of the concrete cross
section;

Ap is the transversal cross sectional area of the resulting cable;

Ac is the transversal cross sectional area of the concrete;

Ic is the central moment of inertia at the concrete cross section.

9.6.3.4.3 Approximate process

This process can substitute that established in 9.6.3.4.2, as long as the same application conditions are
satisfied and that the retraction does not differ in more than 25% of the value [-8 x 10-5 (, t0)].

The absolute value of the loss of tensile strength due to flow, retraction and relaxation, with c,p0g in
megapascal and considered positive if of compression, is given by:

a) for steels of normal relaxation (NR) (value in percentage):

b) for steels of low relaxation (LN) (value in percentage):

where:

p0 is the tensile strength in the prestressing reinforcement due exclusively to the prestressing force,
at instance t0.

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9.6.3.4.4 General calculation method

When the permanent actions (permanent load or prestressing) are applied in sections at different ages
(therefore the conditions established in 9.6.3.4.2 are not satisfied), the flow of each one of the concrete
layers and the relaxation of each cable must be considered separately.

The isolated relaxation of each cable can be considered, regardless of the later application of other
permanent stresses.

9.6.3.4.5 Relaxation of the steel

The intensity of steel relaxation must be determined by the coefficient (t, t0) calculated by:

where:

pr(t, t0) is the loss of tensile strength due to pure relaxation from the instance t0 of tensioning of the
reinforcement until the considered instance t.

The average relaxation values, measured after 1000 hrs at constant temperature of 20C, for the losses of
tensile strengths referred to the basic values of the initial tensile strength of 50% to 80% of the characteristic
resistance fptk (1000), are reproduced in table 8.3.

The corresponding values to times different from 1000 hrs, always at 20C, can be determined from the
following expression, where time must be expressed in days:

For tensile strengths lesser than 0.5 fptk, it is admitted that there is not loss of tensile strength due to
relaxation.

For intermediate tensile strengths between the values set in table 8.3, linear interpolation can be done.

It can be considered that for the infinite time the value of (t, t0) is given by (t, t0) = 2.5 1000.

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

10 Safety and limit states


10.1 Safety criteria
The safety criteria adopted in this Norm are based on ABNT NBR 8681.

10.2 Limit states


For effects of this Norm the ultimate limit states and the service limit states must be considered.

10.3 Ultimate limit states (ULS)


The safety of the structural concretes must always be verified in relation to the following ultimate limit states:

a) ultimate limit state of the loss of equilibrium of the structure, admitted as rigid body;

b) ultimate limit state of breakdown of the resisting capacity of the structure, in its entirety or in part, due to
normal and tangential stresses, where the redistribution of internal strengths is admitted, as long as the
plastic adaptation capacity defined in section 14 is observed, and where, in general, the separate
verifications of the normal and tangential stresses are admitted; however, when the interaction between
them is important, it will be explicitly indicated in this Norm;

c) ultimate limit state of breakdown of the resisting capacity of the structure, in its entirely or in part,
considering the second-order effects;

d) ultimate limit state provoked by dynamic stresses (please see section 23);

e) ultimate limit state of progressive collapse;

f) other ultimate limit states that eventually may occur in special cases.

10.4 Service limit states (SLS)


Service limit states are those related to the durability of the structures, appearance, user comfort and their
good functional use, whether in relation to the users, or in relation to the machines and equipments used.

The safety of the structural concretes can require the verification of some service limit states regarded in
section 3.

In special constructions safety in relation to other service limit states not defined in this Norm may be
necessary.

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11 Actions
11.1 Specific symbols of this section
So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the
most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

The symbols presented in this section follow the same orientation set in section 4. This way, the subscript
symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

F Actions (please tables 11.3 and 11.4).

M1d,min Minimum calculation of total 1st order moment that permits the fulfillment of the verification of
located imperfections of a column side

f1 Part of the weighted coefficient of the actions f, which considers the variability of the actions

f2 Part of the weighted coefficient of the actions f, which considers the actuation simultaneity of the
actions

f3 Part of the weighted coefficient of the actions f, which considers the generated deviations in the
constructions and the estimations made in the project from the point of view of stresses

q Weighted coefficient for direct variable actions

qs Weighted coefficient for stabilizing variable actions

gn Weighted coefficient for non-stabilizing permanent actions

g Weighted coefficient for permanent indirect actions (retraction or flow)

q Weighted coefficient for variable indirect actions (temperature)

n Adjustment coefficient of f, which considers the increase or probability of occurrence of significant


relative deviations in the construction (applied on walls and columns with dimensions below certain values)

1 Deviation from perpendicularity of a continuous vertical element

oj Combination reduction factor for direct variable actions

o Combination reduction factor for indirect variable actions

o Combination reduction factor for ULS

1 Frequent combination reduction factor for SLS

2 Almost permanent combination reduction factor for SLS

11.2 Actions to consider

11.2.1 Generalities

In structural analysis the influence of all actions that can produce significant effects to the safety of the
structure under examination must be considered, taking into account the possible ultimate and service limit
states.

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11.2.2 Classification of actions

The actions to consider are classified, in accordance with ABNT NBR 8681, into permanent, variable and
exceptional.

For each type of construction, the actions to consider must observe their peculiarities and the norms
applicable to it.

11.3 Permanent actions

11.3.1 Generalities

Permanent actions are those that occur with practically constant values during the entire life of the
construction. The actions that grow in time, tending towards a constant limit value, are also considered as
permanent.

Permanent actions must be considered with their most unfavorable representative values for safety.

11.3.2 Direct permanent actions

Direct permanent actions are constituted by the structures own weight and by the weights of the fixed
constructive elements and the permanent installations.

11.3.2.1 Proper weight

In current constructions it is admitted that the structures own weight is evaluated according to 8.2.2.

Special concretes must have their specific mass determined experimentally in each particular case (please
see ABNT NBR 12654) and the effect of the reinforcement evaluated according to 8.2.2.

11.3.2.2 Weight of the fixed construction elements and permanent installations

The specific masses of current construction materials can be evaluated based on values indicated in ABNT
NBR 6120.

The weights of the permanent materials are considered with the nominal values indicated by the respective
suppliers.

11.3.2.3 Permanent abutments

Ground abutments and other granular materials are considered permanent when they are admitted as non-
removable.

Since representative values must be considered the characteristic values Fk,upp or Fk,low according to ABNT
NBR 8681.

11.3.3 Indirect permanent actions

Indirect permanent actions are constituted by deformations imposed by concrete retraction and flow, support
displacements, geometric imperfections and prestressing.

11.3.3.1 Concrete retraction

The specific concrete retraction deformation can be calculated as annex A indicates.

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In great majority of the cases, it is permitted that it may be calculated in a simplified manner through table
8.1, through interpolation. This table provides the upper characteristic value of the specific retraction
deformation between the instance t0 and t, cs (t, t0), in some usual situations (please see section 8).

In current cases of reinforced concrete works, in function of the retraction restriction of the concrete, imposed
by the reinforcement, satisfying the minimum specified in this Norm, the value of cs (t, t0) can be adopted
equal to 15 x 10-5. This value admits structural elements of usual dimensions, between 10 cm and 100 cm
subject to environment humidity not lesser than 75%.

The lower characteristic value of concrete retraction is considered null.

In structural elements permanently submitted to different humidity conditions in opposite faces, linear
retraction variation is admitted along the thickness of the structural element between the two values
corresponding to each one of the faces.

11.3.3.2 Concrete flow

The deformations resulting from concrete flow can be calculated as indicated in annex A.

In cases where the stress c(t0) does vary significantly, it is permitted that these deformations may be
calculated in a simplified manner through the expression:

where:

cs (t, t0) is the total specific deformation of the concrete between the instances t0 and t;

c(t0) is the stress in the concrete due to the applied loading in t0;

(t, t0) is the limit for which the coefficient of flow provoked by applied loading in t0 tends.

The value of (t, t0) can be calculated through interpolation of the values of table 8.1. This table provides
the upper characteristic values of (t, t0) in some usual situations (please see section 8).

The lower characteristic value of (t, t0) is considered null.

11.3.3.3 Support displacements

Support displacements must only be considered when they generate significant stresses in relation to the set
of other actions, that is, when the structure is hyperstatic and very stiff.

The displacement of each support must be evaluated in function of the physical characteristics of the
corresponding foundation material. As representative of these displacements, the upper characteristic
values, kupp, calculated with pessimistic evaluation of the foundation materials stiffness, corresponding, in
principle, to the quintile 5% of the respective probability distribution.

The lower characteristic values can be considered null.

The set of these displacements is constituted in a single action, where it is admitted that all of them are
increased by the same weighted coefficient.

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11.3.3.4 Geometric imperfections

In the verification of the ultimate limit state of the reticulated structures, the geometric imperfections of the
axis of the structural elements of the unloaded structure must be considered. These imperfections can be
divided into two groups: global imperfections and local imperfections.

11.3.3.4.1 Global imperfections

In the global analysis of these structure, whether they are braced or not, a deviation from perpendicularity of
the vertical elements must be considered as figure 11.1 shows.

n vertical lines of columns

where:

1min = 1/400 for fixed node structures;

1min = 1/300 for movable node structures and local imperfections;

1max = 1/200;

H is the total height of the edification, in meters

N is the number of vertical lines of columns.

Figure 11.1 Global geometric imperfections

The deviation from perpendicularity must not necessarily be overlapping with the wind load. Between the
two, wind and deviation from perpendicularity, only the most unfavorable must be considered, which can be
defined through which provokes the largest total moment at the construction base.

11.3.3.4.2 Local imperfections

In the case of elements that connect braced columns to bracing columns, usually beams and slabs, the
traction resulting from the deviation from perpendicularity of the braced column [please see figure 11.2-a)]
must be considered.

In the case of verification of column side, the effect of the deviation from perpendicularity or the lack of
rectilinearity of the columns axis [please see figures 11.2-b) and 11.2-c), respectively].

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Bracing column Braced column

Locking
element

a) Locking elements traction b) Lack of c) Deviation from


stressed or compressed rectilinearity in the perpendicularity of the column
column

Figure 11.2 Local geometric imperfections

It is admitted that, in usual cases, the consideration only of the lack of rectilinearity along the column side is
sufficient.

11.3.3.4.3 Minimum moment

The effect of local imperfections on the columns can be substituted in reticulated structures through the
consideration of the minimum 1st order moment given as follows:

where:

h is the total height of the transversal cross section in the considered direction, in meters.

In usual reticulated structures it is admitted that the effect of local imperfections is satisfied if this total
minimum moment value is observed. To this moment the 2nd order moments of section 15, when it is the
case, must be added.

11.3.3.5 Prestressing

The prestressing action must be considered in all prestressed structures, including, besides the prestressed
elements themselves, those that suffer the indirect prestressing action, that is, of hyperstatic prestressing
forces.

The prestressing force value must be calculated considering the initial force and the prestressing losses as
established in 9.6.3.

The stressing forces generated by the action of this prestressing can be calculated directly from the
eccentricity of the cable in the transversal cross section of the structural element and the prestressing force
or through a set of equivalent external loads, or even through the introduction of imposed deformations
corresponding to the pretensioning of the reinforcements.

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11.4 Variable actions

11.4.1 Direct variable actions

The direct variable actions are constituted by the accidental loads planned for the use of the construction, by
the action of the wind and water, where the prescriptions made by specific Brazilian Norms must be
observed.

11.4.1.1 Accidental loads planned for the use of the construction

The accidental load correspond normally to:

- vertical loads of the use of the construction;

- moving loads, considering the vertical impact;

- lateral impact;

- longitudinal braking or accelerating force;

- centrifugal force.

These loads must be disposed in the most unfavorable positions for the studied element, except the
simplifications permitted by specific Brazilian Norms.

11.4.1.2 Action of the wind

The stresses due to the action of the wind must be considered and it is recommended that they are
determined in accordance with that prescribed by ABNT NBR 6123, where the employment of simplified
rules provided in specific Brazilian Norms is permitted.

11.4.1.3 Action of water

The water level adopted for calculation of deposits, tanks, decanters and others must be equal to the
possible maximum compatible with the overflow system, considering only the coefficient f = f3 = 1.2,
according to ABNT NBR 8681 (please see 11.7 and 11.8). In the structures where rainwater can be retained
the presence of a water sheet corresponding to the drainage level effectively assured by the construction
must be considered.

11.4.1.4 Variable actions during construction

The structure where all constructive phases do not have their safety assured by the verification of the ready
work must have, included in the project, the verifications of the most significant constructive phases and their
influence in the final phase.

The verification of each one of these phases must be done considering the part of the already executed
structure and the provisional structures with the respective proper weights. Besides this the accidental
execution loads must be considered.

11.4.2 Indirect variable actions

11.4.2.1 Uniform temperature variations

The temperature variation of the structure, caused globally by the temperature variation of the atmosphere
and by direct solar exposure, is considered uniform. It depends on the implantation site of the construction
and the dimensions of the structural elements that compose it.

Generically, the following values can be adopted:

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a) for structural elements whose smaller dimension is not greater than 50 cm, a temperature oscillation
around the average from 10C to 15C must be considered;

b) for solid or hollow structural elements with entirely closed empty spaces, whose smaller dimension is
greater than 70 cm, it is admitted that this oscillation may be reduced respectively to 5C to 10C;

c) for structural elements whose smaller dimension is between 50 cm and 70 cm it is admitted that a linear
interpolation between the values indicated above may be performed.

The choice of a value between these two limits can be carried out by considering 50% of the difference
between the average summer and winter temperatures, at the work site.

In buildings of several floors the constructive requirements prescribed by this Norm must be observed so that
the effects of temperature variations on the construction structure may be minimized.

11.4.2.2 Non-uniform temperature variations

In the structural elements in which the temperature may have distribution significantly different from the
uniform one, the effects of this distribution must be considered. In the lack of more accurate data, a linear
variation between the adopted temperature values can be admitted, as long as the considered temperature
variation between a face and another of the structure is not lesser than 5C.

11.4.2.3 Dynamic actions

When the structure, through its conditions of use, is subject to shocks or vibrations, the respective effects
must be considered in the determination of stresses and the possibility of fatigue must be considered in the
dimensioning of the structural elements, in accordance with section 23.

11.5 Exceptional actions


In the project of structures subject to exceptional load situations, whose effects cannot be controlled by other
means, exceptional actions with the values defined, in each particular case, by specific Brazilian Norms,
must be considered.

11.6 Values of the actions

11.6.1 Characteristic values

The characteristics values Fk of the actions are established in this section in function of the variability of their
intensities.

11.6.1.1 Permanent actions

For permanent actions, the characteristic values must be adopted equal to the average values of the
respective probability distributions, whether they are upper or lower characteristic values.

These values are defined in this section or in specific Brazilian Norms, like ABNT NBR 6120.

11.6.1.2 Variable actions

The characteristic values of variable actions Fqk, established by consensus and indicated in specific Brazilian
Norms, correspond to values that have from 25% to 35% of probability that they are exceeded in the
unfavorable sense, during a period of 50 years, which means that the characteristic value Fqk is the value
with average period of return from 200 years to 140 years respectively.

These values are defined in this section or in specific Brazilian Norms, like ABNT NBR 6120.

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11.6.2 Representative values

The actions are quantified by their representative values, which can be:

a) the characteristic values as defined in 11.6.1;

b) exceptional conventional values, which are the arbitrated values for the exceptional actions;

c) reduced values, in function of the combination of actions, such as:

- verifications of ultimate limit states, when the considered action is combined with the main action.
The reduced values are determined from the characteristic values through the expression 0Fk, which
considers the probability of simultaneous occurrence of characteristic values of two or more variable actions
of different natures very low (please see 11.7);

- verifications of service limit states. These reduced values are determined from the characteristic
values through the expressions 1Fk and 2Fk, which estimate frequent and almost permanent values,
respectively, of an action that accompanies the main action.

11.6.3 Calculation values

The calculation values Fd of the actions are obtained form the representative values, by multiplying them by
the respective weighted coefficients f defined in 11.7.

11.7 Weighted coefficients of the actions


The actions must be increased by the coefficient f, whose values are found established in 11.7.1, 11.7.2 and
tables 11.1 and 11.2.

11.7.1 Weighted coefficients of actions in the ultimate limit state (ULS)

The base values for verification are those presented in tables 11.1 and 11.2 for f1. f3 and f2, respectively.

For structural walls with thickness lesser than 19 cm and not lesser than 12 cm, and for the columns with
smaller dimension lesser than 19 cm, the coefficient f must be increased by the adjustment coefficient n
(please see 13.2.3). This correction is due to the increase of the probability of occurrence of relative
deviations and failures in the construction.

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Table 11.1 Coefficient f = f1 . f3


Actions
Combinations of Permanent Variable Prestressing Support and retraction
actions (g) (q) (p) pressure
D F G T D F D F
Normal 1.4 1) 1.0 1.4 1.2 1.2 0.9 1.2 0
Special or of
1.3 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.2 0.9 1.2 0
construction
Exceptional 1.2 1.0 1.0 0 1.2 0.9 0 0
Where:
D is unfavorable, F is favorable, G represents the variable load in general and T is the temperature.
1)
For permanent load of small variability, like the proper weight of the structures, especially the pre-molded structures,
this coefficient can be reduced to 1.3.

Table 11.2 Values of the coefficient f2


f2
Actions
0 11) 2
Sites in which there is no predominance
of weights of equipments that remain
0.5 0.4 0.3
fixed for long periods of time, or of
2)
elevated concentrations of people
Accidental loads of
Sites in which there is predominance of
buildings
weights of equipments that remain fixed
0.7 0.6 0.4
for long periods of time, or of elevated
3)
concentration of people
Library, archives, shops and garages 0.8 0.7 0.6
Dynamic wind pressure on the
Wind 0.6 0.3 0
structures in general
Uniform temperature variations in
Temperature 0.6 0.5 0.3
relation to the local annual average
1)
For the values of 1 relative to bridges and mainly to fatigue problems, please see section 23.
2)
Residential buildings.
3)
Commercial and office buildings, stations and public buildings.

The values of tables 11.1 and 11.2 can be modified in special cases not contemplated here, in accordance
with ABNT NBR 8681.

The weighted coefficient value of permanent load of the same origin, in a given load, must be the same
along the entire structure. The only exception is the case of verification of stability like rigid body.

11.7.2 Weighted coefficients of actions in the service limit state (SLS)

In general, the weighted coefficient of actions for service limit states is given by the expression:

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f=f2

where:

f2 has variable value according to the verification that is desired to perform (table 11.2):

f2 = 1 for rare combinations;

f2 = 1 for frequent combinations;

f2 = 2 for almost permanent combinations.

11.8 Combination of actions

11.8.1 Generalities

A load is defined by the combination of actions that have non-negligible probabilities of acting simultaneously
on the structure, during a pre-established period.

The combination of actions must be done so that the most unfavorable effects for the structure may be
determined; safety verification in relation to the ultimate limit states and to the service limit states must be
carried out in function of ultimate combinations and service combinations, respectively.

11.8.2 Ultimate combinations

An ultimate combination can be classified into normal, special or of construction and exceptional.

11.8.2.1 Normal ultimate combinations

In each combination the permanent actions and the main variable action must be included, with their
characteristic values and the other variable actions, considered as secondary, with their reduced
combination values, according to ABNT NBR 8681.

11.8.2.2 Special or construction ultimate combinations

In each combination the permanent actions and the special variable action must be present, when there is
any, with their characteristic values and the other variable actions with non-negligible probability of
simultaneous occurrence, according to ABNT NBR 8681.

11.8.2.3 Exceptional ultimate combinations

In each combination the permanent actions and the exceptional variable action must appear, when there
any, with their representative values and the other variable actions with non-negligible probability of
simultaneous occurrence, with their reduced combination values, according to ABNT NBR 8681. In this case
earthquake, fire and progressive collapse, among others, are fitted.

11.8.2.4 Usual ultimate combinations

In order to facilitate visualization, these combinations are disposed in table 11.3.

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Table 11.3 Ultimate combinations


Ultimate combinations
Description Stress calculation
(ULS)
Breakdown of the resisting
capacity for reinforced
structural concrete elements
1)

Breakdown of the resisting The prestressing force must be considered, when needed, as
Normal capacity for prestressed external load with the values Pkmax and Pkmin for the unfavorable
structural concrete elements and favorable force, respectively, as defined in section 9

Loss of equilibrium like rigid


body

Special or of
2)
construction
2)
Exceptional
Where:
Fd is the calculation value of the actions for ultimate combination;
Fgk represents the direct permanent actions;
Fk represents the indirect permanent, like the retraction Fgk, and variable, like the temperature Fqk, actions;
Fqk represents the direct variable actions of which Fq1k is the main choice;
g, g, q, q please see table 11.1;
oj, o please see table 11.2;
Fsd represents the stabilizing actions;
Fnd represents the non-stabilizing actions;
Gsk is the characteristic value of the stabilizing permanent action;
Rd is the resisting strength considered as stabilizing, when there is any;
Gnk is the characteristic value of the non-stabilizing permanent action;
[Formula]
Qnk is the characteristic value of the non-stabilizing variable actions;
Q1k is the characteristic value of the non-stabilizing variable action considered as principal;
oj and Qjk are the other non-stabilizing variable actions, considered with their reduced value;
Qs,min is the minimum characteristic value of the stabilizing variable action that accompanies obligatorily a non-stabilizing
variable action.
1)
In the general case, they must be considered including combinations where the favorable effect of the permanent loads
is reduced by the consideration g = 1.0. In the case of usual structures of buildings these combinations that consider g
reduced (1.0) do not need to be considered.
2)
When Fg1k or Fg1exc act at very small time or have very low probability of occurrence oj, it can be substituted by 2j.

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11.8.3 Service combinations

11.8.3.1 Classification

They are classified in accordance with their permanence in the structure and must be verified as established
namely:

a) almost permanent: they can act during large part of the life period of the structure and their consideration
may be needed in the verification of the limit state of excessive deformations;

b) frequent: they are repeated many times during the life period of the structure and their consideration may
be needed in the verification of the limit states of crack formations, crack opening and excessive vibrations.
They can also be considered for verifications of limit states of excessive deformations resulting from wind or
temperature that can compromise the sealings;

c) rare: they occur at times during the life period of the structure and their consideration may be needed in
the verification of the limit state of crack formation.

11.8.3.2 Usual service combinations

In order to facilitate visualization, these combinations are disposed in table 11.4.

Table 11.4 Service combinations


Service combinations
Description Stress calculation
(SLS)
Almost permanent In the almost permanent service combinations, all
service combinations variable actions are considered with their almost
(APC) permanent values 2 Fqk
In frequent service combinations, the main variable
Frequent service action Fq1 is taken with its frequent value 1 Fq1k and
combinations (FSC) all other variable actions are taken with their almost
permanent values 2 Fqk
In rare service combinations, the main variable
Rare service actions Fq1 is taken with its characteristic value Fq1k
combinations (RSC) and all other actions are taken with their frequent
values 1 Fqk
Where:
Fd,ser is the calculation value of the actions for service combinations;
Fq1k is the characteristic value of the direct main variable actions;
1 is the frequent combination reduction factor for SLS;
2 is the almost permanent combination reduction factor for SLS.

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12 Resistances
12.1 Specific symbols of this section
So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the
most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

The symbols presented in this section follow the same orientation set in section 4. This way, the subscript
symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

f Resistance (please see section 8)

m1 Part of the weighted coefficient of resistances m, which considers the resistance variability of the
materials involved

m2 Part of the weighted coefficient of resistances m, which considers the difference between the
resistance of the material in the specimen and in the structure

m3 Part of the weighted coefficient of resistances m, which considers the generated deviations in the
construction and the estimations performed in the project from the point of view of the resistances

12.2 Characteristic values


The characteristic values fk of the resistances are those that, in a material batch, have a determined
probability of being exceeded, in the unfavorable sense for safety.

Usually the lower characteristic resistance fk,low is of interest, whose value is lesser than the average
resistance fm, although at times there may be interest in the upper characteristic resistance fk,upp, whose
value is greater than fm.

For effects of this Norm, the lower characteristic resistance is admitted as being the value that has only 5%
of probability of not being reached by the elements of a given material batch.

12.3 Calculation values

12.3.1 Calculation resistance

The calculation resistance fd is given by the expression:

12.3.2 Calculation resisting stresses

The calculation resisting stresses Rd or Rd are established for the determination or calculation resisting
stresses that do not depend directly on the conventionally measured resistances in standardized specimen
tests of the employed materials. The values of Rd or Rd are established, in each particular case, from the
resistance theories of the considered structural elements.

12.3.3 Concrete calculation resistance

In the specific case of concrete calculation resistance (fcd), some additional details are needed, described as
follows:

a) when the verification is done on date j equal to or greater than 28 days, the expression is adopted:

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In this case, the compressive resistance control of the concrete must be performed in 28 days, so as to
confirm the adopted value of fck in the project;

b) when the verification is done on date j lesser than 28 days, the expression is adopted:

where 1 is the ration fckj / fck given by:

where:

s = 0.38 for CPIII and IV cement concrete;

s = 0.25 for CPI and II cement concrete;

s = 0.20 for CPV-ARI cement concrete;

t is the effective age of the concrete, in days.

This verification must be done in t days, for the loads applied until this date.

Further the verification for the totality of the loads applied in 28 days must be performed.

In this case, the compressive resistance control of the concrete must be done on two dates: in t days and in
28 days, so as to confirm the adopted values of fckj and fck in the project.

12.4 Weighted coefficients of the resistances


The resistances must be decreased by the coefficient:

12.4.1 Weighted coefficients of resistances in the ultimate limit state (ULS)

The values for verification in the ultimate limit state are indicated in table 12.1.

Table 12.1 Values of the coefficients c and s


Concrete Steel
Combinations
c s
Normal 1.4 1.15
Special or of construction 1.2 1.15
Exceptional 1.2 1.0

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For the execution of structural elements in which unfavorable conditions are planned (for example, bad
conditions of transport, or manual compression, or deficient concreting due to reinforcement concentration),
the coefficient c must be multiplied by 1.1.

For pre-molded or pre-fabricated structural elements, ABNT NBR 9062 must be consulted.

It is admitted, in the case of extracted markers from the structure, to divide the value of c by 1.1.

The employment of steel CA-25 is admitted, in works of small importance, without the execution of quality
control established in ABNT NBR 7480, as long as the weighted coefficient for the steel is multiplied by 1.1.

12.4.2 Weighted coefficients of resistances in the service limit state (SLS)

The established limits for the service limit states (please see sections 17, 19 and 23) do not need reduction,
therefore, m = 1.0.

12.5 Safety verification


In safety verification of structural concretes the constructive conditions and the analytical conditions of safety
must be satisfied.

12.5.1 Constructive safety conditions

The following established requirements must be satisfied:

- in the detail criteria listed in sections 18 and 20;

- in the material control norms, especially ABNT NBR 12655;

- in the work execution control, according to ABNT NBR 14931 and specific Brazilian Norms.

12.5.2 Analytical safety conditions

The analytical safety conditions establish that the resistances must not be lesser than the stresses and must
be verified in relation to all limit states and all specified loads for the considered type of construction, that is,
in any case the following condition must be observed:

Rd Sd

For the verification of the ultimate limit state of loss of equilibrium like rigid body, Rd and Sd must assume the
calculation values of the stabilizing and destabilizing actions, respectively.

12.5.3 Calculation resisting stresses

The calculation values of resisting strengths are determined form the calculation values of the resistances of
the adopted materials in the project, or of the calculation resisting stresses, as defined in 12.3.1.

For specific applications, please see sections 17, 19 and 23.

12.5.4 Calculation stress strengths

The calculation stresses are calculated, for the considered combination of actions, in accordance with the
structural analysis (please see section 14).

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13 Limits for dimensions, displacements and crack openings


13.1 Specific symbols of this section
So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the
most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

The symbols presented in this section follow the same orientation set in section 4. This way, the subscript
symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

wk Characteristic opening of cracks on the concrete surface

13.2 Limit dimensions

13.2.1 Introduction

The prescription of minimum limit values for the dimensions of structural concrete elements aims to avoid an
unacceptable performance for the structural elements and propitiate adequate execution conditions.

13.2.2 Beams and wall-beams

The transversal cross section of beams must not present width lesser than 12 cm and the wall-beams, lesser
than 15 cm. These limits can be reduced, where an absolute minimum of 10 cm is observed in exceptional
cases, where the following conditions are obligatorily observed:

a) accommodation of reinforcements and their interferences with the reinforcements of other structural
elements, where the spacings and covers established in this Norm are observed;

b) concrete placement and vibration in accordance with ABNT NBR 14931.

13.2.3 Columns and wall-columns

The transversal cross section of solid columns and wall-columns, whichever their form may be, must not
present dimension lesser than 19 cm.

In special cases, the consideration of dimensions between 19 cm and 12 cm is permitted, as long as the
actions to be considered in the dimensioning are multiplied by an additional coefficient n, in accordance with
that indicated in table 13.1 and in section 11. In any case, column with transversal cross section of area
lesser than 360 cm is not permitted.

Table 13.1 Values of the additional coefficient n


B
> 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
Cm
n 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35
Where:
n = 1.95 0.55 b;
b is the smaller dimension of the transversal cross section of the column.
NOTE The coefficient n must increase the final calculation stressing forces on the columns, at the time of their
dimensioning.

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13.2.4 Slabs

13.2.4.1 Solid slabs

In solid slabs the following minimum limits for the thickness must be observed:

a) 5 cm for rooftop slab not on overhang;

b) 7 cm for floor or rooftop slabs on overhang;

c) 10 cm for slabs that support vehicles with total weight lesser than or equal to 30 kN;

d) 12 cm for slabs that support vehicles with total weight greater than 30 kN;

e) 15 cm for slabs with prestressing supported on beams /42 for bi-supported floor slabs and /50 for
continuous floor slabs;

f) 16 cm for smooth slabs and 14 cm for mushroom slabs.

13.2.4.2 Ribbed slabs

The thickness of the bed, when there are not embedded horizontal pipelines, must be greater than or equal
to 1/15 of the distance between ribs and not lesser than 3 cm.

The minimum absolute value must be 4 cm, when there are embedded pipelines, with maximum diameter of
12.5 mm.

The thickness of the ribs must not be lesser than 5 cm.

Ribs with thickness lesser than 8 cm must not contain compression reinforcement.

For the project of ribbed slabs the following conditions must be obeyed:

a) for slabs with spacing between rib axes lesser than or equal to 65 cm, the verification of the bed bending
can be disregarded, and for the shear verification of the region of the ribs, the consideration of the slab
criteria is permitted;

b) for slabs with spacing between rib axes between 65 cm and 110 cm, the verification of the bed bending is
required and the ribs must be verified to the shear as beams; this verification as slabs is permitted if the
spacing between rib axes is up to 90 cm and the average width of the ribs is greater than 12 cm;

c) for ribbed slabs with spacing between rib axes greater than 110 cm, the bed must be designed as solid
slab, supported on the beam grid, where their minimum thickness limits are observed.

13.2.5 Holes and openings

When holes and openings are planned in structural elements, their effect on the resistance and on the
deformation must be verified and the limits provided in this Norm must not be exceeded, where what is
disposed in 21.3 is obeyed.

In general the holes have small dimensions in relation to the structural element while openings no. A set of
very close holes must be treated as one opening.

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13.2.5.1 Holes that penetrate beams in the direction of their width

In any case, the minimum distance from a hole to the closest face of the beam must at the minimum be
equal to 5 cm and twice the cover provided for this face. The remaining cross section in this region, where
the area occupied by the hole has been deducted, must be capable of resisting the stresses provided in the
calculation, besides permitting a good concreting.

The following conditions must be obeyed, simultaneously, for the exemption from the verification:

a) holes in traction zone and at a distance from the supporting face of a minimum of 2 h, where h is the
height of the beam;

b) dimension of the hole of a maximum of 12 cm and h/3;

c) distance between faces of holes, in the same span, of a minimum of 2 h;

d) sufficient covers and not isolation of the reinforcements (please see section 7).

13.2.5.2 Openings that penetrate slabs in the direction of their thickness

In smooth slabs or mushroom slabs, the verification of resistance and deformation provided in 13.2.5 must
always be performed.

Other types of slabs must be exempted from this verification, which must be reinforced in two directions and
where the following conditions must be verified simultaneously:

a) the dimensions of the opening must correspond at a maximum of 1/10 of the smaller span (x) (please see
figure 13.1);

b) the distance between the face of an opening and a free border of the slab must be equal to or greater than
of the span, in the considered direction; and

c) the distance between faces of the adjacent openings must be greater than half of the smaller span.

Figure 13.1 Limit dimensions for slab openings with exemption from verification

13.2.6 Embedded beam pockets

Embedded beam pockets are openings according to the longitudinal axis of a linear element, contained in a
surface element or immersed inside a volume element.

The structural elements must not contain embedded beam pockets in the following cases:

a) stacking tubes without adequate insulation or special verification when intended for passage of fluids with
temperature that is far from more than 15C of the room temperature;

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b) beam pockets intended to support internal pressures greater than 0.3 MPa;

c) embedded beam pockets in concrete columns, whether immersed in the material or in empty spaces
internal to the structural element, without the existence of openings for drainage.

13.3 Limit displacements


Limit displacements are practical values used for verification on service of the limit state of excessive
deformations of the structure. For effects of this Norm they are classified into four basic groups listed as
follow and they must obey the limit established in table 13.2:

a) sensorial acceptability: the limit is characterized by undesirable vibrations or unpleasant visual effect. The
limitation of the deflection to prevent these vibrations, in special situations of use, must be performed as
established in section 23;

b) specific effects: the displacements can impede the adequate use of the construction;

c) effects in non-structural elements: structural displacements can occasion malfunctioning of elements that,
in spite of not forming part of the structure, are connected to it;

d) effects in structural elements: the displacements can affect the behavior of the structural element,
provoking separation in relation to the adopted calculation hypotheses. If the displacements are relevant for
the considered element, their effects on the stresses or on the stability of the structure must be considered,
by incorporating them to the adopted structural model.

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Table 13.2 Limits for displacements


Type of effect Reason for limitation Example Displacement to consider Limit displacement
Visible displacements in
Visual Total /250
Sensorial structural elements
acceptability Felt vibrations on the
Other Due to accidental loads /350
floor
Surfaces that must 1)
Rooftops and verandas Total /250
drain water
/350 +
Total
Floors that must Gymnasiums and counter-deflection 2)
Structural
remain flat bowling lanes Occurred after the
effects on /600
service construction of the floor
In accordance with
Elements that
Occurred after leveling of the equipment
support sensitive Laboratories
equipment manufacturers
equipments
recommendation
3)
Masonry, frames and After the construction of the /500 or 10 mm or
coatings wall = 0.0017 rad 4)
Light dividers and Occurred after the installation
/250 3) or 25 mm
telescopic frames of the divider
Walls Provoked by the action of the 5)
Lateral movement of H/1700 or Hi/850
wind for frequent combination 6)
buildings between floors
(1 = 0.30)
Vertical thermal Provoked due to temperature 7)
Effects on non- /400 or 15 mm
movements difference
structural
elements Horizontal thermal Provoked due to temperature
Hi/500
movements difference
Occurred after construction of
Linings Glued coatings /350
the lining
Suspended coatings or Displacement occurred after
/175
with joints construction of the lining
Displacement provoked by
Rolling bridges Misalignment of rails the actions resulting from H/400
braking
Separation in relation
Effects on If the displacements are relevant for the considered element, their effects on the
to the adopted
structural stresses or on the stability of the structure must be considered, by incorporating
calculation
elements them to the adopted structural model.
hypotheses
1)
The surfaces must be sufficiently inclined or planned displacement compensated by counter-deflections, so as not to
obtain accumulation of water.
2)
The displacements must be partially compensated by the specification of counter-deflections. However, the isolated
action of the counter-deflection cannot occasion a deviation from the plane greater than /350.
3)
The span must be taken in the direction in which the wall or the divider is developed.
4)
Rotation in the elements that support walls.
5)
H is the total height of the building and Hi is the gradient between two neighboring floors.
6)
This limit is applied to lateral displacement between two consecutive floors due to the action of horizontal actions. The
displacements due to axial deformations on the columns must not be included. The limit is also applied to the relative
vertical displacement of the extremities of lintels connected to two bracing walls, when Hi represents the length of the
lintel.
7)
The value refers to the distance between the external column and the first internal column.
NOTES
1 All displacement limit values suppose elements of span supported in both the extremities by supports that do not
move. When it deals with overhangs, the equivalent span to be considered must be twice the length of the overhang.
2 For the case of surface elements, the prescribed limits consider that the value is the least span, except in cases of
verification of walls and dividers, where the direction matters in which wall or divider is developed, where this value is
limited to twice the smaller span.
3 The total displacement must be obtained from the combination of weighted characteristic actions by the coefficients
defined in section 11.
4 Excessive displacements can be partially compensated by counter-deflections.

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13.4 Cracking control and reinforcement protection

13.4.1 Introduction

Cracking in reinforced structural concrete elements is inevitable, due to large variability and low traction
concrete resistance; even under service actions (use), critical values of traction stresses are reached. Aiming
to obtain good performance related to the protection of reinforcements with respect to corrosion and
sensorial acceptability of the users, it seeks to control the opening of these cracks.

In structures with positive reinforcements (prestressed concrete) there is also, with smaller probability, the
possibility of emergence of cracks. In this case the cracks can be more noxious, since there is the possibility
of corrosion under reinforcement stress.

In general, the presence of cracks with openings that obey the limits given in 13.4.2, in well designed,
constructed structures and submitted to loads planned in the normalization, do not denote loss of durability
or loss of safety with respect to the ultimate limit states.

The cracks can further occur due to other causes, like thermal plastic retraction or due to internal chemical
reactions of the concrete in the first ages, which must be avoided or limited by technological cares,
especially in the definitions of the proportion and in the curing of the concrete.

13.4.2 Limits for cracking and protection of the reinforcements with respect to durability

The characteristic maximum opening wk of the cracks, as long as it does not exceed values of the order of
0.2 mm to 0.4 mm, (according to table 13.3) under action of frequent combinations, does not have significant
importance in the corrosion of negative reinforcements.

Since for the positive reinforcements there is the possibility of corrosion under stress, these limits must be
more restricted and direct function of the aggressiveness of the environment, given by the class of
environmental aggressiveness (please see section 6).

In table 13.3 limit values of characteristic opening wk of the cracks are given, as well as other provisions
aiming to assure adequate protection of the reinforcements with respect to corrosion. However, due to the
current stage of the knowledge and high variability of the magnitudes involved, these limits must be seen
only as criteria for an adequate structure project.

Although the crack opening estimates performed in 17.3.3.2 must obey these limits, it must not be expected
that the openings of real cracks correspond strictly to the estimated values, that is, real cracks can eventually
exceed these limits.

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Table 13.3 Durability requirements related to reinforcement cracking and protection


in function of the classes of environmental aggressiveness
Class of environmental
Requirements relative to Combination of actions on
Type of structural concrete aggressiveness (CEA) and
cracking service to use
type of prestressing
Plain concrete CEA I to CEA IV None --
CEA I ELS-W wk 0.4 mm
Reinforced concrete CEA II and CEA III ELS-W wk 0.3 mm Frequent combination
CEA IV ELS-W wk 0.2 mm
Pre-traction with CEA I
Prestressed concrete level 1 or
ELS-W wk 0.2 mm Frequent combination
(partial prestressing) Post-traction with CEA I and
II
Pre-traction with CEA II Verify the two conditions below
Prestressed concrete level 2 or ELS-F Frequent combination
(limited prestressing) Post-traction with CEA III 1) Almost permanent
and IV ELS-D
combination
Verify the two conditions below
Prestressed concrete level 3 Pre-traction with CEA III and
ELS-F Rare combination
(complete prestressing) IV
ELS-D 1) Frequent combination
1)
At the criteria of the project engineer, ELS-D can be substituted for ELS-SP with ap = 25 mm (figure 3.1).
NOTES
1 The definitions of ELS-W, ELS-F and ELS-D are found in 3.2.
2 For the classes of environmental aggressiveness CEA-III and IV it is required that the non-adherent cordages may
have special protection in the region of their anchorages.

13.4.3 Control of cracking with respect to sensorial acceptability and use

In the case that the cracks affect the functionality of the structure, like, for example, in the case of water
tightness of tanks, lower limits for the openings of cracks. For more effective controls of cracking in these
structures, the use of prestressing is convenient.

For control of cracking with respect to sensorial acceptability, the situation is understood in which the cracks
may cause psychological discomfort to users, although they do not represent loss of safety of the structure.
More severe limits of openings of cracks can be established with the contracting party.

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14 Structural analysis
14.1 Specific symbols of this section
So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the
most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

The symbols presented in this section follow the same orientation set in section 4. This way, the subscript
symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

a Distance between cross sections of null bending moment

bef Effective width

bf Collaborating width of the bed of a beam

bw Web width of a beam

d Useful height

0 Distance between faces of two consecutive supports

e Equivalent length of the supposed compressed element (column), linked in both extremities

rlow Stiffness of lower column span in a lower column span beam upper column span connection

rupp Stiffness of upper column span in a lower column span beam upper column span connection

rbea Stiffness of a beam in a lower column span beam upper column span connection

t Length of support parallel to the span of the analyzed beam

x Height of neutral line

I Moment of inertia

p - Plastic rotation

M Portion of reduced moment in rounding

14.2 General structural analysis principles

14.2.1 Objective of structural analysis

The objective of structural analysis is to determine the effects of actions in a structure, with the purpose of
carrying out verifications of ultimate and service limit states.

Structural analysis permits the establishment of distributions of internal strengths, stresses, deformations and
displacements, in a part of in the entire structure.

14.2.2 Necessary assumptions for structural analysis

The analysis must be performed with a realist structural model, which permits the representation in a clear
manner of all paths coursed by the actions until the supports of the structure and that may also permit the
representation of the non-linear response of the materials.

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In more complex cases, the ground-structure interaction must be contemplated by the model.

In the case of prestressing application, displaceability adequate to its effective execution must be assured,
by minimizing the transmission of undesired stresses to adjacent elements.

Complementary local analyses must be carried out in cases where the plane cross section hypothesis is not
applied (please see sections 21 and 22).

Complementary local analyses must also be carried out when the non-linearity introduced by the cracking is
important, like for example in the evaluation of deflections.

14.3 Basic Hypotheses

14.3.1 Equilibrium conditions

The equilibrium conditions must necessarily be observed.

The equilibrium equations can be established based on the undeformed geometry of the structure (1st order
theory), except in the cases where the displacements alter significantly the internal stresses (2nd order
theory, please see section 15).

14.3.2 Compatibility conditions

When the compatibility conditions are not verified in the considered limit state, measures that assure
adequate ductility of the structure in the ultimate limit state must be adopted, where an adequate
performance is protected in the service limit states.

14.3.3 Monotonic load

Monotonic load is admitted up to the considered limit state, in the usual structures, as long as the response
to load and unload cycles, in service, does not stress the concrete to compression strengths above 0.5 fck.

14.4 Structural elements


The structures can be idealized as the composition of basic structural elements, classified and defined in
accordance with their geometric form and their structural function, according to 14.4.1 and 14.4.2.

14.4.1 Linear elements

They are those in which the longitudinal length exceeds in at least three times the larger dimension of the
transversal cross section, where they are also called bars. In accordance with their structural function, they
receive the designations of 14.4.1.1 to 14.4.1.4.

14.4.1.1 Beams

Linear elements in which bending is predominant.

14.4.1.2 Columns

Linear elements of straight axis, usually disposed at the vertical, in which the normal compression forces are
predominant.

14.4.1.3 Straining beams

Linear elements of straight axis in which the normal traction forces are predominant.

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14.4.1.4 Arches

Curved linear elements in which the normal compression forces are predominant, acting or not
simultaneously with bending stressing strengths, whose actions are contained in their plane.

14.4.2 Surface elements

Element in which a dimension, usually called thickness, is relatively small before the others, which can
receive the designations presented in 14.4.2.1 to 14.4.2.4.

14.4.2.1 Plates

Flat surface elements subject mainly to normal actions on their plane. The concrete plates are usually called
slabs. Plates with thickness greater than 1/3 of the span must be studied as thick plates.

14.4.2.2 Sheaths

Flat surface elements, subject mainly to actions contained in their plane. The concrete sheaths where the
span is lesser than three times the larger dimension of the transversal cross section are usually called wall-
beams.

14.4.2.3 Shells

Non-flat surface elements.

14.4.2.4 Wall-columns

Flat or cylindrical shell surface elements, usually disposed in the vertical and submitted predominantly to
compression. They can be composed by one or more associated surfaces. So that a wall-column may be
obtained, in some of these surfaces the smaller dimension must be lesser than 1/5 of the larger, both
considered in the transversal cross section of the structural element.

14.5 Types of structural analysis

14.5.1 Generalities

For the project situation, structural analysis can be carried out by one of the methods presented in 14.5.2 to
14.5.6, which are differentiated by the admitted behavior for constituting materials of the structure, without
losing sight of the corresponding limitations in each case.

For situations of verifications of projects or works already executed, non-conformities identified through one
of these structural analysis models will not be accepted as refutations. For acceptance of this project or work,
it is sufficient to show the conformity with the norm through one of the structural analysis models.

All these models admit, for effect of this section, that the displacements of the structure are small.

14.5.2 Linear analysis

Elastic-linear behavior is admitted for the materials.

In the global analysis the geometric characteristics can be determined through the brute concrete cross
section of the structural elements. In local analysis for calculation of displacements, in the eventuality of
cracking, this must be considered.

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The values for the modulus of elasticity and Poissons coefficient must be adopted in accordance with that
presented in 8.2.8 and 8.2.9, where in principle, the secant modulus of elasticity Ecs must be considered.

The results of a linear analysis are usually employed for the verification of service limit states.

It is possible to extend the results for verifications of ultimate limit state, even with elevated stresses, as long
as ductility of the structural elements is assured.

14.5.3 Linear analysis with redistribution

In linear analysis with redistribution, the effects of the actions, determined in a linear analysis, are
redistributed in the structure, for the ULS load combinations.

In this case the equilibrium and ductility conditions must obligatorily be satisfied.

All internal stresses must be recalculated so as to assure the equilibrium of each one of the structural
elements and the structure as a whole. The effects of redistribution must be considered in all aspects of the
structural project, including the anchorage conditions and cutting of reinforcements and the stresses to
anchor.

Special cares must be taken with relation to loads of large variability.

The verifications of ULS or fatigue load combinations can be based on linear analysis without redistribution.
Generally, it is desirable that there may be no redistribution of strengths in service.

14.5.4 Plastic analysis

The structural analysis is called plastic when the non-linearities could be considered, by admitting materials
of perfect stiff-plastic or perfect elastic-plastic behavior.

The plastic analysis of reticulated structures cannot be adopted when:

a) the 2nd order effects are considered global;

b) there is no sufficient ductility so that the adopted configurations may be achieved.

In the case of cyclic load with possibility of fatigue, plastic calculation must be avoided, observing the
prescriptions contained in section 23.

14.5.5 Non-linear analysis

In non-linear analysis, the non-linear behavior of the materials is considered.

The entire geometry of the structure, as well as all their reinforcements, need to known so that the non-linear
analysis can be carried out, since the response of the structure depends on how it was reinforced.

Equilibrium compatibility and ductility conditions must necessarily be satisfied. Non-linear analyses can be
adopted for verifications of ultimate limit states as well as for verifications of service limit states.

14.5.6 Analysis through physical models

In the analysis through physical models, the structural behavior is determined from tests performed with
physical concrete models, considering the mechanical similitude criteria.

The methodology employed in the experiments must assure the possibility of obtaining the correct
interpretation of the results.

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In this case, the interpretation of the results must be justified by theoretical equilibrium model in the critical
cross sections and statistical analysis of the results.

If an adequate evaluation of the variability of the results is possible, the safety margins prescribed in this
Norm can be adopted, according to sections 11 and 12. Otherwise, when it is only possible to evaluate the
average value of the results, the safety margin referred in this Norm must be expanded, where the
variabilities evaluated through other means are covered in favor of safety.

Obligatorily results must be obtained for all ultimate and service limit states to employed in the analysis of the
structure.

All actions, conditions and possible influences that may occur during the life of the structure must
conveniently be reproduced in the tests.

This type of analysis is appropriate when the calculation models are insufficient or are out of scope of this
Norm.

For the case of load tests, the prescriptions of section 25 must be satisfied.

14.6 Structures of linear elements

14.6.1 Basic hypotheses

Structures or parts of structures that can be assimilated to linear elements (beams, columns, supporting
brackets, arches, porticos, grids, lattices) can be analyzed by admitting the following hypotheses:

a) maintenance of the flat cross section after deformation;

b) representation of the elements through their longitudinal axes;

c) Length limited by the centers of supports or by the intersection with the axis of other structural element.

14.6.2 Characterization of the geometry

14.6.2.1 Stiff sections

The sections of linear elements pertaining to a common region to the intersection of two or more elements
can be considered as stiff (nodes of finite dimensions), in the manner as it is illustrated in figure 14.1.

Axis of normal element


Stiff section

Figure 14.1 Stiff sections

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14.6.2.2 Collaborating width of T cross section beams

When the structure is modeled without the automatic consideration of the combined action of slabs and
beams, this effect can be considered through the adoption of a collaborating width of the slab associated to
the beam, comprising a T transversal cross section.

The consideration of the T cross section can be performed to establish the distributions of internal strengths,
stresses, deformations and displacements in the structure, in a more realistic manner.

The collaborating width bf must be given by the beam width bw added by a maximum of 10% of the distance
a between the points of null bending moment, for each side of the beam where there is collaborating slab.

The distance a can be estimated, in function of the length of the considered span, as it is presented as
follows:

- simply supported beam: a = 1.00 ;

- span with moment in only one extremity: a = 0.75 ;

- span with moments in two extremities: a = 0.60 ;

- span in overhang: a = 2.00 .

Alternatively, the calculation of the distance a can be performed or verified through examination of the
bending moment diagrams in the structure.

In the case of continuous beams, it is permitted that they be calculated with a single collaborating width for
all cross sections, including in the supports under negative moments, as long as this width is calculated from
the section of positive moments where the width results minimum.

The limit b1 and b3 must be observed as indicated in figure 14.2.

Figure 14.2 Collaborating bed width

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When the slab presents openings or interruptions in the region of the collaborating bed, the variation of the
effective width (bef) of the bed must observe the maximum bf and limitations imposed by the openings as
figure 14.3 shows.

opening

Figure 14.3 Effective width with opening

14.6.2.3 Supporting brackets and sudden variations of cross sections

In the occurrence of supporting bracket or sudden variation of transversal cross section, it must only be
considered as effective part of that cross section indicated in figure 14.4.

Figure 14.4 Effective height and width of a transversal cross section

14.6.2.4 Effective spans of beams

The effective span can be calculated by:

ef = o + a1 + a2

with a1 equal to the smaller value between (t1/2 and 0.3h) and a2 equal to the smaller value between (t2/2
and 0.3h), according to figure 14.5.

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a) Extreme span support b) Intermediate span support

Figure 14.5 Effective span

14.6.3 Rounding of the bending moment diagram

The bending moment diagram can be rounded on the supports and points of application of forces considered
as concentrated or nodes of porticos. This rounding can be done approximately as indicated in figure 14.6.

Figure 14.6 Rounding of bending moment diagram

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14.6.4 Linear analysis with or without redistribution

The general conditions expressed in 14.5.2 and 14.5.3 and the specific conditions presented in 14.6.4.1 to
14.6.4.3 are applied to structures of linear elements.

14.6.4.1 Values of stiffness

For the calculation of the stiffness of the structural elements it is permitted, as estimation, to take the secant
modulus of elasticity (Ecs) (please see 8.2.8) and the moment of inertia of the brute concrete cross section.

For verification of the deflections the cracking and the flow must obligatorily be considered, using, for
example, the criterion of 17.3.2.1.

14.6.4.2 Restrictions to redistribution

The redistributions of bending and torsion moments in columns, linear elements with predominance of
compression and brackets, can only be adopted when they are resulting from redistributions of moments of
beams that are connected to them.

When approximate procedures are used, only a small redistribution is permitted in moving node structures
(please see 14.6.4.3).

The implicit redistribution in a second-order analysis must be carried out in accordance with section 15.

14.6.4.3 Limit for redistribution of ductility moments and conditions

The rotation capacity of structural elements is function of the position of the neutral line in the ULS. The
smaller is x/d, the greater will be this capacity.

In order to improve the ductility of the structures in the support regions of the beams or connections with
other structural elements, even when redistribution of stressing strengths are not performed, the position of
the neutral line in the ULS must obey the following limits:

a) x/d 0,50 for concretes with fck 35 MPa; or

b) x/d 0,40 for concretes with fck > 35 MPa.

These limits can be altered if special reinforcement details are used, like for example, those that produce
contention in these regions.

When a redistribution is carried out, by reducing a bending factor of M to M, in a determined transversal


cross section, the ratio between the coefficient of redistribution and the position of the neutral line in this
cross section x/d, for the reduced moment M, must be given by:

a) 0.44 + 1.25 x/d for concretes with fck 35 MPa; or

b) 0.56 + 1.25 x/d for concretes with fck > 35 MPa.

The coefficient of redistribution must, further, obey the following limits:

a) 0.90 for moving node structures;

b) 0.75 in any other case.

Redistribution out of the limits established in this Norm can be adopted, as long as the structure is calculated
through the employment of non-linear analysis or plastic analysis, with explicit verification of the rotation
capacity of plastic girders.

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14.6.5 Plastic analysis

For verifications of ultimate limit states the plastic analysis of the structure can be carried out, with the
simulation of plastic girders located at the critical cross sections.

The verification of the rotations in plastic girders, corresponding to the adopted mechanisms, is obligatory,
which cannot exceed the plastic rotation capacity of the corresponding transversal cross sections.

This limit, function of the relative depth x/d of the neutral line in the cross section for the bending moment
considered in the girder, can be determined through figure 14.7, for ratio a/d equal to 6 (where a is the
distance between points of null moment of the region that contains the plasticized cross section). For other
ratios a/d, multiply the values extracted from figure 14.7 by (a / d ) / 6 .

steel CA-60
other steels

Curves with broken lines:


- Curve 1: for x/d 0.17 1000 p = 2 d/x
- Curve 2: for x/d 0.15 1000 p = 3.5 d/x

Figure 14.7 Rotation capacity of plastic girders

The verification of the rotation capacity of plastic girders must be done for each one of the considered load
combinations. Special attention must be given to the verification of cracking in the girders for service
conditions.

14.6.6 Non-linear analysis

Non-linear analyses are permitted for verifications of ultimate limit states as well as for verifications of service
limit states.

14.6.7 Usual building structures Permitted estimations

14.6.7.1 Continuous beams

The classic model of continuous beams can be used, simply supported on columns, for the study of the
vertical loads, where the need for the following additional corrections are observed:

a) positive moments lesser than those that could be obtained if there was perfect inlaying of the beam in the
internal supports must not be considered;

b) when the beam is harmonious with the intermediate column and the support width, measured in the
direction of the axis of the beam, is greater than a fourth part of the column, no negative moment of absolute
value lesser than that of the perfect inlaying in these support can be considered;

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c) when the accurate calculation of the influence of the solidarity of the columns with the beam is not
performed, bending moment equal to the moment of perfect inlay multiplied by the coefficients established in
the following relations must be considered:

- at the beam:

- at the upper column span:

- at the lower column span:

such that :

where

ri is the stiffness of the element I in the considered node, evaluated as indicated in figure 14.8.

Figure 14.8 Estimation in extreme supports

Alternatively, the continuous beam model can be improved, by considering the solidarity of the columns with
the beam, through the introduction of bending stiffness of the extreme and intermediate columns.

The adaptability of the employed model must be verified through careful analysis of the obtained results.

Precautions must be taken to assure the equilibrium of the moments in the beam-column nodes, especially
in the simpler models, like that of continuous beams.

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14.6.7.2 Grids and spatial porticos

The building floors can be modeled as grids, for study of vertical loads, by considering the bending stiffness
analogously, to what was prescribed for the continuous beams.

Approximately, in the grids and in the spatial porticos, the torsion stiffness of the beams can be reduced
through cracking by using 15% of the elastic stiffness, except for the structural elements with limited or
complete prestressing (levels 2 or 3).

Open thin wall profiles can be modeled considering what is disposed in 17.5.

14.6.7.3 Consideration of variable loads

For building structures where the variable load is at a maximum equal to 20% of the total load, the structural
analysis can be carried out without the load alternate considerations.

14.6.7.4 Lateral bracing structure

The slab of a floor can be considered as a totally stiff sheath on its plane, as long as it does not present large
openings and whose larger side of the rectangle circumscribed to the floor on the plan does not exceed three
times the smaller side.

14.7 Structures with plate elements

14.7.1 Basic hypotheses

Plate structures can be analyzed by admitting the following hypotheses:

a) maintenance of flat cross section after deformation, in sufficiently narrow bands;

b) representation of elements through their average plane.

14.7.2 Characterization of the geometry

14.7.2.1 Supporting brackets and sudden variations of thicknesses

The effective height to be considered is shown in figure 14.4.

14.7.2.2 Effective spans of slabs or plates

When the supports can be considered sufficiently stiff with respected to vertical translation, the effective
span must be calculated through the following expression:

ef = 0 + a1 + a2

The values of a1 and a2, in each extremity of the span, can be determined by the appropriate values of ai in
figure 14.5.

14.7.3 Linear analysis with or without redistribution

Methods based on the theory of elasticity are applied to the plate structures, with Poissons coefficient equal
to 0.2.

The general conditions expressed in 14.5.2 and 14.5.3 and the specific conditions presented in 14.7.3.1 and
14.7.3.2 must be satisfied.

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14.7.3.1 Stiffness values

For verification of the limit state of excessive deformation the stiffness values of stage I can be used,
considering the secant modulus of elasticity of the concrete, as long as the bending moments are lesser than
that of the cracking.

The eventual cracking and slow deformation effects must be considered in an analogous manner to the
procedures exposed in section 17.

14.7.3.2 Redistribution of ductility moments and conditions

When a redistribution is carried out, the ratio between the coefficient (according to 14.6.4.3) and the
position of the neutral line is given by:

a) 0.44 + 1.25 x/d for concretes with fck 35 MPa; or

b) 0.56 + 1.25 x/d for concretes with fck > 35 MPa.

The coefficient of redistribution must, further, obey the limit 0.75.

14.7.4 Plastic analysis

For the consideration of the ultimate limit state, the analysis of stresses can be performed through the theory
of plastic flaps.

For assurance of the appropriate ductility conditions, exempting the explicit verification of the plastic rotation
capacity, prescribed in 14.6.5, the position of the limited neutral line must be obtained in :

X/d 0.30

In the lack of better experimental data, minimum ratio of 1.5:1 between border moments (with continuity and
undisplaceable support) and moments in the span must be adopted for rectangular slabs.

Special cares must be taken in relation to cracking and verification of deflections in ULS, mainly when the
ratio between moment is adopted very different from which results from an elastic analysis.

14.7.5 Non-linear analysis

Non-linear analyses are permitted for verifications of ultimate limit states as well as for verification of service
limit states.

14.7.6 Solid slabs

14.7.6.1 Support reactions

For the calculation of support reactions of the rectangular solid slabs with uniform load the following can be
done:

a) the reactions in each support are those corresponding to the loads acting in the triangles or trapezoids
determined through the plastic flaps corresponding to the executed analysis with the criteria of 14.7.4, where
these reactions, in an approximate manner, can be considered uniformly distributed on the structural
elements that serve them as support;

b) when the plastic analysis is not carried out, the flaps can be estimated by inclined straight lines, from the
vertices with the following angles:

- 45 between two supports of the same type;

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- 60 from the considered inlaid support, if the other is considered simply supported;

- 90 from the support, when the neighboring border is free.

14.7.6.2 Estimations for bending moment diagrams

When there is predominance of permanent loads, the neighboring slabs can be considered as isolated,
where compatibilization of the moments on the supports are performed in an approximate manner.

In the case of plastic analysis, the compatibilization can be carried out through alteration of the ratios
between border and span moments, in iterative procedures, until the obtainment of balanced values at the
borders.

The adoption of greater value of negative moment is permitted, in a simplified way, instead of balancing the
moments of different slabs on a common border.

14.7.7 Ribbed slabs

Ribbed slabs are the molded slabs in the site or with pre-molded ribs, whose traction zone for positive
moments is located at the ribs between which inert material can be placed.

The slabs with pre-molded ribs must additionally comply with the prescriptions of specific Brazilian Norms.

All previous prescriptions relative to slabs can be considered valid, as long as the conditions of 13.2.4.2 are
obeyed.

When these hypotheses are not verified, the ribbed slab must be analyzed considering the cover as solid
slab supported on grid of beams.

The unidirectional ribbed slabs must be calculated according to the direction of the neglected ribs at
transversal stiffness and torsion stiffness.

The bidirectional ribbed slabs (according to ABNT NBR 14859-2) can be calculated, for effect of stressing
strengths, like solid slabs.

14.7.8 Smooth slabs and mushroom slabs

Mushroom slabs are slabs supported directly on columns with capitals, while smooth slabs are those
supported on columns without capitals.

The structural analysis of smooth and mushroom slabs must be performed through employment of adequate
numeric procedure, for example, finite differences, finite elements and outline elements.

In the cases where the columns are disposed in orthogonal rows, in a regular manner and with little different
spans, the calculation of the strengths can be performed through the approximate elastic process, with
redistribution, which consists of adopting in each direction multiple porticos, for obtainment of the stressing
strengths.

For each portico the total load must be considered. The distribution of the moments, obtained in each
direction, according to the bands indicated in figure 14.9, must be performed in the following manner:

a) 45% of the positive moments for the two internal bands;

b) 27.5% of the positive moments for each one of the external bands;

c) 25% of the negative moments for the two internal bands;

d) 37.5% of the negative moments for each one of the external bands.

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The connections of the slabs with the columns must be studied carefully, with special attention to the cases
where there is no symmetry of slab form or load in relation to the support.

The moments of connection between extreme slab and column must obligatorily be considered.

The punch must be verified in accordance with 19.5.

External band (fe)

Internal bands (fi)

External band (fe)

Figure 14.9 Slab bands for distribution of strengths in the multiple porticos

14.8 Structures containing other elements

14.8.1 Wall-beams and wall-columns

For wall-beams or wall-columns the linear analysis or the non-linear analysis can be used.

The linear analysis, in most of the cases, must be performed with the employment of adequate numeric
procedure, like, for example, finite differences, finite elements and outline elements.

For the consideration of a wall-beam or a wall-column as component of a structural system, it is permitted for
it to be represented by linear element, as long as the shear deformation and an adjustment of its bending
stiffness to real behavior are considered.

14.8.2 Blocks

For blocks linear analysis, plastic analysis or non-linear analysis can be used.

Linear analysis, in most of the cases, must be performed with the employment of adequate numeric
procedure, like, for example, finite differences and finite elements.

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15 Instability and 2nd order effects


15.1 Specific symbols of this section
So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the
most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

The symbols presented in this section follow the same orientation set in section 4. This way, the subscript
symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

e1 1st order eccentricity (it does not include the accidental eccentricity)

ecc Eccentricity due to flow phenomenon

(EI)sec Secant stiffness

(EI)eq Equivalent stiffness

Myid - 1st Order calculation bending moment, in band I, direction y

Instability parameter

z Coefficient of increase of final global 1st order strengths for obtainment of the final 2nd order strengths

Adimensional secant stiffness

1 Limit value for slenderness index (it contemplates accidental eccentricity of the column)

1 Deviation from perpendicularity of a continuous vertical element

- Deviation from perpendicularity of a column side of height

15.2 Field of application and fundamental concepts


This section is applied mainly to structures constituted by bars submitted to compound bending, where the
torsion contribution, in the 2nd order effects, can be neglected.

The principles of this section can be applied to other types of structural elements, like shells, walls and wall-
beams.

In the reinforced concrete structures, the ultimate limit state of instability is achieved whenever, in increasing
the intensity of the load and, therefore, of deformations, there are elements submitted to bending-
compression where the increase of the resisting capacity becomes lower than the increase of stress.

There are three types of instability in the structures:

a) in the structures without initial geometric imperfections, there can be (for special loading cases) loss of
stability by equilibrium bifurcation (buckling);

b) in particular situations (fatigued structures), there can be loss of stability without equilibrium bifurcation by
sudden passage of a configuration to another reversed from the previous (limit point with reversion);

c) in structures of non-linear behavior material, with initial geometric imperfections, there is no loss of stability
by equilibrium bifurcation, however, there is loss of stability when, in increasing the intensity of the load, the
increase of the resisting capacity of the structure becomes lesser than that increase of the stress (limit point
without reversion).

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Cases a) and b) can occur for structures of linear or non-linear behavior material.

The 2nd order effects are those that are summed to those obtained in a first order analysis (where the
equilibrium of the structure is studied in the initial geometric configuration), when the analysis of the
equilibrium is carried out considering the deformed configuration.

The 2nd order effects, in whose determination the non-linear behavior of the materials must be considered,
can be neglected whenever they do not represent increase greater than 10% in the relevant reactions and in
the stresses of the structure.

15.3 Basic calculation principle


The structural analysis with 2nd order effects must assure that, for the most unfavorable combinations of
actions of calculation, loss of stability or break down of the calculation resisting capacity does not occur.

The physical non-linearity, present in the reinforced concrete structures, must be obligatorily considered.

The deformability of the elements must be calculated based on the stress deformation diagrams of the
materials defined in section 8. The peak stress of the concrete must equal to 1.10 fcd, which already includes
the maintained load effect (Rsch), and that of the steel equal to fyd, with the values of c and s used for
ULS.

The verification of the resisting capacity must be performed according to prescriptions of section 17.

Possible uncertainties in the characteristics of supports of the structure and in its deformability must be
considered in the analysis.

15.3.1 Moment- curvature ratios

The main effect of non-linearity can, in general, be considered through the construction of the moment-
curvature ratio for each cross section, with known supposed reinforcement, and for the value of the acting
normal force.

The safety formulation can also be considered where the 2nd order effects of the increased loads of f/f3 are
calculated, which later are increased by f3, with f3 = 1.1, with the following equation:

where:

For choice of the combination of actions and coefficients f and 0, please see section 11.

Therefore, the moment-curvature ratio presents the aspect of figure 15.1.

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Curve obtained
Secant
with 1.10 fcd

Curve obtained
with 0.85 fcd

Secant stiffness

Figure 15.1 - Moment-curvature ratio

The full curve AB, which, in favor of safety, can be linearized through straight line AB, is used in the
calculation of the deformations.

The curve with broken line, obtained with the calculation values of the concrete and steel resistances, is
used only to define the resisting strengths MRd and NRd (maximum point).

The straight line AB is characterized by the secant stiffness (EI)sec, which can be used in approximate
processes for normal or oblique compound bending.

The adimensional secant stiffness is defined as the value given by:

where:

h is the height of the considered cross section

This value of adimensional secant stiffness can be placed, together with ultimate values of NRd and MRd, in
frames of normal force-bending moment interaction.

15.3.2 Geometric imperfections

Geometric imperfections (global and local) must be considered in accordance with that prescribed in
11.3.3.4.

15.4 Definitions and classification of structures

15.4.1 Global, local and located 2nd order effects

Under the action of vertical and horizontal loads, the nodes of the structure are displaced horizontally. The
2nd order stresses resulting from these displacements are called global 2nd order effects. In the bars of the
structure, like a column side, the respective axes are not maintained rectilinear, emerging, from there, local
2nd order effects that, in principle, affect mainly the stressing strengths along them.

In wall-columns (simple or compound) a region can be obtained that presents non-rectilinearity greater than
that of the columns axis as a whole. In these regions larger 2nd order effects emerge, called located 2nd
order effects (please see figure 15.2). The located 2nd order effect, besides increasing in this region the
longitudinal bending, also increases the transversal bending, where there is the need to increase the stirrups
in these regions.

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located 2nd
located 2nd order
order

Figure 15.2 Located 2nd order effects

15.4.2 Fixed node structures and moving node structures

The structures are considered, for effect of calculation, as fixed nodes, when the horizontal displacements of
the nodes are small and, as a result, the global 2nd order effects are negligible (lesser than 10% of the
respective 1st order stresses). In these structures, it is sufficient to consider the local and located 2nd order
effects.

The moving node structures are those where the horizontal displacements are not small and, as a result, the
global 2nd order effects are important (greater than 10% of the respective 1st order stresses). In these
structures the global as well as the local and located 2nd order stresses must be considered.

However, there are structures where the horizontal displacements are large and that, nevertheless, exempt
the consideration of the 2nd order effects because the normal forces are small and, therefore, the increases
of the displacements produced by them are small; this can happen, for example, in posts and in certain
columns of industrial sheds.

15.4.3 Bracing

For convenience of analysis, it is possible to identify, inside the structure, substructures that, due to their
large stiffness to horizontal actions, resist to most part of the stresses resulting from these actions. These
substructures are called bracing substructures.

The elements that do not participate in the bracing substructure are called braced elements.

The bracing substructures can be fixed nodes or moving nodes, in accordance with the definitions of 15.4.2.

15.4.4 Isolated elements

The following are considered isolated elements:

a) the isostatic structural elements;

b) the braced elements;

c) the elements of bracing structures of fixed nodes;

d) the elements of the bracing substructures of moving nodes as long as, to the stresses on the extremities,
obtained in a 1st order analysis, those determined through global 2nd order analysis are increased.

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15.5 Exemption from the consideration of global 2nd order stresses

15.5.1 Generalities

The approximate processes, presented in 15.5.2 and 15.5.3, can be used to verify the possibility of
exemption from the consideration of global 2nd order stresses, that is, to indicate if the structure can be
classified as fixed nodes, with the need for rigorous calculation.

15.5.2 Instability parameter

A symmetric reticulated structure can be considered as fixed nodes if its instability parameter is lesser than
the value 1, according to the expression:

where:

1 = 0.2 + 0.1n if: n 3

1 = 0.6 if: n 4

where:

n is the number of levels of horizontal bars (floors) above the foundation or a little displaceable level
of the basement;

Htot is the total height of the structure, measured from the top of the foundation or of a little
displaceable level of the basement;

Nk is the sum of all acting vertical loads in the structure (from the considered level to the calculation
of Htot), with its characteristic value;

EcsIc represents the sum of the stiffness values of all columns in the considered direction. In the case
of structures of porticos, lattices or mixed, or with columns of variable stiffness along the height, the value of
the expression EcsIc of an equivalent column of constant cross section can be considered.

NOTE In the analysis of global stability the value of the modulus of elasticity or modulus of initial tangent
deformation given in 8.2.8 can be adopted.

The value of Ic must be calculated considering the brute column cross sections.

The stiffness of the equivalent column must be determined in the following manner:

- calculate the displacement of the top of the bracing structure, under horizontal loading action;

- calculate the stiffness of an equivalent column of constant cross section, inlaid at the base and free
at the top, of the same height Htot, such that, under the action of the same loading, it suffers the same
displacement on the top.

The limit value 1 = 0.6 prescribed for n 4 is, generally, applicable to usual building structures. It can be
adapted to associations of wall-columns and for porticos associated to wall-columns. It can be increased to
1 = 0.7, in the case of bracing constituted exclusively by wall-columns and must be reduced to 1 = 0.5
when there are only porticos.

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15.5.3 Coefficient z

The coefficient z of evaluation of the importance of the global second order stresses is valid for reticulated
structures with a minimum of four floors. It can be determined from the results of a first order linear analysis,
for each loading case, where the stiffness values given in 15.7.2 are adopted.

The value of z for each loading combination is given by the expression:

where:

M1,tot,d is the tumbling moment, that is, the sum of the moments of all horizontal forces of the
considered combination, with their calculation values, in relation to the base of the structure;

Mtot,d is the sum of the products of all acting vertical forces in the structure, in the considered
combination, with their calculation values, through the horizontal displacements of their respective points of
application, obtained from the 1st order analysis;

It is considered that the structure is fixed nodes if the condition is obeyed: z 1.1.

15.6 Analysis of fixed node structures


In fixed node structures, the calculation can be performed considering each compressed element separately,
as bar linked at the extremities to the other structural elements that compete there, where the stresses
obtained from the analysis of the executed structure are applied according to the 1st order theory.

The analysis of the local 2nd order effects must be carried out in accordance with what is established in 15.8.

Under the action of horizontal forces, the structure is always calculated as displaceable. The fact that the
structure is classified as fixed nodes exempts only the consideration of global 2nd order stresses.

The equivalent length e of the compressed element (column), supposed linked in both extremities, must be
the least of the following values:

where:

0 is the distance between the internal faces of the structural elements, supposed horizontal, which
link the column;

h is the height of the transversal cross section of the column, measured on the plane of the structure
under study;

is the distance between the axes of the structural elements to which the column is linked.

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15.7 Analysis of moving node structures

15.7.1 Generalities

In structural analysis of moving node structures, the geometric non-linearity and physical non-linearity effects
must obligatorily be considered and, therefore, in the dimensioning the global and local 2nd order effects
must obligatorily be considered.

15.7.2 Non-linear 2nd order analysis

An approximate solution for the determination of global 2nd order stresses consists of the evaluation of the
final stresses (1st order + 2nd order) from the additional increase of the horizontal stresses of the considered
loading combination by 0.95 z. This process is only valid for z 1.3.

15.7.3 Approximate consideration of physical non-linearity

For the analysis of global 2nd order stresses, in reticulated structures with a minimum of four floors, the
physical non-linearity can be considered in an approximate manner, by taking as stiffness of the structural
elements the following values:

- slabs:

- beams: to and

to

- columns:

where:

Ic is the moment of inertia of the brute concrete cross section, including, when it is the case, the
collaborating beds.

When the bracing structure is exclusively composed by beams and columns and z is lesser than 1.3, the
stiffness of beams and columns is permitted to be calculated through:

The stiffness values adopted in this subsection are approximates and cannot be used to evaluate local 2nd
order stresses, even with a greater modeling discretization.

15.7.4 Analysis of local 2nd order effects

The global 2nd order analysis provides only the stresses at the extremities of the bars, where an analysis of
the local 2nd order effects must be performed along the axes of the compressed bars, in accordance with
what is prescribed in 15.8.

The isolated elements, for purposes of local verification, must be formed by the compressed bars removed
from the structure, with length e, in accordance with that established in 15.6, however, by applying to their
extremities the stresses obtained from the global 2nd order analysis.

15.8 Analysis of isolated elements

15.8.1 Generalities

The subsections 15.8.2, 15.8.3.2 and 15.8.4 are applicable only to isolated elements of constant cross
section and constant reinforcement along their axis, submitted to bending-compression.

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The columns must have slenderness index lesser than or equal to 200 (. 200). Only in the case of posts
with normal force lesser than 0.10 fcdAc, the slenderness index can be greater than 200.

15.8.2 Exemption from the analysis of local 2nd order effects

The local 2nd order stresses in isolated elements can be negligible when the slenderness index is lesser than
the limit value 1 established in this subsection.

The slenderness index must be calculated by the expression:

In the case of inlaid column at the base and free at the top, the value of e is equal to 2. In the other cases,
adopt the calculated values according to 15.6.

The value of 1 depends on diverse factors, but the predominant ones are:

- the relative 1st order eccentricity e1/h;

- the bonding of the extremes of the isolated column;

- the form of the 1st order moment diagrams.

The value of 1 can be calculated by the expression:

where:

where the value of b must be obtained as established in the following:

a) for bi-supported columns without transversal loads:

such that:

where:

MA and MB are the 1st order moments at the extremes of the column. The largest absolute value
must be adopted for MA along the bi-supported column and for MB the positive sign, if the same face is
submitted to traction as MA, and otherwise, negative.

b) for bi-supported columns with significant transversal loads along the height:

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c) for columns in overhang;

such that:

where:

MA is the 1st order moment in the inlay and Mc is the 1st order moment in the middle of the column in
overhang.

d) for bi-supported columns or in overhang with moments lesser than the minimum moment established in
11.3.3.4.3:

15.8.3 Determination of local 2nd order effects

15.8.3.1 Bar submitted to normal bending-compression

The calculation can be done through the general method or through approximate methods, in accordance
with 15.8.3.2 or 15.8.3.3.

The flow consideration is obligatory for > 90, where the portion corresponding to the eccentricity ecc defined
in 15.8.4 must be added to M1d.

15.8.3.2 General method

It consists of the non-linear 2nd order analysis carried out with adequate discretization of the bar,
consideration of the real moment-curvature ratio in each cross section, and consideration of the geometric
non-linearity in a non-approximate manner.

The general method is obligatory for > 140.

15.8.3.3 Approximate methods

15.8.3.3.1 Generalities

The determination of the local 2nd order stresses can be performed through approximate methods like that of
the standard column and that of the improved standard column.

15.8.3.3.2 Standard column method with approximate curvature

It can be employed only in the calculation of columns with 90, constant cross section and symmetric and
constant reinforcement along its axis.

The geometric non-linearity is considered in an approximate manner, where it is supposed that the
deformation of the bar is sine.

The physical non-linearity is considered through an approximate expression of curvature in the critical cross
section.

The total maximum moment in the column must be calculated through the expression:

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such that 1/r is the curvature in the critical cross section, which can be evaluated by the approximate
expression:

where:

where:

h is the height of the cross section in the considered direction;

is the adimensional normal force;

M1d,min has the meaning and the value established in 11.3.3.4.3

The moment M1d,A and the coefficient b have the same definitions in 15.8.2, such that M1d,A is the 1st order
calculation value of the moment MA.

15.8.3.3.3 Standard column method with approximate stiffness

It can be employed only in the calculation of columns with 90, constant rectangular cross section,
symmetric and constant reinforcement along its axis.

The geometric non-linearity must be considered in an approximate manner, where it is supposed that the
deformation of the bar is sine.

The physical non-linearity must be considered through an approximate expression of stiffness.

The total maximum moment in the column must be calculated from the increase of the 1st order moment by
the expression:

such that the adimensional stiffness value is given approximately by the expression:

The variables h, , M1d,A and b are the same ones defined in the previous subsection. Usually two or three
iterations are sufficient when an iterative calculation is opted.

15.8.3.3.4 Standard column method coupled to M, N, 1/r diagrams

The determination of the local 2nd order stresses in columns with 140 can be performed through the
standard column or improved standard column method, where the values obtained from M, N and 1/r
diagrams specific for the case are used for the critical cross section curvature.

If > 90, the consideration of the effects of flow, in accordance with 15.8.4, is obligatory.

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15.8.3.3.5 Standard column method for rectangular cross section columns submitted to oblique compound
bending

When the slenderness of a rectangular cross section column submitted to oblique compound bending is
lesser than 90 ( < 90) in the two main directions, the approximate process described in 15.8.3.3.3 can be
applied simultaneously in each one of the two directions.

The amplification of the 1st order moments in each direction is different, since it depends on distinct stiffness
and slenderness values.

Once the distribution of the total 1st and 2nd order moments is obtained, in each direction, it must be verified,
for each cross section along the axis, if the composition of these stressing moments is inside the covering of
resisting moments for the chosen reinforcement. This verification can be performed in only three cross
sections: at the extremities A and B and at an intermediate point where the moments Md,tot are admitted to
act concomitantly in the two directions (x and y).

15.8.4 Flow consideration

Flow consideration must obligatorily be performed in columns with slenderness index > 90 and it can be
carried out in an approximate manner, by considering the given additional eccentricity ecc that follows:

where:

ea is the eccentricity due to local imperfections, according to figure 11.2;

Msg and Nsg are the stressing strengths due to the almost permanent combination;

is the coefficient of flow;

Eci is according to 8.1;

Ic is in accordance with 4.2.3;

e is defined in 15.6.

The consideration of the 2nd order effect must be done according to 15.8.3, as if it were an immediate effect,
which is summed to the eccentricity e1.

15.9 Analysis of wall-columns

15.9.1 Generalities

So that the wall-columns may be included as linear elements in the resisting set of the structure, it must be
assured that its transversal cross section has its form maintained by adequate lockings in the diverse floors
and that the located 2nd order effects are conveniently evaluated.

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15.9.2 Exemption from analysis of the located 2nd order effects

The located 2nd order effects of wall-columns can be neglected if, for each one of the component sheets of
the wall-column, the following conditions are obeyed:

a) the base and the top of each sheet must be conveniently set on the slabs of the building, which confer to
all the horizontal diaphragm effect;

b) the slenderness i of each sheet must be lesser than 35, where the calculation of this slenderness i can
be carried out through the given expression that follows:

where, for each sheet:

ei is the equivalent length;

hi is the thickness.

The value of e depends on the bonds of each one of the vertical extremities of the sheet, according to figure
15.3.

Top Top

Base Base

Top Top

Base Base

Figure 15.3 Equivalent length e

If the top and the base are inlaid and 1, the values of i can be multiplied by 0.85.

15.9.3 Approximate process for consideration of the located 2nd order effect

In the simple or compound wall-columns, where the slenderness of each sheet that constitutes it is lesser
than 90, the approximate procedure described as follows can be adopted for a simple wall-column.

The located 2nd order effect must be considered through the decomposition of the wall-column in vertical
bands, of width ai, which must be analyzed as isolated columns, submitted to the stresses Ni and Myid,
where:

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where:

ai is the width of the band I;

Ni is the normal force in the band I, calculated from nd(x) according to figure 15.4;

M1d,min has the meaning and value established in 11.3.3.4.3;

Myid is the bending moment in the band I;

M1yd and h are defined in figure 15.4.

Top Top

Vertical
bands

a) Stressing strengths b) Approximate distribution of nominal


stresses nd(x) due to Nd and M1xd

Figure 15.4 Approximate evaluation of the located 2nd order effect

The located 2nd order effect on the band I is assimilated to the local 2nd order effect of the isolated column
equivalent to each one of these bands.

15.10 Lateral instability of beams


The safety to lateral instability of beams must be assured through appropriate procedures.

As the approximate procedure, the following conditions can be adopted, for concrete beams, with negative or
positive reinforcements, subject to lateral buckling:

where:

b is the width of the compressed zone;

h is the total height of the beam;

0 is the length of the compressed flange, measured between supports that assure lateral bracing;

fl is the coefficient that depends on the form of the beam (please see table 15.1).

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Table 15.1 Values of fl

Typology of the beam Values of fl

0.40

0.20

Where:
Compressed zone

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16 General dimensioning, verification and detailing principles


16.1 Objective
The objective of these three stages (dimensioning, verification and detailing), which are developed
immediately after the structural analysis, is to assure safety, in relation to the ultimate (ULS) and service
(SLS) limit states, the structures as a whole and each one of their parts.

This safety requires that the analytical conditions be observed, of the type:

Sd Rd

where it is imposed that the calculation stresses are lesser than the calculation resistances for all limit states
considered important for the structure in question.

This safety requires further that constructive rules be observed.

Besides a structural arrangement that assures safety to the assembly, rules such as those of minimum
dimensions must be applied for the definition of the forms, as well as the rules of detailing of the
reinforcements.

16.2 General principles

16.2.1 Generalities

These three project stages are oriented by the general principles established in 16.2.2 to 16.2.4.

16.2.2 Global and local view

These three stages must always be supported in a global view of the structure, even when a single mode is
detailed (region of connection between two structural elements).

This node must do its part for the safety of the assembly.

On the other hand, the detailing of a particular element must take into account that its performance depends
on local aspects that were not taken into account in the global analysis.

This is the case of the verification of the deflection of a beam, which must take into account stiffness lesser
than the average of the structure, as well as the loss of stiffness with the cracking.

This is the case even, when the ULS of a column side is verified, which must take into account local
construction errors and local 2nd order effects, which were not considered in the global analysis.

16.2.3 Safety in relation to the ULS

When a structure is dimensioned or is verified it is necessary to bear in mind if what is being verified
effectively are cross sections of the elements.

It is the safety of these cross sections that can, usually, be expressed analytically.

It is fundamental that this safety is extended to the rest of the elements through an adequate detailing.
Adequate detailing permits the seaming of parts of the same element, as well as elements that arrive at the
same node.

There are two types of detailing rules, namely: those of elements like slabs, beams, columns, etc., and those
for special regions where there are geometric or static singularities.

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In relation to the ULS, aside from assuring the adequate safety, that is, a sufficiently small probability of
destruction, it is necessary to assure a good ductility, so that an eventual destruction may occur in a
sufficiently warned manner, alerting the users.

16.2.4 Safety in relation to the SLS (performance in service)

In safety verification in relation to the SLS, analytical safety expression and constructive rules must also be
analogously satisfied.

The models to be used in this SLS verification are different from those used in the ULS. Besides that they
support smaller loads (of service), they have different stiffness, usually greater.

In order to assure the good performance of a structure in service, limitations of deflections, opening of
cracks, or vibrations must usually be observed, but also it is possible that it may be important to think in the
water-tightness, in the thermal and acoustic comfort, etc.

16.3 Project criteria


Basing on these general principles, this Norm establishes project criteria to be observed in the dimensioning
and detailing of each one of the structural elements and the connections that make viable the construction of
the structure as a whole.

In order to facilitate the application in the project, these criteria were organized into sections.

In section 17, relative to the dimensioning and the verification of linear elements, ULS as well as SLS criteria
are found, considering normal stresses (normal forces and bending moments) as well as tangential stresses
(shear forces and torsion).

It must be observed that these criteria are provided for the structural concrete, going from the reinforced
concrete to the prestressed concrete.

It must also be observed that the dimensioning of columns for centered load is not accepted.

This section also established minimum ductility criteria, including the minimum reinforcements.

In section 18, relative to the detailing of linear elements, minimum criteria are provided for the detailing of the
elements dimensioned according to section 17.

Criteria for the detailing of negative longitudinal and transversal reinforcements, as well as prestressing
reinforcements are included.

In section 19, relative to the dimensioning and the verification of slabs, criteria for ULS and SLS are found,
whether they are reinforced or prestressed.

These criteria cover the normal as well as tangential stresses, including the punch.

As it was required in section 17, the dimensioning of columns always with eccentric load, when not oblique,
the punch, in section 19, covers the corresponding cases of eccentric punch.

Only in particular cases the punch must be verified as centered.

In section 20, relative to the detailing of slabs, minimum criteria for the detailing of these structural elements
are gathered, dimensioned according to section 19, whether they are reinforced or prestressed slabs.

In section 21, relative to special regions, criteria are found for verification of the regions of singularity,
whether geometric or static.

Often these criteria establish only qualitative requirements to be observed in these regions.

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Section 22, relative to special elements, establishes only the evaluation of the most common special
elements and suggests the use of specialized bibliography for their dimensioning and detailing.

In section 23, relative to dynamic actions and fatigue, criteria are found to evaluate the damages generated
in the structures due to cyclic actions, to be considered in the SLS verification, and even criteria for
verification of fatigue ULS.

The verification of fatigue of the reinforcements is approached, from bending as well as from shear, as well
as concrete fatigue, whether to compression (in the bending or in the shear force) or to traction, especially in
the calculation of the portion of shear force supported only by the concrete, without reinforcement, Vc.

Section 24, relative to plain concrete, defines the structural elements that can be executed in plain concrete
and establishes the criteria to be observed in their verification.

16.4 Durability
So that the verified safety as described in 16.2.3 and 16.2.4 may subsist in the course of the entire useful life
planned for the structure, it is fundamental that durability requirements may be observed that limit the
deterioration of the structure provoked by aggression from the environment where it is introduced (please
see sections 6 and 7).

16.5 Case of cyclic loads


In the particular case of significant cyclic loads, as it happens in bridges and in viaducts in general, and also
in the bearing beams of rolling bridges, special attention must be given to the deleterious effects generated
by these loads.

In the verification of SLS, it must be taken into account that the cyclic loads provoke a greater microcracking
of the concrete, making the structural elements more deformable.

In the verification of ULS, it is necessary to verify the fatigue ULS.

The deleterious effect of cyclic load does not only make the structural elements more deformable, that is,
relatively damaged, but it can expand this damage, provoking rupture due to fatigue. Section 23 deals with
these two issues.

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17 Dimensioning and verification of linear elements


17.1 Specific symbols of this section
So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the
most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

The symbols presented in this section follow the same orientation set in section 4. This way, the subscript
symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

at Displacement of the bending moment diagram, parallel to the axis of the part, to substitute the effects
provoked by oblique cracking

bw Web width of a beam

c1 Distance between the axis of the longitudinal reinforcement of the corner and the lateral face of the
structural element

d Distance between the axis of the compressive reinforcement and the closest face of the element

he Real wall thickness for hollow cross sections or equivalent for full cross sections (studies as equivalent
hollow cross sections)

s Spacing between axes of the stirrups, measured according to the longitudinal axis of the part

ue Perimeter of Ae

A Full cross section area

A90 Transversal cross section area of the number of branches of a stirrup, contained in the equivalent wall

Ac,web Web transversal cross section area

Acri Bar covering concrete area i of the reinforcement

Ae Area limited by the middle line of the hollow, real or equivalent cross section wall, including the hollow
part

Ap Transversal cross section area of the resulting cable

As - Sum of the areas of the cross sections of the longitudinal torsion bars

Asw Transversal cross section area of the shear force stirrups

III Moment of inertia of cracked concrete cross section in stage II

Ic Moment of inertia of the brute concrete cross section

M0 Value of the bending moment that cancels the normal compression stress at the border of the cross
section (traction stressed by Md,max), provoked by the normal forces of diverse origins, concomitant with Vd

Md,min Minimum calculation bending moment that permits the calculation of the minimum traction
reinforcement (negative or positive)

MSd,eq Equivalent calculation stressing bending moment

NSd,eq Equivalent calculation stressing normal force

TRd Torsion calculation resisting moment

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TRd2 Torsion calculation resisting moment, which represents the resistance limit of the compressed
concrete diagonals

TRd3 Torsion calculation resisting moment, which represents the limit for the portion resisted by normal
stirrups at the axis of the part

TRd4 Torsion calculation resisting moment, which represents the limit for the portion resisted by longitudinal
bars

TSd Calculation stressing tensional moment

TSdi Portion of TSd to be resisted by each constituent rectangle of the cross section composed by
rectangles

Vc Portion of the shear force resisted by complementary mechanisms to the lattice model

Vc0 Reference value for Vc, when = 45

Vc1 Reference value for Vc, when 30 45

VRd Calculation resisting shear force

VRd1 Calculation resisting shear force, relative to elements without reinforcement for shear force

VRd2 Calculation resisting shear force, relative to the destruction of the compressed concrete diagonals

VRd3 Calculation resisting shear force, relative to the destruction due to diagonal traction

VSd Calculation stressing shear force

Vsw Portion of the shear force resisted by the transversal reinforcement

Coefficient function of s (defined in 17.2.5.1) and the type of transversal cross section analyzed
(rectangular or circular)

e Ratio between the modulus elasticity of the steel and the concrete

- Geometric rate of the adherent longitudinal reinforcement, at a distance of 2d from the face of the
support, considering the bars of the span effectively anchored on the support

min Minimum geometric rate of longitudinal reinforcement of beams and columns (As,min/Ac)

sw Geometric transversal reinforcement rate

Geometric compression longitudinal reinforcement rate

si Traction stress at the center of gravity of the considered reinforcement, calculated in stage II

p Stress variation in the prestressing steel between t0 and t

Td Calculation torsion shearing stress

As ,min f yd
min Minimum mechanical rate of longitudinal bending reinforcement for beams min =
Ac f cd

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17.2 Linear elements subject to normal stresses Ultimate limit state

17.2.1 Introduction

This section establishes criteria for the determination of the resisting stresses of the cross sections of beams
columns and supporting brackets, submitted to normal force and bending moments.

The dimensioning of the longitudinal reinforcements must lead to a set of resisting stresses (NRd, MRd) that
constitute cover of the stressing strengths (NSd, MSd) determined in the structural analysis (please see
sections 14 and 15).

For the calculation of the resisting stresses of T or L beams, the collaborating bed values defined in 14.6.2.2
can be adopted.

17.2.2 Basic hypotheses

In the analysis of the resisting stresses of a beam or column cross section, the following basic hypotheses
must be considered:

a) the transversal cross sections are maintained flat after deformation;

b) the deformation of the adherent negative bars or the increase of deformation of the adherent positive bars
under traction or compression must be the same as the concrete in its environment;

c) for non-adherent positive reinforcements, in the lack of adequate experimental values and non-linear
analyses, the values of the increase of the stresses for usual building structures are presented as follows,
which must even be divided by the proper weighted coefficients:

- for elements with useful span / height ratio equal to or lesser than 35;

f ck
p = 70 + , in megapascal, which cannot exceed 420 MPa
100 p

- for elements with useful span / height ration greater than 35:

f ck
p = 70 + , in megapascal, which cannot exceed 210 MPa
300 p

where:

where:

p and fck are data in megapascal;

p is the geometric rate of the positive reinforcement;

bc is the width of the compression bed;

dp is the useful height referred to the positive reinforcement.

d) the traction stresses in the concrete, normal to the transversal cross section, can be neglected, obligatorily
in the ULS;

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e) the distribution of stresses in the concrete is done in accordance with the parabola-rectangle diagram,
defined in 8.2.10, with peak stress equal to 0.85 fcd, with fcd defined in 12.3.3 This diagram can be substituted
by the rectangle of height 0.8 x (where x is the depth of the neutral line), with the following stress:

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- 0.85 fcd in the case of the width of the cross section, measured in parallel to the neutral line, which
does not reduce from this to the compressed border;

- otherwise, 0.80 fcd.

The differences of results obtained with these two diagrams are small and acceptable, without need of
additional coefficient of correction.

f) the stress in the reinforcements must be obtained from the stress- deformation diagrams, with calculation
values, defined in 8.3.6 and 8.4.5.

g) the ultimate limit state is characterized when the distribution of the deformations in the transversal cross
section pertains to one of the domains defined in figure 17.1.

Tensioning Shortening

Conventional rupture due to excessive plastic deformation:


- straight line a: uniform traction;
- domain 1: non-uniform traction, without compression;
- domain 2: simple or compound bending without compressive rupture of the concrete (c < 3.5% and with
the maximum permitted tensioning);

Conventional rupture due to limit shortening of the concrete:


- domain 3: simple (sub-reinforced cross section) or compound bending with compressive rupture of the
concrete and with steel drainage (s yd);
- domain 4: simple (sub-reinforced cross section ) compound bending with compressive rupture of the
concrete and traction stressed steel without drainage (s < yd);
- domain 4a: compound bending with compressed reinforcements;
- domain 5: non-uniform compression, without traction;
- straight line b: uniform compression.

Figure 17.1 Ultimate limit state domains of a transversal cross section

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17.2.3 Ductility in beams

In beams, mainly in the support zones, or when redistribution of stresses is performed, it is important to
assure good ductility conditions, where if needed, compressive reinforcement is adopted that assures the
adequate position of the neutral line (x), observing the limits of 14.6.4.3.

The introduction of the compression to assure the satisfaction of the smaller values of the position of the
neutral line (x), which are in the domains 2 or 3, does not lead to structural elements with fragile rupture
(usually called super-reinforced). The fragile rupture is associated to positions of the neutral line in domain 4,
with or without compressive reinforcement.

17.2.4 Positive and negative reinforcements

17.2.4.1 Generalities

The stresses in the reinforcements can be considered concentrated at the corresponding center of gravity, if
the distance from this center to the point of the farthest reinforcement cross section of the neutral line,
measured normally to this, is lesser than 10% of h.

The lateral reinforcements of beams can be considered in the calculation of the resisting stresses, as long as
they are conveniently anchored and joined.

17.2.4.2 Prestressing

17.2.4.2.1 Generalities

In the verification of the ULS only the prestressing hyperstatic stressing strengths must be considered,
besides the effect of other actions. The prestressing isostatics must be included.

The consideration of the positive reinforcements in the resisting stresses must be done from the stress-
deformation diagrams specified in 8.4.5 and of the consideration of their pretensionings.

These pretensionings must be calculated based on initial prestressing tensions with calculation values
(please see 11.7.1) and with the consideration of losses at the age t under analysis (please see 9.6.3).

17.2.4.3 Ultimate limit state in the act or prestressing

17.2.4.3.1 Generalities

Besides the basic hypotheses presented in 17.2.3, the following supplementary hypotheses must further be
observed:

a) it is considered as characteristic resistance of the concrete fckj that corresponding to the fictitious age j (in
days), at the act of prestressing, where the resistance of fckj must be clearly specified in the project;

b) for this verification, the following values are admitted for the weighted coefficients, with the loads that
effectively act on this occasion:

c = 1.2;

s = 1.15;

p = 1.0 at pre-traction;

p = 1.1 at post-traction;

f = 1.0 for unfavorable actions;

f = 0.9 for favorable actions.

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17.2.4.3.2 Simplified verification

It is admitted that safety in relation to the ultimate limit state at the act of prestressing is verified in stage I
(non-cracked concrete and linear elastic behavior of the materials), as long as the following conditions are
satisfied:

a) the maximum compression stress in the concrete cross section, obtained through weighted stresses of p
= 1.1 and f = 1.0 must not exceed 70% of the characteristic resistance fckj planned for the application age of
the prestressing [(17.2.4.3.1-a)];

b) the maximum traction stress of the concrete must not exceed 1.2 times the traction resistance fctm
corresponding to the specified value fckj;

c) when in the transversal cross sections there are traction stresses, there must be calculated traction
reinforcement in stage II. For effects of calculation, in this construction phase, the force in this reinforcement
can be considered equal to the result of the traction stresses in the concrete in stage I. This force must not
provoke, in the corresponding reinforcement, increases of stress greater than 150 MPa in the case of
smooth wires or bars and 250 MPa in ribbed bars.

17.2.5 Approximate processes for compound bending dimensioning

17.2.5.1 Normal bending-compression

The calculation for the dimensioning of rectangular or circular cross sections with symmetric reinforcement,
subject to normal bending-compression, in which the reduced normal force () is greater than or equal to 0.7,
it can be performed as a case of equivalent centered compression, where:

where:

such that the value is given by:

= -1/s, if s < 1, in rectangular cross sections;

= s, if 1 s 6, in rectangular cross sections;

= 6 if s > 6, in rectangular cross sections;

= -4, in circular cross sections;

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supposing all bars are the same, s is given by:

The adopted reinforcement arrangement for detailing (please see figure 17.2) must be faithful to the
presupposed values of s and d/h.

nh bars of
area Asi

nv bars of
area Asi

Figure 17.2 Reinforcement arrangement characterized by parameter s

17.2.5.2 Oblique compound bending

In situations of simple of oblique compound bending, the estimation given by the expression of interaction
can be adopted:

where:

MRd,x; MRd,y are the components of the calculation resisting moment in compound oblique bending,
according to the two main axes of inertia x and y, of the brute cross section, with a normal calculation
resisting stress NRd equal to the stressing normal NSd. These are the values that are desired to obtain;

MRd,xx; MRd,yy are the calculation resisting moments according to each one of the referred axes in
normal compound bending, with the same value of Nrd. These values are calculated from the arrangement
and the quantity of reinforcement under study;

is an exponent whose value depends on several factors, among them the value of the normal
force, the form of the cross section, the arrangement of the reinforcement and their percentages. Generally it
can be adopted = 1, in favor safety. In the case of rectangular cross sections, = 1.2 can be adopted.

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17.3 Linear elements subject to normal stresses Service limit states

17.3.1 Generalities

In the service limit states the structures partially work in stage I and partially in stage II. The separation
between these two parts is defined by the moment of cracking. This moment can be calculated by the
following approximate expression:

where:

= 1.2 for T or double T cross sections;

= 1.5 for rectangular cross sections;

where:

is the factor that correlates approximately the traction resistance in the bending with the direct
traction resistance;

yt is the distance from the center of gravity of the cross section to the most traction stressed fiber;

Ic is the moment of inertia of the brute concrete cross section;

fct is the direct traction resistance of the concrete, according to 8.2.5, with the appropriate quintile to
each particular verification. For determination of the moment of cracking fctk,inf must be used in the limit state
of crack formation and fct,m in the limit state of excessive deformation (please see 8.2.5).

In the case of use of positive reinforcements the prestressing effect must be considered in the calculation of
the moment of cracking.

17.3.2 Limit state of deformation

The verification of the limit values established in table 13.2 for the deformation of the structure, more
properly rotations and displacements in linear structural elements, analyzed separately and submitted to
combination of actions according to section 11, must be performed through models that consider the
effective stiffness of the cross sections of the structural element, that is, take into consideration the presence
of the reinforcement, the existence of cracks in the concrete along this reinforcement and the deformations
deferred in time.

The real deformation of the structure also depends on the constructive process, as well as on material
properties (mainly on the modulus of elasticity and traction resistance) at the time of its effective stress. In
face of the great variability of the cited parameters, there is a greater variability of real deformations. It
cannot be expected, therefore, great precision in the forecasts of displacements given by the prescribed
analytical processes that follow.

17.3.2.1 Approximate evaluation of deflection in beams

The behavior model of the structure can admit the concrete and the steel as materials of elastic and linear
behavior, so that the cross sections along the structural element can have the specific deformations
determined at stage I, as long as the stresses do not exceed those that start the cracking, and, otherwise, in
stage II.

The value of the secant modulus of elasticity Ecs defined in section 8 must be used in the calculation, where
the consideration of the effect of flow is obligatory.

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17.3.2.1.1 Immediate deflection in reinforced concrete beams

For an approximate evaluation of the immediate deflection in beams, the given equivalent stiffness
expression can be used as follows:

where:

Ic is the moment of inertia of the brute concrete cross section;

III is the moment of inertia of the cracked concrete cross section in stage II, calculated with
ES
e = ;
ECS

Ma is the bending moment in the critical cross section of the considered span, maximum moment in
the span for bi-supported or continuous beams and moment in the support for overhangs, for the
combination of actions considered in this evaluation;

Mr is the moment of cracking of the structural element, whose value must be reduced to half in the
case of use of smooth bars;

Ecs is the secant modulus of elasticity of the concrete.

17.3.2.1.2 Calculation of the deflection deferred in time for reinforced concrete beams

The deferred additional deflection, resulting from the long duration loads in function of the flow, can be
calculated in an approximate manner through the multiplication of the immediate deflection by the fact f
given by the expression:

where:

is function coefficient of time, which can be obtained directly in table 17.1 or can be calculated
through the following expressions:

to months

to months
Table 17.1 Values of coefficient in function of time
Time (t)
0 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 10 20 40 > 70
months
Coefficient
0 0.54 0.68 0.84 0.95 1.04 1.12 1.36 1.64 1.89 2
(t)

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such that:

t is the time, in months, when the value of the deferred deflection is desired;

t0 is the age, in months, relative to the date of application of the long duration load. In the case of
portions of long duration load are applied in different ages, the weighted value that follows can be taken for
t0:

where:

Pi represents the portions of load;

t0i is the age in which each portion Pi was applied, in months.

The value of the total deflection must be obtained multiplying the immediate deflection by (1 + f).

17.3.2.1.3 Deflection in beams with positive reinforcements

In structural elements with positive reinforcements it is sufficient to consider (EI)eq = EcsIc, as long as the limit
state of crack formation is not exceeded. Otherwise, the complete expression of 17.3.2.1.1 can be applied,
as long as III, Mr and Ma are calculated considering the structural concrete element submitted to the chosen
combination of actions, added from the represented prestressing as equivalent external action (generating
normal force and bending moment) (please see 11.3.3.5).

For consideration of the deformation deferred in time, it is sufficient to multiply the permanent portion of the
immediate deflection referred above by (1 + ), where is the coefficient of flow (please see 8.2.11).

17.3.3 Limit state of cracking

17.3.3.1 Generalities

This section defines the criteria for the verification of the limit values established in 13.4 for the opening of
cracks in the linear structural elements, analyzed separately and submitted to the combination of actions
according to section 11.

17.3.3.2 Control of cracking through the limitation of the estimated opening of the cracks

The value of the opening of cracks can suffer the influence of restrictions to volumetric variations of the
structure, which are difficult to be considered in this evaluation in a sufficiently accurate manner. Besides
this, this opening also suffers the influence of the execution conditions of the structure.

For these reasons, the criteria presented as follows must be tackled as acceptable evaluations of the general
behavior of the element, but do not assure accurate evaluation of the opening of a specific crack.

For each element or group of elements of the adherent negative and positive reinforcements (excluding the
prestressed cables that are inside the sheaths), which control the cracking of the structural element, an area
Acr of cover concrete must be considered, constituted by an rectangle whose sides do not have a distance of
more than 7.5 from the axis of the reinforcement bar (please figure 17.3).

NOTE It is convenient that the entire skin reinforcement i of the beam, in its traction stressed zone, limits
the opening of cracks in the corresponding region Acri, and that a spacing lesser than or equal to 15 is
maintained.

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Cover region of i
Neutral with area Acri
line

Traction stressed
skin reinforcement
of the beam

Figure 17.3 Cover concrete of the reinforcement

The characteristic value of the opening of cracks, wk, determined for each part of the cover region, is the
least among those obtained by the expressions that follow:

where:

si, i, Esi, ri are defined for each cover area under analysis;

Acri is the area of the cover region protected by the bar i;

Esi is the modulus of elasticity of the steel of the considered bar, of diameter i;

i is the diameter of the bar that protects the considered cover region;

ri is the adherent negative or positive reinforcement rate (which is not inside the sheath) in relation
to the area of the cover region (Acri);

si is the traction stress at the center of gravity of the considered reinforcement, calculated in stage II.

In the structural elements with prestressing, si is the increase of tensioning, at the center of gravity of the
reinforcement, between the limit state of decompression and the considered loading. It must be calculated in
stage II, considering the entire positive reinforcement, including that inside the sheaths.

The calculation in stage II (which admits linear behavior of the materials and disregards the traction
resistance of the concrete) can be done considering the ratio e between the modulus of elasticity of the steel
and the concrete equal to 15.

1 is the coefficient of surface conformation of the considered reinforcement, given in 9.3.2.1 for the negative
and substituted by p1, for the positive, according to 9.3.2.2.

In the usual beams, with height lesser than 1.2 m, the condition of opening of cracks in the entire traction
stressed skin can be considered satisfied, if the opening of cracks calculated in the region of the most
traction stressed bars is verified and if there is a lateral reinforcement that satisfies 17.3.5.2.3.

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17.3.3.3 Control of cracking without the verification of the opening of cracks

In order to be exempted from the evaluation of the magnitude of the opening of cracks and satisfy the limit
state of cracking (expected maximum openings of the order of 0.3 mm for the reinforced concrete and 0.2
mm for the concrete with positive reinforcements), a structural element must be dimensioned observing the
restrictions of table 17.2 with respect to the maximum diameter (max) ad the maximum spacing (Smax) of the
reinforcements, as well as the cover requirements (section 7) and minimum reinforcement (please see
17.3.5.2). The stress s must be determined in stage II.

Table 17.2 Maximum diameter and spacing values, with high adherence bars
Maximum values
Stress in the bar
Concrete without positive reinforcements Concrete with positive reinforcements
s max Smax max Smax
MPa mm cm mm cm
160 32 30 25 20
200 25 25 16 15
240 16 20 12.5 10
280 12.5 15 8 5
320 10 10 6 -
360 8 6 - -

17.3.4 Limit state of decompression and crack formation

In the structural elements where prestressing reinforcements are used, the safety verification may be
necessary in relation to the limit states of decompression and crack formation.

This verification can be performed by calculating the maximum traction stress of the concrete in stage I (non-
cracked concrete and linear elastic behavior of the materials).

In the lack of more accurate values, the following can be adopted:

e = 15 for the ratio between the modulus of elasticity of the steel and concrete with frequent or
almost permanent loads;

e = 10 for the ratio between the modulus of elasticity of the steel and the concrete with rare loads.

17.3.5 Maximum and minimum longitudinal reinforcements

17.3.5.1 Basic principles

The fragile rupture of transversal cross sections, at the formation of the first crack, must be avoided by
considering, for the calculation of the reinforcements, a minimum moment given by the value corresponding
to what the rupture of the plain concrete cross section would produce, supposing that the traction resistance
of the concrete is given by fctk,sup, which must also obey the conditions relative to the control of the opening of
cracks given in 17.3.3.

The specification of maximum values for the reinforcements results from the need of assuring ductility
conditions and of observing the field of validity of the tests that caused the working prescriptions of the steel-
concrete assembly.

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17.3.5.2 Limit values for longitudinal reinforcements of beams

17.3.5.2.1 Traction reinforcement

The minimum traction reinforcement, in reinforced or prestressed structural elements must be determined by
the dimensioning of the cross section to a minimum bending moment given by the expression that follows,
where the minimum absolute rate of 0.15% is observed:

where:

W0 is the modulus of resistance of the brute concrete transversal cross section, relative to the most
traction stressed fiber;

fctk,sup is the upper characteristic traction resistance of the concrete (please see 8.2.5).

The dimensioning for Md,min can be considered satisfied if the minimum reinforcement rates of table 17.3 are
observed.

Table 17.3 Minimum bending reinforcement rates for beams


Values of min 1) (As,min/Ac)
Form of the
%
cross
fck
section 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
min
Rectangular 0.035 0.150 0.150 0.173 0.201 0.230 0.259 0.288
T
(compresse 0.024 0.150 0.150 0.150 0.10 0.158 0.177 0.197
d bed)
T
(traction
0.031 0.150 0.150 0.153 0.178 0.204 0.229 0.255
stressed
bed)
Circular 0.070 0.230 0.288 0.345 0.403 0.460 0.518 0.575
1)
The values of min established in this table presuppose the use of steel CA-50, c = 1.4 and s = 1.15. In case these
factors are different, min must be recalculated based on the given value of min.
NOTE In the T type cross sections, the area of the cross section to be considered must be characterized by the web
increased from the collaborating bed.

In superdimensioned structural elements, reinforcement lesser than the minimum can be used, with value
obtained form the a bending moment equal to twice of Md. In this case, the determination of the stressing
strengths must consider rigorously all possible load combinations, as well as the effects of temperature,
deferred deformations and supporting pressures. Special care must even be obtained with the diameter and
spacing of the reinforcements of cracking limitation.

17.3.5.2.2 Minimum values for the traction reinforcement under imposed deformations

In structural elements where the control of cracking is indispensable for reasons of water-tightness or
aesthetics, in the lack of a more rigorous method of evaluation of the stresses generated by the restriction of
imposed deformations and as long as technological measures are taken that restrict these stresses, the
minimum traction reinforcement for control of cracking can be calculated by the ratio:

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where:

As is the reinforcement area in the traction stressed zone;

Act is the concrete area in the traction stressed zone;

s is the maximum permitted stress in the reinforcement immediately after crack formation. A value
lower than the drainage resistance may be necessary to satisfy the crack opening limits (please see table
17.2);

fct,ef is the effective average traction resistance of the concrete at the instance in which the first
cracks are formed. In many cases such as whose in which the imposed predominant deformations result
from hydration heat dissipation this can occur at age between 1 d and 5 d after molding, which depends on
the environment conditions, the form of the structural element, the nature of the forms and the type of
cement used. Values of fct,ef can be obtained with aid of the equations of 8.2.5, adopting the concrete
compressive resistance at the age in which the occurrence of the cracking is supposed. When this age
cannot be defined with reliable value, it is recommended to adopt minimum traction resistance value equal to
3 MPa.

is a coefficient that considers the traction stress generation mechanisms;

a) in the case of intrinsic imposed deformations;

- in the general case of cross section form: k = 0.8;

- in rectangular cross sections: k = 0.8 for h 0.3 m

k = 0.5 for h 0.8 m

interpolate linearly the values of k to values of h between 0.3 m and


0.8 m;

b) in the case of extrinsic imposed deformations: k = 1.0.

c is a coefficient that considers the nature of the distribution of stresses in the cross section, immediately
before the cracking, with the following values;

- c = 1.0 for pure traction;

- c = 0.4 for simple bending;

- c = 0.4 for ribs of prestressed structural elements or under compound bending, in hollow cross
sections (cellular or box);

- c = 0.8 for the traction stressed bed of the prestressed structural elements or under compound
bending, in hollow cross sections (cellular or box);

- the value of c can be interpolated between 0.4 (corresponding to the case of simple bending) and
zero, when the height of the traction stressed zone, calculated in stage II under the stresses that lead to the
start of cracking, does not exceed the least of the two values: h/2 and 0.5 m.

17.3.5.2.3 Skin reinforcement

The minimum lateral reinforcement must be 0.10% Ac,web on each face of the beam web and composed by
high adherence bars (1 2.25) with spacing not greater than 20 cm, where what is disposed in 17.3.3.2 is
observed.

In beams with height equal to or lesser than 60 cm, the use of skin reinforcement can be disregarded.

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17.3.5.2.4 Traction and compression reinforcements

The sum of the traction and compression reinforcements (As + As) must not have value greater than 4% Ac,
calculated in the region outside of the joint zone.

17.3.5.3 Limit values for longitudinal reinforcements of columns

17.3.5.3.1 Minimum values

The minimum longitudinal reinforcement must be:

17.3.5.3.2 Maximum values

The largest possible reinforcement in columns must be 8% of the real cross section, considering even the
overlapping of existing reinforcement in joint regions, where what is disposed in 18.4.2.2 is observed.

17.4 Linear elements subject to shear force Ultimate limit state

17.4.1 Basic hypotheses

The prescriptions that are followed are applied to reinforced or prestressed linear elements, submitted to
shear forces, eventually combined with other stressing strengths.

They are not applied to elements of volume, slabs, wall-beams and short brackets, which are treated in other
sections of this Norm.

The conditions set by this Norm for linear elements admit two calculation models that presuppose the
analogy with lattice model, parallel chord members, associated to complementary resisting mechanisms
developed inside the structural element and translated by an additional component Vc.

17.4.1.1 General conditions

17.4.1.1.1 All linear elements submitted to shear force, at the exception of the cases indicated in 17.4.1.1.2,
must contain minimum transversal reinforcement constituted by stirrups, with geometric rate:

where:

Asw is the area of transversal cross section of the stirrups;

s is the spacing of the stirrups, measured according to the longitudinal axis of the structural element;

is the inclination of stirrups in relation to the longitudinal axis of the structural element;

bw is average web width, measured along the useful height of the cross section, where the restriction
indicated in (17.4.1.1.2) is observed;

fywk is the drainage resistance of the transversal reinforcement steel;

fct,m is given in 8.2.5.

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17.4.1.1.2 The following are exception to the previous subsection:

a) the linear structural elements with bw > 5 d (where d is the useful height of the cross section), case that
must be treated as slab (please see 19.4);

b) the ribs of ribbed slabs, described in 13.2.4.2-a) and b), can also be verified as slabs. In this case the sum
of the widths of the ribs in the considered section must be taken as basis, where the transversal
reinforcement can be disregarded, when what is disposed in 19.4.1 is satisfied;

c) the linear foundation columns and elements submitted predominantly to compression, which satisfy
simultaneously, in the most unfavorable combination of the actions in ultimate limit state, where the cross
section in stage I is calculated according to the following conditions:

- the stress fctk must not be exceeded at any point;

- VSd Vc, where Vc is defined in 17.4.2.2.

In this case, the minimum transversal reinforcement is that defined in section 18.

17.4.1.1.3 The transversal reinforcement (Asw) can be constituted by stirrups (closed in the support region of
the diagonals, covering the longitudinal reinforcement) or through the composition of stirrups and bent bars;
while, when bent bars are used, these must not support more than 60% of the total stress resisted by the
reinforcement.

17.4.1.1.4 Welded vertical bars combined with closed stirrups can be used, maintained at resisting
proportion established in 17.4.1.1.3, when these bars are anchored in accordance with 9.4.6.2. However,
when these bars are not combined with stirrups, in the proportion indicated in 17.4.1.1.3, the welded
longitudinal elements must obligatorily constitute the totality of the longitudinal traction reinforcement.

17.4.1.1.5 The angle of inclination of the transversal reinforcements in relation to the longitudinal axis of
the structural element must be situated at the interval 45 90.

17.4.1.1.6 The maximum and minimum spacings between reinforcement elements must comply with the
requirements of section 18.

17.4.1.2 Conditions relative to the stressing strengths

17.4.1.2.1 Loads close to the supports

For the calculation of the transversal reinforcement, in the case of direct support (if the load and the
supporting reaction are applied in opposite faces of the structural element, by compressing it), the following
prescriptions are valid:

a) the shear force originating from distributed load can be considered, in the section between the support
and the cross section situated at a distance d/2 from the support face, constant and equal to that of this
cross section;

b) the shear force due to a concentrated load applied at a distance a 2d from the theoretical axis of the
support can, in this section of length a, be reduced by multiplying it by a/(2d). However, this reduction is not
applied to the shear forces coming from the inclined prestressing cables.

The reductions indicated in this section are not applied to the verification of diagonal compressive resistance
of the concrete. In the case of indirect supports, these reductions are not also permitted.

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17.4.1.2.2 Effect of the tangential component of the prestressing force

In the value of VSd the projection effect of the prestressing force in its direction must be considered, with the
calculation value corresponding to the considered time t. However, when this effect is favorable, the
longitudinal traction reinforcement along with the bending traction stressed face must satisfy the condition:

17.4.1.2.3 Structural elements with variable height

The shear force that is resisted by the web of the beams of variable height can be evaluated by:

where:

VSd,red is the reduced shear force, considering the variable height effect;

c is the angle between the compression chord member and the longitudinal axis of the structural
element;

t is the angle between the traction reinforcement and the longitudinal axis of the structural element;

is the angle of inclination of the compression coupling rods considered in the shear force
dimensioning;

z is the lever arm of the internal resulting forces.

The signs of c and t must be obtained considering the direction of the final bending compression and
traction forces with the concomitant shear force.

The expression above considers the reduction of the compression force in bending when there is
concomitant shear force.

17.4.2 Verification of the ultimate limit state

17.4.2.1 Resistance calculation

The resistance of the structural element, in a determined transversal cross section, must be considered
satisfactory when the following conditions are verified simultaneously:

where:

VSd is the calculation stressing shear force, in the cross section;

VRd2 is the calculation resisting shear force, relative to the destruction of the compressed concrete
diagonals, in accordance with the process indicated in 17.4.2.2 or 17.4.2.3;

VRd3 = Vc + Vsw, is the calculation resisting shear force, relative to destruction due to diagonal traction,
where Vc is the portion of shear force absorbed by mechanisms complementary to that of the lattice and Vsw
is the portion resisted by the transversal reinforcement, in accordance with the process indicated in 17.4.2.2
or 17.4.2.3.

In the region of the supports, the calculations must consider the shear forces acting in the respective faces,
taking into account the reductions prescribed in 17.4.1.2.1.
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17.4.2.2 Calculation model I

Model I admits inclined compression diagonal of = 45 in relation to the longitudinal axis of the structural
element and admits even the complementary portion Vc to have constant value, regardless of VSd.

a) verification of the diagonal compression of the concrete:

where:

b) calculation of the transversal reinforcement:

where:

Vc = 0 in the traction stressed structural elements when the neutral line is situated outside the cross
section;

Vc = Vc0 in simple bending and in bending-traction with the neutral line cutting the cross section;

Vc = Vc0 (1 + M0 / MSd,max) 2 Vc0 in the bending-compression

where:

bw is the shorter width of the cross section, included along the useful height d; however in the case of
prestressed structural elements, when there are injected sheaths with diameter > bw / 8, the resisting width
to consider must be (bw 1/2), in the position of the web in which this difference may be more
unfavorable, at the exception of the level that defines the traction stressed chord member of the beam;

d is the useful height of the cross section, equal to the distance from the compressed border to the
center of gravity of the traction reinforcement; however in the case of prestressed structural elements with
cables distributed along the height, d does not need to be taken with value lesser than 0.8h, as long as there
is reinforcement along with the traction stressed face in order to satisfy 17.4.1.2.2;

s is the spacing between the elements of the transversal reinforcement Asw, measured according to
the longitudinal axis of the structural element;

fywd is the stress in the negative transversal reinforcement, limited to the value fyd in the case of
stirrups and at 70% of this value in the case of bent bars, where, for both cases, the values greater than 435
MPa are not taken; however, in the case of positive transversal reinforcement, the stress increase due to the
shear force cannot exceed the difference between fpyd and the prestressing strength, or cannot be greater
than 435 MPa;

is the angle of inclination of the transversal reinforcement in relation the longitudinal axis of the
structural element, where 45 90 can be taken;

M0 is the value of the bending moment that cancels the normal compression stress on the border of
the cross section (traction stressed by Md,max), provoked by normal forces of diver origins concomitant with

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VSd, where this stress is calculated with values of f and p equal to 1.0 and 0.9 respectively; the moments
corresponding to these normal forces must not be considered in the calculation of this stress since they are
considered in MSd; only prestressing isostatic moments must be considered;

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MSd,max is the calculation bending moment, maximum in the section under analysis, which can be
taken as that of the largest value in the considered semi-span (for this calculation the prestressing isostatic
moments are not considered, only the hyperstatic moments);

c) force diagram offset in the traction stressed chord member:

When the longitudinal traction reinforcement is determined through the equilibrium of the stresses in the
normal cross section to the axis of the structural element, the effects provoked by the oblique cracking can
be substituted in the calculation for the force diagram offset in the traction stressed chord member, given by
the expression:

where:

at 0.5d, in the general case;

at 0.2d, for inclined stirrups at 45.

This offset can be substituted, approximately, by the corresponding offset of the bending moment diagram.

The force diagram offset in the traction stressed chord member can also be obtained simply by increasing
the traction force, in each cross section, through the expression:

17.4.2.3 Calculation model II

Model II admits inclined compression diagonals of in relation to the longitudinal axis of the structural
element, with freely variable between 30 and 45. It further admits that the complementary portion Vc
suffers reduction with the increase of VSd.

a) verification of the diagonal compression of the concrete:

with v2 = (1- fck /250) and fck, in megapascal.

b) calculation of the transversal reinforcement:

where:

Vc = 0, in traction stressed structural elements when the neutral line is situated outside the cross
section;

Vc = Vc1, in the simple bending and in the bending-traction with the neutral line cutting the cross
section;

Vc = Vc1 (1 + M0 / MSd,max) < 2Vc1 in the bending-compression, with:

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Vc1 = Vc0 where VSd Vc0

Vc1 = 0 when VSd = VRd2, by interpolating linearly for intermediate values.

The notation and the limitations defined in 17.4.2.2 are maintained.

c) displacement of the bending moment diagram:

If the conditions established in 17.4.2.2-c) are maintained, the displacement of the bending moment diagram,
by applying the process described in this section, must be:

where

a 0.5d, in the general case;

a 0.2d, for inclined stirrups at 45.

The alternative given in 17.4.2.2-c) remains valid for model II.

17.5 Linear elements subject to torsion Ultimate limit state

17.5.1 Uniform torsion

17.5.1.1 Generalities

The conditions set by this Norm presuppose a resisting model constituted by spatial lattice, defined from a
structural element of hollow cross section equivalent structural element to dimension.

The compression diagonals of this lattice, formed by concrete elements, have inclination that can be
arbitrated by the project at interval 30 45.

17.5.1.2 General conditions

Whenever the torsion is needed for the equilibrium of the structural element, there must be reinforcement
intended to resist the traction stresses originating from the torsion. This reinforcement must be constituted by
normal vertical stirrups to the axis of the structural element and longitudinal bars distributed along the
perimeter of the resisting cross section, calculated in accordance with the prescriptions of this section and
with minimum geometric rate give by the expression:

When the torsion is not needed for equilibrium, in case of compatibility torsion, it is possible to neglect it, as
long as the structural element has the adequate plastic adaptation capacity and that all other stresses are
calculated without considering the effects provoked by it. In regions where the length of the element subject
to the torsion is lesser than or equal to 2 h, in order to assure a reasonable level of plastic adaptation
capacity, the minimum torsion reinforcement must be observed and the shear force must be limited, such
that: VSd 0.7 VRd2.

17.5.1.3 Structural element resistance Pure torsion

The structural element resistance, in a given cross section, is admitted to be satisfied, when the following
conditions are simultaneously verified:

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where:

TRd,2 represents the line given by the resistance of the compressed diagonals of the concrete;

TRd,3 represents the line defined by the portion resisted by the normal stirrups to the axis of the
structural element;

TRd,4 represents the line defined by the portion resisted by the longitudinal bars, parallel to the axis of
the structural element.

17.5.1.4 Resisting cross section geometry

17.5.1.4.1 Full convex polygonal cross sections

The equivalent hollow cross section is defined from the full cross section with equivalent wall thickness he
given by:

where:

A is the full cross section area;

u is the full cross section perimeter;

c1 is the distance between the axis of the longitudinal bar of the corner and the lateral face of the
structural element.

17.5.1.4.2 Cross section composed of rectangles

The total torsion moment must be distributed among the rectangles according to their linear elastic stiffness.
Each rectangle must be verified separately with the equivalent hollow cross section defined in 17.5.1.4.1.
Thus, the torsion moment that is fitting to the rectangle i (TSdi) is given by:

where:

a is the smaller side of the rectangle;

b is the larger side of the rectangle.

17.5.1.4.3 Hollow cross sections

The smaller wall thickness must be considered between:

- the real thickness of the wall;

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- the calculated equivalent thickness supposing the full cross section of the same external outline
of the hollow cross section.

17.5.1.5 Verification of the diagonal compression of the concrete

The resistance resulting from the compressed concrete diagonals must be obtained by:

where:

v2 = 1 - fck / 250, with fck in megapascal.

where:

is the angle of inclination of the concrete diagonals, arbitrated at the interval 30 45;

Ae is the area limited by the middle line of the hollow cross section wall, real or equivalent, including
the hollow part;

he is the equivalent thickness of the hollow cross section wall, real or equivalent, at the considered
point.

17.5.1.6 Reinforcement calculation

The reinforcements contained in the area corresponding the equivalent wall must be considered effective,
when:

a) the resistance resulting from the normal stirrups to the axis of the structural element satisfies the
expression:

where:

fywd is the calculation value of the drainage resistance of the negative reinforcement steel, limited to
435 MPa;

b) the resistance resulting from the longitudinal reinforcements satisfies the expression:

where:

As is the sum of the areas of the cross sections of the longitudinal bars;

ue is the perimeter of Ae.

The longitudinal torsion reinforcement, of the total area As, may have distributed or concentrated
arrangement, where the ratio As/u is obligatorily kept constant, where u is the perimeter section, of the
effective cross section, corresponding to each bar or bundle of bars of area As.

In the polygonal cross sections, in each vertex of the torsion stirrups, at least one longitudinal bar must be
placed.

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17.5.2 Torsion in open thin wall profiles

17.5.2.1 Generalities

When the structural element under torsion could be assimilated to an open thin wall profile, the project must
also contemplate, besides the uniform torsion, the bending-torsion effects.

17.5.2.2 General considerations

In general case, uniform torsion and bending-torsion are manifested in a compatible manner, dividing
variably among them the external load along the structural element. Considering the good plastic adaptation
capacity of the structural elements to the torsion, it is permitted to disregard one of these mechanisms, as
long as the one considered does not have stiffness lesser than the one disregarded.

The stiffness values must be calculated considering the cracking effects, where 0.15 of elastic stiffness in the
case of uniform torsion and 0.50 in the case of bending-torsion can be adopted.

17.5.2.3 Bending-torsion stiffness

In the lack of more accurate calculation, when the profile has parallel or approximately parallel opposite walls
(case of profiles I, C, Z, U and alike), which can resist through differentiated bending the bending-torsion
stress, the structural stiffness of this profile, measured for example by the coefficient of spring in kilonewtons
meter per radian (kNm/rad), can be calculated through the expression (please see figure 17.4):

where:

where:

T is the external moment that provokes torsion, supposedly applied in the middle of the span;

z is the distance between the axes of walls 1 and 2;

is the cross section rotation, provoked by the differentiated bending of the opposite walls 1 and 2;

a1 is the deflection provoked by the bending of wall 1 under action of the force F = T/z;

a2 is the deflection provoked by the bending of wall 2 under action of the force F = T/z in opposite
direction to what is applied to wall 1.

In the calculation of deflections a1 and a2, half of the elastic stiffness of the walls must be considered.

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where:

bt is the collaboration width associated to each wall, according to 14.6.2.2.

Figure 17.4 Profile bending-torsion with opposite walls

17.5.2.4 Bending-torsion resistance

The bending-torsion resistance of the entire structural element can be calculated from the bending
resistance of the opposite walls, through the following expression:

where:

where:

FRd is the transversal force that breaks down the resistance of the isolated wall, without the torsion
effect;

FSd is the portion of the total transversal force applied to the structural element, which is fitting to the
isolated wall, without the torsion effect.

The value FRd,min is the least between the two considered walls.

17.6 Limit state of inclined web cracking Shear force and torsion
Usually it is not necessary to verify the diagonal web cracking of the structural concrete elements. In special
cases, where this is considered important, the spacing of the transversal reinforcement must be limited to 15
cm.

17.7 Combined stresses

17.7.1 Bending and torsion

17.7.1.1 Generalities

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In the structural elements submitted to torsion and to simple or compound bending, the verifications can be
carried out separately for the torsion and for the normal stresses, where the prescriptions of 17.7.1.2 to
17.7.1.4 must complementarily be fulfilled.

17.7.1.2 Longitudinal reinforcement

In the zone traction stressed by bending, the torsion reinforcement must be added to the reinforcement
needed for normal stresses, considering in each cross section the strengths that act concomitantly.

17.7.1.3 Longitudinal reinforcement in the bending compressed chord member

In the chord member compressed by bending, the longitudinal torsion reinforcement can be reduced in
function of the compression strengths that act in the effective thickness h and in the section of length u
corresponding to the considered bar or bundle of bars.

17.7.1.4 Compressed chord member resistance

In the cross sections where the torsion acts simultaneously with intense normal stresses, which reduce
excessively the depth of the neutral line, particularly in cellular cross sectional beams, the calculation value
of the main compression stress must not exceed the value 0.85 fcd.

This main stress must be calculated as in the a plane state of stresses, from the average normal stress that
acts in the bending compressed chord member and the tangential torsion stress calculated by:

17.7.2 Torsion and shear force

17.7.2.1 Generalities

In the combination of torsion with shear force, the project must plan angles of inclination of the coinciding
concrete coupling rods for the two stresses.

When model I (please see 17.4.2.2) is used for shear force, which presumes = 45, this must also be the
considered value for the torsion.

17.7.2.2 The diagonal compression resistance of the concrete must be satisfied complying with the
expression:

where:

VSd and TSd are the calculation stresses that act concomitantly in the cross section.

17.7.2.3 The transversal reinforcement can be calculated through the sum of the reinforcements calculated
separately for VSd and TSd.

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18 Detailing of linear elements


18.1 Specific symbols of this section
So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the
most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

The symbols presented in this section follow the same orientation set in section 4. This way, the subscript
symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

a - Displacement of the bending moment diagram, parallel to the axis of the part, in order to substitute the
effects provoked by oblique cracking

r Inner radius of curvature of he hook

st,max Maximum transversal spacing between successive reinforcement branches constituted by stirrups

As,support Transversal cross section area of needed longitudinal reinforcement along with the structural
element support

As - Sum of the areas of the cross sections of longitudinal torsion bars

As,span Transversal cross section area of longitudinal traction reinforcement in the span

Msupport Bending moment in the support

Mspan Maximum positive bending moment in the span

RSd Calculation traction force in the reinforcement

VRd2 Calculation resisting shear force, relative to the destruction of compressed concrete diagonals

18.2 General dispositions relative to the reinforcements

18.2.1 Arrangement of Reinforcements

The arrangement of reinforcements must comply not only with its structural function but also with adequate
execution conditions, particularly with relation to concrete placement and densification.

The spaces must be designed for the introduction of the vibrator and so as to impede the segregation of the
aggregates and the occurrence of empty spaces inside the structural element.

18.2.2 Curved bars

The inner diameter of curvature of a bent longitudinal reinforcement bar, in order to resist the shear force or
in portico node, must not be lesser than 10 for steel CA-25, 15 for CA-50 and 18 for CA-60.

If the stress in the traction reinforcement, determined with the calculation stress, is lesser than the calculation
drainage stress, fyd, these diameters of curvature can be reduced proportionally, but never to values lower
than those required for the hooks.

If there are curved traction bars in the same plane and the spacing between them is lesser than twice the
permitted minimum (18.3.2.2), the minimum diameter of curvature value established in this section must be
multiplied by the number of bars in these condition.

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When there is a possibility of concrete cracking in the bent bar plane, occasioned by normal traction stresses
to this plane, transversal reinforcement must be placed or the diameter of curvature of the bar must be
increased.

18.2.3 Reinforcement direction changes

When there is tendency towards traction stressed bar rectification in regions where the resistance to these
displacements is provided by insufficient concrete cover, the permanence of the bar in its position must be
assured by means of conveniently distributed stirrups or clips. Preference must be given to the substitution
of the bar for another two extended bars, besides their crossing and anchored according to section 9 (please
see figure 18.1).

Wrong Correct

Figure 18.1 Reinforcement direction change

18.2.4 Protection against buckling of bars

Whenever there is possibility of buckling of the reinforcement bars, situated along the structural element
surface, precautions must be taken in order to avoid it.

The polygonal stirrups assure against the buckling of longitudinal bars situated at their corners and those
covered by them, situated at a maximum at a distance of 20 t from the corner, if in this section of length 20
t there is no more than two bars, not counting that of the corner. When there are more than two bars in this
section or bar outside of it, there must be supplementary stirrups.

If the supplementary stirrup is constituted by a straight bar, ended in hooks, it must cross the cross section of
the structural element and its hooks must cover the longitudinal bar. If there are more than one longitudinal
bar to be protected along the same extremity of the supplementary stirrup, its hooks must cover a main
stirrup at a point along one of the bars, which must be indicated in the project in well highlighted manner
(please see figure 18.2).

Figure 18.2 Protection against buckling of bars

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In the case of curvilinear stirrups whose concavity is directed towards the concrete interior, there is no need
for supplementary stirrups. If the cross sections of longitudinal bars are situated in a curve of concavity
directed outwards the concrete, each longitudinal bar must be anchored through the hook of a straight stirrup
or through the corner of a polygonal stirrup.

18.3 Beams

18.3.1 Generalities

The prescriptions that follow refer to isostatic beams with ratio /h 3.0 and the continuous beams with ratio
/h 2.0, where is the length of the theoretical span (or twice the theoretical length, in the case of
overhand) and h is the total height of the beam.

Beams with smaller ratios /h must be treated as wall-beams, in accordance with section 22.

18.3.2 Longitudinal reinforcement

18.3.2.1 Minimum quantity

The minimum quantity of bending reinforcement must be calculated in accordance with 17.3.5.

18.3.2.2 Transversal distribution

The free minimum spacing between the faces of longitudinal bars, measured at the plane of the transversal
cross section, must be equal to or greater than the largest of the following values:

a) at the horizontal direction (ah):

- 20 mm;

- diameter of the bar, bundle or glove;

- 1.2 times the characteristic maximum dimension of the full grained aggregate.

b) at the vertical direction (av);

- 20 mm;

- diameter of the bar, bundle or glove;

- 0.5 times the characteristic maximum dimension of the full grained aggregate.

For bundles of bars the bundle diameter must be considered: n = n .

These values are also applied to the regions of joints due to transfer of bars.

In any case what is disposed in 18.2.1 must be observed.

18.3.2.3 Longitudinal distribution

18.3.2.3.1 Traction reinforcements in simple bending, anchored by adherence

The section of the extremity of the traction bar, considered as of anchorage, starts at the theoretical cross
section where its stress s begins to reduce (the reinforcement strength begins to be transferred to the
concrete). It must be extended at least 10 beyond the theoretical null stress s point, where in no case, it
can be lesser than the needed length stipulated in 9.4.2.5. Thus, in the longitudinal traction reinforcement of
structural elements stressed by simple bending, the anchorage section of the bar must start at point A (figure
18.3) of the force diagram RSd = MSd/z offset from the length a, according to 17.4.2. This diagram is
equivalent to the corrected force diagram RSd,corr. If the bar is not bent, the anchorage section must be
extended beyond B, at a minimum of 10 .
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If the bar is bent, the start of the bending can coincide with point B (please see Figure 18.3).
please see 9.4.2.5

Force diagram of
stressing traction
RSd,cor

Force diagram of
resisting traction

Figure 18.3 Covering of the stressing traction force diagram by the resisting diagram

At intermediate points between A and B, the linearized resisting diagram must cover the stressing diagram
(please see Figure 18.3).

If point A is on the face of the support or beyond it and the force RSd reduces in direction towards the center
of support, the anchorage section must be measured from this face and must obey what is disposed in
18.3.2.4-b).

18.3.2.3.2 Case of accommodated bars in beds

For accommodated bars in beds or slabs, and that form part of the beam reinforcement, the point of
interruption of the bar is obtained through the same previous process, considering further an additional
length equal to the distance from the bar to the closest face of the web.

18.3.2.4 Traction reinforcement in the support cross sections

The traction stresses along with the supports of simple or continuous beams must be resisted by longitudinal
reinforcements that satisfy the severest of the following conditions:

a) in the case of occurrence of positive moments, the reinforcements obtained through cross section
dimensioning;

b) in extreme support, in order to assure anchorage of the compression diagonal, reinforcements capable of
resisting a traction force RSd = (a/d) Vd + Nd, where Vd is the shear force in the support and Nd is the
eventually existing traction force;

c) in extreme and intermediate supports, through extension of a part of the traction reinforcement of the span
(As,span), corresponding to the maximum positive moment of the span (Mspan), such that:

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- As,support 1/3 (As,span) if Msupport is null or negative and of absolute value |Msupport| 0.5 Mspan;

- As,support 1/4 (As,span) if Msupport is negative and of absolute value |Msupport| 0.5 Mspan.

18.3.2.4.1 Anchorage of traction reinforcement on the support

When it deals with the case of 18.3.2.4-a), the anchorages must obey the criteria of figure 18.3.

For the cases of 18.3.2.4-b) and c), in extreme supports, the reinforcement bars must be anchored from the
face of the support, with lengths equal to or greater than the largest of the following values:

- b,nec, according to 9.4.2.5;

- (r + 5.5 );

- 60 mm.

When there is bar cover at the section of the hook, measured normally at the plane of the hook, of at least 70
mm, and the accidental actions do not occur with large frequency with its maximum value, the first of the
three previous values can be disregarded, where the other two conditions prevail.

For the cases of 18.3.2.4-b) and c), in intermediate supports, the anchorage length can be equal to 10 , as
long as there is no possibility of occurrence of positive moments in this region, provoked by unforeseen
situations, particularly due to effects of wind and eventual pressures. When this possibility exists, the bars
must be continuous or joined on the support.

18.3.3 Transversal reinforcement for shear force

18.3.3.1 Generalities

The reinforcements intended to resist traction stresses provoked by shear forces can be constituted by
stirrups, combined or not with bent bars or welded bars, and must be designed in accordance with the
prescriptions of 17.4.

18.3.3.2 Reinforced structural elements with stirrups

The stirrups for shear forces must be closed through a horizontal branch, covering the bars of longitudinal
traction reinforcement, and anchored on the opposite face. When this face can also be traction stressed, the
stirrup must have the horizontal branch in this region, or complemented by means of additional bar.

The diameter of the bar that constitutes the stirrup must be greater than or equal to 5 mm, without exceeding
1/10 of the width of the beam web. When the bar is smooth, its diameter cannot be greater than 12 mm. In
the case of stirrups formed by welded screens, the minimum diameter can be reduced to 4.2 mm, as long as
precautions are taken against the corrosion of this reinforcement.

The minimum spacing between stirrups, measured according to the longitudinal axis of the structural
element, must be sufficient to permit the passage of the vibrator, assuring a good mass densification. The
maximum spacing must comply with the following conditions:

If Vd 0.67 VRd2, then smax = 0.6 d 300 mm;

If Vd > 0.67 VRd2, then smax = 0.3 d 200 mm;

The transversal spacing between successive reinforcement branches constituted by stirrups must not
exceed the following values:

If Vd 0.20 VRd2, then st,max = d 800 mm;

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If Vd 0.20 VRd2, then st,max = 0.6 d 350 mm;

The joints due to transfer are permitted only when the stirrups are constituted by screens or by high
adherence bars.

18.3.3.3 Reinforced structural elements with bent bars

18.3.3.3.1 Anchorage

In the case of traction resisting bent bars provoked by shear forces, the straight anchorage section must be
greater than or equal to b,nec (please see 9.4.2.5).

18.3.3.3.2 Longitudinal spacing

The longitudinal spacing between bent bars must not be greater than smax = 0.6 d (1 + cotg ), where is the
angle of inclination of the bent bar.

18.3.4 Reinforcement for traction

The reinforcement intended to resist the traction stresses provoked by torsion must be constituted by normal
stirrups to the axis of the beam, combined with longitudinal bars parallel to the same axis, and must be
designed in accordance with the prescriptions of 17.5.

The stirrup branches and the longitudinal reinforcements contained inside the fictitious wall of the equivalent
hollow cross section are considered effective in the resistance (please see 17.5.1.4).

The stirrups for traction must be closed in its entire outline, covering the longitudinal traction reinforcement
bars, and with the extremities adequately anchored by means of hooks at an angle of 45.

The prescriptions of 18.3.3.2, relative to the diameter of the bars that form the stirrup and their longitudinal
spacing, must be obeyed.

The longitudinal torsion reinforcement bars may have distributed or concentrated arrangement along the
inner perimeter of the stirrups, spaced at a maximum of 350 mm.

The ratio As/u, where u is the perimeter section of the effective cross section corresponding to each bar
or bundle of bars of area As, required for dimensioning, must be respected.

The polygonal cross sections must contain, in each vertex of the torsion stirrups, at least one bar.

18.3.5 Skin reinforcement

The skin reinforcement calculated in accordance with 17.3.5.2.3 must be disposed so that the separation
between the bars does not exceed d/3 and 20 cm.

18.3.6 Suspension reinforcement

In the proximities of concentrated loads transmitted to the beam by other beams or discrete elements that
are supported on it along or in part of its height, or are hung on it, suspension reinforcement must be placed.

18.3.7 Bed-web or butt-web connection reinforcements

The connection planes between beds and webs or butts and webs of beams must be verified with relation to
the tangential effects resulting from the variations of normal stresses along the length of the beam, under the
aspect of concrete resistance, as well as the necessary reinforcements to resist the tractions resulting from
these effects.

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The bending reinforcements of the slab, existing on the connection plane, can be considered as part of the
connection reinforcement, where the difference between both is complemented, if needed. The minimum
transversal cross section of this reinforcement, which is extended throughout the entire useful width and
anchored in the web, must be 1.5 cm per meter.

18.4 Columns

18.4.1 Introduction

The requirements that follow refer to columns whose larger dimension of the transversal cross section does
not exceed five times the smaller dimension, and are not valid for special regions (please see section 21).
When the first condition is not satisfied, the column must be treated as wall-column, where that disposed in
18.5 is applied.

18.4.2 Longitudinal reinforcements

18.4.2.1 Minimum diameter and reinforcement rate

The diameter of longitudinal bars must not be lesser than 10 mm or greater than 1/8 of the smaller
transversal dimension.

The geometric reinforcement rate must observe the maximum and minimum values specified in 17.3.5.3.

18.4.2.2 Transversal distribution

The longitudinal reinforcements must be disposed in the transversal cross section so as to assure the
adequate resistance of the structural element. In polygonal cross sections, there must be at least one bar in
each vertex; in circular cross sections, a minimum of six bars distributed along the perimeter.

The free minimum spacing between the faces of the longitudinal bars, measured on the transversal cross
section plane, outside the region of joints, must be equal to or greater than the largest of the following
values:

- 20 mm;

- diameter of the bar, bundle or glove;

- 1.2 times the characteristic maximum dimension of the full grained aggregate.

For bundles of bars, the diameter of the bundle must be considered: n = n .

These values are also applied to the regions of joints due to transfer of bars.

When the densification through lateral opening on the face of the form is provided in the concreting plane,
the spacing of the reinforcements must be sufficient to permit the passage of the vibrator.

The maximum spacing between axes of the bars, or from centers of bundles of bars, must be lesser than or
equal to twice the smaller dimension of the cross section in the considered section, without exceeding 400
mm.

18.4.3 Transversal reinforcements

The transversal reinforcement of columns, constituted by stirrups and, when it is the case, by supplementary
clips, must be placed in the entire column height, where its placement in the intersection region with beams
and slabs is obligatory.

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The diameter of stirrups on columns must not be lesser than 5 mm or of the diameter of the isolated bar or
of the equivalent diameter of the bundle that constitutes the longitudinal reinforcement.

The longitudinal spacing between stirrups, measured at the direction of the column axis, in order to assure
the positioning, impede buckling of the longitudinal bars and assure the seaming of the joints of longitudinal
bars on the usual columns, must be equal to or lesser than the least of the following values:

- 200 mm;

- smaller cross section dimension;

- 24 for CA-25, 12 for CA-50.

The value t < / 4 can be adopted, as long as the reinforcements are constituted by the same type of steel
and the spacing also respects the limitation:

with fyk in megapascal.

When there is need of transversal reinforcements for shear forces and torsion, these values must be
compared with the minimum specified in 18.3 for beams, where the least of the specified limits is adopted.

18.5 Wall-columns
In the case of columns whose greater dimension of the transversal cross section exceeds in five times the
smaller dimension besides the requirements listed in this subsection, what section 15 establishes in relation
to stressing strengths in the transversal direction resulting from 1st and 2nd order effects, especially the
located 2nd order effects, must also be met.

The transversal reinforcement of wall-columns must respect the minimum bending reinforcement of plates, if
this bending and the corresponding reinforcement are calculated. Otherwise, the transversal reinforcement
must respect the minimum of 25% of the longitudinal reinforcement of the face.

18.6 Prestressing cables

18.6.1 Longitudinal arrangement

18.6.1.1 Traced

The prestressing reinforcement can be rectilinear, curvilinear, polygonal or mixed traced, where the
requirement referring to the reinforcement in the region of supports, is respected according to 18.3.2.4-a)
and b). In intermediate supports, a reinforcement must be disposed, extension of the reinforcements of the
adjacent spans, capable of resisting a traction force equal to :

In this expression Vd is the maximum shear force difference from one side to another of the support and Nd
the eventually existing traction force. The reinforcement to dispose on this support is the one obtained for the
largest of the RSd calculated for each one of the support sides.

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18.6.1.2 Curvatures

The curvatures of prestressing reinforcements must respect the minimum radii required in function of the
diameter of the wire, cordage or bar, or the outer diameter of the sheath.

The establishment of the minimum radii of curvature can be performed experimentally, as long as resulting
from adequately performed and documented investigation. The justification of the adopted radius of
curvature is disregarded, as long as it is greater than 4 m, 8 m and 12 m, respectively, in the cases of wires,
bars and cordages.

When the curvature occurs in the region next to the face of the structural element, provoking abutment in the
vacuum, reinforcements that assure the maintenance of cable position must be designed without affecting
concrete integrity in this region.

18.6.1.3 Curvature in the proximities of the anchorages

In the regions close to anchorages, the minimum radii of curvature of the wires, cordages or bundles can be
reduced, as long as properly proven through conclusive tests. In these regions, concrete resistance in
relation to splitting and the maintenance of the cable position when it provokes abutment in the vacuum,
must be assured.

18.6.1.4 Setting during execution

The permanence of the prestressing reinforcement in its position during execution of the structural element
must be assured through appropriate devices.

18.6.1.5 Straight extremities

The prestressing cables must have in their extremities straight segment that permit the alignment of their
axes with the axes of the respective anchoring devices. The length of these segment must not be lesser than
100 cm or 50 cm in the case of greased single-mode cordages.

18.6.1.6 Extension of extremity

The prestressing cable must have extensions of extremity that are extended beyond the positive
anchorages, with length adequate to the setting of prestressing equipments.

18.6.1.7 Joints

The prestressing reinforcement bars can be joined, as long as through thread or glove.

The individual joints of wires, cordages and cables are permitted, through special device of efficiency
dedicated for use or properly proven through conclusive tests.

The type and the position of joints must be perfectly characterized in the project.

18.6.1.8 Anchorages

The planned anchorages must respect what is disposed in 9.4.7.

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18.6.2 Transversal arrangement

18.6.2.1 Sheaths

18.6.2.1.1 Internal prestressing with adherent reinforcement

The sheaths of prestressing reinforcement must be metallic, designed with diameter adequate for free
movement of the cables, for the employed executive system and cables of resisting, without appreciable
deformation, for the pressure of fresh concrete and for the mounting strengths. Besides this, they must be
relatively sealed to the paste and to the mortar on occasion of concreting.

18.6.2.1.2 Internal prestressing with non-adherent reinforcement

The sheaths can be of plastic material with adequate reinforcement protection.

18.6.2.1.3 External prestressing

The sheaths can be of weather-resistant plastic material and with adequate reinforcement protection.

18.6.2.2 Grouping of cables in posttraction

The cables accommodated in sheaths can constitute groups of two, three and four cables in straight
sections, as long as dispositions do not occur in line with more than two adjacent cables. In curved sections
they can be disposed only in pairs, whose curvatures are in parallel planes, so that there may not be
transversal pressure among them.

18.6.2.3 Minimum spacings

The elements of prestressing reinforcement must be sufficiently separated from each other, so as to remain
assured its perfect covering by the concrete.

The separations in the horizontal direction aims to permit the free passage of the concrete and, when needle
vibrator is employed, its introduction and operation. The minimum spacing values are indicated in tables 18.1
and 18.2.

Table 18.1 Minimum spacings Post-traction case


Free space
Disposition of sheaths ah av
(horizontal) (vertical)

> ext > ext


> 4cm > 5cm

> 1.2 ext > 1.5 ext


> 4cm > 5cm

Where:
ext is the outer diameter of the sheath

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Table 18.2 Minimum spacings Pre-traction case


Free space
Disposition of wires or cordages ah av
(horizontal) (vertical)

> 2 > 2
> 1.2dmax > 1.2dmax
> 2cm > 2cm

> 3 > 3
> 1.2dmax > 1.2dmax
> 2.5cm > 2.5cm

> 3 > 3
> 1.2dmax > 1.2dmax
> 3cm > 3cm

Where:
is the diameter of the wire or cordage
dmax is the characteristic maximum dimension of the full
grained aggregate

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19 Dimensioning and verification of slabs


19.1 Specific symbols of this section
So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the
most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

The symbols presented in this section follow the same orientation set in section 4. This way, the subscript
symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

sr Radial spacing between punch reinforcement lines

u Perimeter of outline C punch

u* - Reduced critical perimeter for border or corner columns

u0 Perimeter of outline C punch

Asw Punch reinforcement area in a complete outline parallel to C

C Outline of the load application area

C Critical outline, external and distance 2d from outline C, on the slab plane

FSd Calculation punch force or reaction

K Coefficient that provides the portion of MSd transmitted to the column punch

MSd* - Calculation moment resulting from the eccentricity of the reduced critical perimeter u* in relation to the
center of the column punch

MSd1 Calculation moment transmitted by the slab to the border column, on the plane perpendicular to the
free border

MSd2 Calculation moment transmitted by the slab to the border column, on the plane parallel to the free
border

Wp Parameter referring to the critical perimeter u, defined as modulus of plastic resistance of the critical
perimeter

q Coefficient that depends on the loading type and nature

Pd Shearing stress due to the effect of prestressing cables that cross the considered outline and pass by
less than d/2 of the column face punch

Rd1 Limit calculation resisting shearing stress, so that a slab may be able to dispense of transversal
reinforcement to resists the shear force

Rd2 Limit calculation resisting shearing stress for verification of the concrete diagonal compression at the
slab column connection

Rd3 Calculation resisting shearing stress

Sd Calculation stressing shearing tension

Sd,ef Effective calculation stressing shearing tension

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19.2 Dimensioning and verification of slabs Ultimate limit state


In the determination of resisting stresses of slab cross sections submitted to normal stresses and bending
moments, the same principles established in 17.2.1 to 17.2.3 must be used.

In the regions of slab support good ductility conditions must be assured, where the dispositions of 14.6.4.3
are met.

When, in the critical cross section adopted for dimensioning, the direction of the reinforcements differ from
the directions of the main stresses in more than 15, this fact must be considered in the structural
calculation.

19.3 Dimensioning and verification of slabs Service limit states

19.3.1 Limit state of deformation

The criteria given in 17.3.2 must be used, considering the possibility of cracking (stage II).

19.3.2 Limit states of cracking and decompression or crack formation

The criteria given in 17.3.3 and 17.3.4 must be used.

19.3.3 Maximum and minimum longitudinal reinforcements

19.3.3.1 Basic principles

The basic principles for the establishment of maximum and minimum reinforcements are those given in
17.3.5.1. Since the reinforced slabs in two directions have other possible resisting mechanisms, the
minimum values of the positive reinforcements are reduced in relation to those given for linear structural
elements.

19.3.3.2 Minimum reinforcements

In order to improve performance and bending ductility, as well as to control cracking, minimum negative
reinforcement values are necessary, given in table 19.1. This reinforcement must be constituted preferably
by high adherence bars or by welded screens.

In the case of smooth slabs or mushroom slabs with non-adherent positive reinforcement, the positive
negative reinforcements must respect the minimum values of table 19.1 and the negative negative
reinforcement on the support must have as minimum value:

where:

h is the height of the slab;

is the average span of the slab measured in the direction of the reinforcement to be placed.

This reinforcement must cover the region transversal to it, included through the dimension of the supports
added by 1.5 h for each side.

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Table 19.1 Minimum values for adherent negative reinforcements


Structural elements Structural elements with Structural elements with non-
Reinforcement without positive adherent positive adherent positive
reinforcements reinforcement reinforcement

Negative reinforcements s > min s > min s > 0.67 min s > min 0.5 > 0.67 min

Positive reinforcements of
reinforced slabs in two s > 0.67 min s > 0.67 min s > 0.5 min s > min 0.5 > 0.5 min
directions
Positive reinforcement (main)
of reinforced slabs in one s > min s > min s > 0.5 min s > min 0.5 > 0.5 min
direction
Positive reinforcement As/s > 20% reinforcement main
2
(secondary) of reinforced slabs As/s > 0.9 cm /m -
in one direction s > 0.5 min
where:
s = As/bw h and p = Ap/bw h.
NOTE The values of min are listed in table 17.3.

19.3.3.3 Maximum reinforcements

The maximum bending reinforcement value must respect the limit given in 17.3.5.2 and 17.3.5.3.

19.4 Shear force in slabs and linear elements with bw 5d

19.4.1 Slabs without reinforcement for shear force

Solid or ribbed slabs, according to 17.4.1.1.2-b), can dispense of transversal reinforcement to resist the
traction stresses originating from shear force, when the calculation shear force obeys the expression:

The project resistance to shearing is given by :

where:

1 = As1, not greater than |0.02|


bwd

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k is a coefficient that has the following values:

- for elements where 50% of the lower reinforcement does not arrive up to the support: k = |1|;

- for the other cases: k = |1.6 d|, not lesser than |1|, with d in meters;

where:

Rd is the concrete calculation resisting stress to shearing;

As1 is the are of the traction reinforcement that is extended up to no lesser than d + b,nec besides the
considered cross section; with b,nec defined in 9.4.2.5 and figure 19.1;

bw is the minimum cross section width along the useful height d;

NSd is the longitudinal force in the cross section due to prestressing or loading (positive
compression).

Considered cross section

Figure 19.1 Necessary anchorage length

In the anchorage zone of elements with prestressing with previous adherence, the equation that defines VRd1
is only applied when the anchorage requirements are satisfied according to 9.4.5. Analogously for the
elements containing negative reinforcement.

In the case of pre-traction, the effective prestressing reduction in the transmission length must be taken into
account.

The distribution of this reinforcement along the slab must respect that prescribed in 18.3.2.3.1, considering
for a the value 1.5d.

19.4.2 Slabs with reinforcement for shear force

The criteria established in 17.4.2 are applied.

The resistance of the stirrups can be considered with the following maximum values, where linear
interpolation is permitted:

- 250 MPa, for slabs with thickness up to 15 cm;

- 435 MPa (fywd), for slabs with thickness greater than 35 cm.

19.5 Dimensioning of punch slabs

19.5.1 Calculation model

The calculation model corresponds to the verification of shearing in two or more critical surfaces defined in
the environment of concentrated forces.

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On the first critical surface (outline C), of the column of concentrated load, the diagonal compression stress
of the concrete must be verified indirectly, through the shearing stress.

On the second critical surface (outline C) separated 2d from the column or concentrated load, the punch
connection capacity must be verified, associated to the diagonal traction resistance. This verification is also
done through a shearing stress, in the outline C.

In case there is a need, the connection must be reinforced by transversal reinforcement.

The third critical surface (outline C) must only be verified when it is necessary to place transversal
reinforcement.

19.5.2 Definition of stressing tension on critical surfaces C and C

19.5.2.1 Internal column, with symmetric load (please see figure 19.2)

In the case where the loading effect can be considered symmetric:

where:

where:

d is the useful height of the slab along the critical outline C, external to the outline C of the force
application area and from this distant 2d on the slab plane;

dx and dy are the useful heights in the two orthogonal directions;

u is the perimeter of the critical outline C;

ud is the critical surface area;

FSd is the calculation concentrated force or reaction.

The punch force FSd can be reduced from the distributed force applied on the opposite face of the slab,
inside the considered outline in the verification, C or C.

Critical Curved
perimeter section

Figure 19.2 Critical perimeter in internal columns

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19.5.2.2 Internal column, with moment effect

In the case where, besides the vertical force, there is moment transfer from the slab to the column, the
asymmetry effect must be considered, in accordance with the expression:

where:

K is the coefficient that provides the portion of MSd transmitted to the column through shearing, which
depends on the ratio C1/C2.

The coefficient K assumes the values indicated in table 19.2.

Table 19.2 - K Values


C1/C2 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0
K 0.45 0.60 0.70 0.80
Where:
C1 is the dimension of the column parallel to the force eccentricity;
C2 is the dimension of the column perpendicular to the force eccentricity.

The values of Wp must be calculated through the expressions that follow:

For a rectangular column:

For a circular column:

where:

D is the diameter of the column.

Wp can be calculated disregarding the curvature of the corners of the critical perimeter, through the
expression:

where:

d is the infinitesimal length in the critical perimeter u;

e is the distance from d to the axis that passes through the center of the column and on which the
bending moment MSd acts.

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19.5.2.3 Border columns

a) when moment does not act on the plane parallel to the free border:

where:

where:

FSd is the support reaction;

u* is the reduced critical perimeter;

MSd is the calculation moment on the plane perpendicular to the free border;

MSd * is the calculation moment resulting from the eccentricity of the reduced critical perimeter u* in
relation to the center of the column;

WP1 is the modulus of plastic resistance perpendicular to the free border, calculated for perimeter u.

The coefficient K1 assumes the established values for K in table 19.2, with C1 and C2 in accordance with
figure 19.3.

The smaller between


1.5d and 0.5C1
Critical perimeter u

Free border Free border of


of the slab the slab
Reduced critical
perimeter u*

Figure 19.3 Critical perimeter in border columns

b) when moment acts on the plane parallel to the free border:

where:

MSd2 is the calculation moment on the plane parallel to the free border;

WP2 is the modulus of plastic resistance in the direction parallel to the free border, calculated by
perimeter u.

The coefficient K2 assumes the established values for K in table 19.2, substituting C1/C2 for C2/2C1 (such that
C1 and C2 are established in figure 19.3).

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19.5.2.4 Corner columns

The disposition for the border column is applied when moment does not act on the plane parallel to the
border.

Since the corner column presents two free borders, verification must be done separately for each one of
them, considering the bending moment whose plane is perpendicular to the adopted free border.

In this case, K must be calculated in function of the proportion C1/C2, such that C1 and C2, respectively, are
the sides of the column perpendicular and parallel to the adopted free border, according to table 19.2 (please
see figure 19.4).
Free borders of the slab

the smaller between


1.5d and 0.5C

Critical perimeter u Reduced critical


perimeter u*

Figure 19.4 Critical perimeter in corner columns

19.5.2.5 Capital

When there is capital, two verifications must be done on the critical outlines C1 and C2, as figure 19.5
indicates.

where:
d is the useful height of the slab in the outline C2;
dc is the useful height of the slab on the face of the column;
da is the useful height of the slab in the outline C1;
c is the distance between the border of the capital and the face of the column. When:

c 2(dc d) it is sufficient to verify outline C2;

2(dc d) < c 2dc it is sufficient to verify outline C1;

c > 2dc it is necessary to verify outlines C1 and C2.

Figure 19.5 Definition of the useful height in the case of capital

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19.5.2.6 Special definition cases of the critical outline

If the outline C presents recesses, the critical outline C must be parallel to the polygon circumscribed to
outline C (please see figure 19.6).

Figure 19.6 Critical perimeter in the case of outline C presenting recess

If there is opening in the slab situated less than 8d from outline C, the section of critical outline C between
the two straight lines that pass through the center of gravity of the application area of the force and that are
tangent to the opening outline must be considered (please see figure 19.7).

Opening

Figure 19.7 Critical perimeter along with the opening in the slab

19.5.2.7 Interaction of normal and tangential stresses

The verification of the influence of normal stresses, resulting from simple or compound bending of the slab,
in the punch resistance, is not required.

19.5.3 Definition of the resisting stress on the critical surfaces C, C and C

19.5.3.1 Verification of the concrete diagonal compression resisting stress on the critical surface C

This verification must be done on outline C, on slabs submitted to punch, with or without reinforcement.

where:

v = (1 - fck/250), with fck in megapascal;

Sd is calculated according to 19.5.2.1, with u0 (perimeter of outline C) instead of u.

The value of Sd can be expanded by 20% due to multiple state effect of stresses along with an internal
column, when the spans that arrive at this column do not differ more than 50% and there are no openings
along with the column.

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19.5.3.2 Resisting stress on the critical surface C in structural elements or sections without punch
reinforcement

The resisting stress on the critical surface C must be calculated as follows:

where:

where:

d is the useful height of the slab along the critical outline C of the application area of the force, in
centimeter;

is the geometric adherent bending reinforcement rate (non-adherent reinforcement must be


disregarded);

x and y are the reinforcement rates in two orthogonal directions thus calculated:

- in the width equal to the dimension or loaded area of the column increased by 3d for each one of
the sides;

- in the case of proximity of the border prevails the distance up to the border when lesser than 3d.

This verification must be done on critical outline C or on C1 and C2, in the case that there is capital.

19.5.3.3 Resisting stress on the critical surface C in structural elements or sections with punch
reinforcement

The resisting stress on the critical surface C must be calculated as follows:

where:

where:

sr is the radial spacing between punch reinforcement lines, not greater than 0.75d;

Asw is the area of the punch reinforcement in a complete outline parallel to C;

is the angle of inclination between the punch reinforcement axis and the plane of the slab;

u is the critical perimeter or reduced critical perimeter in the case of border or corner column.

fywd is the calculation resistance of the punch reinforcement, not greater than 300 MPa for connectors
or 250 MPa for stirrups (of steel CA-50 or CA-60). For slabs with thickness greater than 15 cm, these values
can be increased as 19.4.2 establishes.

This reinforcement must be preferably constituted by three or more lines of pin type connectors with widened
extremities, radially disposed from the perimeter of the column. Each one of these extremities must be
anchored outside the plane of the corresponding bending reinforcement.
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19.5.3.4 Definition of the critical surface C

When it is necessary to use transversal reinforcement, it must be extended in outlines parallel to C until, in
an outline C separated 2d from the last reinforcement outline (please see figures 19.8 and 19.9),
reinforcement is not longer necessary, that is, sd Rd1 (19.5.3.2).

Critical
perimeter u

Critical
perimeter u
Figure 19.8 Disposition of the punch reinforcement in plan and outline of critical
surface C

Figure 19.9 Disposition of the punch reinforcement in cut

In the case that the punch reinforcement is necessary, three verifications must be performed:

- compression resisting stress of the concrete in outline C, according to 19.5.3.1;

- punch resisting stress in outline C, considering the punch reinforcement, according to 19.5.3.3;

- punch resisting stress in outline C, without punch reinforcement, according to 19.5.3.2.

19.5.3.5 Obligatory punch reinforcement

In the case that the global stability of the structure depends on the resistance of the slab to punch, punch
reinforcement must be planned, even though Sd may be greater than Rd1. This reinforcement must balance
a minimum of 50% of FSd.

19.5.4 Progressive collapse

In order to assure the local ductility and the consequent protection against progressive collapse, the lower
bending reinforcement that crosses outline C must be sufficiently anchored besides outline C, according to
figure 19.10, and must be such that:

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where:

As is the sum of all areas of the bars that cross each one of the faces of the column.

Bending
reinforcement

Outline C or C

Reinforcement against
progressive collapse

Figure 19.10 Reinforcement against progressive collapse

19.5.5 Verification of prestressed structural elements

The verification must be performed as established in the following:

where:

where:

Pd is the stress due to the effect of inclined prestressing cables that cross the considered outline and
pass by less than d/2 from the face of the column (please see figure 19.11);

Pkinf,i is the prestressing force in cable i;

i is the inclination of cable i in relation to the plane of the slab in the considered outline;

u is the critical perimeter of the considered outline, where Sd,ef and Sd are calculated.

Outline

Cable i

Figure 19.11 Favorable effect of the inclined cables


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20 Detailing of slabs
20.1 General prescriptions
The reinforcements must be disposed such that their positioning during concreting may be assured.

Any bending reinforcement bar must have a maximum diameter equal to h/8.

The main bending reinforcement bars must present a maximum spacing equal to 2h or 20 cm, where the
least of the two values in the region of the largest bending moments prevail.

The secondary bending reinforcement must be equal to or greater than 20% of the main reinforcement,
maintaining, even, a spacing between bars of, at a maximum, 33 cm. The joint of these bars must respect
the same joint criteria of the main reinforcement bars.

The stirrups in ribbed slabs, when necessary, must not have spacing greater than 20 cm.

20.2 Free borders and openings


In free borders and along the openings the minimum prescriptions contained in Figure 20.1 must be
respected.

Figure 20.1 Free borders and openings

20.3 Slabs without beams

20.3.1 Negative reinforcements

In slabs without solid or ribbed beams, calculated through the approximate process given in 14.7.8, the
dispositions contained in figure 20.2 must be respected.

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minimum % of
the total
reinforcement
Upper bars

Remaining
50
Region of supports
External band

Reinforcement
Lower bars

against
progressive
collapse
Upper bars
Central region
Internal band

Lower bars

Remaining
33

Axis of
external Axis of internal
Support face support
support

Figure 20.2 Slabs without beams

At least two lower bars must pass continuously over the supports, where the reinforcement against
progressive collapse is also respected, according to 19.5.4.

In slabs with capitals, the interrupted lower bars, besides meeting the other prescriptions, must penetrate at
least 30 cm or 24 in the capital.

The anchorage conditions prescribed in section 9 must be met.

20.3.2 Prestressed slabs

20.3.2.1 Maximum spacing between the cables

Between cables of bundles of cables a maximum spacing 6 h must be maintained, without exceeding 120
cm.

20.3.2.2 Maximum width for disposition of cables in external support band

Cables disposed in external support band must be contained in a slab portion, such that its width does not
exceed the dimension on plan of the support column, taken transversally to the longitudinal direction of the
band, increased by 3.5 times the thickness of the slab for each one of the column sides.

20.3.2.3 Minimum spacing between cables or bundles of cables

Between cables or bundles of cables, or between cables and negative reinforcements, a minimum spacing of
5 cm must be maintained.

20.3.4 Minimum cover

The minimum cover of cables in relation to the face of openings on the slabs must be 7.5 cm.

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20.3.2.5 Deviation

The deviation on the plane of the slab of a cable or bundle of cables must produce a maximum inclination of
1/10,on the imaginary chord that joins the beginning to the end of this section, maintaining its development in
accordance with a parabolic curve on plan. Along the deviation, the set of cables or bundles must be
disposed so as to maintain a distance of 5 cm between cables in the central region of the curve.

For the cases where the deviation exceeds the specified limits, reinforcement capable of resisting the force
provoked by this deviation must be planned.

20.3.2.6 Negative and positive reinforcements

The negative reinforcement against progressive collapse can be dispensed, if at least one cable, on each
orthogonal direction, passes through the interior of the longitudinal reinforcement contained in the
transversal cross section of the columns or supporting elements of mushroom slabs of commercial and
residential buildings.

On the supports of prestressed mushroom slabs, the existence of a minimum of four bars in the traction
stressed face is obligatory, disposed in a width that does not exceed the width of the support added three
times the total height of the slab. The bars must be spaced at a maximum of 30 cm and developed at a
minimum distance equal to 1/6 of the free span between supports in the direction of the reinforcement, and
measured from the face of the support.

In the slabs prestressed by non-adherent single-mode cordages, a maximum of four cables can be disposed
in bundle.

20.4 Punch reinforcements


When necessary, the reinforcements to resisting punch must be constituted by vertical stirrups or connectors
(studs), with preference for the use of these latter ones.

The diameter of the reinforcement of stirrups cannot exceed h/20 and there must be mechanical contact of
the longitudinal bars with the corners of the stirrups (mechanical anchorage).

The minimum regions where the punch reinforcements must be disposed, as well as the regulatory distances
to be obeyed are shown in figure 20.3.

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Punch reinforcement

Reinforcement against
progressive collapse

Figure 20.3 Punch reinforcement

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21 Special regions
21.1 Introduction
For the effects of this Norm, those not covered by the previously described models are considered as special
regions, due to non-validity, in these regions, of the flat cross section hypothesis.

21.2 Regions of introduction of concentrated loads

21.2.1 Contact pressure in reduced area

Having load in reduced area, reinforcement to resist all traction stresses must be disposed, whenever the
possibility of concrete cracking could promise the resistance of the structural element.

When the load acts in area lesser than that of the surface of the structural element, the concrete resistance
can be considered increased, without exceeding the calculation resisting value corresponding to the
crashing, given by the expression:

where:

Ac0 is the uniformly loaded reduced area;

Ac1 is the maximum area of the same form and the same center of gravity as Ac0, inscribed in the
area Ac2;

Ac2 is the total area, situated in the same plane of Ac0.

In the case that Ac0 is rectangular, the proportion between the sides must not be greater than 2.

The values given by this equation must be reduced if the load is not uniformly distributed or is there are
shearing stresses. This expression does not apply to prestressing anchorages, whose safety must be
assured by certification tests of the system.

Figure 21.1 illustrates some cases where the cracking can compromise the resistance of the structural
element and reinforcement must be disposed to resist the traction stresses.

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Elevation

Plan

a) Ring splitting b) Lateral splitting c) Splitting

Figure 21.2 Located pressure regions

21.2.2 Concrete joints

They are joints obtained by means of a reduced nucleus of the concrete, transmitting stresses that can be
reduced to a force, whose inclination must be at a maximum equal to 1/8, as shown in figure 21.2.

Compression result

Volume to be loaded
Joint

Figure 21.2 Concrete joint region

21.2.3 Region of introduction of prestressing

For the calculation of these regions tridimensional models must be considered, given that the support
surface dimensions of the anchorage are small, if compared with the transversal cross section of the
structural element.

These zones can be calculated with the help of the method for coupling rods and straining beams, which
must be analyzed and designed considering:
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a) the global equilibrium of the region;

b) the effects of transversal traction (ring splitting) due to anchorages, individually and as a whole;

c) the effects of compression in this zone (crashing).

21.2.4 Load applied on the surface of structural elements

Loads applied through metallic inserts, rock bolt, etc. are fitted in this subsection, which can correspond to
stresses of compression, traction, shearing or compound stresses.

The verification of the local effects in the case of compression must comply with what is disposed in 21.2.1.
In the case of traction, the fretting must be verified and in the case of shearing, the crashing on the concrete
border in contact with the rock bolt, in accordance with the pertinent sections of this Norm or specialized
technical literature.

Special cares must be taken in the dimensioning and detailing of the reinforcement of the structural element,
so as to obtain the transfer and continuity of resistance to traction forces introduced by the rock bolts,
assuring the equilibrium of the assembly. Figure 21.3 shows example of this case.

Lateral view

Rupture
Compression
trajectories

Development of stresses on
concrete / steel interface

Figure 21.3 Pressures along with a pin embedded on a concrete structural element

21.3 Holes and openings

21.3.1 Generalities

Structures whose project requires the presence of openings must be calculated and detailed considering the
disturbance of the stresses that are concentrated around these openings, planning, besides the
reinforcements to resist the traction stresses already mentioned in this Norm, also complementary
reinforcements disposed on the outline and at the corners of the openings.

The limits for the dimensions of holes and openings are listed in section 13.

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21.3.2 Walls and wall-beams


When the openings are located in less stressed regions and do not significantly modify the working of the
structural element, it is sufficient to place an opening compatibilization reinforcement with the assembly.
Otherwise, a specific calculation model must be adopted for the case in question, based, for example, on the
method of finite elements or coupling rods and straining beams (please see figure 21.4).

Opening

Opening

a) Considered normal opening b) Considered harmful opening

Figure 21.4 Openings in reinforced concrete wall beams

21.3.3 Holes that cross the beams in the direction of the height

The openings on beams, contained in its main plane, like holes for passage of vertical pipeline in the
buildings (please see figure 21.5), must not have diameters greater than 1/3 of the width of these beams in
the regions of the holes. The reduction of shearing- or bending-bearing capacity in the region of the opening
must be verified.

The minimum distance from a hole to the closest face of the beam must be at a minimum equal to 5 cm and
twice the cover planned in this face. The remaining cross section in this region, where the area occupied by
the hole has been subtracted, must be capable of resisting the stresses planned in the calculation, besides
permitting good concreting.

In the case that a set of holes is necessary, the holes must be aligned and the distance between their faces
must be at a minimum 5 cm or the diameter of the hole and each interval must contain at least a stirrup.

In the case of structural elements submitted to torsion, these limits must be adjusted so as to permit an
adequate operation.

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Hole of diameter
lesser than b/3

Greater than 5 cm
and twice the cover

Beam

Figure 21.5 Vertical opening in beams

21.3.4 Openings in slabs

In the case of openings in slabs, the following conditions must be respected in any situation, obeying also
what is disposed in section 13:

a) the cross section of the remaining concrete of the central part or on the slab support must be capable of
balancing the stresses in the ultimate limit state, corresponding to this cross section without openings;

b) the cross sections of interrupted reinforcements must be substituted by equivalent properly anchored
reinforcement cross sections;

c) in the case of openings in regions close to columns, in smooth or mushroom slabs, the calculation model
must plan the equilibrium of the acting shear forces in these regions.

21.4 Nodes of porticos and connections between walls


As consequence of the direction change of structural elements, the resistance of the assembly depends on
the traction resistance of the concrete and the reinforcement disposition, which must be considered in the
dimensioning.

21.5 Connections of pre-molded structural elements


The prescriptions of ABNT NBR 9062 must be met.

21.6 Concreting joints


The execution project of a concreting joint must indicate precisely the site and the configuration of its
surface.

Whenever the adherence and the roughness between the new and existing concrete is not assured, seam
reinforcements must be planned, properly anchored in regions capable of resisting traction stresses.

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22 Special elements
22.1 Introduction
For the effects of this Norm the structural elements that are characterized by a behavior that does not
respect the hypothesis of flat cross sections, because they are not sufficiently long so that they may
dissipate the located disturbances, are considered as special elements. Wall-beams, brackets and Gerber
corbels, as well as shoes and blocks, are elements of this type.

The special elements must be calculated and dimensioned through appropriate theoretical models, when not
contemplated by this Norm.

Taking into consideration the responsibility of these elements in the structure, the calculation stresses must
be increased by an additional coefficient n according to ABNT NBR 8681.

22.2 Wall-beams

22.2.1 Conceptualization

High beams where the ratio between the span and the height /h is lesser than 2 in bi-supported beams and
lesser than 3 cm in continuous beams, are considered wall-beams. They can receive higher or lower loads
(please see figure 22.1).

a) Higher load b) Lower load

Figure 22.1 Two most common types of wall-beams in relation to load

22.2.2 Structural behavior

The structural behavior of the wall-beams has some specific characteristics, highlighting among them, in first
place, inefficiencies, whether to bending or shearing, when compared with the usual beams.

Wall-beams, for being high, present stability problems as stiff body and at times, elastic stability. Support
enhancers or locks are almost always necessary.

The disturbances generated by concentrated loads, openings or thickenings must even be considered.
These disturbances can influence significantly in the behavior and resistance of the structural element.

22.2.3 Calculation model

For calculation and dimensioning of wall-beams elastic plane or non-linear models and coupling rod-straining
beam models are permitted. Whichever the chosen model may be, it must contemplate adequately the
aspects described in 22.2.2.

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22.2.4 Detailing

22.2.4.1 Bending reinforcement

In wall-beams the traction straining beams cannot be concentrated in one or a few reinforcement layers, but
they must cover the entire effectively traction stressed zone, according to the adopted calculation model.

In bi-supported beams as figure 22.2 shows, this reinforcement must be distributed in height of the order of
0.15h.

The fact that in continuous wall-beams the distribution height of negative reinforcement of the supports is
even greater must be considered.

22.2.4.2 Anchorage of bending (positive) reinforcement in the supports

The bending reinforcement must be extended integrally up to the supports and from there, well anchored.
Hooks must not be used on the vertical plane, giving preference to loops or clips on the horizontal plane, or
special devices (please see figure 22.2).

22.2.4.3 Transversal reinforcement

The transversal reinforcement must be calculated considering that disposed in 22.2.2 and respecting a
minimum value of 0.075% bh per face.

In the case of loading through the lower part of the beam, this reinforcement must be capable of suspending
the totality of the applied load (please see figure 22.2).

These reinforcements must cover the horizontal, main or secondary reinforcements.

Distributed vertical
reinforcements

Distributed
horizontal
reinforcements
0.85h

Lower main
reinforcements
0.15h

Figure 22.2 Typical wall-beam reinforcement with h

22.3 Brackets and Gerber corbels

22.3.1 Brackets

22.3.1.1 Conceptualization

The elements in overhang are considered brackets in which the distance (a) of the load applied to the face of
the support is lesser than or equal to the useful height (d) of the bracket (please see figure 22.3).

The bracket is short if 0.5 d a d and very short if a < 0.5 d.

The case where a > d must be treated as beam in overhand and no longer as bracket.

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Straining beam

Coupling rod

Figure 22.3 Coupling rod- straining beam model for short bracket

22.3.1.2 Structural behavior

The short brackets have a typical behavior that can be described by a coupling rod- straining beam model.
The straining beam, on top of the bracket, is anchored in the coupling rod under a vertical external load Fd on
one side and on the column or support on the other. The inclined coupling rod goes from the load up to the
face of the column or support, using the entire available bracket height (please see figure 22.3). Some
aspects are fundamental for the success of this behavior:

a) adequate anchorage of the straining beam, encompassing the coupling rod immediately below the
supporting device;

b) the reinforcement rate of the straining beam to be considered in the calculation must be highly limited, so
as to assure the drainage, before the rupture of the concrete;

c) verification of the compressive resistance of the coupling rod or the equivalent shearing on the face of the
column, assuring with adequate safety that the fragile rupture, through the coupling rod, is separated. For the
verification of the coupling rod the load opening under the support plate must be considered, as indicated in
figure 22.3, limited to a maximum inclination of 1:2 in relation to the vertical, at the extreme points A and C
(or E) of the expanded support area;

d) the consideration of horizontal stresses in the dimensioning of brackets and their consequent unfavorable
effect is fundamental in the inclination of the resultant Fd (please see figure 22.3). ABNT NBR 9062
establishes minimum values of these stresses;

e) in general case where there are horizontal or transversal loads or eccentricity of vertical load in the width
of the bracket, it is said that there is torsion of the bracket; the structural behavior that is observed, in this
case, is that of a coupling rod-straining beam model, usually with narrower coupling rod and straining beam,
that is, the spatial lattice observed in the torsion of beams is not formed, since it lacks sufficient length for
such end.
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The very short brackets have a behavior similar to that of the short brackets, but the differences must not be
neglected. The coupling rod is curved or arched on the plane of the bracket and as consequence it increases
the importance of the seam reinforcement, which acquires significant participation in the resistance of the
bracket, not only in its ductility.

22.3.1.3 Calculation model

For calculation and dimensioning of brackets, linear and non-linear plane models (not planes in the case of
torsion), coupling rod-straining beam models or friction-shearing models can be used, respecting in each
case its field of application.

Whichever the adopted model may be, it must contemplate the fundamental aspects described in 22.3.1.2
and possess experimental support or be derived from already widely test-proven basic model.

22.3.1.4 Detailing

22.3.1.4.1 Straining beam reinforcement

Since the straining beam is very short, from the external face of the bracket up to the opposite face of the
column (or support), it is essential to take care of the anchorage of the reinforcement planned for this
straining beam, in two extremities, especially on the one along the extremity of the bracket.

In this face hook in the vertical plane must not be used, in order to avoid destructions due to rupture of
corner or lateral cover of the hook. These vertical hooks can only be accepted in brackets of slabs.

In this region, under concentrated load, a more efficient anchorage must be used, like flaps in the horizontal
plane or transversal bars welded to straining beam reinforcement or metallic sheets welded in the extremities
of the bars of this reinforcement (straining beam) (please see figure 22.4), according to 9.4.7.1.

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Welding

Welding
Straining beam

Welding
Seam

Welding

for

for

Figure 22.4 Typical reinforcement of a short bracket

22.3.1.4.2 Supporting device

The position and dimensions of the supporting device must be adopted so as to permit the straining beam to
encompass the coupling rod, according to the detail in plan of the straining beam (please see figure 22.4),
taking into account the unfavorable effect of the inclined resultant of the loads on the support plate, due to
horizontal forces.

22.3.1.4.3 Seam reinforcement

The project of short or very short brackets is not permitted without seam reinforcement. It is fundamental to
permit a more ductile rupture of the bracket and avoid reduction of the rupture load.

22.3.1.4.4 Suspension reinforcement

When there is indirect load, suspension reinforcement must be planned for the totality of the applied load.

22.3.2 Gerber corbels

22.3.2.1 Conceptualization

The Gerber corbel is a protrusion that is designed on the upper part of the extremity of a beam, with the
objective of supporting it on bracket created on the face of a column or in the lower region of the extremity of
another beam.

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Usually, both, bracket and Gerber corbel, have height a little less than half of the height of the beam. The
same conceptualizations and geometric limitations created for the brackets are also valid for the Gerber
corbels.

22.3.2.2 Behavior

The Gerber corbels have a structural behavior similar to those of the brackets, which can also be described
by a coupling rod-straining beam model. The most important differences are:

a) the coupling rod is usually more inclined, because it must look for support in the suspension
reinforcement, inside the beam, at the extremity opposite to the point of load application (please see figure
22.5);

b) the main reinforcement must penetrate in the beam, looking for anchorage in the coupling rods due to
shearing in the beam;

c) the suspension reinforcement must be calculated for the total force Fd.

Straining
beam

Suspension

Figure 22.5 Coupling rod-straining beam model for a Gerber corbel

22.3.2.3 Calculation model

For calculation and dimensioning, the same principles established for the brackets can be used, as long as
the necessary corrections are made to contemplate the differences presented in 22.3.2.2.

22.3.2.4 Detailing

22.3.2.4.1 Generalities

The recommendations made in 22.3.1.4 are applied, with exception of 22.3.1.4.4, since the Gerber corbel
loses sense in the case of indirect load.

The disposition in 22.3.2.4.2 to 22.3.2.4.5 must further be added.

22.3.2.4.2 Suspension reinforcement

This reinforcement must preferably be constituted by stirrups, at the complete height of the beam,
concentrated at its extremity, according to figure 22.5.

22.3.2.4.3 Anchorage of main reinforcement

The main reinforcement must be anchored from its intersection with the first coupling rod of the beam, at its
complete height.

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22.3.2.4.4 Anchorage of the lower reinforcement of the beam

The bending reinforcement of the beam must be well anchored in the section where the suspension
reinforcement is applied.

In case this section is not sufficiently large, the use of horizontal clips of welded transversal bars is
recommended.

22.3.2.4.5 Special cases

In case it is desired to use bent bars to suspend the load or longitudinal prestressing reinforcements of the
beam, the calculation model must be adapted to this.

22.4 Shoes

22.4.1 Conceptualization

Shoes are volume structures used to transmit to the ground the foundation loads, in the case of direct
foundation.

When the expression that follows is verified, the shoe is considered stiff. Otherwise, the shoe is considered
as flexible:

where:

h is the height of the shoe;

a is the dimension of the shoe at a determined direction;

ap is the dimension of the column in the same direction.

For stiff shoe the distribution of normal stresses at the shoe-ground contact can be admitted plane, in case
more detailed information are not available to this respect.

For flexible shoes or extreme cases of rock foundation, even with stiff shoe, this hypothesis must be
reviewed.

22.4.2 Structural behavior

22.4.2.1 Generalities

The structural behavior of shoes, eliminated the complexity of the ground-structure interaction through the
hypothesis of 22.4.1, can be described by separating the shoes into stiff and flexible.

22.4.2.2 Stiff shoes

The structural behavior can be characterized by:

a) bending work in two directions, where it is admitted that, for each one of them, the traction in the bending
is uniformly distributed in the corresponding width of the shoe. This hypothesis is not applied to compression
in the bending, which is more concentrated in the region of the column that is supported on the shoe and is
also not applied to the case of very extended shoes in relation to the form of the column;

b) shearing work also in two directions, which does not present rupture due to diagonal traction, and in fact
diagonal compression verified according to 19.5.3.1. This occurs because the stiff shoe is entirely inside the
hypothetical punch cone, where, therefore, there is no physical possibility of punch.

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22.4.2.3 Flexible shoes

Although of rarer use, these shoes are used for foundation of small loads and relatively weak grounds, Their
behavior is characterized by:

a) bending work in two directions, where it is not possible to admit traction in the bending uniformly
distributed in the corresponding width of the shoe. The bending concentration along with the column must
be, in principle, evaluated;

b) shearing work that can be described through the punch phenomenon (please see 19.5).

The plane distribution of stresses at the shoe-ground contact must be verified.

22.4.3 Calculation model

For calculation and dimensioning of shoes, linear tridimensional models or tridimensional coupling rod-
straining beam models must be used, where bending models can be used, when it is the case. These
models must contemplate the aspects described in 22.4.2. The calculation models need only exceptionally to
contemplate the ground-structure interaction.

22.4.4 Detailing

22.4.4.1 Stiff shoes

22.4.4.1.1 Bending reinforcement

The bending reinforcement must be uniformly distributed along the width of the shoe, extending itself
integrally from face to face and ending in hook at the two extremities.

For bars with 20 mm hooks of 135 or 180 must be used. For bars with 25 mm the splitting on
horizontal plane must be verified, since parceling of the entire reinforcement mesh can occur.

22.4.4.1.2 Startup reinforcement of columns

The shoe must have sufficient height to permit the anchorage of the startup reinforcement. In this anchorage
the favorable effect of the compression transversal to the bars, resulting from the bending of the shoe can be
considered (please see section 9).

22.4.4.1.3 Flexible shoes

The requirements relative to slabs and punch must be met (please see sections 19 and 20).

22.5 Blocks on piles

22.5.1 Conceptualization

Blocks are volume structures used to transmit the foundation loads to the piles, through criterion analogous
to that defined for shoes.

In the case of assemblies of stiff blocks and piles, with spacing of 2.5 to 3 (where is the diameter of
the pile), the load distribution on the piles can be admitted plane.

For flexible blocks or extreme cases of short piles, supported on very stiff substrate, this hypothesis must be
reviewed.

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22.5.2 Structural behavior

22.5.2.1 Stiff block

The structural behavior is characterized by:

a) bending work in two directions, but with essentially concentrated tractions on the lines over the piles
(reticulated defined by axis of the piles, with width bands of width equal to 1.2 times its diameter);

b) load transmitted from the column to the piles essentially through compression coupling rods, of complex
form and dimensions;

c) shearing work also in two directions, which does not present rupture due to diagonal traction, and in fact
due to compression of the coupling rods, analogously to the shoes.

22.5.2.2 Flexible block

For this type of block a more complete analysis must be performed, from the distribution of the stresses in
the piles, the traction straining beams up to the need for punch verification.

22.5.3 Calculation model

For calculation and dimensioning of the blocks linear or non-linear tridimensional models and tridimensional
coupling rod-straining beam models are accepted, where these latter ones are preferred for defining better
the distribution of stresses through the straining beams. These models must adequately contemplate the
aspects described in 22.5.2.

Whenever there are significant horizontal stresses or strong asymmetry, the model must contemplate the
ground-structure interaction.

22.5.4 Detailing

22.5.4.1 Stiff blocks

22.5.4.1.1 Bending reinforcement

The bending reinforcement must be essentially disposed (more than 85%) on the bands defined by the piles,
in proportions of equilibrium of the respective coupling rods.

The bar must be extended from face to face of the block and end in hook at two extremities. For bars with
20 mm hooks of 135 or 180 must be used.

The anchorage of reinforcements of each one of these bands, on the piles, measured from the face of the
piles, must be assured. The favorable effect of the compression transversal to the bars, resulting from the
compression of the coupling rods, can be considered (please see section 9).

22.5.4.1.2 Distribution reinforcement

In order to control cracking, additional reinforcement in uniformly distributed mesh in two direction must be
planned at a maximum of 20% of the total stresses, completing the main reinforcement, calculated with a
calculation resistance of 80% of fyd.

22.5.4.1.3 Suspension reinforcement

If distribution reinforcement is planned for more than 25% of the total stresses or if the spacing between piles
is greater than 3 , suspension reinforcement must be planned for the portion of load to be balanced.

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22.5.4.1.4 Startup reinforcement of columns

The block must have sufficient height to permit the anchorage of the startup reinforcement. In this anchorage
the favorable effect of the compression transversal to the bars resulting from bending of the shoe can be
considered (please see section 9).

22.5.4.2 Flexible blocks

The requirements relative to slabs and punch must be met (please see section 19 and 20).

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23 Dynamic action and fatigue


23.1 Specific symbols of this section
So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the
most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

The symbols presented in this section follow the same orientation set in section 4. This way, the subscript
symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

f frequency

fcrit critical frequency

23.2 Generalities
The dynamic actions can provoke service limit states and ultimate limit states due to excessive vibrations or
due to fatigue of the materials.

23.3 Limit state of excessive vibrations


The analysis of vibrations can be done in linear system in the case of usual structures.

In order to assure satisfactory behavior of the structures subject to vibrations, the proper frequency of the
structure (f) must be separated as much as possible from the critical frequency (fcrit) that depends on the
destination of the respective building.

f > 1,2 fcrit

The behavior of the structures subject to cyclic dynamic actions that originate vibrations can be modified by
means of alterations in some factors, like dynamic actions, natural frequency (through the change of stiffness
of the structure or the mass in vibration) and increase of the shock-absorbing characteristics.

When the critical action is originated in a machine, the critical frequency becomes that of the machines
operation.

In this case, it may not be sufficient to separate the two frequencies, proper and critical. Mainly when the
machine is turned on, during its acceleration process, it is usually necessary to increase the mass and the
shock absorption of the structure to absorb part of the energy involved.

In special cases, where the previous prescriptions could not be met, a more accurate dynamic analysis must
be performed, as established in international norms, while there is no specific Brazilian Norm.

In the lack of experimentally determined values, the values indicated in table 23.1 for fcrit can be adopted.

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Table 23.1 Critical frequency for some special cases of structures submitted to
vibrations due to action of people
fcrit
Case
Hz
Sports gymnasium 8.0
Dance or concert halls without fixed chairs 7.0
Offices 3.0 to 4.0
Concert halls with fixed chairs 3.4
Pedestrian or cyclist overpasses 1.6 to 4.5

23.4 Ultimate limit states provoked by resonance or dynamic amplification


The dynamic amplification can be determined in linear elastic system in usual cases. When the coefficient of
impact is defined in specific Brazilian Norm, this is the value that must be used.

23.5 Ultimate limit state of fatigue

23.5.1 Cyclic actions

Fatigue is a phenomenon associated to repeated dynamic actions, which can be understood as a process of
progressive and permanent modifications of the internal structure of a material submitted to the oscillation of
stresses resulting from these actions.

The actions of high intensity fatigue, capable of provoking damages with less than 20,000 repetitions are not
treated in this Norm.

The actions of medium and low intensity fatigue and number of repetitions up to 2,000,000 cycles are
considered in the dispositions established in this section. For the consideration of the spectrum of actions, it
is admitted that those of vehicles with total load up to 30 kN can be excluded, for the case of road bridges.

For the combination of actions of a determined spectrum of loads, the rule of Palmgren-Miner is considered
valid, that is, it is supposed that the damages due to fatigue are accumulated linearly with the number of
cycles applied at certain level of stresses, where the following expression must be obeyed:

where:

n1 is the number of repetitions applied under particular condition of stresses;

Ni is the number of repetitions that would cause the rupture due to fatigue for the same condition of
applied stresses.

23.5.2 Combinations of actions to consider

Although the fatigue phenomenon is controlled through the accumulation of the deleterious effect of repeated
stresses, fatigue verification can be performed by considering a single level of stress, expressed by the
frequent combination of actions (please see section 11), given as follows:

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For fatigue verification the reduction factor value 1 must be adopted according to the type of work and
structural part.

For road bridges:

1 = 0.5 for verification of beams;

1 = 0.7 for verification of stringers;

1 = 0.8 for verification of bridge floor slabs.

For railroad bridges:

1 = 1.0.

For bearing beams of rolling bridges:

1 = 1.0.

In special cases of rolling bridges of less frequent operation, where the number of cycles is significantly
lesser than 2 x 106, the fatigue resistance can be increased according to 23.5.5.

23.5.3 Calculation model

For fatigue verification, whether concrete or steel, the stressing strengths can be calculated in elastic system.

The calculation of stresses resulting from compound bending can be performed in stage II, where the
traction resistance of the concrete is disregarded.

The calculation of stresses resulting from the shear force must be performed through the application of
models I or II, according to 17.4.2.2 and 17.4.2.3, respectively, with reduction of concrete contribution, as
follows:

- in model I the value of Vc must be multiplied by the reducing factor 0.5;

- in model II the inclination of the compression diagonals, , must be corrected through the equation:

where the following must be adopted:

f = 1.0

c = 1.4

s = 1.0

For calculation of the stressing strengths and the verification of stresses, the elastic linear model is admitted
with = 10 (ration of the modulus of elasticity of the steel and the concrete).

For the calculation of stresses in the negative or adherent positive reinforcement steel, the linear elastic
behavior can be considered compatibilizing the deformations and multiplying the stress in the steel by the
factor ns in order to take into account the difference of adherence between the prestressing steel and the
negative reinforcement steel.
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where:

As is the negative reinforcement area;

Ap is the positive reinforcement area;

s is the smaller diameter of the negative reinforcement steel in the considered cross section;

p is the diameter of the prestressing steel (for bundles, eq = 1.6 Ap , where Ap is the transversal
cross section area of the bundle);

is the ratio between the prestressing steel adherence and the negative (high adherence)
reinforcement steel resistances.

Values of at post-traction:

= 0.2 for smooth prestressing steel;

= 0.4 for cordages;

= 0.6 for notched wires;

= 1.0 for ribbed bars.

Values of at pre-traction:

= 0.6 for cordages;

= 0.8 for notched steels.

The established criterion for fatigue verification resulting from shear force on the beams is based on the
reduction of concrete contribution and alternative layouts, evaluated from the reduction of the traction
resistance of the concrete under equivalent cyclic load to adopt to 107 cycles, 50% of the static traction
resistance. This corresponds to reducing the value Vc of the concrete contribution by 50% of its static value.

23.5.4 Concrete fatigue verification

23.5.4.1 Concrete in compression

This verification for concrete in compression is satisfied if:

where:

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where:

c is a factor that considers the gradient of compression stresses in the concrete;

|c1| is the smaller value, in modulus, of the compression stress at a distance not greater than 300
mm from the face under the relevant combination of loads (figure 23.1);

|c2| is the greater value, in modulus, of compression stress at a distance not greater than 300 mm
from the face under the same combination of load used for calculation of |c1| (figure 23.1).

Figure 23.1 Definitions of stresses c1 and c2

23.5.4.2 Concrete in traction

Fatigue verification of concrete in traction is satisfied if:

where:

23.5.5 Fatigue verification of the reinforcement

This verification is satisfied if the maximum calculated stress variation, s, for the frequent combination of
loads satisfies:

where the values of fsd,fad are given in table 23.2.

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Table 23.2 Parameters for the S-N curves (Woeller) for the steels inside the
concrete 1)
Negative reinforcement, steel CA-50
Values of fsd,fad,min, for 2 x 106 cycles
MPa

Case mm Type 2)
10 12.5 16 20 22 25 32 40
Straight or bent bars with
190 190 190 185 180 175 165 150 T1
D 25
Straight or bent bars with:
D < 25
105 105 105 105 100 95 90 85 T1
D = 5 < 20 mm
D = 8 20 mm
Stirrups
85 85 85 - - - - - T1
D = 3 10 mm
Marine environment
65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 T4
Class IV
Welded bars (including welding by point or the
85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 T4
extremities) and mechanical connectors
Positive reinforcement
Values of fpd,fad,min, for 2 x 106 cycles
Case
MPa
Pre-traction, wire or straight cordage 150 T1
Post-traction, curved cables 110 T2
Straight cables 150 T1
Mechanical connectors and anchorages (case of
70 T3
greased cordage)
1)
It is admitted, for certification of productive processes, to justify the values of this table in tests of air bars. The
fluctuation of stresses must be measured from the maximum stress of 80% of the nominal drainage stress and frequency
of 5 Hz to 10 Hz.
2)
Please see table 23.3

Table 23.3 Types of S-N curve


Type N* k1 k2
6
T1 10 5 9
6
T2 10 3 7
T3 106 3 5
7
T4 10 3 5

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The function of the fatigue resistance for the steel, represented in log.log scale (please figure 23.2), consists
of straight line segments of the form (fSd,fad)m x N = constant.

curve 1 m = k1

curve 2 m = k2

Figure 23.2 Format of fatigue characteristic resistance curves (S-N curves) for steel

In no case fatigue resistance greater than that of the straight bar must be considered.

In the case where it can experimentally be proven that the steel to be used in the structure presents fatigue
resistance characteristics higher than those indicated here, the use of these characteristics in the calculation
is permitted.

In the case of identification marks of the manufacturer, this must present the fatigue resistance values as
consequence of eventual concentration of stresses provoked by the relief format of the mark on the bar.

It is considered that the presented values for the fatigue resistance from negative reinforcement steels refer
to high adherence ribbed bars, in which the transversal and longitudinal corbels do not cross each other or
present:

where:

h is the height of the corbel;

r is the radius of the concordance curve of the corbel with the body of the bar.

In the lack of specific experimental data that prove that bars that do not respect this configuration satisfy
table 23.2, it is permitted to use them with a reduction of 30% of fluctuation of the limit stress given in table
23.2.

23.6 Service limit states


The modifications introduce through the repetition of stresses can affect significantly the structures from the
point of view of their behavior in service, particularly in what refers to the emergence of non-existing cracks
under static actions, the worsening of already existing cracking and the increase of deformations.

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The increase of deformations is progressive under cyclic dynamic actions and is summed to the increase of
deformations resulting from flow. In the lack of conclusive experimental data, the cyclic effect can be
estimated through the expression:

where:

an is the deformation in the nth cycle due to maximum load;

a1 is the deformation in the first cycle due to maximum load;

n is the number of cycles.

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24 Plain concrete
24.1 Specific symbols of this section
So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the
most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

The symbols presented in this section follow the same orientation set in section 4. This way, the subscript
symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

ea Additional eccentricity

ex, ey Eccentricities in the x, y directions

exa, eya Additional eccentricities in the x, y directions

Ae Effective area

c Specific concrete deformation

c,lim Concrete compression deformation at the rupture

ct Traction deformation in the concrete

ct,lim Concrete traction deformation in the rupture

cmd Stress in the average calculation compressed concrete

TRd Calculation torsion resisting shearing stress

wRd Calculation shear force resisting shearing stress

Rd Calculation resisting shearing stress

24.2 Field of application


The plain structural concrete must have assured some basic conditions, like lateral contention (case of piles
or tubes), compression in entire transversal cross section (case of arches), continuous vertical support on
the ground or in another structural part (case of columns, walls, blocks or pedestals).

The use of plain concrete in structures subject to earthquakes or explosions and in cases where ductility is
important quality of the structure is not permitted.

24.3 Materials and properties


The requirements for concrete listed in section 8 must be met, where concrete from class C10 can be used
(ABNT NBR 8953).

24.4 Constructive joints and dispositions


The expansion joints must be planned at least for every 15 m. In the case that larger separation is needed,
the effects of thermal retraction of the concrete (as consequence of hydration heat), hydraulic retraction and
temperature drops must be considered in the calculation.

Any reinforcement eventually existing in the plain concrete must end at least 6 cm from the joints.

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Concreting interruption can only be performed at the joints.

Lateral stability of the plain concrete parts must be assured by means of bracings (please see section 15).

24.5 Structural project

24.5.1 Generalities

The structural elements of plain concrete must be designed through the limit states method, using the same
weighted coefficients already prescribed for reinforced concrete (please see sections 10 and 11).

The traction resistance of the concrete can be considered in the calculation, as long as under the effect of
the increased actions the ultimate values are not exceeded, in traction as well as in compression.

In the case of long duration loads, the concrete flow must be considered, according to section 8.

24.5.2 Calculation resisting stresses

24.5.2.1 The maximum stress in the plain concrete fibers due to increased loads and stresses must not
exceed the values of the calculation resisting stresses. In all cases of application of plain structural concrete
c = 1.2 x 1.4 = 1.68 must be adopted. In the case of traction, this maximum stress must be based on the
f ctk ,inf
lower characteristic value of the traction resistance, according to 8.2.5, such that: f ctd =
c

24.5.2.2 The values of the calculation resisting stresses (limit values of the stresses determined with the
calculation acting stresses) are given as follows:

- extreme fiber at compression cRd = 0.85 fcd;

- extreme fiber at traction ctRd = 0.85 fctd.

24.5.2.3 The values of the calculation resisting shearing stresses, relative to the shear force in linear parts,
are given as follows:

- wRd = 0.30 fctd in simple bending and in bending-traction;

- wRd = 0.30 fctd (1 + 3 cmd / fck) in bending-compression.

where the determination of the influence of the external normal force of compression is given by the factor:

24.5.2.4 The value of the calculation resisting shearing stress in plain concrete slabs, submitted to bending
or to bending-traction, must be calculated by:

24.5.2.5 The value of the calculation resisting shearing stress, in structural elements submitted to simple
torsion, must be calculated by:

Curved parts or that are subject to torsion of equilibrium must not be of plain concrete.

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24.5.2.6 The value of the calculation punch resisting shearing stress, in outline C (19.5.2.6), must be
calculated by:

24.5.3 Dimensioning

The plain concrete works may have distribution reinforcement, which must not be considered in the
calculation of the resisting stresses, but that can be considered to reduce the cracking effect.

Concrete elements with reinforcement lesser than the minimum must be dimensioned like plain concrete.
This does not apply to reinforcement used for transferring stresses to plain concrete elements.

The dispositions in sections 6 and 7 on durability must be met.

In the calculation of stresses due to bending, compound bending and tangential stresses, the total
transversal cross section of the element must be considered, except in the case of concrete placed against
the ground, where the total height h to be considered must be 5 cm lesser than the real.

24.5.4 Stresses and deformation in bending

24.5.4.1 Concrete stress deformation diagram

Using the calculation hypotheses established in 24.5.2, the deformations in the extreme fibers must be
limited by:

As simplification, it can be admitted that the stress deformation diagram has the parabola-rectangle
configuration, in compression as well as traction. Concrete flow must be considered for long duration loads
(figure 24.1).

Figure 24.1 Concrete stress deformation calculation diagram with flow consideration

24.5.4.2 Limits of average deformations

In the same manner, the average deformations must be limited as follows:

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- in compression, with small eccentricity, in the fiber at a distance 0.43 h from the most compressed:
c 0.002;

- in traction, with small eccentricity, in the fiber at a distance 0.43 h from most traction stressed: ct
0.0002.

24.5.4.3 Calculation resisting stresses

As additional simplification, constant values for the calculation resisting stresses can be adopted, as follows:

- for traction stressed region: ctRd = 0.85 fctd;

- for compressed region: the linear stress diagram with peak cRd = 0.85 fcd.

24.5.5 Shearing stresses

24.5.5.1 The shearing stresses wd for rectangular cross section must be calculated by (please see 24.5.2.3):

where:

h is the total height of the transversal cross section of the structural element.

24.5.5.2 The maximum shearing stress wd must be calculated for the shear force at a distance h from the
face of the support. For closest cross sections of the support, this same shear force value is admitted.

24.5.5.3 In the case of slabs the reduction of the shear force value in the supports cannot be performed and
the shearing stress must be (please see 24.5.2.4):

24.5.6 Torsion

The stresses coming from the torsion must be calculated through the theory of elasticity formulas and their
effects added to those coming from other stressing strengths, in order to be examined as multiple stress
state.

In elements submitted to torsion and simple or compound bending, the stresses must be calculated
separately for the torsion (Td) and for the shear force (wd), where they must obey the relations:

- for torsion: Td TRd;

- for shear force: wd wRd;

- for torsion and shear force: wd /wRd + Td / TRd 1.

24.5.7 Calculation of cross sections submitted to compression and shear force

24.5.7.1 Generalities

The cases of cross sections compressed due to normal force and cross sections subject to compression and
shear force acting simultaneously (inclined force of compression) are considered.

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24.5.7.2 Simplified calculation of compressed cross sections

In the cross sections of plain concrete elements submitted to force of compression Nd, applied at a point G,
with the eccentricities ex and ey in relation to the x and y axes, respectively (please see figure 24.2), the
calculation must be performed by applying this force at point G1(e1x, e1y) that may result the most
unfavorable between the two following:

or

where:

Where:

hx and hy are the maximum dimensions of the cross section.

a) Virtual points of application b) Effective cross section

Figure 24.2 Bending-compressed cross section

The stress d must be calculated by adopting uniform distribution of stresses in the effective triangular cross
section of area Ae (please see figure 24.2), with center of gravity at the virtual point of application G1 of
normal force, considering inactive the rest of the cross section. The safety condition must be calculated by:

24.5.7.3 Simplified calculation of cross sections at compression and shear force

In a cross section of a plain concrete element on which an inclined force of compression acts, with its
calculation components NSd and VSd, applied at point G, virtual point of application G and the effective area
Ae are calculated as established in 24.5.7.2. The safety conditions must be calculated by:

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24.5.8 Global stability

In the entire structure global stability must be verified.

24.6 Structural elements of plain concrete

24.6.1 Wall-columns

Plain concrete wall-columns of rectangular cross section can be dimensioned through the equation given as
follows, when the resultant of all calculation loads is within the middle third of the thickness of the wall-
column:

where:

= 1.0 when there are no restrictions to rotation on top and at the base of the wall-column;

= 0.8 when there is some restriction against rotation, on top, at the base or in both extremities of
the wall-column.

where:

is the vertical distance between supports;

h is the total height of the transversal cross section of the wall-column;

is the factor that defines the bonding conditions in the supports.

The horizontal length of the wall-column to be considered for each concentrated vertical load on top cannot
exceed:

- the center to center distance between loads;

- distance between supports increased by four times the thickness of the wall-column.

The thickness of the wall-column cannot be lesser than:

- 1/24 of the total height or the unsupported vertical length;

- 10 cm;

- 15 cm in the case of wall-column walls of foundations or continuous shoes.

In the openings of doors or windows at least two bars of = 10 mm must be planned, which are extended
50 cm from the receding angles.

The global stability of the assembly and the junction between panels must be assured.

24.6.2 Foundation blocks

Plain concrete must not be used for blocks on piles.

The base area of foundation blocks must be determined from the admissible stress from the ground for non-
increased loads. The average thickness of the block must not be lesser than 20 cm.

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The dimensioning of transversal cross sections must be performed through the limit states method. The
increased bending moment must be determined in the critical cross section, which can be considered on the
face of the column or wall.

The increased shear force must be calculated for the critical cross section on the face of the column,
pedestal or wall, and must not exceed:

24.6.3 Columns

Plain concrete columns must be calculated in the same manner as the wall-columns (please see 24.6.1)
and, in the absence of lateral actions, the acting load must be inside or at the limit of the central nucleus of
inertia of the cross section. In the case that lateral actions act concomitantly, like the wind, the cross sections
must be verified without considering the traction resistance of the concrete. In the case the compressed part
of the cross section must contain the center of gravity.

The maximum compression stress in the ultimate limit state, with increased actions, must not exceed the
value of cRd.

The smaller dimension of columns must be 20 cm or 1/10 of its height.

24.6.4 Arches

The plain concrete arches must be designed such that in the ultimate limit state no tractions stresses may
appear at any transversal cross section.

The global stability of the arch must be assured, where an increase of bending moments can be considered
due to 2nd order effects up to a maximum of 10% above the 1st order moments.

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25 Project interface with construction, use and maintenance


25.1 Project acceptance
It falls on the contracting party to proceed with the reception of the project, when the requirements of this
Norm are fulfilled, in particular those prescribed in section 5.

Once the existence of non-conformities is verified, provisional acceptance term of the project must be
issued, of which must consist all pending issues.

In the lack of technical qualification of the contracting party for the acceptance of the project, it must
designate a representative legally qualified for such task.

Once the pending issues are solved, the definitive acceptance term of the project must be issued.

25.2 Concrete and steel reception


The concrete and the steel must be received, as long as all requirements of ABNT NBR 12655, ABNT NBR
7480, ABNT NBR 7481, ABNT NBR 7482 and ABNT NBR 7483 are met.

25.3 Existence of non-conformities in executed works

25.3.1 Corrective actions

In the case of existence of non-conformities, the following corrective actions must be adopted:

a) review of the project to determine if the structure, in all or in part, can be considered accepted, considering
the values obtained in the tests;

b) in negative case, markers must be extracted and tested as disposed in ABNT NBR 7680, if there is also
deficiency of concrete resistance whose results must be evaluated in accordance with ABNT NBR 12655,
where the new verification of the structure is conducted as follows, aiming at its acceptance, where what is
disposed in 12.4.1 can be used;

c) if the non-conformity is not finally eliminate, what is disposed in 25.3.3 is applied. There are cases where
load test can also be recommended, as long as there is no risk of fragile rupture.

25.3.2 Structure load test

The load test must be planned seeking to represent the combination of loads that determined the non-
conformity in the analytical verification. In the case of non-conformity that indicates the possibility of fragile
rupture, the load test is not a recommendable resource. In this test a continued monitoring of the load and
the response of the structure must be performed, such that this is not unnecessarily damaged during the test
execution.

Distinction must be made between acceptance test and resistance test:

a) acceptance test aims to confirm that the global performance of the structure is in conformity with the
prescriptions of the project. The load is applied up to values between the characteristic value and the project
value for the ULS. Requirements can be established for displacements, the degree of non-linearity and the
residual deformations, after the test;

b) resistance test aims to show that the structure of the structural element has at least the adopted
resistance for the project. When an evaluation is desired only of an element, it is sufficient to bring the load
up to the value of the project for the ULS. Obviously, as already pointed out, care must be taken so as not to
damage the structure unnecessarily.

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25.3.3 Final non-conformity

Once the final non-conformity of part or the entire structure is established, one of the following alternatives
must be chosen:

a) determine the restrictions of use of the structure;

b) arrange for the reinforcement project;

c) decide for the total or partial demolition.

25.4 Use, inspection and maintenance manual


Depending on the size of the construction and the aggressiveness of the medium and the possession of
information of the projects, materials and products used and the execution of the works, a use, inspection
and maintenance manual must be produced by qualified professional, duly hired by the contracting party.
This manual must specify clearly and briefly, the basic requirements for the use and preventive maintenance,
necessary to assure the planned useful life for the structure, as indicated in ABNT NBR 5674.

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Annex A
(informative)
Effect of time in the structural concrete
A.1 Generalities
The prescriptions of this annex is informative in character that can, in the lack of better data, be used in the
structural projects with group I concretes of ABNT NBR 8953 covered by this Norm. Other values can be
used, as long as experimentally proven, by means of tests performed in accordance with specific Brazilian
Norms, taking into account variations in characteristics and properties of concrete components, or even as
long as supported by international norms or technical literature.

A.2 Concrete deformations

A.2.1 Introduction

When there is no impediment to free concrete deformation, and it is applied to it, at time t0, a constant stress
at interval t t0, its total deformation, at time t, has the value:

where:

c (t) = c (t0) / Eci (t0) is the immediate deformation, on occasion of the load, with Eci (t0) calculated,
for j = t0, by the expression: Eci (t0) = 5600 fckj ;

cc (t) = [c (t0) / Eci28] (t, t0) is the deformation due to flow, at the time interval (t, t0), with Eci28
calculated for the same expression for j = 28 days;

cs (t) is the deformation due to retraction, at the time interval (t, t0).

A.2.2 Concrete flow

A.2.2.1 Generalities

The deformation due to concrete flow (cc) is composed of two parts, one fast and another slow. The rapid
deformation (cca) is irreversible and occurs during the first 24 hours after load application that originated it.
The slow deformation is in turn composed of two other portions, the irreversible slow deformation (ccf) and
the reversible slow deformation (ccd).

where:

a is the coefficient of rapid deformation;

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f is the coefficient of irreversible slow deformation;

d is the coefficient of reversible slow deformation.

A.2.2.2 Hypotheses

For the calculation of the effects of flow, when the stresses on the concrete are those of service, the
following hypotheses are admitted:

a) the deformation due to flow cc varies linearly with the applied stress;

b) for applied increments of stress at distinct instances, the respective effects of flow are overlapped;

c) rapid deformation produces constant deformations in the course of time; the values of the coefficient a
are function of the ratio between concrete resistance at the time of load application and its final resistance;

d) the coefficient of reversible slow deformation d depends only on the duration of the load; its final value
and its development in the course of time are independent from the age of the concrete at the time of load
application;

e) the coefficient of irreversible slow deformation f depends on:

- relative humidity of the environment (U);

- consistency of the concrete in the placement;

- fictitious thickness of the part hfic (please see A.2.4);

- fictitious age of the concrete (please see A.2.4) at the instance (t0) of load application;

- fictitious age of the concrete at the considered instance (t);

f) for the same concrete, the irreversible slow deformation curves in function of time, corresponding to
different ages of the concrete at the time of loading, are obtained, some in relation to others, through
displacement parallel to the axis of the deformations, according to A.1.
Irreversible slow deformation

Time

Figure A.1 Variation of ccf (t)

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A.2.2.3 Flow value

At the instance t the deformation due to flow is given by:

with calculated Ec28, for j = 28 days, through the expression: Ec28 = Eci,28 = 5600 fck

The coefficient of flow (t, t0), also valid for traction, is given by:

where:

t is the fictitious age of the concrete at the considered instance, in days;

t0 is the fictitious age of the concrete when single load is carried out, in days;

t0i is the fictitious age of the concrete when load is carried out, in days;

a is the coefficient of rapid flow, determined by the expression:

where:

f c (t 0 )
is the resistance growth function of the concrete with the age, defined in 12.3;
f c (t )

f = 1c 2c is the final value of the coefficient of irreversible slow deformation;

1c is the coefficient dependent on the relative humidity of the environment U, in percentage, and
concrete consistency given by table A.1;

2c is the coefficient dependent on the fictitious thickness hfic of the part, defined in A.2.4.

where:

hfic is the fictitious thickness, in centimeters (A.2.4);

f (t) or f (t0) is the coefficient relative to the irreversible slow deformation, function of the age of the
concrete (please see figure A.2);

d is the final value of the coefficient of reversible slow deformation that is considered equal to 0.4;

d (t) is the coefficient relative to the reversible slow deformation time function (t t0) elapsed after
loading.

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where:

h is the fictitious thickness, in meters; for values of h outside the interval (0.05 h 1.6), where the
following extremes are adopted;

t is the time, in days (t 3).

Fictitious age of the concrete in days

Figure A.2 Variation of f (t)

A.2.3 Concrete retraction

A.2.3.1 Basic hypotheses

The concrete retraction value depends on:

a) relative humidity of the environment;

b) consistency of the concrete in placement;

c) fictitious thickness of the part.

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A.2.3.2 Retraction value

Between the instances t0 and t the retraction is given by:

where:

cs is the final retraction value;

1s is the coefficient dependent on the relative humidity of the environment and on concrete
consistency (please see Table A.1);

2s is the coefficient dependent on the fictitious thickness of the part;

where:

hfic is the fictitious thickness, in centimeter (A.2.4);

s (t) or s (t0) is the coefficient relative to retraction, at the instance t or t0 (figure A.3);

t is the fictitious age of the concrete at the considered instance, in days;

t0 is the fictitious age of the concrete at the instance in which the effect of retraction on the part
beings to be considered, in days.

Table A.1 Usual numeric values for the determination of flow and retraction
Flow Retraction
1) 3)
Humidity 1c 1041s2) 3)
Environment U Reduction in accordance with ABNT NM 67 4)
% cm
0-4 5-9 10 - 15 0-4 5-9 10 - 15
In water - 0.6 0.8 1.0 + 1.0 + 1.0 + 1.0 30.0
In very humid
environment
90 1.0 1.3 1.6 - 1.0 - 1.3 - 1.6 5.0
immediately above
the water
In open air, in
70 1.5 2.0 2.5 - 2.5 - 3.2 - 4.0 1.5
general
In dry environment 40 2.3 3.0 3.8 - 4.0 - 5.2 - 6.5 1.0
1)
1c = 4.45 0.035U for reduction at the interval of 5 cm to 9 cm and U 90%.
2)
1041s = -6.16 (U/484) + U2 / 1590) for reductions from 5 cm to 9 cm and U 90%.
3)
The values of 1c and 1s for U 90% and reduction between 0 cm and 4 cm are 25% lesser and for reductions
between 10 cm and 15 cm are 25% greater.
4)
= 1 + exp (-7.8 + 0.1 U) for U 90%.
NOTES
1 For effect of calculation, the same expressions and the same numeric values can be employed in the case of traction.
2 For the calculation of flow and retraction values, the consistency of concrete is that corresponding to the one obtained
with the same proportion without the addition of superplasticizing agents and superfluidifying agents.

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where:

h is the fictitious thickness, in meters; for the values of h outside the interval (0.05 h 1.6), where
the following extremes are adopted;

t is the time, in days (t 3).

Fictitious age of the concrete in days

Figure A.3 Variation of s (t)

A.2.4 Fictitious age and thickness

A.2.4.1 Fictitious age of the concrete

The age to consider is the fictitious age (, tef), in days, when the hardening is done at room temperature of
20C and, in other cases, when there is not vapor curing, the age to consider is the fictitious age given by:

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where:

t is the fictitious age, in days;

is the coefficient dependent on the speed of hardening of the cement; in the lack of experimental
data the employment of the values listed in table A.2 is permitted;

Ti is the average daily temperature of the environment, in degrees Celsius;

tef,i is the period, in days, during which the average daily temperature of the environment, Ti, can be
admitted constant.

NOTE this expression does not apply to vapor curing.

Table A.2 Flow and retraction values in function of the speed of hardening of the
cement

Portland Cement (CP)
Flow Retraction
Slow hardening (CP III and CP IV, all classes of resistance) 1
Normal hardening (CP I and CP II, all classes of resistance) 2 1
Quick hardening (CP V-ARI) 3
Where:
CP I and CP I-S common Portland Cement;
CP II-E, CP II-F and CP II-Z Compound Portland Cement;
CP III High kiln Portland cement;
CP IV Pozzolanic Portland Cement;
CP V-ARI Initial high resistance Portland Cement;
RS Sulfate resistant Portland Cement (specific property of some of the cited type of cement).

A.2.4.2 Fictitious thickness of the part

The following value is defined as the fictitious thickness:

where:

is the coefficient dependent on the relative humidity of the environment (U%) (please table A.1),
where:

Ac is the transversal cross section area of the part;

Uar is the part of the external perimeter of the transversal cross section of the part in contact with the
air.

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A.2.5 Total deformation of the concrete

When there is variation of stress along the interval, induced by external actions or agents of different
rheological properties (including reinforcement, concretes of different ages, etc.), the total deformation in the
concrete can be calculated by:

where the first three terms represent the non-impeded deformation and the integral, the variations effects of
stresses occurred in the interval.

This expression is permitted to substitute by:

In the expressions of s (t):

c (t, t0) is the total stress variation in the concrete, in the interval (t, t0);

is the characteristic coefficient that has the variable according to the case.

In the calculation of prestressing losses in usual cases where the part can be considered as
concreted only once and the prestressing as applied only once, = 0.5 can be adopted and admit Ec (t0) =
E28, as it was done in 9.6.3.4.2. Observe that, that subsection considers that the coefficient of concrete flow:
= a + f + d is a coefficient of irreversible slow deformation with the defined properties for f.

In other usual cases = 0.8 can be considered, maintaining Ec (t0) Ec28 whenever significant.

This approximation has the advantage of treating as a single function, without separating a, f and d.

It is possible to separate a, f and d, but for this reason, it is necessary to apply the integral expression to
the problem under study. The simplified expression does not apply in this case.

Special attention must be given to the cases where the foundations are deformable or part of the structure
does not present slow deformation, as the case of metallic straining beams.

A.3 Deformations in reinforcements


A.3.1 When the reinforcement is stressed in situation analogous to that described in A.2.1, its deformation
has the value:

where:

c (t0) / Es is the immediate deformation, on occasion of the load;

[c (t0) / Es] (t, t0) is the deformation due to flow, occurred in the time interval (t, t0) and considered
whenever c (t0) > 0.5 fptk.

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A.3.2 When the free deformation due to flow is impeded, in situation analogous to that described in A.2.5 for
the concrete, the total deformation can be calculated by:

where:

s (t, t0) is the total stress variation in the reinforcement, in the interval (t, t0).

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Annex B
(informative)
General index
Item Page

Preface ........................................................................................................................................................... iv

1 Objective ........................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................... 1

3 Definitions......................................................................................................................................... 4
3.1 Structural concrete definitions............................................................................................................ 4
3.2 Limit state definitions.......................................................................................................................... 4
3.3 Definition relative to those involved in the constructive process........................................................ 5

4 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................ 6
4.1 Generalities ........................................................................................................................................ 6
4.2 Base-symbols..................................................................................................................................... 6
4.2.1 Generalities ........................................................................................................................................ 6
4.2.2 Lower case letters .............................................................................................................................. 6
4.2.3 Upper case letters .............................................................................................................................. 7
4.2.4 Greek letters....................................................................................................................................... 8
4.3 Subscript symbols ............................................................................................................................ 10
4.3.1 Generalities ...................................................................................................................................... 10
4.3.2 Lower case letters ............................................................................................................................ 10
4.3.3 Upper case letters ............................................................................................................................ 12
4.3.4 Numbers........................................................................................................................................... 12

5 General requirements of structural quality and project conformity evaluation ...................... 13


5.1 Structural quality requirements ........................................................................................................ 13
5.1.1 General conditions ........................................................................................................................... 13
5.1.2 Classification of structural quality requirements............................................................................... 13
5.2 Project quality requirements............................................................................................................. 13
5.2.1 Quality of adopted solution............................................................................................................... 13
5.2.2 Conditions imposed on the project................................................................................................... 13
5.3 Project conformity evaluation ........................................................................................................... 14

6 Guidelines for structural concrete durability .............................................................................. 15


6.1 Durability requirements .................................................................................................................... 15
6.2 Useful project life.............................................................................................................................. 15
6.3 Aging and deterioration mechanisms............................................................................................... 15
6.3.1 Generalities ...................................................................................................................................... 15
6.3.2 Predominating deterioration mechanisms relative to the concrete .................................................. 15
6.3.3 Predominating deterioration mechanisms relative to the reinforcement.......................................... 15
6.3.4 Deterioration mechanism of the structure itself................................................................................ 15
6.4 Aggressiveness of the environment ................................................................................................. 16

7 Project criteria that aim at durability............................................................................................ 17


7.1 Specific symbols of this section ....................................................................................................... 17
7.2 Drainage........................................................................................................................................... 17
7.3 Architectonic and structural forms.................................................................................................... 17
7.4 Quality of cover concrete ................................................................................................................. 17
7.5 Reinforcement details....................................................................................................................... 19
7.6 Cracking control ............................................................................................................................... 19
7.7 Special measures............................................................................................................................. 20
7.8 Inspection and preventive maintenance........................................................................................... 20

8 Material properties ......................................................................................................................... 21


8.1 Specific symbols of this section ....................................................................................................... 21
8.2 Concrete........................................................................................................................................... 22

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8.2.1 Classes............................................................................................................................................. 22
8.2.2 Specific mass ................................................................................................................................... 22
8.2.3 Coefficient of thermal expansion...................................................................................................... 22
8.2.4 Compressive resistance................................................................................................................... 22
8.2.5 Traction resistance ........................................................................................................................... 22
8.2.6 Resistance in the multiaxial stress state .......................................................................................... 23
8.2.7 Fatigue resistance ............................................................................................................................ 23
8.2.8 Modulus of elasticity ......................................................................................................................... 23
8.2.9 Poissons coefficient and modulus of transversal elasticity ............................................................. 24
8.2.10 Stress - deformation diagrams ......................................................................................................... 24
8.2.11 Flow and retraction........................................................................................................................... 25
8.3 Negative reinforcement steel ........................................................................................................... 26
8.3.1 Category........................................................................................................................................... 26
8.3.2 Type of surface................................................................................................................................. 26
8.3.3 Specific mass ................................................................................................................................... 26
8.3.4 Coefficient of thermal expansion...................................................................................................... 26
8.3.5 Modulus of elasticity ......................................................................................................................... 26
8.3.6 Stress deformation diagram, drainage and traction resistance .................................................... 26
8.3.7 Ductility characteristics..................................................................................................................... 27
8.3.8 Fatigue resistance ............................................................................................................................ 27
8.3.9 Weldability ........................................................................................................................................ 27
8.4 Positive reinforcement steel ............................................................................................................. 27
8.4.1 Classification .................................................................................................................................... 27
8.4.2 Specific mass ................................................................................................................................... 27
8.4.3 Coefficient of thermal expansion...................................................................................................... 28
8.4.4 Modulus of elasticity ......................................................................................................................... 28
8.4.5 Stress deformation diagram, drainage and traction resistance .................................................... 28
8.4.6 Ductility characteristics..................................................................................................................... 28
8.4.7 Fatigue resistance ............................................................................................................................ 28

9 Combined material behavior......................................................................................................... 30


9.1 Specific symbols of this section ....................................................................................................... 30
9.2 General dispositions......................................................................................................................... 31
9.2.1 Generalities ...................................................................................................................................... 31
9.2.2 Prestressing levels ........................................................................................................................... 31
9.3 Adherence verification...................................................................................................................... 31
9.3.1 Position of the bar during concreting................................................................................................ 31
9.3.2 Adherence resistance values ........................................................................................................... 32
9.4 Reinforcement anchorage................................................................................................................ 33
9.4.1 General conditions ........................................................................................................................... 33
9.4.2 Anchorage of negative reinforcements by adherence ..................................................................... 33
9.4.3 Anchorage of bundles of bars by adherence ................................................................................... 36
9.4.4 Anchorage of welded screens by adherence................................................................................... 36
9.4.5 Anchorage of positive reinforcements (pre-traction stressed wires and cordages) by adherence .. 36
9.4.6 Anchorage of stirrups ....................................................................................................................... 37
9.4.7 Anchorage by means of mechanical devices................................................................................... 38
9.5 Bar joints .......................................................................................................................................... 39
9.5.1 Types................................................................................................................................................ 39
9.5.2 Joints by transfer .............................................................................................................................. 39
9.5.3 Joints by threaded gloves ................................................................................................................ 41
9.5.4 Joints by welding .............................................................................................................................. 42
9.6 Prestressing ..................................................................................................................................... 43
9.6.1 Prestressing force ............................................................................................................................ 43
9.6.2 Introduction of prestressing forces ................................................................................................... 44
9.6.3 Losses of prestressing force ............................................................................................................ 45

10 Safety and limit states ................................................................................................................... 50


10.1 Safety criteria ................................................................................................................................... 50
10.2 Limit states ....................................................................................................................................... 50
10.3 Ultimate limit states (ULS)................................................................................................................ 50
10.4 Service limit states (SLS) ................................................................................................................. 50

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11 Actions ............................................................................................................................................ 51
11.1 Specific symbols of this section ....................................................................................................... 51
11.2 Actions to consider ........................................................................................................................... 51
11.2.1 Generalities ...................................................................................................................................... 51
11.2.2 Classification of actions.................................................................................................................... 52
11.3 Permanent actions ........................................................................................................................... 52
11.3.1 Generalities ...................................................................................................................................... 52
11.3.2 Direct permanent actions ................................................................................................................. 52
11.3.3 Indirect permanent actions............................................................................................................... 52
11.4 Variable actions................................................................................................................................ 56
11.4.1 Direct variable actions ...................................................................................................................... 56
11.4.2 Indirect variable actions ................................................................................................................... 56
11.5 Exceptional actions .......................................................................................................................... 57
11.6 Values of the actions ........................................................................................................................ 57
11.6.1 Characteristic values ........................................................................................................................ 57
11.6.2 Representative values...................................................................................................................... 58
11.6.3 Calculation values ............................................................................................................................ 58
11.7 Weighted coefficients of the actions................................................................................................. 58
11.7.1 Weighted coefficients of actions in the ultimate limit state (ULS) .................................................... 58
11.7.2 Weighted coefficients of actions in the service limit state (SLS)...................................................... 59
11.8 Combination of actions..................................................................................................................... 60
11.8.1 Generalities ...................................................................................................................................... 60
11.8.2 Ultimate combinations ...................................................................................................................... 60
11.8.3 Service combinations ....................................................................................................................... 62

12 Resistances .................................................................................................................................... 63
12.1 Specific symbols of this section ....................................................................................................... 63
12.2 Characteristic values ........................................................................................................................ 63
12.3 Calculation values ............................................................................................................................ 63
12.3.1 Calculation resistance ...................................................................................................................... 63
12.3.2 Calculation resisting stresses........................................................................................................... 63
12.3.3 Concrete calculation resistance ....................................................................................................... 63
12.4 Weighted coefficients of the resistances.......................................................................................... 64
12.4.1 Weighted coefficients of resistances in the ultimate limit state (ULS) ............................................. 64
12.4.2 Weighted coefficients of resistances in the service limit state (SLS)............................................... 65
12.5 Safety verification ............................................................................................................................. 65
12.5.1 Constructive safety conditions ......................................................................................................... 65
12.5.2 Analytical safety conditions .............................................................................................................. 65
12.5.3 Calculation resisting stresses........................................................................................................... 65
12.5.4 Calculation stress strengths ............................................................................................................. 65

13 Limits for dimensions, displacements and crack openings...................................................... 66


13.1 Specific symbols of this section ....................................................................................................... 66
13.2 Limit dimensions............................................................................................................................... 66
13.2.1 Introduction....................................................................................................................................... 66
13.2.2 Beams and wall-beams .................................................................................................................... 66
13.2.3 Columns and wall-columns .............................................................................................................. 66
13.2.4 Slabs ................................................................................................................................................ 67
13.2.5 Holes and openings.......................................................................................................................... 67
13.2.6 Embedded beam pockets ................................................................................................................ 68
13.3 Limit displacements.......................................................................................................................... 69
13.4 Cracking control and reinforcement protection ................................................................................ 71
13.4.1 Introduction....................................................................................................................................... 71
13.4.2 Limits for cracking and protection of the reinforcements with respect to durability ......................... 71
13.4.3 Control of cracking with respect to sensorial acceptability and use................................................. 72

14 Structural analysis ......................................................................................................................... 73


14.1 Specific symbols of this section ....................................................................................................... 73
14.2 General structural analysis principles .............................................................................................. 73
14.2.1 Objective of structural analysis ........................................................................................................ 73
14.2.2 Necessary assumptions for structural analysis................................................................................ 73
14.3 Basic Hypotheses............................................................................................................................. 74
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14.3.1 Equilibrium conditions ...................................................................................................................... 74


14.3.2 Compatibility conditions.................................................................................................................... 74
14.3.3 Monotonic load ................................................................................................................................. 74
14.4 Structural elements .......................................................................................................................... 74
14.4.1 Linear elements................................................................................................................................ 74
14.4.2 Surface elements ............................................................................................................................. 75
14.5 Types of structural analysis.............................................................................................................. 75
14.5.1 Generalities ...................................................................................................................................... 75
14.5.2 Linear analysis ................................................................................................................................. 75
14.5.3 Linear analysis with redistribution .................................................................................................... 76
14.5.4 Plastic analysis................................................................................................................................. 76
14.5.5 Non-linear analysis........................................................................................................................... 76
14.5.6 Analysis through physical models .................................................................................................... 76
14.6 Structures of linear elements ........................................................................................................... 77
14.6.1 Basic hypotheses ............................................................................................................................. 77
14.6.2 Characterization of the geometry ..................................................................................................... 77
14.6.3 Rounding of the bending moment diagram ...................................................................................... 80
14.6.4 Linear analysis with or without redistribution ................................................................................... 81
14.6.5 Plastic analysis................................................................................................................................. 82
14.6.6 Non-linear analysis........................................................................................................................... 82
14.6.7 Usual building structures Permitted estimations ........................................................................... 82
14.7 Structures with plate elements ......................................................................................................... 84
14.7.1 Basic hypotheses ............................................................................................................................. 84
14.7.2 Characterization of the geometry ..................................................................................................... 84
14.7.3 Linear analysis with or without redistribution ................................................................................... 84
14.7.4 Plastic analysis................................................................................................................................. 85
14.7.5 Non-linear analysis........................................................................................................................... 85
14.7.6 Solid slabs ........................................................................................................................................ 85
14.7.7 Ribbed slabs..................................................................................................................................... 86
14.7.8 Smooth slabs and mushroom slabs ................................................................................................. 86
14.8 Structures containing other elements............................................................................................... 87
14.8.1 Wall-beams and wall-columns ......................................................................................................... 87
14.8.2 Blocks............................................................................................................................................... 87

15 Instability and 2nd order effects .................................................................................................... 88


15.1 Specific symbols of this section ....................................................................................................... 88
15.2 Field of application and fundamental concepts................................................................................ 88
15.3 Basic calculation principle ................................................................................................................ 89
15.3.1 Moment- curvature ratios ................................................................................................................. 89
15.3.2 Geometric imperfections .................................................................................................................. 90
15.4 Definitions and classification of structures ....................................................................................... 90
15.4.1 Global, local and located 2nd order effects ....................................................................................... 90
15.4.2 Fixed node structures and moving node structures ......................................................................... 91
15.4.3 Bracing ............................................................................................................................................. 91
15.4.4 Isolated elements ............................................................................................................................. 91
15.5 Exemption from the consideration of global 2nd order stresses ....................................................... 92
15.5.1 Generalities ...................................................................................................................................... 92
15.5.2 Instability parameter ......................................................................................................................... 92
15.5.3 Coefficient z .................................................................................................................................... 93
15.6 Analysis of fixed node structures ..................................................................................................... 93
15.7 Analysis of moving node structures ................................................................................................. 94
15.7.1 Generalities ...................................................................................................................................... 94
15.7.2 Non-linear 2nd order analysis............................................................................................................ 94
15.7.3 Approximate consideration of physical non-linearity........................................................................ 94
15.7.4 Analysis of local 2nd order effects..................................................................................................... 94
15.8 Analysis of isolated elements........................................................................................................... 94
15.8.1 Generalities ...................................................................................................................................... 94
15.8.2 Exemption from the analysis of local 2nd order effects..................................................................... 95
15.8.3 Determination of local 2nd order effects............................................................................................ 96
15.8.4 Flow consideration ........................................................................................................................... 99
15.9 Analysis of wall-columns .................................................................................................................. 99
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15.9.1 Generalities ...................................................................................................................................... 99


15.9.2 Exemption from analysis of the located 2nd order effects............................................................... 100
15.9.3 Approximate process for consideration of the located 2nd order effect .......................................... 100
15.10 Lateral instability of beams............................................................................................................. 101

16 General dimensioning, verification and detailing principles................................................... 103


16.1 Objective ........................................................................................................................................ 103
16.2 General principles .......................................................................................................................... 103
16.2.1 Generalities .................................................................................................................................... 103
16.2.2 Global and local view ..................................................................................................................... 103
16.2.3 Safety in relation to the ULS .......................................................................................................... 103
16.2.4 Safety in relation to the SLS (performance in service)................................................................... 104
16.3 Project criteria ................................................................................................................................ 104
16.4 Durability ........................................................................................................................................ 105
16.5 Case of cyclic loads........................................................................................................................ 105

17 Dimensioning and verification of linear elements .................................................................... 106


17.1 Specific symbols of this section ..................................................................................................... 106
17.2 Linear elements subject to normal stresses Ultimate limit state ................................................. 108
17.2.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 108
17.2.2 Basic hypotheses ........................................................................................................................... 108
17.2.3 Ductility in beams ........................................................................................................................... 111
17.2.4 Positive and negative reinforcements ............................................................................................ 111
17.2.5 Approximate processes for compound bending dimensioning ...................................................... 112
17.3 Linear elements subject to normal stresses Service limit states ................................................ 114
17.3.1 Generalities .................................................................................................................................... 114
17.3.2 Limit state of deformation............................................................................................................... 114
17.3.3 Limit state of cracking..................................................................................................................... 116
17.3.4 Limit state of decompression and crack formation......................................................................... 118
17.3.5 Maximum and minimum longitudinal reinforcements..................................................................... 118
17.4 Linear elements subject to shear force Ultimate limit state ........................................................ 121
17.4.1 Basic hypotheses ........................................................................................................................... 121
17.4.2 Verification of the ultimate limit state.............................................................................................. 123
17.5 Linear elements subject to torsion Ultimate limit state................................................................ 127
17.5.1 Uniform torsion ............................................................................................................................... 127
17.5.2 Torsion in open thin wall profiles.................................................................................................... 130
17.6 Limit state of inclined web cracking Shear force and torsion...................................................... 131
17.7 Combined stresses......................................................................................................................... 131
17.7.1 Bending and torsion ....................................................................................................................... 131
17.7.2 Torsion and shear force ................................................................................................................. 132

18 Detailing of linear elements ........................................................................................................ 133


18.1 Specific symbols of this section ..................................................................................................... 133
18.2 General dispositions relative to the reinforcements ....................................................................... 133
18.2.1 Arrangement of Reinforcements .................................................................................................... 133
18.2.2 Curved bars.................................................................................................................................... 133
18.2.3 Reinforcement direction changes................................................................................................... 134
18.2.4 Protection against buckling of bars ................................................................................................ 134
18.3 Beams ............................................................................................................................................ 135
18.3.1 Generalities .................................................................................................................................... 135
18.3.2 Longitudinal reinforcement............................................................................................................. 135
18.3.3 Transversal reinforcement for shear force ..................................................................................... 137
18.3.4 Reinforcement for traction.............................................................................................................. 138
18.3.5 Skin reinforcement ......................................................................................................................... 138
18.3.6 Suspension reinforcement ............................................................................................................. 138
18.3.7 Bed-web or butt-web connection reinforcements........................................................................... 138
18.4 Columns ......................................................................................................................................... 139
18.4.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 139
18.4.2 Longitudinal reinforcements ........................................................................................................... 139
18.4.3 Transversal reinforcements............................................................................................................ 139
18.5 Wall-columns.................................................................................................................................. 140
18.6 Prestressing cables ........................................................................................................................ 140
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18.6.1 Longitudinal arrangement .............................................................................................................. 140


18.6.2 Transversal arrangement ............................................................................................................... 142

19 Dimensioning and verification of slabs ..................................................................................... 144


19.1 Specific symbols of this section ..................................................................................................... 144
19.2 Dimensioning and verification of slabs Ultimate limit state ......................................................... 145
19.3 Dimensioning and verification of slabs Service limit states ........................................................ 145
19.3.1 Limit state of deformation............................................................................................................... 145
19.3.2 Limit states of cracking and decompression or crack formation .................................................... 145
19.3.3 Maximum and minimum longitudinal reinforcements..................................................................... 145
19.4 Shear force in slabs and linear elements with bw 5d................................................................... 146
19.4.1 Slabs without reinforcement for shear force .................................................................................. 146
19.4.2 Slabs with reinforcement for shear force........................................................................................ 147
19.5 Dimensioning of punch slabs ......................................................................................................... 147
19.5.1 Calculation model........................................................................................................................... 147
19.5.2 Definition of stressing tension on critical surfaces C and C .......................................................... 148
19.5.3 Definition of the resisting stress on the critical surfaces C, C and C........................................... 152
19.5.4 Progressive collapse ...................................................................................................................... 154
19.5.5 Verification of prestressed structural elements .............................................................................. 155

20 Detailing of slabs.......................................................................................................................... 157


20.1 General prescriptions ..................................................................................................................... 157
20.2 Free borders and openings ............................................................................................................ 157
20.3 Slabs without beams ...................................................................................................................... 157
20.3.1 Negative reinforcements ................................................................................................................ 157
20.3.2 Prestressed slabs........................................................................................................................... 158
20.4 Punch reinforcements .................................................................................................................... 159

21 Special regions............................................................................................................................. 161


21.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 161
21.2 Regions of introduction of concentrated loads............................................................................... 161
21.2.1 Contact pressure in reduced area.................................................................................................. 161
21.2.2 Concrete joints ............................................................................................................................... 162
21.2.3 Region of introduction of prestressing............................................................................................ 162
21.2.4 Load applied on the surface of structural elements ....................................................................... 163
21.3 Holes and openings........................................................................................................................ 163
21.3.1 Generalities .................................................................................................................................... 163
21.3.2 Walls and wall-beams .................................................................................................................... 164
21.3.3 Holes that cross the beams in the direction of the height .............................................................. 164
21.3.4 Openings in slabs........................................................................................................................... 165
21.4 Nodes of porticos and connections between walls ........................................................................ 165
21.5 Connections of pre-molded structural elements ............................................................................ 165
21.6 Concreting joints............................................................................................................................. 165

22 Special elements .......................................................................................................................... 166


22.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 166
22.2 Wall-beams .................................................................................................................................... 166
22.2.1 Conceptualization........................................................................................................................... 166
22.2.2 Structural behavior ......................................................................................................................... 166
22.2.3 Calculation model........................................................................................................................... 166
22.2.4 Detailing ......................................................................................................................................... 167
22.3 Brackets and Gerber corbels ......................................................................................................... 167
22.3.1 Brackets ......................................................................................................................................... 167
22.3.2 Gerber corbels................................................................................................................................ 170
22.4 Shoes ............................................................................................................................................. 172
22.4.1 Conceptualization........................................................................................................................... 172
22.4.2 Structural behavior ......................................................................................................................... 172
22.4.3 Calculation model........................................................................................................................... 173
22.4.4 Detailing ......................................................................................................................................... 173
22.5 Blocks on piles ............................................................................................................................... 173
22.5.1 Conceptualization........................................................................................................................... 173
22.5.2 Structural behavior ......................................................................................................................... 174
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22.5.3 Calculation model........................................................................................................................... 174


22.5.4 Detailing ......................................................................................................................................... 174

23 Dynamic action and fatigue ........................................................................................................ 176


23.1 Specific symbols of this section ..................................................................................................... 176
23.2 Generalities .................................................................................................................................... 176
23.3 Limit state of excessive vibrations.................................................................................................. 176
23.4 Ultimate limit states provoked by resonance or dynamic amplification.......................................... 177
23.5 Ultimate limit state of fatigue .......................................................................................................... 177
23.5.1 Cyclic actions ................................................................................................................................. 177
23.5.2 Combinations of actions to consider .............................................................................................. 177
23.5.3 Calculation model........................................................................................................................... 178
23.5.4 Concrete fatigue verification........................................................................................................... 179
23.5.5 Fatigue verification of the reinforcement ........................................................................................ 180
23.6 Service limit states ......................................................................................................................... 182

24 Plain concrete............................................................................................................................... 184


24.1 Specific symbols of this section ..................................................................................................... 184
24.2 Field of application ......................................................................................................................... 184
24.3 Materials and properties................................................................................................................. 184
24.4 Constructive joints and dispositions ............................................................................................... 184
24.5 Structural project ............................................................................................................................ 185
24.5.1 Generalities .................................................................................................................................... 185
24.5.2 Calculation resisting stresses......................................................................................................... 185
24.5.3 Dimensioning.................................................................................................................................. 186
24.5.4 Stresses and deformation in bending............................................................................................. 186
24.5.6 Torsion ........................................................................................................................................... 187
24.5.7 Calculation of cross sections submitted to compression and shear force ..................................... 187
24.5.8 Global stability ................................................................................................................................ 189
24.6 Structural elements of plain concrete............................................................................................. 189
24.6.1 Wall-columns.................................................................................................................................. 189
24.6.2 Foundation blocks .......................................................................................................................... 189
24.6.3 Columns ......................................................................................................................................... 190
24.6.4 Arches ............................................................................................................................................ 190

25 Project interface with construction, use and maintenance ..................................................... 191


25.1 Project acceptance......................................................................................................................... 191
25.2 Concrete and steel reception ......................................................................................................... 191
25.3 Existence of non-conformities in executed works .......................................................................... 191
25.3.1 Corrective actions........................................................................................................................... 191
25.3.2 Structure load test .......................................................................................................................... 191
25.3.3 Final non-conformity....................................................................................................................... 192
25.4 Use, inspection and maintenance manual ..................................................................................... 192

Annex A (informative) Effect of time in the structural concrete........................................................... 193


A.1 Generalities .................................................................................................................................... 193
A.2 Concrete deformations ................................................................................................................... 193
A.2.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 193
A.2.2 Concrete flow ................................................................................................................................. 193
A.2.3 Concrete retraction......................................................................................................................... 197
A.2.4 Fictitious age and thickness ........................................................................................................... 199
A.2.5 Total deformation of the concrete .................................................................................................. 201
A.3 Deformations in reinforcements ..................................................................................................... 201

Annex B (informative) General index ...................................................................................................... 203

Annex C (informative) Index of figures and tables ................................................................................ 210


C.1 Figures ........................................................................................................................................... 210
C.2 Tables............................................................................................................................................. 211

Annex D (informative) Remissive index .................................................................................................. 212

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Annex C
(informative)
Index of figures and tables
C.1 Figures
Page
Figure 3.1 Limit state of partial decompression ..................................................................................... 5
Figure 8.1 Resistance in multiaxial stress state................................................................................... 23
Figure 8.2 Idealized stress deformation diagram.............................................................................. 24
Figure 8.3 Bilinear traction stress deformation diagram ................................................................... 25
Figure 8.4 Stress deformation diagram for negative reinforcement steels ....................................... 27
Figure 8.5 Stress deformation diagram for positive reinforcement steels......................................... 28
Figure 9.1 Anchorage with welded transversal bars ............................................................................ 34
Figure 9.2 Anchorage of transversal reinforcement by means of welded bars ................................... 38
Figure 9.3 Joints supposed as in the same transversal cross section................................................. 39
Figure 9.4 Transversal reinforcement in the joints............................................................................... 41
Figure 9.5 Joints by welding................................................................................................................. 42
Figure 9.6 Introduction of prestressing................................................................................................. 45
Figure 11.1 Global geometric imperfections .......................................................................................... 54
Figure 11.2 Local geometric imperfections ............................................................................................ 55
Figure 13.1 Limit dimensions for slab openings with exemption from verification................................. 68
Figure 14.1 Stiff sections........................................................................................................................ 77
Figure 14.2 Collaborating bed width ...................................................................................................... 78
Figure 14.4 Effective height and width of a transversal cross section ................................................... 79
Figure 14.5 Effective span ..................................................................................................................... 80
Figure 14.6 Rounding of bending moment diagram............................................................................... 80
Figure 14.7 Rotation capacity of plastic girders ..................................................................................... 82
Figure 14.8 Estimation in extreme supports .......................................................................................... 83
Figure 14.9 Slab bands for distribution of strengths in the multiple porticos ......................................... 87
Figure 15.1 - Moment-curvature ratio....................................................................................................... 90
Figure 15.2 Located 2nd order effects..................................................................................................... 91
Figure 15.3 Equivalent length e .......................................................................................................... 100
Figure 15.4 Approximate evaluation of the located 2nd order effect..................................................... 101
Figure 17.1 Ultimate limit state domains of a transversal cross section .............................................. 110
Figure 17.2 Reinforcement arrangement characterized by parameter s ............................................ 113
Figure 17.3 Cover concrete of the reinforcement ................................................................................ 117
Figure 17.4 Profile bending-torsion with opposite walls....................................................................... 131
Figure 18.1 Reinforcement direction change ....................................................................................... 134
Figure 18.2 Protection against buckling of bars................................................................................... 134
Figure 18.3 Covering of the stressing traction force diagram by the resisting diagram....................... 136
Figure 19.1 Necessary anchorage length ............................................................................................ 147
Figure 19.2 Critical perimeter in internal columns................................................................................ 148
Figure 19.3 Critical perimeter in border columns ................................................................................. 150
Figure 19.4 Critical perimeter in corner columns ................................................................................. 151
Figure 19.5 Definition of the useful height in the case of capital ......................................................... 151
Figure 19.6 Critical perimeter in the case of outline C presenting recess ........................................... 152
Figure 19.7 Critical perimeter along with the opening in the slab ........................................................ 152
Figure 19.9 Disposition of the punch reinforcement in cut................................................................... 154
Figure 19.10 Reinforcement against progressive collapse .................................................................... 155
Figure 19.11 Favorable effect of the inclined cables ............................................................................. 155
Figure 20.1 Free borders and openings............................................................................................... 157
Figure 20.2 Slabs without beams......................................................................................................... 158
Figure 20.3 Punch reinforcement......................................................................................................... 160
Figure 21.2 Located pressure regions ................................................................................................. 162
Figure 21.2 Concrete joint region......................................................................................................... 162
Figure 21.3 Pressures along with a pin embedded on a concrete structural element......................... 163
Figure 21.4 Openings in reinforced concrete wall beams.................................................................... 164
Figure 21.5 Vertical opening in beams................................................................................................. 165
Figure 22.1 Two most common types of wall-beams in relation to load .............................................. 166
Figure 22.2 Typical wall-beam reinforcement with h ...................................................................... 167
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Figure 22.3 Coupling rod- straining beam model for short bracket...................................................... 168
Figure 22.4 Typical reinforcement of a short bracket........................................................................... 170
Figure 22.5 Coupling rod-straining beam model for a Gerber corbel .................................................. 171
Figure 23.1 Definitions of stresses c1 and c2 .................................................................................... 180
Figure 23.2 Format of fatigue characteristic resistance curves (S-N curves) for steel ........................ 182
Figure 24.1 Concrete stress deformation calculation diagram with flow consideration .................... 186
Figure 24.2 Bending-compressed cross section.................................................................................. 188
Figure A.1 Variation of ccf (t).............................................................................................................. 194
Figure A.2 Variation of f (t)................................................................................................................ 197
Figure A.3 Variation of s (t) ............................................................................................................... 199

C.2 Tables
Page
Table 6.1 Classes of environmental aggressiveness ......................................................................... 16
Table 7.1 Correspondence between class of aggressiveness and concrete quality.......................... 18
Table 7.2 Correspondence between class of environmental aggressiveness and nominal cover for
c = 10 mm......................................................................................................................... 19
Table 8.1 Characteristic values greater than the specific retraction deformation cs(t, t0) and the
coefficient of flow (t, t0).................................................................................................... 25
Table 8.2 Ratio between 1 and b ..................................................................................................... 26
Table 8.3 Value of 1000 in percentage ............................................................................................... 29
Table 9.1 Diameter of bending pins (D) .............................................................................................. 34
Table 9.2 Diameter of bending pins for stirrups.................................................................................. 38
Table 9.3 Maximum proportion of joined traction stressed bars......................................................... 40
Table 9.4 Coefficient 0t values........................................................................................................... 40
Table 11.1 Coefficient f = f1 . f3 ......................................................................................................... 59
Table 11.2 Values of the coefficient f2 ................................................................................................. 59
Table 11.3 Ultimate combinations......................................................................................................... 61
Table 11.4 Service combinations.......................................................................................................... 62
Table 12.1 Values of the coefficients c and s ..................................................................................... 64
Table 13.1 Values of the additional coefficient n ................................................................................. 66
Table 13.2 Limits for displacements ..................................................................................................... 70
Table 13.3 Durability requirements related to reinforcement cracking and protection in function of
the classes of environmental aggressiveness .................................................................... 72
Table 15.1 Values of fl ....................................................................................................................... 102
Table 17.1 Values of coefficient in function of time.......................................................................... 115
Table 17.2 Maximum diameter and spacing values, with high adherence bars................................. 118
Table 17.3 Minimum bending reinforcement rates for beams ............................................................ 119
Table 18.1 Minimum spacings Post-traction case ........................................................................... 142
Table 18.2 Minimum spacings Pre-traction case............................................................................. 143
Table 19.1 Minimum values for adherent negative reinforcements.................................................... 146
Table 19.2 - K Values............................................................................................................................ 149
Table 23.1 Critical frequency for some special cases of structures submitted to vibrations due to
action of people................................................................................................................. 177
Table 23.2 Parameters for the S-N curves (Woeller) for the steels inside the concrete 1) ................. 181
Table 23.3 Types of S-N curve ........................................................................................................... 181
Table A.1 Usual numeric values for the determination of flow and retraction................................... 198
Table A.2 Flow and retraction values in function of the speed of hardening of the cement ............. 200

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Annex D
(informative)
Remissive index
Openings in the concrete .................. 13.2.5, 13.2.6, figure 13.1, 20.2, figure 20.1, 21.3, figures 21.4 and 21.5

Steel
Negative reinforcement steel .......................................................................................................................8.2.3
Positive reinforcement steel ........................................................................................................................8.2.4
Concrete and steel reception ........................................................................................................................25.2

Actions .............................................................................................................................................................11
Action of the wind ...................................................................................................................................11.4.1.2
Action of water ........................................................................................................................................11.4.1.3
Cyclic actions .............................................................................................................................................23.5.1
Dynamic actions ..............................................................................................................................................23
Exceptional actions .......................................................................................................................................11.5
Permanent actions ....................................................................................................11.3, 11.6.1 and table 11.3
Variable actions ...................................................................................11.4, 11.6.1.2, table 11.3 and table 11.4
Weighted coefficient of actions .....................................................................................................................11.7
Combination of actions ............................................................. 11.8, tables 11.3, table 11.4, table 13.3, 15.3.1
Value of actions ............................................................................................................................................11.6
- Characteristic values ...............................................................................................................................11.6.1
- Calculation values ...................................................................................................................................11.6.3
- Representative values .............................................................................................................................11.6.2

Adherence ...............................................................................................................................................9.3, 9.4

Additives ......................................................................................................................................................7.4.4

Aggregate .................................................................................................................................................7.4.7.6

Environmental aggressiveness .......................................................................................................................6.4


Classes ..................................................................................................................................................table 6.1
Correspondence between class of aggressiveness and concrete quality .............................................table 7.1
Correspondence between class of aggressiveness and nominal cover for c = 10 mm ......................table 7.2

Tensioning and pre-tensioning ......................... 3.1.3, 3.1.6, 3.1.8, 3.1.9, 8.3.9, 8.4.5, 9.6.3.2, 11.3.3.5, 17.2.2

Structural analysis ...........................................................................................................................................14

Anchorage ......................................................................................................................................................9.4

Arches ........................................................................................................................................ 14.4.1.4, 24.6.4

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Reduced area
Contact pressure in ....................................................................................................................................21.2.1

Reinforcement ......................................................... 17.2.4, 17.5.1.6, 17.7.1.2, 17.7.1.3, 18.2, 19.4.2, 20.3.2.6


Adherence .......................................................................................................................please see Anchorage
Anchorage .............................................................. 9.4, 18.3.2.4.1, 18.3.3.3.1, 22.2.4.2, 22.3.2.4.3, 22.3.2.4.4
Skin reinforcement ............................................................................................................ 17.3.5.2.3 and 18.3.5
Obligatory punch reinforcement .............................................................................................................19.5.3.5
Minimum and maximum longitudinal reinforcements ..................................................17.3.5, 19.3.3, table 19.1
- Limit values for longitudinal reinforcements of beams .................................................17.3.5.2 and table 17.3
- Limit values for longitudinal reinforcements of columns .......................................................................17.3.5.3
Negative reinforcement ...................................................................................................................3.1.5 and 8.3
Positive reinforcement ............................................................................................................ 3.1.6, 8.4 and 9.6
- Pre-traction stressed .................................................................................................................................3.1.7
- Post-traction stressed ............................................................................................................... 3.1.8 and 3.1.9
Calculation of reinforcements ..................................................................................... 17, 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23
Reinforcement cover ................................................................................................................. 7.4 and 20.3.2.4
Deformations in the reinforcement ................................................................................................................ A.3
Detailing of reinforcements .............................................................................................................................7.5
- Punch reinforcements .................................................................................................................................20.4
- Blocks on piles .........................................................................................................................................22.5.4
- Prestressing cables ....................................................................................................................................18.6
- Project criteria aiming at durability ...............................................................................................................7.5
- Brackets ................................................................................................................................................22.3.1.4
- Gerber corbels ......................................................................................................................................22.3.2.4
- Linear elements .......................................................................................................................................18.2.1
- Slabs without beams and with negative reinforcement ...........................................................................20.3.1
- Prestressed slabs ....................................................................................................................................20.3.2
- Columns .....................................................................................................................................................18.4
- Wall-columns ..............................................................................................................................................18.5
- Shoes ......................................................................................................................................................22.4.4
- Beams ........................................................................................................................................................18.3
- Wall-beams ..............................................................................................................................................22.2.4
Reinforcement deterioration ........................................................................................................................6.3.3
Joints ..............................................................................................................................................................9.5
Reinforcement protection .............................................................................................................................13.4
Verification of reinforcement fatigue ..........................................................................................................23.5.5

Joints .........................................................................................................................................................21.2.2

Blocks ............................................................................................................................ 14.8.2, 22.5 and 24.6.2

Calculation
Calculation resisting strengths ...................................................................................................................12.5.3
Calculation stressing strengths ..................................................................................................................12.5.4
Prestressing force calculation values .......................................................................................................9.6.1.4
Calculation values of actions .....................................................................................................................11.6.3
Calculation values of resistances .................................................................................................................12.3
- Calculation resisting stresses ..................................................................................................................12.3.2
- Concrete calculation resistance ..............................................................................................................12.3.3

Embedded beam pockets ..........................................................................................................................13.2.6

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Capitals
Slabs ..........................................................................................................................................................14.7.8
Punch ......................................................................................................................................................19.5.2.5

Characteristics
Characteristic values of actions .................................................................................................................11.6.1
Characteristic values of resistances .............................................................................................................12.2

Load
Planned accidental loads for the use of the construction .......................................................................11.4.1.1
Consideration of variable loads in usual building structures Permitted estimations ...........................14.6.7.3
Structure load test ......................................................................................................................................25.3.2
Regions of introduction of concentrated loads .............................................................................................21.2

Shocks (Dynamic actions) ......................................................................................................................11.4.2.3

Cement ........................................................................................................................................................7.4.3
Theoretical concrete compressive resistance growth curve ......................................................................12.3.3
Flow and retraction values in function of cement hardening speed ..................................A.2.4.1 and table A.2

Shear and shear force


Transversal reinforcement for shear force
- Bent longitudinal reinforcement bar .........................................................................................................18.2.2
- Columns ..................................................................................................................................................18.4.3
- Beams .....................................................................................................................................................18.3.3
Plain concrete ................................................................................................. 24.5.2, 24.5.5, 24.5.6 and 24.5.7
Linear elements subject to shear forces (ULS) ............................................................................................17.4
Linear elements subject to shear force and torsion (limit state of incline web cracking) .............................17.6
Linear element submitted to combined stresses ..........................................................................................17.7
Fatigue calculation of stresses resulting from shear force in beams .....................................................23.5.3
Shear force in slabs and linear elements with bw 5d .................................................................................19.4
Ribbed slabs ...........................................................................................................................................13.2.4.2
Slabs with reinforcement for shear force ...................................................................................................19.4.2
Slabs without reinforcement for shear force ..............................................................................................19.4.1
Slabs submitted to punch ..........................................................................................................................19.5.1
Special regions Applied load on the surface of structural elements .......................................................21.2.4
Welding shear resistance of welded transversal bars .......................................................... 9.4.2.2 and 9.4.6.2
Wall-beams and wall-columns ...................................................................................................................14.8.1

Classes of environmental aggressiveness ......................................please see Environmental aggressiveness

Reinforcement cover ................................................................................................................. 7.4 and 20.3.2.4

Coefficient
Coefficient of steel surface conformation ....................................................................................................8.3.2
Coefficient of steel thermal expansion (positive reinforcement) ..................................................................8.4.3
Coefficient of steel thermal expansion (negative reinforcement) ................................................................8.3.4
Coefficient of concrete thermal expansion ..................................................................................................8.2.3
Coefficient of concrete flow .................................................................................................8.2.11 and Annex A
Coefficients of increase of actions for columns and wall-columns ....................................13.2.3 and table 13.1
Coefficient of increase of global 1st order stresses for obtainment of the final 2nd order stresses ............15.5.3
Concretes Poissons coefficient ..................................................................................................................8.2.9

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Weighted coefficients of actions ..........................................................................11.7 and tables 11.1 and 11.2


Weighted coefficients of resistances ....................................................................................12.4 and table 12.1
Weighted coefficients for the ultimate limit state in the act of prestressing ............................................17.2.4.3
Coefficient of moment redistribution ................................................................................. 14.6.4.3 and 14.7.3.2

Compression
Limit state of excessive compression (ELS-CE) .........................................................................................3.2.7
Concrete compressive resistance ...............................................................................................................8.2.4
Stress deformation diagram of concrete under compression ..............................................................8.2.10.1
Verification of fatigue of the compressive concrete ................................................................................23.5.4.1

Concrete .........................................................................................................................................................8.2
Concrete joints ...........................................................................................................................................21.2.2
Plain concrete ..................................................................................................................................................24
Definitions of structural concrete ....................................................................................................................3.1
Effect of time on structural concrete ...................................................................................................... Annex A
Concrete flow ............................................................................................................ 11.3.3.1 and Annex A, A.2
Predominating deterioration mechanisms relative to the concrete .............................................................6.3.2
Concrete and cover quality .............................................................................................................................7.4
Concrete and steel reception ........................................................................................................................25.2
Concrete calculation resistance .................................................................................................................12.3.3
Concrete retraction ...........................................................................................................11.3.3.2 and Annex A
Verification of concrete fatigue ..................................................................................................................23.5.4

Brackets .....................................................................................................................................................22.3.1

Deformation
Deformation resulting from concrete flow .........................................................................11.3.3.2 and Annex A
Specific retraction deformation of the concrete ................................................................11.3.3.1 and Annex A
Stress deformation diagrams ..........................................................................................please see Diagrams
Limit state of deformation for linear elements subject to normal stresses ................................................17.3.2
Limit state of deformation for slabs ............................................................................................................19.3.1

Slow deformation ...................................................................................................................... please see Flow

Gerber corbels ...........................................................................................................................................22.3.2

Displacement
Displacements ................................................................................................................ please see Deflections
Support displacements ...........................................................................................................................11.3.3.3
Limit displacements ..............................................................................................................13.3 and table 13.2

Diagram
Stress deformation diagrams for the concrete ................................. 8.2.10, 24.5.1, figures 8.2, 8.3 and 24.1
Stress deformation diagrams for the steel (negative reinforcement) ............................... 8.3.6 and figure 8.4
Stress Deformation diagrams for the steel (positive reinforcement) ................................ 8.4.5 and figure 8.5

Dimensioning and verification


Blocks on piles ..............................................................................................................................................22.5
Brackets .....................................................................................................................................................22.3.1
Gerber corbels ...........................................................................................................................................22.3.2

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Plain concrete elements ..................................................................................................................................24


Linear elements subject to normal stresses (ULS) .......................................................................................17.2
Linear elements subject to normal stresses (SLS) .......................................................................................17.3
Linear elements subject to shear forces (ULS) ............................................................................................17.4
Linear elements subject to torsion (ULS) .....................................................................................................17.5
Linear elements subject to shear force and torsion (LE of inclined web cracking) ......................................17.6
Linear elements submitted to combined stresses ........................................................................................17.7
Fatigue (ULS) ...............................................................................................................................................23.5
Fatigue (SLS) ................................................................................................................................................23.6
Concreting joints ...........................................................................................................................................21.6
Slabs (ULS) ..................................................................................................................................................19.2
Slabs (SLS) ...................................................................................................................................................19.3
Slabs and linear elements with bw 5d subject to shear force ....................................................................19.4
Slabs subject to punch ..................................................................................................................................19.5
Connections of pre-molded structural elements ...........................................................................................21.5
Nodes of porticos and connections between walls .......................................................................................21.4
Regions of introduction of concentrated loads .............................................................................................21.2
Regions with holes and openings .................................................................................................................21.3
Shoes ............................................................................................................................................................22.4
Wall-beams ...................................................................................................................................................22.2

Limit dimensions of structural elements .......................................................................................................13.2

Concrete structure durability


Project criteria aiming at durability .....................................................................................................................7
Guidelines for concrete structure durability .......................................................................................................6
Durability .......................................................................................................................................................16.4
Limit for reinforcement cracking and protection with respect to durability .................................................13.4.2

Ductility
Ductility in beams .......................................................................................................................................17.2.3
Redistribution of ductility moments and conditions in structures of linear elements ..............................14.6.4.3
Redistribution of ductility moments and conditions in structures with plate elements ............................14.7.3.2

2nd Order effects ..............................................................................................................................................15


Analysis of local 2nd order effects ..............................................................................................................15.7.4
Determination of local 2nd order effects .....................................................................................................15.8.3
Exemption from analysis of local 2nd order effects ................................................................. 15.8.2 and 15.9.2
Global, local and located 2nd order effects ................................................................................................15.4.1
Approximate process for consideration of the located 2nd order effect .....................................................15.9.3

Joints ..............................................................................................................................................................9.5

Structure load test ......................................................................................................................................25.3.2

Strengths
Calculation resisting strengths ...................................................................................................................12.5.3
Calculation stressing strengths ..................................................................................................................12.5.4

Limit States ............................................................................... 3.2, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 17.3, 17.4, 17.5 and 17.6
Ultimate limit state (ULS) ................................................................................................... 3.2.1 and figure 17.1
Limit state of crack formation (ELS-F) .........................................................................................................3.2.2

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Limit state of opening of cracks (ELS-W) ....................................................................................................3.2.3


Limit state of excessive deformations (ELS-DEF) .......................................................................................3.2.4
Limit state of decompression (ELS-D) .........................................................................................................3.2.5
Limit state of partial decompression (ELS-DP) ................................................................... 3.2.6 and figure 3.1
Limit state of excessive compression (ELS-CE) .........................................................................................3.2.7
Limit state of excessive vibrations (ELS-VE) ...............................................................................................3.2.8

Spacing
Skin reinforcement ............................................................................................................ 17.3.5.2.3 and 18.3.5
Cracking control without crack opening verification .......................................................17.3.3.3 and table 17.2
Transversal distribution of longitudinal reinforcement of beams ............................................................18.3.2.2
Reinforced structural elements without stirrups .....................................................................................18.3.3.2
Spacing between ribs of ribbed slabs .....................................................................................................13.2.4.2
Longitudinal spacing between bent transversal reinforcement bars for shear force ...........................18.3.3.3.2

Stirrups
Anchorage of stirrups ...................................................................................................................................9.4.6
Punch reinforcement .....................................................................................................................................20.4
Torsion reinforcement (beams) .................................................................................................................18.3.4
Suspension reinforcement for Gerber corbels .....................................................................................22.3.2.4.2
Diameter of bending pins for stirrups .....................................................................................................table 9.2
Reinforced structural elements with stirrups
- Linear elements subject to shear force (ULS) ................................................................... 17.4.1.1 and 17.4.2
- Linear elements subject to torsion (ULS) ....................................................................... 17.5.1.2 and 17.5.1.6
- Columns ..................................................................................................................................................18.4.3
- Beams ..................................................................................................................................................18.3.3.2
Slabs with reinforcement for shear force ...................................................................................................19.4.2
Protection against buckling of bars .................................................................................. 18.2.4 and figure 18.2

Structure
Definitions and classification of structures ...................................................................................................15.4
- Analysis of fixed node structures ................................................................................................................15.6
- Analysis of movable node structures ..........................................................................................................15.7
Guidelines for durability of structural concretes ................................................................................................6
Structure load test ......................................................................................................................................25.3.2
Structures containing other elements ...........................................................................................................14.8
Structures of linear elements ........................................................................................................................14.6
Usual building structures Permitted estimations ....................................................................................14.6.7
Structural quality requirements .......................................................................................................................5.1

Fatigue .............................................................................................................................................................23
Limit state of excessive vibrations ................................................................................................................23.3
Ultimate limit states provoked by resonance of dynamic amplification ........................................................23.4
Ultimate limit state of fatigue ........................................................................................................................23.5
- Cyclic actions ...........................................................................................................................................23.5.1
- Combinations of actions to consider .......................................................................................................23.5.2
- Calculation model ....................................................................................................................................23.5.3
- Verification of concrete fatigue ................................................................................................................23.5.4
- Verification of reinforcement fatigue ........................................................................................................23.5.5
Service limit states ........................................................................................................................................23.6
Steel fatigue resistance (positive reinforcement) ........................................................................................8.4.7
Steel fatigue resistance (negative reinforcement) .......................................................................................8.3.8
Concrete fatigue resistance .........................................................................................................................8.2.7

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Bundles of bars
Anchorage of bundles of bar by adherence ................................................................................................9.4.3
Joints by transfer in bundles of bars .........................................................................................................9.5.2.5
Minimum spacing between cables of bundles of cables in slabs without beams ...................................20.3.2.3

Cracks, openings of cracks and cracking


Cracking control (project criteria) ....................................................................................................................7.6
Dimensioning and verification of linear elements
- Limit state of cracking ..............................................................................................................................17.3.3
Cracking control through limitation of estimated crack opening ......................................................17.3.3.2
Cracking control without the verification of crack opening ...............................................................17.3.3.3
- Limit state of decompression and crack formation ..................................................................................17.3.4
- Limit state of inclined web cracking Shear force and torsion ..................................................................17.6
Dimensioning and verification of slabs
- Limit states of cracking and decompression or crack formation .............................................................19.3.2
Limit state of crack formation (ELS-F) .........................................................................................................3.2.2
Limit state of opening of cracks (ELS-W) ....................................................................................................3.2.3
Limits for dimensions, displacements and openings of cracks .......................................................................13
- Cracking control and reinforcement protection ..........................................................................................13.4

Buckling
Lateral instability of beams .........................................................................................................................15.10
Protection against buckling of bars ............................................................................................................18.2.4

Deflections
Approximate evaluation of deflection in beams ......................................................................................17.3.2.1
- Immediate deflection in reinforced concrete beams ..........................................................................17.3.2.1.1
- Calculation of deflection deferred in time for reinforced concrete beams .........................................17.3.2.1.2
- Deflection in beams with positive reinforcements .............................................................................17.3.2.1.3

Bending
Traction reinforcements in simple bending, anchored by adherence ..................................................18.3.2.3.1
Approximate processes for the dimensioning of linear compound bending elements ..............................17.2.5
- Normal bending-compression ..............................................................................................................17.2.5.1
- Oblique compound bending .................................................................................................................17.2.5.2
Bending and torsion (linear elements) .......................................................................................................17.7.1
Minimum bending reinforcement rates for beams table ...............................................................................17.3
Stresses and deformations in bending (plain concrete) ............................................................................24.5.4

Flow
Flow and retraction ....................................................................................................................................8.2.11
Concrete flow ......................................................................................................... Annex A, A.2.2 and 11.3.3.2
Upper characteristic values of specific retraction deformation and coefficient of flow ..........................table 8.1

Hooks
Hooks of traction reinforcements ..............................................................................................................9.4.2.3
Stirrup hooks .............................................................................................................................................9.4.6.1

Slenderness index ...........................................................................................................................................15

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Instability and second order effects .................................................................................................................15

Joint
Concreting joints ...........................................................................................................................................21.6
Joints and constructive dispositions (plain concrete) ...................................................................................24.4
Expansion joints .........................................................................................................................................3.1.10
Partial expansion joints ..............................................................................................................................3.1.11

Slabs
Openings in slabs ......................................................................................................................................21.3.4
Openings that penetrate slabs in the direction of their thickness ...........................................................13.2.5.2
Structural analysis
- Solid slabs ...............................................................................................................................................14.7.6
- Ribbed slabs ............................................................................................................................................14.7.7
- Smooth and mushroom slabs ..................................................................................................................14.7.8
Minimum and maximum longitudinal reinforcements ................................................................................19.3.3
Limit dimensions for slabs .........................................................................................................................13.2.4
- Solid slabs ............................................................................................................................................13.2.4.1
- Ribbed slabs .........................................................................................................................................13.2.4.2
Dimensioning and verification of slabs (ULS) ...............................................................................................19.2
Dimensioning and verification of slabs (SLS) ...............................................................................................19.3
Dimensioning of punch slabs ........................................................................................................................19.5
Shear force in slabs and linear elements with bw 5d ................................................................................19.4
- Slabs without reinforcement for shear force ............................................................................................19.4.1
- Slabs with reinforcement for shear force .................................................................................................19.4.2
Effective spans of slabs or plates ....................................................................................................................20
- General prescriptions .................................................................................................................................20.1
- Free borders and openings ........................................................................................................................20.2
- Slabs without beams ..................................................................................................................................20.3
Negative reinforcements .....................................................................................................................20.3.1
Prestressed slabs ................................................................................................................................20.3.2
- Punch reinforcements .................................................................................................................................20.4

Width
Collaborating width of T cross section beams .............................................................. 14.6.2.2 and figure 14.2
Effective width ....................................................................................................................figures 14.3 and 14.4
Maximum width for disposition of cables in external supporting band in prestressed slabs ..................20.3.2.2
Beams and wall-beams .............................................................................................................................13.2.2

Gloves
Joints by threaded gloves ............................................................................................................................9.5.3

Materials
Combined material behavior ..............................................................................................................................9
Material properties .............................................................................................................................................8
Plain concrete ...............................................................................................................................................24.3

Supporting brackets
Supporting brackets and sudden variations of cross sections ...............................................................14.6.2.3
Supporting brackets and sudden variations of thicknesses ...................................................................14.7.2.1

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Modulus of elasticity
Positive reinforcement steel
- Modulus of elasticity ..................................................................................................................................8.4.4
- Stress deformation diagram, drainage and traction resistance ..............................................................8.4.5
Negative reinforcement steel
- Modulus of elasticity ..................................................................................................................................8.3.5
- Stress deformation diagram, drainage and traction resistance ..............................................................8.3.6
Concrete
- Modulus of elasticity ..................................................................................................................................8.2.8
- Poissons coefficient and modulus of transversal elasticity .......................................................................8.2.9
- Stress deformation diagrams .................................................................................................................8.2.1

Fixed nodes and moving nodes .....................................................................................................15.6 and 15.7

Nodes of porticos ..........................................................................................................................................21.4

Skin
Skin reinforcement ............................................................................................................ 17.3.5.2.3 and 18.3.5

Columns
Analysis of wall-columns ..............................................................................................................................15.9
- Generalities .............................................................................................................................................15.9.1
- Exemption from analysis of located 2nd order effects ..............................................................................15.9.2
- Approximate process for consideration of located 2nd order effect .........................................................15.9.3
Startup reinforcement of columns ............................................................................... 22.4.4.1.2 and 22.5.4.1.4
Transversal reinforcement .........................................................................................................................18.4.3
Flow consideration .....................................................................................................................................15.8.4
Project criteria ...............................................................................................................................................16.3
Determination of local 2nd order effects .....................................................................................................15.8.3
- Bars submitted to normal bending-compression ..................................................................................15.8.3.1
- General method ....................................................................................................................................15.8.3.2
- Approximate methods ..........................................................................................................................15.8.3.3
Standard column with approximate curvature ...............................................................................15.8.3.3.2
Moment increased with approximate stiffness ...........................................................................15.8.3.3.3
Dimensions of columns and wall-columns ............................................................................. 11.7.1 and 13.2.3
Dimensioning ...................................................................................................................................................17
Exemptions from analysis of local 2nd order effects ..................................................................................15.8.2
Local imperfections ..................................................................................................... 11.3.3.4.2 and 11.3.3.4.3
Columns (definition) ................................................................................................................................14.4.1.2
Columns (detailing) .......................................................................................................................................18.4
- Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................18.4.1
- Longitudinal reinforcements ....................................................................................................................18.4.2
Minimum diameter and reinforcement rate ......................................................................................18.4.2.1
Transversal distribution ....................................................................................................................18.4.2.2
- Transversal reinforcements .....................................................................................................................18.4.3
Plain concrete columns ..............................................................................................................................24.6.3
Limit values for longitudinal column reinforcements ...............................................................................17.3.5.3

Wall-columns
Structural analysis with wall-beams and wall-columns ..............................................................................14.8.1
Analysis of 2nd order effects of wall-columns ................................................................................................15.9
Nodes of porticos and connections between walls .......................................................................................21.4

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Wall-columns in plain concrete ..................................................................................................................24.6.1


Columns and wall-columns (dimensions) ..................................................................................................13.2.3
Wall-columns .......................................................................................................................... 14.4.2.4 and 18.5

Poisson, coefficient of ..................................................................................................................................8.2.9

Contact pressure in reduced area .............................................................................................................21.2.1

Qualified professional .................................................................................................................. 5.3.1 and 25.4

Project
Project acceptance .......................................................................................................................................25.1
Project conformity evaluation .........................................................................................................................5.3
Project criteria aiming at durability .....................................................................................................................7
Project interfaces with construction, use and maintenance ............................................................................25
Project quality requirements ...........................................................................................................................5.2
- Quality of adopted solution ........................................................................................................................5.2.1
- Conditions imposed on the project ............................................................................................................5.2.2
- Documentation of adopted solution ...........................................................................................................5.2.3
Structural project (plain concrete structures) ................................................................................................24.5

Prestressing
Positive reinforcement (of prestressing) ......................................................................................................3.1.6
Prestressing cables ......................................................................................................................................18.6
- Longitudinal arrangement ........................................................................................................................18.6.1
Traced ..............................................................................................................................................18.6.1.1
Curvatures ........................................................................................................................................18.6.1.2
Curvature in proximities of anchorages ...........................................................................................18.6.1.3
Setting during execution ...................................................................................................................18.6.1.4
Straight extremities ..........................................................................................................................18.6.1.5
Extension of extremity ......................................................................................................................18.6.1.6
Joints ................................................................................................................................................18.6.1.7
Anchorages ......................................................................................................................................18.6.1.8
- Transversal arrangement ........................................................................................................................18.6.2
Sheaths ............................................................................................................................................18.6.2.1
Cable groupings in post-traction ......................................................................................................18.6.2.2
Minimum spacings ...........................................................................................................................18.6.2.3
Concrete with pre-traction stressed positive reinforcement (prestressing with initial adherence) ..............3.1.7
Concrete with post-traction stressed positive reinforcement (prestressing with later adherence) ..............3.1.8
Concrete with post-traction stressed positive reinforcement without adherence (prestressing without
adherence) ...................................................................................................................................................3.1.9
Prestressing levels .......................................................................................................................................9.2.2
Prestressing .................................................................................................................. 9.6, 11.3.3.5.3, 17.2.4.2
- Prestressing force ......................................................................................................................................9.6.1
Generalities ........................................................................................................................................9.6.1.1
Limit values of force in the prestressing reinforcement .....................................................................9.6.1.2
Representative values of prestressing force ......................................................................................9.6.1.3
Calculation values of prestressing force ............................................................................................9.6.1.4
- Introduction of prestressing forces ............................................................................................................9.6.2
Generalities ........................................................................................................................................9.6.2.1
Post-traction cases .............................................................................................................................9.6.2.2
Pre-traction cases ..............................................................................................................................9.6.2.3
- Losses of prestressing force .....................................................................................................................9.6.3
Generalities ........................................................................................................................................9.6.3.1

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Initial losses of prestressing force ......................................................................................................9.6.3.2


Immediate losses of prestressing force .............................................................................................9.6.3.3
Progressive losses .............................................................................................................................9.6.3.4
Region of introduction of prestressing .......................................................................................................21.2.3

Punch
Punch reinforcements ...................................................................................................................................20.4
Plain concrete .........................................................................................................................................24.5.2.6
Dimensioning of punch slabs ........................................................................................................................19.5
- Calculation model ....................................................................................................................................19.5.1
- Definition of stressing strengths in the critical surface C and C .............................................................19.5.2
Internal column, with symmetric load ...............................................................................................19.5.2.1
Internal column, with moment effect ................................................................................................19.5.2.2
Border columns ................................................................................................................................19.5.2.3
Corner columns ................................................................................................................................19.5.2.4
Capital ..............................................................................................................................................19.5.2.5
Special cases of definition of critical outline .....................................................................................19.5.2.6
Interaction of normal and tangential stresses ..................................................................................19.5.2.7
- Definition of resisting stress in critical surface C, C and C ...................................................................19.5.3
Verification of resisting stress of concrete diagonal compression on critical surface C ..................19.5.3.1
Resisting stress on critical surface C in structural elements or sections without punch reinforcement 19.5.3.2
Resisting stress on surfaces C in structural elements or sections with punch reinforcement ........19.5.3.3
Definition of critical surface C .........................................................................................................19.5.3.4
- Progressive collapse ...............................................................................................................................19.5.4
- Verification of prestressed structural elements .......................................................................................19.5.5

Water/ cement ratio .....................................................................................................................7.4 and table 1

Special regions ................................................................................................................................................21

Resistance
Positive reinforcement steel
- Fatigue resistance .....................................................................................................................................8.4.7
- Stress deformation diagram, drainage and traction resistance ..............................................................8.4.5
Negative reinforcement steel
- Fatigue resistance .....................................................................................................................................8.3.8
- Stress deformation diagram , drainage and traction resistance .............................................................8.3.6
Concrete
- Compressive resistance ............................................................................................................................8.2.4
- Traction resistance ....................................................................................................................................8.2.5
- Resistance in the multiaxial stress state ........................................................................... 8.2.6 and figure 8.1
- Fatigue resistance .....................................................................................................................................8.2.7
Resistances .....................................................................................................................................................12
- Characteristic values ..................................................................................................................................12.2
- Calculation values ......................................................................................................................................12.3
Calculation resistance .........................................................................................................................12.3.1
Calculation resisting stresses ..............................................................................................................12.3.2
Concrete calculation resistance ..........................................................................................................12.3.3
- Weighted coefficients of resistances ..........................................................................................................12.4
Weighted coefficients of resistances in the ultimate limit state (ULS) ................................................12.4.1
Weighted coefficients of resistances in the service limit states (SLS) ................................................12.4.2
- Safety verification .......................................................................................................................................12.5

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Constructive safety conditions ............................................................................................................12.5.1


Analytical safety conditions .................................................................................................................12.5.2
Calculation resisting strengths ............................................................................................................12.5.3
Calculation stressing strengths ...........................................................................................................12.5.4
Values of adherence resistances ..........................................................................................................9.3.2

Resonance ....................................................................................................................................................23.4

Retraction .................................................................................................................. 8.2.11, 11.3.3.1 and A.2.3

Destruction and rupture


Ultimate limit state (ULS) .............................................................................................................................3.2.1
Resisting capacity of the structure ............................................................................................................5.1.2.1
Calculation domains figure ...........................................................................................................................17.1

Shoes ............................................................................................................................................................22.4

Cross section
Ultimate limit state domains of a transversal cross section ................................................................figure 17.1
Geometry of resisting cross section .......................................................................................................17.5.1.4
- Full convex polygonal cross sections ................................................................................................17.5.1.4.1
- Compound cross sections of rectangles ...........................................................................................17.5.1.4.2
- Hollow cross sections ........................................................................................................................17.5.1.4.3

Safety
Safety and limit states ......................................................................................................................................10
Safety criteria ................................................................................................................................................10.1
Safety verification .........................................................................................................................................12.5
- Constructive safety conditions .................................................................................................................12.5.1
- Analytical safety conditions .....................................................................................................................12.5.2
- Calculation resisting strengths ................................................................................................................12.5.3
- Calculation stressing strengths ...............................................................................................................12.5.4
Safety in relation to the ULS ......................................................................................................................16.2.3
Safety in relation to the SLS (performance in service) ..............................................................................16.2.4

Service
Weighted coefficients of actions in service limit state (SLS) .....................................................................11.7.2
Weighted coefficients of resistance in service limit state (SLS) ................................................................12.4.2
Service combinations (actions) ..................................................................................................................11.8.3
- Classification ........................................................................................................................................11.8.3.1
- Usual service combinations ..................................................................................................................11.8.3.2
Dimensioning and verification of slabs Service limit states .......................................................................19.3
Linear elements subject to normal stresses Service limit states ...............................................................17.3
Service limit states (SLS) .............................................................................................................................10.4
Service limit states (fatigue) .........................................................................................................................23.6
Safety in relation to the SLS (performance in service) ..............................................................................16.2.4

Symbols ..................................................................................................................................... 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3

Welding

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Joints by welding .........................................................................................................................................9.5.4

Weldability ...................................................................................................................................................8.3.9

Stresses
Calculation of stresses of combinations of actions .............................................................tables 11.3 and 11.4
Linear elements subject to normal stresses .................................................................................................17.2
Linear elements subject to normal stresses (SLS) .......................................................................................17.3
Linear elements subject to shear forces (ULS) ............................................................................................17.4
Linear elements subject to torsion (ULS) .....................................................................................................17.5
Linear elements subject to shear force and torsion (LS of inclined web cracking) ......................................17.6
Linear elements submitted to combined stresses ........................................................................................17.7
Calculation stressing strengths ..................................................................................................................12.5.4
Calculation stressing strengths (plain concrete) .....................................................................................24.5.2.2
Interaction of normal and tangential stresses .........................................................................................19.5.2.7
Slabs and linear elements with bw 5d subject to shear force ....................................................................19.4
Slabs subject to punch ..................................................................................................................................19.5
Regions of introduction of concentrated loads .............................................................................................21.2

Suspension
Suspension reinforcement
Blocks on piles .....................................................................................................................................22.5.4.1.3
Brackets ...............................................................................................................................................22.3.1.4.4
Gerber corbels .....................................................................................................................................22.3.2.4.2
Linear elements .........................................................................................................................................18.3.6

Temperature
Uniform temperature variations ..............................................................................................................11.4.2.1
Non-uniform temperature variations .......................................................................................................11.4.2.2

Torsion
Reinforcement for torsion ..........................................................................................................................18.3.4
Linear elements subject to torsion Ultimate limit state ..............................................................................17.5
- Uniform torsion ........................................................................................................................................17.5.1
Generalities ......................................................................................................................................17.5.1.1
General conditions ...........................................................................................................................17.5.1.2
Resistance of structural element Pure torsion ..............................................................................17.5.1.3
Geometry of resisting cross section .................................................................................................17.5.1.4
Verification of concrete diagonal compression ................................................................................17.5.1.5
Calculation of reinforcements ...........................................................................................................17.5.1.6
- Torsion in open thin wall profiles .............................................................................................................17.5.2
Generalities ......................................................................................................................................17.5.2.1
General considerations ....................................................................................................................17.5.2.2
Bending-torsion stiffness ..................................................................................................................17.5.2.3
Bending-torsion resistance ...............................................................................................................17.5.2.4
Limit state of inclined web cracking Shear force and torsion ....................................................................17.6
Combined stresses .......................................................................................................................................17.7
- Bending and torsion .................................................................................................................................17.7.1
Generalities ......................................................................................................................................17.7.1.1
Longitudinal reinforcement ...............................................................................................................17.7.1.2
Longitudinal reinforcement in bending compressed chord member ................................................17.7.1.3
Compressed chord member resistance ...........................................................................................17.7.1.4
- Torsion and shear force ..........................................................................................................................17.7.2
Generalities ......................................................................................................................................17.7.2.1

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Torsion .......................................................................................................................................................24.5.6

Traction
Stress deformation diagrams of traction concrete ...............................................................................8.2.10.2
Stress deformation diagram, drainage and traction resistance
- Negative reinforcement steel .....................................................................................................................8.3.6
- Positive reinforcement steel ......................................................................................................................8.4.5
Linear elements Traction reinforcement in simple bending, anchored by adherence ......................18.3.2.3.1
Linear elements Traction reinforcement in supporting cross sections ................................................18.3.2.4
Hooks of traction reinforcements (anchorage of negative reinforcement by adherence) ........................9.4.2.3
Traction concrete resistance .......................................................................................................................8.2.5
Limit values for longitudinal reinforcements of beams ...........................................................................17.3.5.2
- Traction reinforcement .......................................................................................................................17.3.5.2.1
- Minimum values for traction reinforcement under imposed deformations ........................................17.3.5.2.2
- Skin reinforcement .............................................................................................................................17.3.5.2.3
- Traction and compression reinforcements ........................................................................................17.3.5.2.4
Verification of concrete fatigue under traction ........................................................................................23.5.4.2

Use
Control of acceptance with respect to sensorial acceptability and use .....................................................13.4.3
Project interfaces with construction, use and maintenance ............................................................................25
Use, inspection and maintenance manual ...................................................................................................25.4

Values
Calculation values of prestressing force ...................................................................................................9.6.1.4
Calculation values of actions ......................................................................................................................11.6.3
Calculation values of resistances .................................................................................................................12.3
Characteristic values of actions .................................................................................................................11.6.1
Characteristic values of resistances .............................................................................................................12.2

Wind
Action of the wind ...................................................................................................................................11.4.1.2

Vibration
Limit state of excessive vibrations ............................................................................................... 3.2.8 and 23.3

Beams
Anchorage of lower beam reinforcement .............................................................................................22.3.2.4.4
Approximate evaluation of deflection in beams ......................................................................................17.3.2.1
- Immediate deflection in reinforced concrete beams ..........................................................................17.3.2.1.1
- Calculation of deflection deferred in time for reinforced concrete beams .........................................17.3.2.1.2
- Deflection in beams with positive reinforcements .............................................................................17.3.2.1.3
Ductility in beams .......................................................................................................................................17.2.3
Structures in linear elements ........................................................................................................................14.6
- Basic hypotheses ....................................................................................................................................14.6.1
- Characterization of the geometry ............................................................................................................14.6.2
Stiff sections .....................................................................................................................................14.6.2.1
Collaborating width of T cross section beams .................................................................................14.6.2.2
Supporting brackets and sudden variations of cross sections .........................................................14.6.2.3
Effective spans of beams .................................................................................................................14.6.2.4
Dimensioning ...................................................................................................................................................17
Holes that penetrate the beams in the direction of the height ...................................................................21.3.3
Holes that penetrate the beams in the direction of their width ...............................................................13.2.5.1

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Lateral instability of beams .........................................................................................................................15.10


Walls and wall-beams ................................................................................................................................21.3.2
Limit values for longitudinal reinforcements of beams ...........................................................................17.3.5.2
Beams (definition) ...................................................................................................................................14.4.1.1
Beams (detailing) ..........................................................................................................................................18.3
- Generalities .............................................................................................................................................18.3.1
- Longitudinal reinforcement ......................................................................................................................18.3.2
Minimum quantity .............................................................................................................................18.3.2.1
Transversal distribution ....................................................................................................................18.3.2.2
Longitudinal distribution ...................................................................................................................18.3.2.3
Traction reinforcement in supporting cross sections .......................................................................18.3.2.4
- Transversal reinforcement for shear force ..............................................................................................18.3.3
Generalities ......................................................................................................................................18.3.3.1
Structural elements reinforced with stirrups .....................................................................................18.3.3.2
Structural elements reinforced with bent bars ..................................................................................18.3.3.3
Reinforcement for torsion ....................................................................................................................18.3.4
Skin reinforcement ..............................................................................................................................18.3.5
Suspension reinforcement ..................................................................................................................18.3.6
Bed-web or butt-web connection reinforcements ................................................................................18.3.7
Continuous beams ..................................................................................................................................14.6.7.1

Wall-beams
Structural analysis with wall-beams and wall-columns ..............................................................................14.8.1
Nodes of porticos and connections between walls .......................................................................................21.4
Walls and wall-beams ................................................................................................................................21.3.2
Beams and wall-beams (dimensions) ........................................................................................................13.2.2
Wall-beams ...................................................................................................................................................22.2

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