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ABNT NBR 6118 (2003-03)-E

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STANDARD 6118

First Edition

03.31.2003

Second edition

03.31.2004

Valid starting

03.30.2004

Procedure

Prestressed concrete. Concrete

ICS 91.080.40

Reference number

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

221 pages

[Brazilian Association of Technical Standards]

ABNT 2005

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

ABNT 2004

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or through any electronic or

mechanical means, including photocopy and microfilm, without written permission by ABNT.

ABNT Headquarters

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Av. Treze de Maio, 13 28 floor

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Tel.: + 55 21 3974-2300

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Printed in Brazil

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Summary Page

Preface ........................................................................................................................................................... iv

1 Objective ........................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Definitions......................................................................................................................................... 4

4 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................ 6

11 Actions ............................................................................................................................................ 51

12 Resistances .................................................................................................................................... 63

ANNEXES

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Preface

ABNT Associao Brasileira de Normas Tcnicas [Brazilian Association of Technical Norms] is the

National Normalization Forum. The Brazilian Norms, whose content is the responsibility of the Comits

Brasileiros [Brazilian Committees] (ABNT/CB) and the Organismos de Normalizao Setorial [Sector

Normalization Organisms] (ABNT/ONS), are elaborated by Comisses de Estudo [Study Commissions] (CE),

formed by representatives from the sectors involved, where producers, consumers and neutral parties

(universities, laboratories and others) form part of them.

ABNT NBR 6118 was elaborated in the Comit Brasileiro de Construo Civil [Brazilian Committee of Civil

Construction] (ABNT/CB-02), by the Comisso de Estudo de Estruturas de Concreto Simples, Armado e

Protendido [Study Commission of Simples, Reinforced and Prestressed Structural Concrete] (CE-02:124.15).

The Review Project circulated for Public Query according to Special Proclamation of 08/31/2001, under

Project number NBR 6118.

Due to the scope change of this Norm with relation to the document of origin (ABNT NBR 6118:1980), the

need for review of ABNT NBR 7187:1987 Project and execution of reinforced and prestressed concrete

bridges Procedure and also ABNT NBR 8681:1984 Actions and safety in structures, besides the

elaboration of ABNT NBR 14391:2003 Structural concrete execution Procedure was established. This

information aims to alert users with respect to the convenience of consulting the updated editions of the cited

documents.

In order to facilitate the query and application of this Norm, having in view its extent and scope, the tables

and figures are identified in function of the section in which they are introduced. This way, the identification

number of each table or figure initially has the section number, followed by the sequential numbering within

the section.

Introduction

For the elaboration of this Norm the philosophy of the previous Norms was maintained: ABNT NBR 6118

(historically known as NB-1), ABNT NBR 7197, ABNT NBR 6119 and ABNT NB-49, so that it is the

responsibility of this to define general criteria that govern the structural concrete project, whether they are

buildings, bridges, hydraulic projects, ports or airports, etc. Therefore, it must be complemented by other

norms that set criteria for specific structures.

BRAZILIAN STANDARD ABNT NBR 6118:2003

1 Objective

1.1 This Norm sets the basic demandable requirements for simple, reinforced and prestressed structural

concrete project, excluding those in which light, heavy or other special concretes are employed.

1.2 This Norm is applied to normal structural concretes, identified by dry specific mass greater than 2000

kg/m, which do not exceed 2800 kg/m, of resistance (C10 to C50) group I, according to the classification of

ABNT NBR 8953. Among the special concretes excluded from this Norm are the mass concrete and no-fines

concrete.

1.3 This Norm establishes the general requirements to be satisfied by the project as a whole, as well as the

specific requirements referring to each of its stages.

1.4 This Norm does not include demandable requirements to avoid the limit states generated by certain

types of action, like earthquakes, impacts, explosions and fire.

1.5 In the case of special structures, such as precast elements, bridges and viaducts, hydraulic projects,

arches, silos, chimneys, towers, off-shore structures, or where non-conventional constructive techniques are

used, such as sliding techniques, successive balances, progressive placements and projected concrete, the

conditions of this Norm are still applicable, however they must be complemented and eventually adjusted at

determined points, by specific Brazilian Norms.

2 Normative references

The listed norms that follow contain dispositions that, as they are cited in this text, consist of prescriptions for

this Norm. The indicated editions were in effect at the time of this publication. Since all norms are subject to

review, it is recommended to those who execute agreements based on this to verify the convenience that the

most recent editions of the cited norms that follow are used. ABNT has the information of the norms in effect

at a given time.

ABNT NBR 5738:1994 Molding and curing of concrete cylindrical or prismatic specimens Procedure

ABNT NBR 5739:1994 Concrete Cylindrical specimen compression test Test method

ABNT NBR 6004:1984 Steel wires Alternate bending test Test method

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

ABNT NBR 6153: 1988 Metallic product Semi-guided bending test Test method

ABNT NBR 6349:1991 Steel wires, bars and cordages for prestressing reinforcements Traction test

Test method

ABNT NBR 7222:1994 Mortar and concrete Determination of traction resistance through diametral

compression test of cylindrical specimens Test method

ABNT NBR 7477: 1982 Determination of surface conformation coefficient of steel bars and wires intended

for reinforcements of reinforced concrete Test method

ABNT NBR 7480:1996 - Steel bars and wires intended for reinforcements of reinforced concrete

Specification

ABNT NBR 7484:1991 Steel wires, bars and cordages intended for prestressed reinforcements

Isothermal relaxation tests Test method

ABNT NBR 7680:1983 Extraction, preparation, testing and analysis of structural concrete reference

markers Procedure

ABNT NBR 8522:1984 Concrete Determination of modulus of static deformation and stress-deformation

diagram Test method

ABNT NBR 8548:1984 Steel bars intended for reinforcements of reinforced concrete with mechanical or

welded joints Determination of traction resistance Test method

ABNT NBR 8800:1986 Building structural steel project and execution (Limit states method) Procedure

ABNT NBR 8953:1992 Concrete for structural purposes Resistance group classification Classification

ABNT NBR 8965:1985 Steel bars CA 42S with weldability characteristics intended for reinforcements of

reinforced concrete Specification

ABNT NBR 9062:2001 Precast structural concrete project and execution Procedure

ABNT NBR 11919:1978 Verification of metallic joints of reinforced concrete bars Test method

ABNT NBR 12142:1991 Concrete Determination of traction resistance in bending of prismatic specimens

Test method

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

ABNT NBR ISO 6892:2002 Metallic materials Traction test at room temperature

ABNT NBR NM 67:1998 Concrete Determination of consistency by cone bolt slump test

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

3 Definitions

For the effects of this Norm, the following definitions are applied:

3.1.1 structural concrete: Term that refers to the complete spectrum of concrete application like structural

material.

3.1.2 simple structural concrete elements: Structural elements elaborated with concrete that does not

have any type of reinforcement, or that has it in quantity lesser than the minimum required for the reinforced

concrete (please see 17.3.5.3.1 and table 17.3).

3.1.3 reinforced concrete elements: Those whose structural behavior depends on the adherence between

concrete and reinforcement, and in which no initial tensionings of reinforcements are applied before the

materialization of this adherence.

3.1.4 prestressed concrete elements: Those in which part of the reinforcements is previously tensioned by

special prestressing equipments for the purpose of, under service conditions, impeding or limiting structure

cracking and displacements and propitiating better reutilization of high resistance steels in the ultimate limit

state (ULS).

3.1.5 negative reinforcement: Any reinforcement that is not used for producing prestressing strengths, that

is, which is not previously tensioned.

3.1.6 positive (prestressing) reinforcement: Constituted by bar, isolated wires or cordages, intended for

the production of prestressing strengths, that is, in which an initial pretensioning is applied.

3.1.7 concrete with positive reinforcement subjected to pre-traction (prestressing with initial

adherence): Prestressed concrete in which the pretensioning of the positive reinforcement is performed by

using independent supports of the structural element, before the concrete placement, which is the

connection of the prestressing reinforcement with the referred supports undone after concrete hardening; the

anchorage in the concrete is performed only through adherence.

3.1.8 concrete with positive reinforcement subjected to post-traction (prestressing with posterior

adherence): Prestressed concrete in which the pretensioning of the positive reinforcement is performed after

concrete hardening, where parts of the structural element itself are used, as supports, creating afterwards

adherence with the concrete permanently, through the injection of the sheaths.

(prestressing without adherence): Prestressed concrete in which the pretensioning of the positive

reinforcement is performed after concrete hardening, where parts of the structural element itself are used, as

supports, but adherence is not created with the concrete, such that the reinforcement is connected to the

concrete only at determined points.

3.1.10 expansion joint: Any concrete interruption for the purpose of reducing the internal stresses that can

result in impediments to any type of movement of the structure, mainly as consequence of retraction or

lowering of temperature.

3.1.11 partial expansion joint: Thickness reduction equal to or greater than 25% of the concrete cross

section.

3.2.1 ultimate limit state (ULS): Limit state related to collapse, or to any other form of structural destruction,

which determines the paralysis of use of the structure.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

3.2.2 limit state of crack formation (ELS_F): State in which the formation of cracks is started. It is admitted

that this limit state is reached when the maximum traction stress in the transversal cross section is equal to

fct,f (please see 13.4.2 and 17.3.4).

3.2.3 limit state of crack opening (ELS-W): State in which the cracks are presented with openings equal to

the maximum specified in 13.4.2 (please see 17.3.3).

3.2.4 limit state of excessive deformations (ELS-DEF): State in which the deformations reach the

established limits for normal use given in 13.3 (please see 17.3.2).

3.2.5 limit state of decompression (ELS-D): State in which the normal stress is null in one or more

transversal cross section, where there is no traction in the rest of the cross section. Usual verification in the

case of prestressed concrete (please see 13.4.2).

3.2.6 limit state of partial decompression (ELS-DP): State in which compression is assured in the

transversal cross section, in the region where there are positive reinforcements. This region must be extent

up to a distance ap of closest face of the cordage or the prestressing sheath (please see 3.1 and table 13.3).

Prestressing Compressed

sheath region

Region subjected

to traction

3.2.7 limit state of excessive compression (ELS-CE): State in which, the compressive strengths reach the

established conventional limit. Usual in the case of prestressed concrete at the occasion of prestressing

application (please see 17.2.4.3.2.a).

3.2.8 limit state of excessive vibrations (ELS-VE): State in which the vibrations reach the established

limits for normal construction use.

3.3.1 CONTRACTING PARTY: Natural person or legal entity of public or private right that, through

opportune instrument of commitment, promotes the execution of services and/or works through technically,

legally and financially qualified contracted party.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

4 Symbols

4.1 Generalities

The symbols adopted in this Norm, in what refer to structural concrete, is composed of base-symbols (same

size and on the same level of current text) and subscript symbols.

The base-symbols used with more frequently in this Norm are set forth in 4.2 and the subscript symbols in

4.3.

The general symbols are established in this section and more specific symbols of some parts of this Norm is

presented in the pertinent sections, so as to simplify understanding and, therefore, the application of

established concepts.

The magnitudes represented by the symbols included in this Norm must always be expressed in units of the

International System (IS).

4.2 Base-symbols

4.2.1 Generalities

Some base-symbols presented in 4.2.2 to 4.2.4 are accompanied by subscript symbols, so as not to

generate doubts in the understanding of their meaning.

a Distance or dimension

b Width

d Useful height

- Dimension or distance

- Distance

h Dimension

- Height

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

i Minimum radius of rotation of the rough portion of concrete of the analyzed part

k Coefficient

- Length

- Span

n Number

- Stiffness

- Time

u - Perimeter

w Crack opening

z Lever arm

- Distance

(EI) Stiffness

F Force

H - Height

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

K Coefficient

M Moment

- Bending moment

R Support reaction

T Temperature

- Torsional moment

Angle

- Instability parameter

- Coefficient

Angle

- Coefficient

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

p Weighted coefficient of loads originating from prestressing (please see table 11.1 and 17.2.4.3)

Coefficient of redistribution

- Displacement

Specific deformation

Rotation

- Angle of inclination

Slenderness index

Coefficient

Poissons coefficient

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Coefficient of flow

4.3.1 Generalities

The subscript symbols are presented only in 4.3.2 to 4.3.4 in the same size of the current text, so as to

facilitate their visualization.

apo support

c concrete

cor corrected

d calculation value

ef effective

e equivalent

eq equivalent

f bundle

fad fatigue

fic fictitious

g permanent actions

h horizontal

i sequential number

inf lower

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

k characteristic value

- sequential number

lim limit

m average

max maximum

min minimum

nec necessary

nom nominal

q variable actions

r radial

sec secant

ser service

sup upper

t traction

- transversal

tot total

u ultimate

- of rupture

v vertical

- beam

vo - span

vig beam

w web

- transversal

y steel drainage

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

R resistances

S stresses

4.3.4 Numbers

0 start

28 in 28 days

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

evaluation

5.1 Structural quality requirements

The structural concretes must comply with the minimum quality requirements classified in 5.1.2, during their

construction and service, and with the additional requirements established along with the structural projects

author and contracting party.

The quality requirements of a structural concrete are classified, for effect of this Norm, into three distinct

groups, listed in 5.1.2.1 and 5.1.2.3.

It consists of the capacity of a structure to be maintained in full conditions of use, where it must not present

damage that may compromise in part or totally the use for which it was designed.

5.1.2.3 Durability

It consists of the capacity of a structure to resist the foreseen and defined environmental influences along

with the structural projects author and the contracting party, at the start of the projects elaboration works.

The adopted structural solution in the project must comply with the quality requirements established in the

technical norms, referring to structures resisting capacity, service performance and durability.

The quality of the adopted solution must further consider the architectonic, functional, constructive (please

see ABNT NBR 14931), structural conditions, for integration with the other projects (electrical, hydraulic, air

conditioning and others) explained by the technical leaders of each specialization with the contracting partys

approval.

5.2.2.1 All conditions imposed on the project, described in 5.2.2.2 to 5.2.2.6 must be set forth previously and

in common accord between the structural projects author and the contracting party.

5.2.2.2 In order to comply with the quality requirements imposed on structural concretes, the project must

satisfy all requirements established in this Norm and in other complementary and specific Norms, as the

case may be.

5.2.2.3 The demands referring to resisting capacity and service performance are not satisfied, when the

respective limit states are exceeded (please see sections 3 and 10).

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

5.2.2.4 The demands of durability are not satisfied when the project criteria defined in section 7 are not

observed.

5.2.2.5 For special types of structures, particular demands established in specific Brazilian Norms must be

satisfied.

NOTE Particular demands may, for example, consist of resistance to explosions, impact, earthquakes, or

even relative to sealing, thermal and acoustic insulation.

5.2.3.1 The final project of the structural project is composed of designs, specifications and project criteria.

The specifications and the project criteria can be included in the appropriate designs or consist of separate

document.

5.2.3.2 The document listed in 5.2.3.1 must contain clear, correct, consistent information among them and

with the requirements established in this Norm.

5.2.3.3 The structural project must provide the needed information for the execution of the structure.

5.2.3.4 With the objective of assuring the quality of execution of a work, based on a particular project,

preventive measures must be taken since the beginning of the works. These measures must cover the

discussion and approval of the decisions made, their distribution and other information for the pertinent

elements of the multidisciplinary team and the coherent scheduling of activities, observing the logical rules of

precedence.

5.3.1 Depending on the size of the work, the project conformity evaluation must be required and contracted

by the contracting party to a qualified professional who must be registered in specific document that

accompanies the project documentation cited in 5.2.3.

5.3.2 The project conformity evaluation must be carried out before the construction phase and, preferably,

simultaneously with the project phase, as essential condition so that its results may become effective and

consequent.

5.3.3 Section 25 establishes the acceptance criteria and the corrective procedures, when needed.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

6.1 Durability requirements

The structural concretes must be designed and constructed such that under planned environmental

conditions during the time of the project and when used as pre-established in the project they may preserve

their safety, stability and aptitude in service during the period corresponding to their useful life.

6.2.1 By useful project life, it is understood as the period of time during which the characteristics of the

structural concretes are maintained, as long as the requirements of use and maintenance prescribed by the

project engineer and the constructor are satisfied, according to 7.8 and 25.4, as well as the execution of the

necessary repairs resulting from accidental damages.

6.2.2 The concept of useful life is applied to the structure as a whole or to its parts. This way, determined

parts of the structures may deserve special consideration with useful life value different from the whole.

6.2.3 The durability of the structural concrete requires coordinated cooperation and efforts from all those

involved in the project, construction and utilization processes, where what ABNT NBR 12655 establishes

must, as a minimum, be followed, where the dispositions of 25.4 with relation to the conditions of use,

inspection and maintenance must also be obeyed.

6.3.1 Generalities

Within this approach, at least, the aging and deterioration mechanisms of the structural concrete, listed in

6.3.2 to 6.3.4 must be considered.

a) lixiviation: due to action of pure, aggressive carbonic or acidic waters that dissolve and drag along

hydrated compounds of the cement paste;

b) expansion due to action of waters and soils that contain or are contaminated with sulfates, causing

expansive and deleterious reactions with the hydrated cement paste;

c) expansion due to action of reactions between the cement alkalis and certain reactive aggregates;

d) deleterious surface reactions of certain aggregates resulting from transformations of ferruginous products

present in its mineralogical constitution.

a) depassivation due to carbonation, that is, due to action of the carbonic gas from the atmosphere;

They are all those related to mechanical actions, movements of thermal origin, impacts, cyclic actions,

retraction, flow and relaxation.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

6.4.1 The aggressiveness of the environment is related to physical and chemical actions that act on

structural concretes, regardless of mechanical actions, volumetric variations of thermal origin, hydraulic

retraction and others provided in the dimensioning of the structural concrete.

6.4.2 In the project of current structures, environmental aggressiveness must be classified in accordance

with that presented in table 6.1 and can be evaluated, simply, according to the exposure conditions of the

structure or its parts.

Class of environmental Structures risk of

Aggressiveness type of environment for effect

aggressiveness deterioration

of the project

Rural

I Weak Insignificant

Submerged

1), 2)

II Moderate Urban Small

Marine 1)

III Strong Large

Industrial 1), 2)

1), 3)

Industrial

IV Very strong Elevated

Tide spatters

1)

A microclimate with a milder class of aggressiveness (one level above) may be admitted for dry internal environments

(rooms, bedrooms, bathrooms, kitchens and service areas of residential apartments and commercial offices or

environments with mortar and paint-coated concrete).

2)

A milder class of aggressiveness (one level above) can be admitted in: works in regions with dry climate, with relative

air humidity of lesser than or equal to 65%, parts of the structure protected from rain in predominantly dry environments,

or regions where it rarely rains.

3)

Chemically aggressive environments, industrial tanks, galvanoplasty, whitening in cellulose and paper industries,

fertilizer warehouses, chemical industries.

6.4.3 The person responsible for the structural project, in possession of data relative to the environment in

which the structure is built, may consider classification more aggressive than that established in table 6.1.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

7.1 Specific symbols of this section

So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the

most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

The symbols presented in this section follow the same orientation set in section 4. This way, the subscript

symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

cnom Nominal cover (minimum cover added from the execution tolerance)

7.2 Drainage

7.2.1 The presence or water accumulation coming from rain or resulting from cleaning and washing water,

on surfaces of structural concretes, must be avoided.

7.2.2 The exposed surfaces that need to be horizontal, such as rooftops, yards, garages, parking areas and

others, must be conveniently drained, with disposition of drains and conductors.

7.2.3 All movement and expansion joints, on surfaces subject to the action of water, must be conveniently

sealed, so as to make them impassable to water passage (percolation).

7.2.4 All tops of platbands and walls must be protected by base plates. All roof projections must have

dripping pans and the junctions at different levels must be protected with casings.

7.3.1 Architectonic or constructive dispositions that can reduce the structural durability must be avoided.

7.3.2 Access for inspection and maintenance of structural parts with useful life lesser than the rest, such as

supporting equipments, boxes, inserts, waterproofing devices and others, must be planned in the project.

7.4.1 The durability of the structures is highly dependent on the characteristics of the concrete and thickness

and quality of cover concrete of the reinforcement, once the other conditions established in this section are

satisfied.

7.4.2 Corroborative performance tests of the structural durability against the type and level of

aggressiveness planned in the project must establish the minimum parameters to be fulfilled. In their lack

and due to the existence of a strong similarity between water / cement ratio, compressive resistance of the

concrete and its durability, the adoption of the minimum requirements expressed in table 7.1 is permitted.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Concrete Type

I II III IV

Water / cement ratio CA 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.45

in mass CP 0.60 0.55 0.50 0.45

Class of concrete CA C20 C25 C30 C40

(ABNT NBR 8953) CP C25 C30 C35 C40

NOTES

1 The concept employed in the execution of the structures must comply with the requirements established in ABNT NBR

12655.

2 CA corresponds to structural components and elements of reinforced concrete.

3 CP corresponds to structural components and elements of prestressed concrete.

7.4.3 The requirements of tables 7.1 and 7.2 are valid for concretes executed with Portland cement that

complies, according to their type and class, with the specifications of ABNT NBR 5732, ABNT NBR 5733,

ABNT NBR 5735, ABNT NBR 5736, ABNT NBR 5737, ABNT NBR 11578, ABNT NBR 12989 or ABNT NBR

13116, with minimum cement consumptions per cubic meters of concrete in accordance with ABNT NBR

12655.

7.4.4 The use of additives containing chloride in its composition is not permitted in reinforced or prestressed

structural concretes.

7.4.5 The protection of external positive reinforcements must be assured through sheaths, completed by

grout, Portland cement broth without additions, or grease especially formulated for this purpose.

7.4.6 Special attention must be dedicated to protection against corrosion of the anchorages of positive

reinforcements.

7.4.7 For the cover, what is prescribed in 7.4.7.1 to 7.4.7.7 must be observed.

7.4.7.1 In order to satisfy the requirements set forth in this Norm, the minimum reinforcement cover is the

least value that must be observed along the entire element considered and that is constituted in an

acceptance criterion.

7.4.7.2 In order to assure the minimum cover (cmin) the project and the execution must consider the nominal

cover (cnom), which is the minimum cover added from the execution tolerance (c). Therefore, the

dimensions of the reinforcements and the spacers must respect the nominal covers, established in table 7.2,

for c = 10 mm.

7.4.7.3 In current works the value of c must be greater than or equal to 10 mm.

7.4.7.4 When there is adequate quality control and strict tolerance limits of measurement variability during

the execution the value of c = 5 mm can be adopted, but the rigorous control requirement must be

explained in the project designs. Therefore, the reduction of the nominal covers prescribed in table 7.2 by 5

mm is permitted.

7.4.7.5 The nominal and minimum covers are always referred to the external reinforcement surface, in

general to the external face of the stirrup. The nominal cover of a particular bar must always be:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

a) cnom bar;

b) cnom bundle = n = n

7.4.7.6 The maximum characteristic dimension of the full grained aggregate used in the concrete cannot

exceed by 20% the nominal cover thickness, that is:

nominal cover for c = 10 mm

Class of environmental aggressiveness (table 6.1)

Component or I II III IV 3)

Type of structure

element Nominal cover

mm

Reinforced Slab 2) 20 25 35 45

concrete Beam / Column 25 30 40 50

Prestressed

1) All 30 35 45 55

concrete

1)

Nominal cover of negative reinforcement that involves the sheath or the wires, cables and cordages, always greater

than that specified for the reinforced concrete element, due to risks of unstable corrosion under stress.

2)

For the upper face of slabs and beams that will be coated with base mortar, with final carpet and wood dry cover, with

cover and finishing mortar such as high performance floors, ceramic floors, asphalt floors and many others, the

requirements of this table can be substituted by 7.4.7.5, where a nominal cover 15 mm is observed.

3)

In the lower faces of the slabs and beams of tanks, water and sewer treatment stations, sewer ducts, troughs of

effluents and other works in chemically and intensely aggressive environments, the reinforcement must have nominal

cover 45mm.

7.4.7.7 In the case of prefabricated structural elements, the values relative to the cover of reinforcements

(table 7.2) must follow what is disposed in ABNT NBR 9062.

7.5.1 The bar must be disposed inside the structural component or element, so as to permit and facilitate the

good quality of concrete placement and thickening operations.

7.5.2 In order to assure good thickening, it is vital to plan in the details of the disposition of reinforcements

sufficient space for entry of the vibrator needle.

7.6.1 The risk and the evolution of steel corrosion in the region of flexural cracks transversal to the main

reinforcement depends essentially on the quality and the thickness of the reinforcements cover concrete.

Characteristic limit openings of cracks on the concrete surface given in 13.4.2, in reinforced concrete

components or elements, are satisfactory to the durability requirements.

7.6.2 Due to its greater sensitivity to corrosion under stress, the control of cracks on the concrete surface in

the region of positive reinforcements must obey that disposed in 13.4.2.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

In adverse exposure conditions special protection and conservation measures must be taken of the type:

application of water-resistant covers and waterproofing paints on concrete surfaces, mortar and ceramic

covers or others on the concrete surface, reinforcement galvanization, reinforcement cathode protection and

others.

7.8.1 The set of projects relative to a work must be oriented under an explicit strategy that may facilitate

inspection and preventive maintenance procedures of the construction.

7.8.2 The utilization, inspection and maintenance manual must be produced according to 25.4.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

8 Material properties

8.1 Specific symbols of this section

So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the

most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

The symbols presented in this section follow the same orientation set in section 4. This way, the subscript

symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

Eci Modulus of elasticity or modulus of initial tangent deformation of the concrete, which always refers to

the chord modulus at 30% fc

Ecs Concrete secant modulus of elasticity, also call as modulus of concrete secant deformation

Poissons coefficient

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

8.2 Concrete

8.2.1 Classes

This Norm is applied to concretes included in the Group I classes of resistance, indicated in ABNT NBR

8953, that is up to C50.

Class C20, or higher, is applied to concrete with negative reinforcement and class C25, or higher, to

concrete with positive reinforcement. Class C15 can be used only in foundations, according to ABNT NBR

6122, and in provisional works.

This Norm is applied to concretes of normal specific mass, which are those that, after they have been oven-

dried, they have a specific mass (c) inclusively between 2000 kg/m and 2800 kg/m.

If the real specific mass is unknown, for effect of calculation, the value of 2400 kg/m can be adopted for

plain concrete and 2500 kg/m for reinforced concrete.

When the specific mass of the concrete used is known, the specific mass of plain concrete added by 100

kg/m to 150 kg/m can be considered for that of the reinforced concrete.

For effect of structural analysis, the coefficient of thermal expansion can be admitted as being equal to 10-

5

/C.

The prescriptions of this Norm refer to the compressive resistance obtained in molded cylinder tests

according to ABNT NBR 5738, carried out in accordance with ABNT NBR 5739.

When the age is not indicated, the resistances refer to the age of 28 days. The estimated average

compressive resistance, fcmj, corresponding to a specified resistance fckj, must be done as indicated in ABNT

NBR 12655.

The evolution of the compressive resistance with age must be obtained through tests specially executed for

such purpose. In the absence of these experimental results the values indicated in 12.3.3 can be adopted as

directive in character.

The indirect traction resistance fct,sp and the flexural traction resistance fct,f must be obtained in tests

performed according to ABNT NBR 7222 and ABNT NBR 12142, respectively.

The direct traction resistance fct can be considered equal to 0.9 fct,sp or fct,f or, in the lack of tests for

obtainment of fct,sp and fct,f, its average or characteristic value can be evaluated through the following

equations:

where:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

When fckj 7 MPa, these expressions can also be used for ages different from 28 days.

When the concrete is submitted to main stresses 3 2 1, the following must be obtained:

1 -fctk

3 fck + 4 1

where the compressive stresses are considered positive and those of traction negative (please see figure

8.1).

The modulus of elasticity must be obtained according to the test described in ABNT NBR 8522, where the

modulus of initial chord tangent deformation at 30% fc is considered in this Norm, or another stress specified

in the project. When tests are not performed or there are no more accurate data about the concrete used at

the age of 28 days, the modulus of elasticity value can be estimated by using the expression:

where:

The modulus of elasticity at an age j 7 days can also be evaluated through this expression, by replacing fck

for fckj.

When it is the case, this is the modulus of elasticity to be specified in the project and controlled in the work.

The secant modulus of elasticity to be used in the project elastic analyses, especially for determination of

stressing strengths and verification of service limit states, it must be calculated through the expression:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

In the evaluation of the behavior of a structural element of transversal cross section a single modulus of

traction and compressive elasticity, equal to the secant modulus of elasticity (Ecs) can be adopted.

In the evaluation of the overall behavior of the structure and for the calculation of the prestressing losses, the

modulus of initial tangent deformation (Eci) can be used in the project.

For compression stresses lesser than 0.5 fc and traction stresses lesser than fct, the Poissons coefficient

can be taken as equal to 0.2 and the modulus of transversal elasticity Gc equal to 0.4 Ecs.

8.2.10.1 Compression

For compression stresses lesser than 0.5 fc, a linear ratio between stresses and deformations can be

admitted, where the secant value given by the expression established in 8.2.8 is adopted for the modulus of

elasticity.

For analyses in the ultimate limit state, the idealized stress deformation diagram shown in figure 8.2 or the

proposed simplifications in section 17 can be employed.

8.2.10.2 Traction

For the non-cracked concrete, the bilinear traction stress deformation diagram, indicated in figure 8.3 can

be adopted.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

In cases where great precision is unnecessary, the final coefficient of flow (t, t0) and specific retraction

deformation cs(t, t0) values of the concrete, submitted to stresses lesser than 0.5 fc at the time of first

loading, can be obtained, by linear interpolation, from table 8.1.

Table 8.1 provides the coefficient of flow (t, t0) and the specific retraction deformation cs(t, t0) value, in

function of environment humidity and fictitious thickness 2Ac/u, where Ac is the transversal cross section area

and u is the cross section perimeter in contact with the atmosphere. The values of this table are relative to

concrete temperatures between 10C and 20C, where, therefore, temperatures between 0C and 40C can

be admitted. These values are valid for plastic and common Portland cement concretes.

Specific deformations due to more accurate flow and retraction can be calculated according to the indication

of annex A.

Table 8.1 Characteristic values greater than the specific retraction deformation

cs(t, t0) and the coefficient of flow (t, t0)

Environment

humidity 40 55 75 90

%

Fictitious

thickness

20 60 20 60 20 60 20 60

2Ac/u

cm

5 4.4 3.9 3.8 3.3 3.0 2.6 2.3 2.1

(t, t0) 30 3.0 2.9 2.6 2.5 2.0 2.0 1.6 1.6

t0 60 3.0 2.6 2.2 2.2 1.7 1.8 1.4 1.4

days 5 0.44 0.39 0.37 0.33 0.23 0.21 0.10 0.09

cs(t,

t0 ) 30 0.37 0.38 0.31 0.31 0.20 0.20 0.09 0.09

60 0.32 0.36 0.27 0.30 0.17 0.19 0.08 0.09

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

8.3.1 Category

In the structural reinforced concrete projects steel classified by ABNT NBR 7480 must be used with the

characteristic drainage resistance value in the categories CA-25, CA-50 and CA-60. The nominal diameters

and transversal cross sections must be those established in ABNT NBR 7480.

The wires and bars can be smooth or provided with corbels or notches. For each category of steel, the

minimum coefficient of surface conformation, b, determined through tests in accordance with ABNT NBR

7477, must comply with that indicated in ABNT NBR 7480. The configuration and the geometry of the

corbels or notches must also satisfy which is specified in this Norm in sections 9 and 23, as long as there are

important cyclic stresses.

For effects of this Norm, the surface conformation is measured by the coefficient 1, whose value is related to

the coefficient of surface conformation b, as established in table 8.2.

Coefficient of surface conformation

Type of bar

b 1

Smooth (CA-25) 1.0 1.0

Notched (CA-60) 1.2 1.4

High adherence (CA-50) 1.5 2.25

The value of 7850 kg/m can be adopted for specific mass of the negative reinforcement steel.

The value 10-5/C can be considered for the coefficient of thermal expansion of the steel, for intervals of

temperature between 20C and 150C.

In the lack of tests or values provided by the manufacturer, the modulus of elasticity of the steel can be

admitted equal to 210 GPa.

The stress deformation diagram of the steel, the characteristic drainage resistance fyk, traction resistance

fstk and rupture deformation uk values must be obtained from traction tests performed according to ABNT

NBR ISO 6892. The value of fyk for steels without drainage level is the value of the stress corresponding to

the permanent deformation of 0.2%.

For calculation in the service and ultimate limit states the simplified diagram shown in figure 8.4 can be used,

for the steels with or without drainage level.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

This diagram is valid for temperature intervals between 20C and 150C and can be applied to traction and

compression.

The steels CA-25 and CA-50, which respond to the minimum values of fyk/fstk and uk indicated in ABNT NBR

7480, can be considered as of high ductility. The steels CA-60 that also obey the specifications of this Norm

can be considered as of normal ductility.

In 180 bending tests, performed in accordance with ABNT NBR 6153 and using the pin diameters indicated

in ABNT NBR 7480, no rupture or cracking must occur.

8.3.9 Weldability

So that a steel is considered weldable, its composition must obey the limits established in ABNT NBR 8965.

The welded steel joint must be traction-tested according to ABNT NBR 8548. The minimum rupture load,

measured on the welded bar, must satisfy that specified in ABNT NBR 7480 and the tensioning under load

must be such that it may not compromise the ductility of the reinforcement. The total plastic tensioning

measured on the welded bar must satisfy a minimum of 2%.

8.4.1 Classification

The characteristic traction resistance, diameter, wire and cordage area values, as well as the classification

with respect to relaxation, to be adopted in the project, are the nominal values indicated in ABNT NBR 7482

and in ABNT NBR 7483, respectively.

The value of 7850 kg/m can be adopted for specific mass of the positive reinforcement steel.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The value 10-5/C can be considered for coefficient of thermal expansion of the steel, for temperature

intervals between 20C and 100C.

The modulus of elasticity must be obtained in tests or provided by the manufacturer. In the lack of specific

data, the value of 200 GPa can be considered for wires and cordages.

The stress deformation diagram must be provided by the manufacturer or obtained through tests

performed according to ABNT NBR 6349.

The characteristic conventional drainage resistance fpyk, traction resistance fptk and tensioning after rupture

uk values of the cordages must satisfy the minimum values established in ABNT NBR 7483. The values of

fpyk, fptk and tensioning after rupture uk of the wires must comply with what is specified in ABNT NBR 7482.

For calculation in the service and ultimate limit state, the simplified diagram shown in figure 8.5 can be used.

This diagram is valid for temperature intervals between 20C and 150C.

The wires and cordages, whose value of uk is greater than the minimum indicated in ABNT NBR 7482 and

ABNT NBR 7483, respectively, can be considered as having normal ductility.

The minimum number of alternate bends of prestressing wires, obtained in tests according to ABNT NBR

6004, must comply with what is indicated in ABNT NBR 7482.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

8.4.8 Relaxation

Wire and cordage relaxation, after 1000 hrs at 20C (1000) and for stresses varying from 0.5 fptk to 0.8 fptk,

obtained in tests described in ABNT NBR 7484, must not exceed the values given in ABNT NBR 7482 and

ABNT NBR 7483, respectively.

For effect of the project, the values of 1000 of table 8.3 can be adopted.

Cordages Wires

po Bars

NR LR NR LR

0.5 fptk 0 0 0 0 0

0.6 fptk 3.5 1.3 2.5 1.0 1.5

0.7 fptk 7.0 2.5 5.0 2.0 4.0

0.8 fptk 12.0 3.5 8.5 3.0 7.0

Where:

NR is normal relaxation;

LR is low relaxation.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

9.1 Specific symbols of this section

So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the

most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

The symbols presented in this section follow the same orientation set in section 4. This way, the subscript

symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

k Coefficient of loss per meter of cable provoked by non-intentional curvatures of the cable

x Abscissa counted starting at the cable cross section in which it is admitted that the prestressing has been

applied to the concrete

P0(x) Force in the prestressing reinforcement at time t = 0, in the cross section of abscissa x

Pk,t(x) Characteristic force in the prestressing reinforcement, at time t, in the cross section of abscissa x

Pt(x) Force in the prestressing reinforcement, at time t, in the cross section of abscissa x

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

cp Initial stress in the concrete at the level of the center of gravity of the prestressing reinforcement, due to

simultaneous prestressing of n cables

cg Stress in the concrete at the level of the center of gravity of the prestressing reinforcement, due to

permanent load mobilized by the prestressing or simultaneously applied with the prestressing

p Prestressing tension

p - Stress in the positive reinforcement after all losses in the course of time

P(x) Prestressing losses due to friction, measured from Pi, in the cross section of abscissa x

P0(x) Immediate prestressing loss, measured from Pi at time t = 0, in the cross section of abscissa x

Pt(x) Prestressing loss in the cross section of abscissa x, at time t, calculated after time t = 0

p Average prestressing loss per cable due to immediate shortening of the concrete

9.2.1 Generalities

The requirements established in this section must be obeyed, in what refer to reinforcement adherence,

anchorage and joints. The specific conditions, relative to reinforcement protection, particular anchorage

situations and joints and their limitations before the nature of the applied stresses, in regions of discontinuity

and in special elements, are treated in sections 7, 18, 21 and 22, respectively.

The prestressing levels are related with the prestressing force intensity levels that, in turn, are function of

the proportion of positive reinforcement used in relation to the negative (please see 3.1.4 and table 13.3).

The bar sections that are in one of the following positions are considered in good situation with respect to

adherence:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

b) horizontals or with inclination lesser than 45 over the horizontal, as long as:

- for structural elements with h < 60 cm, located at the maximum 30 cm above the lower face of the element

or closest concreting joint;

- for structural elements with h 60 cm, located at the minimum 30 cm below the upper face of the element

or the closest concreting joint.

The bar sections in other positions and at the time of use of the sliding forms must be considered in bad

situation with respect to adherence.

9.3.2.1 The calculation adherence resistance between reinforcement and concrete at the anchorage of

negative reinforcements must be obtained through the following expression:

fbd = 1 2 3 fctd

where:

where:

9.3.2.2 The calculation adherence resistance between reinforcement and concrete in the anchorage of

positive pre-traction stressed reinforcements, must be obtained through the following expression:

fbpd = p1 p2 fctd

where:

- prestressing application, for calculation of the transfer length (please see 9.4.5);

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

9.3.2.3 On the skidding of the reinforcement, in bent structural elements, the adherence stress values given

in 9.3.2.1 and 9.3.2.2, multiplied by 1.75 must be adopted.

All reinforcement bars must be anchored so that the stresses to which they are submitted are integrally

transmitted to the concrete, whether by means of adherence or mechanical devices or combination of both.

It takes place when the stresses are anchored by means of a straight length or with large radius of curvature,

followed or not by a hook.

At the exception of regions situated on direct supports, the anchorages by adherence must be confined by

transversal reinforcements (please see 9.4.2.6) or by the concrete itself, where this case is considered when

the anchored bar cover is greater than or equal to 3 and the distance between anchored bars is greater

than or equal to 3 .

It happens when the stresses to anchor are transmitted to the concrete by means of mechanical devices

coupled to the bar.

The traction stressed bars can be anchored along a rectilinear length or with large radius of curvature in its

extremity, in accordance with the conditions that follow:

b) without hook in those that have alternation of stress, traction and compression;

c) with or without hook in other cases, where the hook is not recommended for bars of > 32 mm or for

bundles of bars.

Several welded transversal bars can be used for the anchorage of bars, as long as (please see figure 9.1):

b) the distance of the transversal bar to the starting point of the anchorage is 5 ;

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

c) the welding shear resistance must exceed the minimum force of 0.3 As fyd (30% of the resistance of the

anchored bar).

The hooks of the extremities of longitudinal traction reinforcement bars can be:

The inner diameter of curvature of the hooks of longitudinal traction reinforcements must be at least equal to

that established in table 9.1.

Gage Type of steel

mm CA-25 CA-50 CA-60

< 20 4 5 6

20 5 8 -

When there is welded bar transversal to the hook and the bending operation occurs after welding, the

diameters of the bending pins of table 9.1 must be maintained, if the welding point is situated at the straight

part of the bar, at a minimum distance of 4 from the start of the curve.

In case this distance is lesser, or the point is situated on the curved section, the diameter of the bending pin

must at the minimum be equal to 20 .

When the welding operation occurs after bending, the diameters of table 9.1 must be maintained.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Basic anchorage length is defined as the straight length of a negative reinforcement bar needed to anchor

the limit force Asfyd on this bar, where uniform adherence resistance and equal to fbd is admitted, along this

length, according to 9.3.2.1.

lb = fyd

4 fbd

As,ef

where:

= 0.7 for traction stressed bar with hook, with cover on the normal plane to that of the hook 3 ;

= 0.5 when there are welded transversal bars according to 9.4.2.2 and hook, with cover on the

normal plane to that of the hook 3 ;

lb,min is the largest value between 0.3 lb, 10 and 100 mm.

It is permitted, in special cases, the consideration of the reducing factors of the necessary anchorage length.

For effects of this subsection, where what is disposed in 9.4.1.1 is observed, the existing transversal

reinforcements along the anchorage length are considered, in case the sum of the areas of these

reinforcements is greater than or equal to those specified in 9.4.2.6.1 and 9.4.2.6.2.

Along the anchorage length transversal reinforcement capable of resisting 25% of the longitudinal force of

one of the anchored bars must be planned. If the anchorage involves different bars, that of greater diameter

prevails for this effect.

The reinforcement in two transversal directions to the set of anchored bars must be verified. These

transversal reinforcements must support splitting tensile strengths according to the critical plans, observing

maximum spacing of 5 (where is the diameter of the anchored bar).

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

When it deals with compressed bars, at least one of the constituting bars of the transversal reinforcement

must be situated at a distance equal to four diameters (of the anchored bar) beyond the extremity of the bar.

n = f n

The constituting bars of bundles must have straight anchorage, without hooks, and comply with the following

conditions:

a) when the equivalent diameter of the bundle is lesser than or equal to 25 mm, the bundle can be treated as

a single bar, of diameter equal to n for which what is established in 9.4.2 is valid;

b) when the equivalent diameter is greater than 25 mm, the anchorage must be calculated for each isolated

bar, with a distancing its extremities so as to minimize the effects of concentrations of adherence stresses;

the distance between the extremities of the bars of the bundle must not be lesser than 1.2 times the

anchorage length of each individual bar;

c) when, for constructive reasons, it is not possible to proceed as recommended in b), the anchorage can be

calculated for the bundle, as if it were a single bar, with equivalent diameter n. The additional transversal

reinforcement must be obligatory and obey that established in 9.4.2.6, according to n whether lesser than,

equal to or greater than 32 mm.

When the screen is composed of smooth wires or with notches, the same criteria defined for ribbed bars can

be adopted, as long as the number of welded transversal wires along the necessary anchorage length is

calculated according to the expression:

As ,calc

n 4

As ,ef

by adherence

f pyd

bp =

4 f bpd

7 f pyd

bp =

36 f bpd

where:

fbpd must be calculated according to 9.3.2, considering the age of the concrete on the prestressing

date for the calculation of the transfer length and 28 days for the calculation of the anchorage length.

ABNT 2005 All rights reserved 36

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The calculation of the necessary length for transferring, by adherence, the totality of the prestressing force to

the wire, inside the concrete mass, must simultaneously consider:

a) if at the act of prestressing, the release of the traction device is gradual. In this case, the transfer length

must be calculated through the expressions:

pi

bpt = 0.7bp

f pyd

pi

bpt = 0.5bp

f pyd

b) if at the act of prestressing the release is not gradual. In this case the values calculated in a) must be

multiplied by 1.25.

f pyd p

bpd = bpt + bp

f pyd

The transversal reinforcement in the anchorage zone can be calculated in accordance with 21.2.

The anchorage of stirrups must necessarily be assured through hooks or welded longitudinal bars.

a) semicircular or at 45 angle (inner), with straight tip of length equal to 5 t, however not lesser than 5 cm;

b) at right angle, with straight tip of length greater than or equal to 10 t, however not lesser than 7 cm (this

type of hook must not be used for smooth bars or wires).

The inner diameter of the curvature of the stirrups must, at the minimum, be equal to the index given in table

9.2.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Gage Type of steel

mm CA-25 CA-50 CA-60

10 3 t 3 t 3 t

10 < < 20 4 t 5 t -

20 5 t 8 t -

As long as the welding shear resistance for a minimum force of Asfyd is verified through test, the anchorage

of stirrups can be performed, by means of welded transversal bars, in accordance with figure 9.2, obeying

the conditions given as follow:

a) two welded bars with diameter t > 0.7 for stirrups constituted by one or two branches;

where:

When mechanical devices coupled to the reinforcements to anchor are used, the efficiency of the assembly

must be justified and, when it is the case, verified through tests.

The skidding between the bar and the concrete. Along with the anchorage device, must not exceed 0.1 mm

for 70% of the ultimate limit load, or 0.5 mm for 95% of this load.

The calculation resistance of the anchorage must not exceed 50% of the tested limit load, in the cases where

the fatigue effects are negligible, or otherwise, 70% of the limit load obtained in the fatigue test.

The project must plan the effects located in these devices, through the verification of the resistance of the

concrete and the disposition of adequate reinforcements to resist the generated stresses and maintain the

opening of cracks within the specified limits, as indicated in 21.2.

A welded transversal bar can be used an integral anchorage device of the bar, as long as:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

- t = anchored bar;

- is not greater than 1/6 of the least dimension of the structural element in the anchorage region or

25 mm;

- the connection welding of the bars is carried out in the longitudinal and transversal direction of the

bars, surrounding completely the contact area of the bars;

9.5.1 Types

- by transfer;

- by welding;

This type of joint is not permitted for bars of gage greater than 32 mm, or for tie rods and lever arms (linear

structural elements of entirely traction stressed cross section).

In the case of bundles, the diameter of the circle of the same area, for each bundle, must not be greater than

45 mm, where the criteria established in 9.5.2.5 are observed.

The joints that are overlapping each other or whose closest extremities are separated by less than 20% of

the length of the transfer section are considered as in the same transversal cross section.

When the bars have different diameters, the transfer length must be calculated for the bar of largest diameter

(please see figure 9.3).

The maximum proportion of traction stressed bars of the main reinforcement joined by transfer in the same

transversal cross section of the structural element must be that indicated in table 9.3.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The adoption of proportions greater than those indicated must be justified with respect to the concrete

integrity in the transmission of stresses and the resisting capacity of the joint, as a whole, before the nature

of the actions that stress it.

Type of loading

Type of bar Situation

Static Dynamic

In one layer 100% 100%

High adherence

In more than one layer 50% 50%

< 16 mm 50% 25%

Smooth

16 mm 25% 25%

When it deals with permanently compressed or distribution reinforcement, all bars can be joined in the same

cross section.

9.5.2.2.1 When the free distance between joined bars is inclusively between 0 and 4 , the length of the

transfer section for traction stressed bars must be:

where:

l0t,min is the largest value between 0.3 0t lb, 15 and 200 mm;

0t is the function coefficient of the percentage of joined bars in the same cross section, according to

table 9.4.

9.5.2.2.2 When the free distance between joined bars is greater than 4 , to the length calculated in

9.5.2.2.1 the free distance between joined bars must be added. The transversal reinforcement in the joint

must be justified, considering the combined concrete-steel behavior, satisfying what is established in 9.5.2.4.

Joined bars in the same cross

section 20 25 33 50 > 50

%

Values of 0t 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

When the bars are compressed, the following expression is adopted for calculation of the transfer length:

where:

l0c,min is the largest value between 0.6 lb, 15 and 200 mm.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

9.5.2.4.1 Joints of traction stressed bars of the main reinforcement (please see figure 9.4)

When < 16 mm and the proportion of the joined bars in the same cross section is lesser than 25%, the

transversal reinforcement must satisfy 9.4.2.6.

In the cases where 16 mm or when the proportion of the joined bars in the same cross section is greater

than or equal to 25%, the transversal reinforcement must:

- be capable of resisting a force equal to that of a joined bar, considering the parallel branches to the

joint plane;

- be constituted by closed bars if the distance between the two closest bars of two joints in the same

cross section if < 10 ( = diameter of the joined bar);

The criteria established for the previous case must be maintained, with at least one transversal

reinforcement bar positioned 4 beyond the extremities of the joint.

Joint by transfer in bundles of bars can be done when, where what is established in 9.5.2 is observed, the

constituting bars of the bundle are joined one at a time, as long as in any cross section of the joined bundle

more than four bars do not result.

The joints of the bars of the bundle must be separated from each other 1.3 times the length of the individual

joint of each one.

For this type of joint, the threaded gloves must have resistance greater than the joined bars.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The joints by welding require special cares with respect to the welding operations that must comply with the

heating and cooling control specifications of the bar, according to specific norms.

- by transfer with at least two longitudinal welding cords, each one of them with length not lesser than

5 , separated at least 5 (please see figure 9.5);

- with other juxtaposed bars (splice), with longitudinal welding cords, where they cause to coincide

the center of gravity axis of the assembly with the longitudinal axis of the joined bars, where each cord must

have a length of at least 5 (please see figure 9.5).

Top by cladding

By transfer

The joints by welding can be performed in the totality of the bars in a transversal cross section of the

structural element.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The joints that are separated from center to center from each other lesser than 15 measured in the

direction of the bar axis must be considered as in the same cross section.

In case of traction stressed bar and there is predominance of accidental load, the resistance must be

reduced by 20%.

9.6 Prestressing

9.6.1.1 Generalities

The average force in the prestressing reinforcement in the abscissa x and at time t is given by the

expression:

where:

P0(x) = Pi P0(x)

During the prestressing operations, the traction force in the reinforcement must not exceed the values

resulting from the limitation of the tensile strengths in the steel corresponding to this transitory situation,

provided in 9.6.1.2.1 to 9.6.1.2.3.

After the end of the prestressing operations, the safety verifications must be carried out in accordance with

the limit states according to section 10.

- by occasion of the application of force Pi, the tensile strength pi of the prestressing reinforcement

at the output of the traction device must observe the limits 0.77 fptk and 0.90 fpyk for steels of the class of

normal relaxation, and 0.77 fptk and 0.85 fpyk for steels of the class of low relaxation;

- by occasion of the application of force Pi, the tensile strength pi of the prestressing reinforcement

at the output of the traction device must observe the limits 0.74 fptk and 0.87 fpyk for steels of the class of

normal relaxation, and 0.74 fptk and 0.82 fpyk for steels of the class of low relaxation;

- in steels CP-85/105, provided in bars, the limits become 0.72 fptk and 0.88 fpyk, respectively.

At the end of the prestressing operation, the tensile strength p0(x) of the pre-traction or post-traction

stressed reinforcement, resulting from the force P0(x), must not exceed the limits established in 9.6.1.2.1-b).

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

By occasion of the application of force Pi, if irregularities in the prestressing are established, resulting from

executive failures in the structural elements with post-traction stressed reinforcement, the traction force in

any cable can be elevated, limiting the tensile strength pi to the values established in 9.6.1.2.1-b) increased

up to 10%, up to the limit of 50% of the cables, as long as the safety of the structure is assured, mainly in the

regions of the anchorages.

The average values, calculated in accordance with 9.6.1.1 can be employed in the calculation of the

characteristic values of the prestressing hyperstatic effects.

For the works in general it is admitted that the characteristic values Pk,t(x) of the prestressing force may be

considered as equal to the average value, except when the maximum loss [P0(x) + Pt(x)]max is greater

than 0.35 Pi. In this case and in the special works that must be designed in accordance with specific norms,

which consider the upper and lower characteristic values of the prestressing force, the following values must

be adopted:

The calculation values of prestressing force at time t are given by the expression:

Pd,t(x) = p Pt(x)

9.6.2.1 Generalities

The induced tensile strengths in the concrete by the prestressing anchorages can only be considered linearly

distributed in the transversal cross section of the structural element at a distance from the extremity of these

reinforcements, called regularization distance, determined based on what is established in 9.6.2.2 and

9.6.2.3.

The negative reinforcements in these zones of introduction of forces must be calculated in accordance with

the dispositions of section 21.

In the case of post-traction stressed elements, the regularization distance of the tensile strengths can be

determined by admitting that the diffusion of the force is performed from the anchorage, inside an opening

angle , such that tg = 2/3 (please see figure 9.6).

When such diffusion, starting from the web, reaches the middle plane of the prestressing bed, it can be

admitted that the diffusion along the prestressing bed is also performed according to the opening angle .

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

prestressing bed

web

cable

cable

prestressing bed

In the case of pre-traction stressed elements, the regularization distance lp must be obtained through the

expression:

p = h 2 + (0.6lbpt ) bpt

2

where:

For the non-rectangular cross sections, the regularization length can be calculated in a similar manner to that

indicated in 9.6.2.2.

9.6.3.1 Generalities

The project must plan the losses of prestressing force in relation to the initial value applied by the tensioning

device, occurred before the prestressing transfer to the concrete (initial losses, in the pre-traction), during

this transfer (immediate losses) and in course of time (progressive losses).

The losses occurred in the pre-traction are considered initial before the release of the traction device and

resulting from:

a) friction at the deviation points of the polygonal reinforcement, whose evaluation must be done

experimentally, in function of the type of deviation device employed;

b) skidding of the wires in the anchorage, whose determination must be experimental or the values indicated

by the manufacturer of the anchorage devices must be adopted;

c) initial reinforcement relaxation, function of the time elapsed between the reinforcement tensioning and the

release of the traction device;

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

d) initial concrete retraction, considered the time elapsed between the concreting of the structural element

and the release of the traction device.

The evaluation of the initial losses must consider the effects provoked by temperature, when the concrete is

thermally cured.

The variation of the prestressing force in structural elements with pre-traction, by occasion of the

prestressing application on the concrete, and due to its shortening, must be calculated in elastic mode,

where the deformation of the homogenized cross section is considered. The modulus of elasticity of the

concrete to consider is that corresponding to the date of prestressing, corrected, if there is thermal curing.

For the usual prestressing systems, the immediate losses are those due to immediate shortening of the

concrete, the friction between the reinforcements and the sheaths or the concrete, the sliding of the

reinforcement along with the anchorage and the accommodation of the anchorage devices, as detailed in

9.6.3.3.2.1 to 9.6.3.3.2.3.

In the structural elements with post-traction, the successive prestressing of each one of the n cables

provokes an immediate deformation of the concrete and, as consequence, relaxation of the previously

prestressed cables. The average prestressing loss, per cable, can be calculated through the expression:

In the structural elements with post-traction, the loss due to friction can be determined by the expression:

where:

X is the abscissa of the point where P is calculated, measured from the anchorage, in meters;

is the sum of the angles of deviation between the anchorage and the point of abscissa x, in

radians;

is the coefficient of apparent friction between the cable and the sheath. In the lack of experimental

data, it can be estimated as follows (values in 1/radians):

= 0.30 between bars or wires with notches or corbels and metallic sheath;

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

is the coefficient of loss per meter provoked by non-intentional curvatures of the cable. In the lack

of experimental data the value of 0.01 (1/m) can be adopted.

9.6.3.3.2.3 Losses due to sliding of the reinforcement in the anchorage and accommodation of the

anchorage

The values indicated by the manufacturer of the anchorage devices must be determined experimentally.

9.6.3.4.1 Generalities

The partial and total values of progressive prestressing losses, resulting from concrete retraction and flow

and prestressing steel relaxation, must be determined by considering the interaction of these causes, where

the processes indicated in 9.6.3.4.2 to 9.6.3.4.5 can be used. In these processes it is admitted that there

may be adherence between the reinforcement and the concrete and that the structural element stays in

stage I.

a) the concreting of the structural element, as well as the prestressing, are executed, each one of them, in

sufficiently close phases so that the reciprocal effects of one phase over another may be disregarded;

b) the cables have among them sufficiently small separations in relation to the cross sectional height of the

structural element, so that their effects may be supposed equivalent to that of a single cable, with transversal

cross section of area equal to the sum of the cross sectional areas of the component cables, situated at the

position of the resultant of stresses acting in them (resulting cable).

In this case, it is admitted that at time t the progressive losses and deformations of the prestressing concrete

and the steel, at the position of the resulting cable, with the tensile strengths on the concrete c,p0g positive

for compression and the tensile strengths on the steel p0 positive for traction, are given by:

where:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

where

c,p0g is the tensile strength in the concrete adjacent to the resulting cable, provoked by prestressing

and by the mobilized permanent load at the instance t0, where it is positive if of compression;

(t, t0) is the coefficient of flow of the concrete at the instance t for prestressing and permanent load,

applied at the instance t0;

p0 is the tensile strength in the positive reinforcement due to prestressing and mobilized

permanent load at the instance t0, positive if of traction;

cs(t, t0) is the retraction at the instance t, subtracted the retraction occurred until the instance t0,

according to 8.2.11;

(t, t0) is the coefficient of relaxation of the steel at the instance t for prestressing and mobilized

permanent load at the instance t0;

c(t, t0) is the variation of the tensile strength of the concrete adjacent to the resulting cable

between t0 and t;

p(t, t0) is the variation of the tensile strength in the prestressing steel between t0 and t;

ep is the eccentricity of the resulting cable in relation to the center of gravity of the concrete cross

section;

This process can substitute that established in 9.6.3.4.2, as long as the same application conditions are

satisfied and that the retraction does not differ in more than 25% of the value [-8 x 10-5 (, t0)].

The absolute value of the loss of tensile strength due to flow, retraction and relaxation, with c,p0g in

megapascal and considered positive if of compression, is given by:

where:

p0 is the tensile strength in the prestressing reinforcement due exclusively to the prestressing force,

at instance t0.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

When the permanent actions (permanent load or prestressing) are applied in sections at different ages

(therefore the conditions established in 9.6.3.4.2 are not satisfied), the flow of each one of the concrete

layers and the relaxation of each cable must be considered separately.

The isolated relaxation of each cable can be considered, regardless of the later application of other

permanent stresses.

The intensity of steel relaxation must be determined by the coefficient (t, t0) calculated by:

where:

pr(t, t0) is the loss of tensile strength due to pure relaxation from the instance t0 of tensioning of the

reinforcement until the considered instance t.

The average relaxation values, measured after 1000 hrs at constant temperature of 20C, for the losses of

tensile strengths referred to the basic values of the initial tensile strength of 50% to 80% of the characteristic

resistance fptk (1000), are reproduced in table 8.3.

The corresponding values to times different from 1000 hrs, always at 20C, can be determined from the

following expression, where time must be expressed in days:

For tensile strengths lesser than 0.5 fptk, it is admitted that there is not loss of tensile strength due to

relaxation.

For intermediate tensile strengths between the values set in table 8.3, linear interpolation can be done.

It can be considered that for the infinite time the value of (t, t0) is given by (t, t0) = 2.5 1000.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

10.1 Safety criteria

The safety criteria adopted in this Norm are based on ABNT NBR 8681.

For effects of this Norm the ultimate limit states and the service limit states must be considered.

The safety of the structural concretes must always be verified in relation to the following ultimate limit states:

a) ultimate limit state of the loss of equilibrium of the structure, admitted as rigid body;

b) ultimate limit state of breakdown of the resisting capacity of the structure, in its entirety or in part, due to

normal and tangential stresses, where the redistribution of internal strengths is admitted, as long as the

plastic adaptation capacity defined in section 14 is observed, and where, in general, the separate

verifications of the normal and tangential stresses are admitted; however, when the interaction between

them is important, it will be explicitly indicated in this Norm;

c) ultimate limit state of breakdown of the resisting capacity of the structure, in its entirely or in part,

considering the second-order effects;

d) ultimate limit state provoked by dynamic stresses (please see section 23);

f) other ultimate limit states that eventually may occur in special cases.

Service limit states are those related to the durability of the structures, appearance, user comfort and their

good functional use, whether in relation to the users, or in relation to the machines and equipments used.

The safety of the structural concretes can require the verification of some service limit states regarded in

section 3.

In special constructions safety in relation to other service limit states not defined in this Norm may be

necessary.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

11 Actions

11.1 Specific symbols of this section

So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the

most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

M1d,min Minimum calculation of total 1st order moment that permits the fulfillment of the verification of

located imperfections of a column side

f1 Part of the weighted coefficient of the actions f, which considers the variability of the actions

f2 Part of the weighted coefficient of the actions f, which considers the actuation simultaneity of the

actions

f3 Part of the weighted coefficient of the actions f, which considers the generated deviations in the

constructions and the estimations made in the project from the point of view of stresses

relative deviations in the construction (applied on walls and columns with dimensions below certain values)

11.2.1 Generalities

In structural analysis the influence of all actions that can produce significant effects to the safety of the

structure under examination must be considered, taking into account the possible ultimate and service limit

states.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The actions to consider are classified, in accordance with ABNT NBR 8681, into permanent, variable and

exceptional.

For each type of construction, the actions to consider must observe their peculiarities and the norms

applicable to it.

11.3.1 Generalities

Permanent actions are those that occur with practically constant values during the entire life of the

construction. The actions that grow in time, tending towards a constant limit value, are also considered as

permanent.

Permanent actions must be considered with their most unfavorable representative values for safety.

Direct permanent actions are constituted by the structures own weight and by the weights of the fixed

constructive elements and the permanent installations.

In current constructions it is admitted that the structures own weight is evaluated according to 8.2.2.

Special concretes must have their specific mass determined experimentally in each particular case (please

see ABNT NBR 12654) and the effect of the reinforcement evaluated according to 8.2.2.

The specific masses of current construction materials can be evaluated based on values indicated in ABNT

NBR 6120.

The weights of the permanent materials are considered with the nominal values indicated by the respective

suppliers.

Ground abutments and other granular materials are considered permanent when they are admitted as non-

removable.

Since representative values must be considered the characteristic values Fk,upp or Fk,low according to ABNT

NBR 8681.

Indirect permanent actions are constituted by deformations imposed by concrete retraction and flow, support

displacements, geometric imperfections and prestressing.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

In great majority of the cases, it is permitted that it may be calculated in a simplified manner through table

8.1, through interpolation. This table provides the upper characteristic value of the specific retraction

deformation between the instance t0 and t, cs (t, t0), in some usual situations (please see section 8).

In current cases of reinforced concrete works, in function of the retraction restriction of the concrete, imposed

by the reinforcement, satisfying the minimum specified in this Norm, the value of cs (t, t0) can be adopted

equal to 15 x 10-5. This value admits structural elements of usual dimensions, between 10 cm and 100 cm

subject to environment humidity not lesser than 75%.

In structural elements permanently submitted to different humidity conditions in opposite faces, linear

retraction variation is admitted along the thickness of the structural element between the two values

corresponding to each one of the faces.

The deformations resulting from concrete flow can be calculated as indicated in annex A.

In cases where the stress c(t0) does vary significantly, it is permitted that these deformations may be

calculated in a simplified manner through the expression:

where:

cs (t, t0) is the total specific deformation of the concrete between the instances t0 and t;

c(t0) is the stress in the concrete due to the applied loading in t0;

(t, t0) is the limit for which the coefficient of flow provoked by applied loading in t0 tends.

The value of (t, t0) can be calculated through interpolation of the values of table 8.1. This table provides

the upper characteristic values of (t, t0) in some usual situations (please see section 8).

Support displacements must only be considered when they generate significant stresses in relation to the set

of other actions, that is, when the structure is hyperstatic and very stiff.

The displacement of each support must be evaluated in function of the physical characteristics of the

corresponding foundation material. As representative of these displacements, the upper characteristic

values, kupp, calculated with pessimistic evaluation of the foundation materials stiffness, corresponding, in

principle, to the quintile 5% of the respective probability distribution.

The set of these displacements is constituted in a single action, where it is admitted that all of them are

increased by the same weighted coefficient.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

In the verification of the ultimate limit state of the reticulated structures, the geometric imperfections of the

axis of the structural elements of the unloaded structure must be considered. These imperfections can be

divided into two groups: global imperfections and local imperfections.

In the global analysis of these structure, whether they are braced or not, a deviation from perpendicularity of

the vertical elements must be considered as figure 11.1 shows.

where:

1max = 1/200;

The deviation from perpendicularity must not necessarily be overlapping with the wind load. Between the

two, wind and deviation from perpendicularity, only the most unfavorable must be considered, which can be

defined through which provokes the largest total moment at the construction base.

In the case of elements that connect braced columns to bracing columns, usually beams and slabs, the

traction resulting from the deviation from perpendicularity of the braced column [please see figure 11.2-a)]

must be considered.

In the case of verification of column side, the effect of the deviation from perpendicularity or the lack of

rectilinearity of the columns axis [please see figures 11.2-b) and 11.2-c), respectively].

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Locking

element

stressed or compressed rectilinearity in the perpendicularity of the column

column

It is admitted that, in usual cases, the consideration only of the lack of rectilinearity along the column side is

sufficient.

The effect of local imperfections on the columns can be substituted in reticulated structures through the

consideration of the minimum 1st order moment given as follows:

where:

h is the total height of the transversal cross section in the considered direction, in meters.

In usual reticulated structures it is admitted that the effect of local imperfections is satisfied if this total

minimum moment value is observed. To this moment the 2nd order moments of section 15, when it is the

case, must be added.

11.3.3.5 Prestressing

The prestressing action must be considered in all prestressed structures, including, besides the prestressed

elements themselves, those that suffer the indirect prestressing action, that is, of hyperstatic prestressing

forces.

The prestressing force value must be calculated considering the initial force and the prestressing losses as

established in 9.6.3.

The stressing forces generated by the action of this prestressing can be calculated directly from the

eccentricity of the cable in the transversal cross section of the structural element and the prestressing force

or through a set of equivalent external loads, or even through the introduction of imposed deformations

corresponding to the pretensioning of the reinforcements.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The direct variable actions are constituted by the accidental loads planned for the use of the construction, by

the action of the wind and water, where the prescriptions made by specific Brazilian Norms must be

observed.

- lateral impact;

- centrifugal force.

These loads must be disposed in the most unfavorable positions for the studied element, except the

simplifications permitted by specific Brazilian Norms.

The stresses due to the action of the wind must be considered and it is recommended that they are

determined in accordance with that prescribed by ABNT NBR 6123, where the employment of simplified

rules provided in specific Brazilian Norms is permitted.

The water level adopted for calculation of deposits, tanks, decanters and others must be equal to the

possible maximum compatible with the overflow system, considering only the coefficient f = f3 = 1.2,

according to ABNT NBR 8681 (please see 11.7 and 11.8). In the structures where rainwater can be retained

the presence of a water sheet corresponding to the drainage level effectively assured by the construction

must be considered.

The structure where all constructive phases do not have their safety assured by the verification of the ready

work must have, included in the project, the verifications of the most significant constructive phases and their

influence in the final phase.

The verification of each one of these phases must be done considering the part of the already executed

structure and the provisional structures with the respective proper weights. Besides this the accidental

execution loads must be considered.

The temperature variation of the structure, caused globally by the temperature variation of the atmosphere

and by direct solar exposure, is considered uniform. It depends on the implantation site of the construction

and the dimensions of the structural elements that compose it.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

a) for structural elements whose smaller dimension is not greater than 50 cm, a temperature oscillation

around the average from 10C to 15C must be considered;

b) for solid or hollow structural elements with entirely closed empty spaces, whose smaller dimension is

greater than 70 cm, it is admitted that this oscillation may be reduced respectively to 5C to 10C;

c) for structural elements whose smaller dimension is between 50 cm and 70 cm it is admitted that a linear

interpolation between the values indicated above may be performed.

The choice of a value between these two limits can be carried out by considering 50% of the difference

between the average summer and winter temperatures, at the work site.

In buildings of several floors the constructive requirements prescribed by this Norm must be observed so that

the effects of temperature variations on the construction structure may be minimized.

In the structural elements in which the temperature may have distribution significantly different from the

uniform one, the effects of this distribution must be considered. In the lack of more accurate data, a linear

variation between the adopted temperature values can be admitted, as long as the considered temperature

variation between a face and another of the structure is not lesser than 5C.

When the structure, through its conditions of use, is subject to shocks or vibrations, the respective effects

must be considered in the determination of stresses and the possibility of fatigue must be considered in the

dimensioning of the structural elements, in accordance with section 23.

In the project of structures subject to exceptional load situations, whose effects cannot be controlled by other

means, exceptional actions with the values defined, in each particular case, by specific Brazilian Norms,

must be considered.

The characteristics values Fk of the actions are established in this section in function of the variability of their

intensities.

For permanent actions, the characteristic values must be adopted equal to the average values of the

respective probability distributions, whether they are upper or lower characteristic values.

These values are defined in this section or in specific Brazilian Norms, like ABNT NBR 6120.

The characteristic values of variable actions Fqk, established by consensus and indicated in specific Brazilian

Norms, correspond to values that have from 25% to 35% of probability that they are exceeded in the

unfavorable sense, during a period of 50 years, which means that the characteristic value Fqk is the value

with average period of return from 200 years to 140 years respectively.

These values are defined in this section or in specific Brazilian Norms, like ABNT NBR 6120.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The actions are quantified by their representative values, which can be:

b) exceptional conventional values, which are the arbitrated values for the exceptional actions;

- verifications of ultimate limit states, when the considered action is combined with the main action.

The reduced values are determined from the characteristic values through the expression 0Fk, which

considers the probability of simultaneous occurrence of characteristic values of two or more variable actions

of different natures very low (please see 11.7);

- verifications of service limit states. These reduced values are determined from the characteristic

values through the expressions 1Fk and 2Fk, which estimate frequent and almost permanent values,

respectively, of an action that accompanies the main action.

The calculation values Fd of the actions are obtained form the representative values, by multiplying them by

the respective weighted coefficients f defined in 11.7.

The actions must be increased by the coefficient f, whose values are found established in 11.7.1, 11.7.2 and

tables 11.1 and 11.2.

The base values for verification are those presented in tables 11.1 and 11.2 for f1. f3 and f2, respectively.

For structural walls with thickness lesser than 19 cm and not lesser than 12 cm, and for the columns with

smaller dimension lesser than 19 cm, the coefficient f must be increased by the adjustment coefficient n

(please see 13.2.3). This correction is due to the increase of the probability of occurrence of relative

deviations and failures in the construction.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Actions

Combinations of Permanent Variable Prestressing Support and retraction

actions (g) (q) (p) pressure

D F G T D F D F

Normal 1.4 1) 1.0 1.4 1.2 1.2 0.9 1.2 0

Special or of

1.3 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.2 0.9 1.2 0

construction

Exceptional 1.2 1.0 1.0 0 1.2 0.9 0 0

Where:

D is unfavorable, F is favorable, G represents the variable load in general and T is the temperature.

1)

For permanent load of small variability, like the proper weight of the structures, especially the pre-molded structures,

this coefficient can be reduced to 1.3.

f2

Actions

0 11) 2

Sites in which there is no predominance

of weights of equipments that remain

0.5 0.4 0.3

fixed for long periods of time, or of

2)

elevated concentrations of people

Accidental loads of

Sites in which there is predominance of

buildings

weights of equipments that remain fixed

0.7 0.6 0.4

for long periods of time, or of elevated

3)

concentration of people

Library, archives, shops and garages 0.8 0.7 0.6

Dynamic wind pressure on the

Wind 0.6 0.3 0

structures in general

Uniform temperature variations in

Temperature 0.6 0.5 0.3

relation to the local annual average

1)

For the values of 1 relative to bridges and mainly to fatigue problems, please see section 23.

2)

Residential buildings.

3)

Commercial and office buildings, stations and public buildings.

The values of tables 11.1 and 11.2 can be modified in special cases not contemplated here, in accordance

with ABNT NBR 8681.

The weighted coefficient value of permanent load of the same origin, in a given load, must be the same

along the entire structure. The only exception is the case of verification of stability like rigid body.

In general, the weighted coefficient of actions for service limit states is given by the expression:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

f=f2

where:

f2 has variable value according to the verification that is desired to perform (table 11.2):

11.8.1 Generalities

A load is defined by the combination of actions that have non-negligible probabilities of acting simultaneously

on the structure, during a pre-established period.

The combination of actions must be done so that the most unfavorable effects for the structure may be

determined; safety verification in relation to the ultimate limit states and to the service limit states must be

carried out in function of ultimate combinations and service combinations, respectively.

An ultimate combination can be classified into normal, special or of construction and exceptional.

In each combination the permanent actions and the main variable action must be included, with their

characteristic values and the other variable actions, considered as secondary, with their reduced

combination values, according to ABNT NBR 8681.

In each combination the permanent actions and the special variable action must be present, when there is

any, with their characteristic values and the other variable actions with non-negligible probability of

simultaneous occurrence, according to ABNT NBR 8681.

In each combination the permanent actions and the exceptional variable action must appear, when there

any, with their representative values and the other variable actions with non-negligible probability of

simultaneous occurrence, with their reduced combination values, according to ABNT NBR 8681. In this case

earthquake, fire and progressive collapse, among others, are fitted.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Ultimate combinations

Description Stress calculation

(ULS)

Breakdown of the resisting

capacity for reinforced

structural concrete elements

1)

Breakdown of the resisting The prestressing force must be considered, when needed, as

Normal capacity for prestressed external load with the values Pkmax and Pkmin for the unfavorable

structural concrete elements and favorable force, respectively, as defined in section 9

body

Special or of

2)

construction

2)

Exceptional

Where:

Fd is the calculation value of the actions for ultimate combination;

Fgk represents the direct permanent actions;

Fk represents the indirect permanent, like the retraction Fgk, and variable, like the temperature Fqk, actions;

Fqk represents the direct variable actions of which Fq1k is the main choice;

g, g, q, q please see table 11.1;

oj, o please see table 11.2;

Fsd represents the stabilizing actions;

Fnd represents the non-stabilizing actions;

Gsk is the characteristic value of the stabilizing permanent action;

Rd is the resisting strength considered as stabilizing, when there is any;

Gnk is the characteristic value of the non-stabilizing permanent action;

[Formula]

Qnk is the characteristic value of the non-stabilizing variable actions;

Q1k is the characteristic value of the non-stabilizing variable action considered as principal;

oj and Qjk are the other non-stabilizing variable actions, considered with their reduced value;

Qs,min is the minimum characteristic value of the stabilizing variable action that accompanies obligatorily a non-stabilizing

variable action.

1)

In the general case, they must be considered including combinations where the favorable effect of the permanent loads

is reduced by the consideration g = 1.0. In the case of usual structures of buildings these combinations that consider g

reduced (1.0) do not need to be considered.

2)

When Fg1k or Fg1exc act at very small time or have very low probability of occurrence oj, it can be substituted by 2j.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

11.8.3.1 Classification

They are classified in accordance with their permanence in the structure and must be verified as established

namely:

a) almost permanent: they can act during large part of the life period of the structure and their consideration

may be needed in the verification of the limit state of excessive deformations;

b) frequent: they are repeated many times during the life period of the structure and their consideration may

be needed in the verification of the limit states of crack formations, crack opening and excessive vibrations.

They can also be considered for verifications of limit states of excessive deformations resulting from wind or

temperature that can compromise the sealings;

c) rare: they occur at times during the life period of the structure and their consideration may be needed in

the verification of the limit state of crack formation.

Service combinations

Description Stress calculation

(SLS)

Almost permanent In the almost permanent service combinations, all

service combinations variable actions are considered with their almost

(APC) permanent values 2 Fqk

In frequent service combinations, the main variable

Frequent service action Fq1 is taken with its frequent value 1 Fq1k and

combinations (FSC) all other variable actions are taken with their almost

permanent values 2 Fqk

In rare service combinations, the main variable

Rare service actions Fq1 is taken with its characteristic value Fq1k

combinations (RSC) and all other actions are taken with their frequent

values 1 Fqk

Where:

Fd,ser is the calculation value of the actions for service combinations;

Fq1k is the characteristic value of the direct main variable actions;

1 is the frequent combination reduction factor for SLS;

2 is the almost permanent combination reduction factor for SLS.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

12 Resistances

12.1 Specific symbols of this section

So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the

most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

m1 Part of the weighted coefficient of resistances m, which considers the resistance variability of the

materials involved

m2 Part of the weighted coefficient of resistances m, which considers the difference between the

resistance of the material in the specimen and in the structure

m3 Part of the weighted coefficient of resistances m, which considers the generated deviations in the

construction and the estimations performed in the project from the point of view of the resistances

The characteristic values fk of the resistances are those that, in a material batch, have a determined

probability of being exceeded, in the unfavorable sense for safety.

Usually the lower characteristic resistance fk,low is of interest, whose value is lesser than the average

resistance fm, although at times there may be interest in the upper characteristic resistance fk,upp, whose

value is greater than fm.

For effects of this Norm, the lower characteristic resistance is admitted as being the value that has only 5%

of probability of not being reached by the elements of a given material batch.

The calculation resisting stresses Rd or Rd are established for the determination or calculation resisting

stresses that do not depend directly on the conventionally measured resistances in standardized specimen

tests of the employed materials. The values of Rd or Rd are established, in each particular case, from the

resistance theories of the considered structural elements.

In the specific case of concrete calculation resistance (fcd), some additional details are needed, described as

follows:

a) when the verification is done on date j equal to or greater than 28 days, the expression is adopted:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

In this case, the compressive resistance control of the concrete must be performed in 28 days, so as to

confirm the adopted value of fck in the project;

b) when the verification is done on date j lesser than 28 days, the expression is adopted:

where:

This verification must be done in t days, for the loads applied until this date.

Further the verification for the totality of the loads applied in 28 days must be performed.

In this case, the compressive resistance control of the concrete must be done on two dates: in t days and in

28 days, so as to confirm the adopted values of fckj and fck in the project.

The resistances must be decreased by the coefficient:

The values for verification in the ultimate limit state are indicated in table 12.1.

Concrete Steel

Combinations

c s

Normal 1.4 1.15

Special or of construction 1.2 1.15

Exceptional 1.2 1.0

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

For the execution of structural elements in which unfavorable conditions are planned (for example, bad

conditions of transport, or manual compression, or deficient concreting due to reinforcement concentration),

the coefficient c must be multiplied by 1.1.

For pre-molded or pre-fabricated structural elements, ABNT NBR 9062 must be consulted.

It is admitted, in the case of extracted markers from the structure, to divide the value of c by 1.1.

The employment of steel CA-25 is admitted, in works of small importance, without the execution of quality

control established in ABNT NBR 7480, as long as the weighted coefficient for the steel is multiplied by 1.1.

The established limits for the service limit states (please see sections 17, 19 and 23) do not need reduction,

therefore, m = 1.0.

In safety verification of structural concretes the constructive conditions and the analytical conditions of safety

must be satisfied.

- in the work execution control, according to ABNT NBR 14931 and specific Brazilian Norms.

The analytical safety conditions establish that the resistances must not be lesser than the stresses and must

be verified in relation to all limit states and all specified loads for the considered type of construction, that is,

in any case the following condition must be observed:

Rd Sd

For the verification of the ultimate limit state of loss of equilibrium like rigid body, Rd and Sd must assume the

calculation values of the stabilizing and destabilizing actions, respectively.

The calculation values of resisting strengths are determined form the calculation values of the resistances of

the adopted materials in the project, or of the calculation resisting stresses, as defined in 12.3.1.

The calculation stresses are calculated, for the considered combination of actions, in accordance with the

structural analysis (please see section 14).

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

13.1 Specific symbols of this section

So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the

most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

13.2.1 Introduction

The prescription of minimum limit values for the dimensions of structural concrete elements aims to avoid an

unacceptable performance for the structural elements and propitiate adequate execution conditions.

The transversal cross section of beams must not present width lesser than 12 cm and the wall-beams, lesser

than 15 cm. These limits can be reduced, where an absolute minimum of 10 cm is observed in exceptional

cases, where the following conditions are obligatorily observed:

a) accommodation of reinforcements and their interferences with the reinforcements of other structural

elements, where the spacings and covers established in this Norm are observed;

The transversal cross section of solid columns and wall-columns, whichever their form may be, must not

present dimension lesser than 19 cm.

In special cases, the consideration of dimensions between 19 cm and 12 cm is permitted, as long as the

actions to be considered in the dimensioning are multiplied by an additional coefficient n, in accordance with

that indicated in table 13.1 and in section 11. In any case, column with transversal cross section of area

lesser than 360 cm is not permitted.

B

> 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12

Cm

n 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35

Where:

n = 1.95 0.55 b;

b is the smaller dimension of the transversal cross section of the column.

NOTE The coefficient n must increase the final calculation stressing forces on the columns, at the time of their

dimensioning.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

13.2.4 Slabs

In solid slabs the following minimum limits for the thickness must be observed:

c) 10 cm for slabs that support vehicles with total weight lesser than or equal to 30 kN;

d) 12 cm for slabs that support vehicles with total weight greater than 30 kN;

e) 15 cm for slabs with prestressing supported on beams /42 for bi-supported floor slabs and /50 for

continuous floor slabs;

The thickness of the bed, when there are not embedded horizontal pipelines, must be greater than or equal

to 1/15 of the distance between ribs and not lesser than 3 cm.

The minimum absolute value must be 4 cm, when there are embedded pipelines, with maximum diameter of

12.5 mm.

Ribs with thickness lesser than 8 cm must not contain compression reinforcement.

For the project of ribbed slabs the following conditions must be obeyed:

a) for slabs with spacing between rib axes lesser than or equal to 65 cm, the verification of the bed bending

can be disregarded, and for the shear verification of the region of the ribs, the consideration of the slab

criteria is permitted;

b) for slabs with spacing between rib axes between 65 cm and 110 cm, the verification of the bed bending is

required and the ribs must be verified to the shear as beams; this verification as slabs is permitted if the

spacing between rib axes is up to 90 cm and the average width of the ribs is greater than 12 cm;

c) for ribbed slabs with spacing between rib axes greater than 110 cm, the bed must be designed as solid

slab, supported on the beam grid, where their minimum thickness limits are observed.

When holes and openings are planned in structural elements, their effect on the resistance and on the

deformation must be verified and the limits provided in this Norm must not be exceeded, where what is

disposed in 21.3 is obeyed.

In general the holes have small dimensions in relation to the structural element while openings no. A set of

very close holes must be treated as one opening.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

In any case, the minimum distance from a hole to the closest face of the beam must at the minimum be

equal to 5 cm and twice the cover provided for this face. The remaining cross section in this region, where

the area occupied by the hole has been deducted, must be capable of resisting the stresses provided in the

calculation, besides permitting a good concreting.

The following conditions must be obeyed, simultaneously, for the exemption from the verification:

a) holes in traction zone and at a distance from the supporting face of a minimum of 2 h, where h is the

height of the beam;

d) sufficient covers and not isolation of the reinforcements (please see section 7).

In smooth slabs or mushroom slabs, the verification of resistance and deformation provided in 13.2.5 must

always be performed.

Other types of slabs must be exempted from this verification, which must be reinforced in two directions and

where the following conditions must be verified simultaneously:

a) the dimensions of the opening must correspond at a maximum of 1/10 of the smaller span (x) (please see

figure 13.1);

b) the distance between the face of an opening and a free border of the slab must be equal to or greater than

of the span, in the considered direction; and

c) the distance between faces of the adjacent openings must be greater than half of the smaller span.

Figure 13.1 Limit dimensions for slab openings with exemption from verification

Embedded beam pockets are openings according to the longitudinal axis of a linear element, contained in a

surface element or immersed inside a volume element.

The structural elements must not contain embedded beam pockets in the following cases:

a) stacking tubes without adequate insulation or special verification when intended for passage of fluids with

temperature that is far from more than 15C of the room temperature;

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

b) beam pockets intended to support internal pressures greater than 0.3 MPa;

c) embedded beam pockets in concrete columns, whether immersed in the material or in empty spaces

internal to the structural element, without the existence of openings for drainage.

Limit displacements are practical values used for verification on service of the limit state of excessive

deformations of the structure. For effects of this Norm they are classified into four basic groups listed as

follow and they must obey the limit established in table 13.2:

a) sensorial acceptability: the limit is characterized by undesirable vibrations or unpleasant visual effect. The

limitation of the deflection to prevent these vibrations, in special situations of use, must be performed as

established in section 23;

b) specific effects: the displacements can impede the adequate use of the construction;

c) effects in non-structural elements: structural displacements can occasion malfunctioning of elements that,

in spite of not forming part of the structure, are connected to it;

d) effects in structural elements: the displacements can affect the behavior of the structural element,

provoking separation in relation to the adopted calculation hypotheses. If the displacements are relevant for

the considered element, their effects on the stresses or on the stability of the structure must be considered,

by incorporating them to the adopted structural model.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Type of effect Reason for limitation Example Displacement to consider Limit displacement

Visible displacements in

Visual Total /250

Sensorial structural elements

acceptability Felt vibrations on the

Other Due to accidental loads /350

floor

Surfaces that must 1)

Rooftops and verandas Total /250

drain water

/350 +

Total

Floors that must Gymnasiums and counter-deflection 2)

Structural

remain flat bowling lanes Occurred after the

effects on /600

service construction of the floor

In accordance with

Elements that

Occurred after leveling of the equipment

support sensitive Laboratories

equipment manufacturers

equipments

recommendation

3)

Masonry, frames and After the construction of the /500 or 10 mm or

coatings wall = 0.0017 rad 4)

Light dividers and Occurred after the installation

/250 3) or 25 mm

telescopic frames of the divider

Walls Provoked by the action of the 5)

Lateral movement of H/1700 or Hi/850

wind for frequent combination 6)

buildings between floors

(1 = 0.30)

Vertical thermal Provoked due to temperature 7)

Effects on non- /400 or 15 mm

movements difference

structural

elements Horizontal thermal Provoked due to temperature

Hi/500

movements difference

Occurred after construction of

Linings Glued coatings /350

the lining

Suspended coatings or Displacement occurred after

/175

with joints construction of the lining

Displacement provoked by

Rolling bridges Misalignment of rails the actions resulting from H/400

braking

Separation in relation

Effects on If the displacements are relevant for the considered element, their effects on the

to the adopted

structural stresses or on the stability of the structure must be considered, by incorporating

calculation

elements them to the adopted structural model.

hypotheses

1)

The surfaces must be sufficiently inclined or planned displacement compensated by counter-deflections, so as not to

obtain accumulation of water.

2)

The displacements must be partially compensated by the specification of counter-deflections. However, the isolated

action of the counter-deflection cannot occasion a deviation from the plane greater than /350.

3)

The span must be taken in the direction in which the wall or the divider is developed.

4)

Rotation in the elements that support walls.

5)

H is the total height of the building and Hi is the gradient between two neighboring floors.

6)

This limit is applied to lateral displacement between two consecutive floors due to the action of horizontal actions. The

displacements due to axial deformations on the columns must not be included. The limit is also applied to the relative

vertical displacement of the extremities of lintels connected to two bracing walls, when Hi represents the length of the

lintel.

7)

The value refers to the distance between the external column and the first internal column.

NOTES

1 All displacement limit values suppose elements of span supported in both the extremities by supports that do not

move. When it deals with overhangs, the equivalent span to be considered must be twice the length of the overhang.

2 For the case of surface elements, the prescribed limits consider that the value is the least span, except in cases of

verification of walls and dividers, where the direction matters in which wall or divider is developed, where this value is

limited to twice the smaller span.

3 The total displacement must be obtained from the combination of weighted characteristic actions by the coefficients

defined in section 11.

4 Excessive displacements can be partially compensated by counter-deflections.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

13.4.1 Introduction

Cracking in reinforced structural concrete elements is inevitable, due to large variability and low traction

concrete resistance; even under service actions (use), critical values of traction stresses are reached. Aiming

to obtain good performance related to the protection of reinforcements with respect to corrosion and

sensorial acceptability of the users, it seeks to control the opening of these cracks.

In structures with positive reinforcements (prestressed concrete) there is also, with smaller probability, the

possibility of emergence of cracks. In this case the cracks can be more noxious, since there is the possibility

of corrosion under reinforcement stress.

In general, the presence of cracks with openings that obey the limits given in 13.4.2, in well designed,

constructed structures and submitted to loads planned in the normalization, do not denote loss of durability

or loss of safety with respect to the ultimate limit states.

The cracks can further occur due to other causes, like thermal plastic retraction or due to internal chemical

reactions of the concrete in the first ages, which must be avoided or limited by technological cares,

especially in the definitions of the proportion and in the curing of the concrete.

13.4.2 Limits for cracking and protection of the reinforcements with respect to durability

The characteristic maximum opening wk of the cracks, as long as it does not exceed values of the order of

0.2 mm to 0.4 mm, (according to table 13.3) under action of frequent combinations, does not have significant

importance in the corrosion of negative reinforcements.

Since for the positive reinforcements there is the possibility of corrosion under stress, these limits must be

more restricted and direct function of the aggressiveness of the environment, given by the class of

environmental aggressiveness (please see section 6).

In table 13.3 limit values of characteristic opening wk of the cracks are given, as well as other provisions

aiming to assure adequate protection of the reinforcements with respect to corrosion. However, due to the

current stage of the knowledge and high variability of the magnitudes involved, these limits must be seen

only as criteria for an adequate structure project.

Although the crack opening estimates performed in 17.3.3.2 must obey these limits, it must not be expected

that the openings of real cracks correspond strictly to the estimated values, that is, real cracks can eventually

exceed these limits.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

in function of the classes of environmental aggressiveness

Class of environmental

Requirements relative to Combination of actions on

Type of structural concrete aggressiveness (CEA) and

cracking service to use

type of prestressing

Plain concrete CEA I to CEA IV None --

CEA I ELS-W wk 0.4 mm

Reinforced concrete CEA II and CEA III ELS-W wk 0.3 mm Frequent combination

CEA IV ELS-W wk 0.2 mm

Pre-traction with CEA I

Prestressed concrete level 1 or

ELS-W wk 0.2 mm Frequent combination

(partial prestressing) Post-traction with CEA I and

II

Pre-traction with CEA II Verify the two conditions below

Prestressed concrete level 2 or ELS-F Frequent combination

(limited prestressing) Post-traction with CEA III 1) Almost permanent

and IV ELS-D

combination

Verify the two conditions below

Prestressed concrete level 3 Pre-traction with CEA III and

ELS-F Rare combination

(complete prestressing) IV

ELS-D 1) Frequent combination

1)

At the criteria of the project engineer, ELS-D can be substituted for ELS-SP with ap = 25 mm (figure 3.1).

NOTES

1 The definitions of ELS-W, ELS-F and ELS-D are found in 3.2.

2 For the classes of environmental aggressiveness CEA-III and IV it is required that the non-adherent cordages may

have special protection in the region of their anchorages.

In the case that the cracks affect the functionality of the structure, like, for example, in the case of water

tightness of tanks, lower limits for the openings of cracks. For more effective controls of cracking in these

structures, the use of prestressing is convenient.

For control of cracking with respect to sensorial acceptability, the situation is understood in which the cracks

may cause psychological discomfort to users, although they do not represent loss of safety of the structure.

More severe limits of openings of cracks can be established with the contracting party.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

14 Structural analysis

14.1 Specific symbols of this section

So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the

most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

d Useful height

e Equivalent length of the supposed compressed element (column), linked in both extremities

rlow Stiffness of lower column span in a lower column span beam upper column span connection

rupp Stiffness of upper column span in a lower column span beam upper column span connection

rbea Stiffness of a beam in a lower column span beam upper column span connection

I Moment of inertia

p - Plastic rotation

The objective of structural analysis is to determine the effects of actions in a structure, with the purpose of

carrying out verifications of ultimate and service limit states.

Structural analysis permits the establishment of distributions of internal strengths, stresses, deformations and

displacements, in a part of in the entire structure.

The analysis must be performed with a realist structural model, which permits the representation in a clear

manner of all paths coursed by the actions until the supports of the structure and that may also permit the

representation of the non-linear response of the materials.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

In more complex cases, the ground-structure interaction must be contemplated by the model.

In the case of prestressing application, displaceability adequate to its effective execution must be assured,

by minimizing the transmission of undesired stresses to adjacent elements.

Complementary local analyses must be carried out in cases where the plane cross section hypothesis is not

applied (please see sections 21 and 22).

Complementary local analyses must also be carried out when the non-linearity introduced by the cracking is

important, like for example in the evaluation of deflections.

The equilibrium equations can be established based on the undeformed geometry of the structure (1st order

theory), except in the cases where the displacements alter significantly the internal stresses (2nd order

theory, please see section 15).

When the compatibility conditions are not verified in the considered limit state, measures that assure

adequate ductility of the structure in the ultimate limit state must be adopted, where an adequate

performance is protected in the service limit states.

Monotonic load is admitted up to the considered limit state, in the usual structures, as long as the response

to load and unload cycles, in service, does not stress the concrete to compression strengths above 0.5 fck.

The structures can be idealized as the composition of basic structural elements, classified and defined in

accordance with their geometric form and their structural function, according to 14.4.1 and 14.4.2.

They are those in which the longitudinal length exceeds in at least three times the larger dimension of the

transversal cross section, where they are also called bars. In accordance with their structural function, they

receive the designations of 14.4.1.1 to 14.4.1.4.

14.4.1.1 Beams

14.4.1.2 Columns

Linear elements of straight axis, usually disposed at the vertical, in which the normal compression forces are

predominant.

Linear elements of straight axis in which the normal traction forces are predominant.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

14.4.1.4 Arches

Curved linear elements in which the normal compression forces are predominant, acting or not

simultaneously with bending stressing strengths, whose actions are contained in their plane.

Element in which a dimension, usually called thickness, is relatively small before the others, which can

receive the designations presented in 14.4.2.1 to 14.4.2.4.

14.4.2.1 Plates

Flat surface elements subject mainly to normal actions on their plane. The concrete plates are usually called

slabs. Plates with thickness greater than 1/3 of the span must be studied as thick plates.

14.4.2.2 Sheaths

Flat surface elements, subject mainly to actions contained in their plane. The concrete sheaths where the

span is lesser than three times the larger dimension of the transversal cross section are usually called wall-

beams.

14.4.2.3 Shells

14.4.2.4 Wall-columns

Flat or cylindrical shell surface elements, usually disposed in the vertical and submitted predominantly to

compression. They can be composed by one or more associated surfaces. So that a wall-column may be

obtained, in some of these surfaces the smaller dimension must be lesser than 1/5 of the larger, both

considered in the transversal cross section of the structural element.

14.5.1 Generalities

For the project situation, structural analysis can be carried out by one of the methods presented in 14.5.2 to

14.5.6, which are differentiated by the admitted behavior for constituting materials of the structure, without

losing sight of the corresponding limitations in each case.

For situations of verifications of projects or works already executed, non-conformities identified through one

of these structural analysis models will not be accepted as refutations. For acceptance of this project or work,

it is sufficient to show the conformity with the norm through one of the structural analysis models.

All these models admit, for effect of this section, that the displacements of the structure are small.

In the global analysis the geometric characteristics can be determined through the brute concrete cross

section of the structural elements. In local analysis for calculation of displacements, in the eventuality of

cracking, this must be considered.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The values for the modulus of elasticity and Poissons coefficient must be adopted in accordance with that

presented in 8.2.8 and 8.2.9, where in principle, the secant modulus of elasticity Ecs must be considered.

The results of a linear analysis are usually employed for the verification of service limit states.

It is possible to extend the results for verifications of ultimate limit state, even with elevated stresses, as long

as ductility of the structural elements is assured.

In linear analysis with redistribution, the effects of the actions, determined in a linear analysis, are

redistributed in the structure, for the ULS load combinations.

In this case the equilibrium and ductility conditions must obligatorily be satisfied.

All internal stresses must be recalculated so as to assure the equilibrium of each one of the structural

elements and the structure as a whole. The effects of redistribution must be considered in all aspects of the

structural project, including the anchorage conditions and cutting of reinforcements and the stresses to

anchor.

The verifications of ULS or fatigue load combinations can be based on linear analysis without redistribution.

Generally, it is desirable that there may be no redistribution of strengths in service.

The structural analysis is called plastic when the non-linearities could be considered, by admitting materials

of perfect stiff-plastic or perfect elastic-plastic behavior.

In the case of cyclic load with possibility of fatigue, plastic calculation must be avoided, observing the

prescriptions contained in section 23.

The entire geometry of the structure, as well as all their reinforcements, need to known so that the non-linear

analysis can be carried out, since the response of the structure depends on how it was reinforced.

Equilibrium compatibility and ductility conditions must necessarily be satisfied. Non-linear analyses can be

adopted for verifications of ultimate limit states as well as for verifications of service limit states.

In the analysis through physical models, the structural behavior is determined from tests performed with

physical concrete models, considering the mechanical similitude criteria.

The methodology employed in the experiments must assure the possibility of obtaining the correct

interpretation of the results.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

In this case, the interpretation of the results must be justified by theoretical equilibrium model in the critical

cross sections and statistical analysis of the results.

If an adequate evaluation of the variability of the results is possible, the safety margins prescribed in this

Norm can be adopted, according to sections 11 and 12. Otherwise, when it is only possible to evaluate the

average value of the results, the safety margin referred in this Norm must be expanded, where the

variabilities evaluated through other means are covered in favor of safety.

Obligatorily results must be obtained for all ultimate and service limit states to employed in the analysis of the

structure.

All actions, conditions and possible influences that may occur during the life of the structure must

conveniently be reproduced in the tests.

This type of analysis is appropriate when the calculation models are insufficient or are out of scope of this

Norm.

For the case of load tests, the prescriptions of section 25 must be satisfied.

Structures or parts of structures that can be assimilated to linear elements (beams, columns, supporting

brackets, arches, porticos, grids, lattices) can be analyzed by admitting the following hypotheses:

c) Length limited by the centers of supports or by the intersection with the axis of other structural element.

The sections of linear elements pertaining to a common region to the intersection of two or more elements

can be considered as stiff (nodes of finite dimensions), in the manner as it is illustrated in figure 14.1.

Stiff section

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

When the structure is modeled without the automatic consideration of the combined action of slabs and

beams, this effect can be considered through the adoption of a collaborating width of the slab associated to

the beam, comprising a T transversal cross section.

The consideration of the T cross section can be performed to establish the distributions of internal strengths,

stresses, deformations and displacements in the structure, in a more realistic manner.

The collaborating width bf must be given by the beam width bw added by a maximum of 10% of the distance

a between the points of null bending moment, for each side of the beam where there is collaborating slab.

The distance a can be estimated, in function of the length of the considered span, as it is presented as

follows:

Alternatively, the calculation of the distance a can be performed or verified through examination of the

bending moment diagrams in the structure.

In the case of continuous beams, it is permitted that they be calculated with a single collaborating width for

all cross sections, including in the supports under negative moments, as long as this width is calculated from

the section of positive moments where the width results minimum.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

When the slab presents openings or interruptions in the region of the collaborating bed, the variation of the

effective width (bef) of the bed must observe the maximum bf and limitations imposed by the openings as

figure 14.3 shows.

opening

In the occurrence of supporting bracket or sudden variation of transversal cross section, it must only be

considered as effective part of that cross section indicated in figure 14.4.

ef = o + a1 + a2

with a1 equal to the smaller value between (t1/2 and 0.3h) and a2 equal to the smaller value between (t2/2

and 0.3h), according to figure 14.5.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The bending moment diagram can be rounded on the supports and points of application of forces considered

as concentrated or nodes of porticos. This rounding can be done approximately as indicated in figure 14.6.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The general conditions expressed in 14.5.2 and 14.5.3 and the specific conditions presented in 14.6.4.1 to

14.6.4.3 are applied to structures of linear elements.

For the calculation of the stiffness of the structural elements it is permitted, as estimation, to take the secant

modulus of elasticity (Ecs) (please see 8.2.8) and the moment of inertia of the brute concrete cross section.

For verification of the deflections the cracking and the flow must obligatorily be considered, using, for

example, the criterion of 17.3.2.1.

The redistributions of bending and torsion moments in columns, linear elements with predominance of

compression and brackets, can only be adopted when they are resulting from redistributions of moments of

beams that are connected to them.

When approximate procedures are used, only a small redistribution is permitted in moving node structures

(please see 14.6.4.3).

The implicit redistribution in a second-order analysis must be carried out in accordance with section 15.

The rotation capacity of structural elements is function of the position of the neutral line in the ULS. The

smaller is x/d, the greater will be this capacity.

In order to improve the ductility of the structures in the support regions of the beams or connections with

other structural elements, even when redistribution of stressing strengths are not performed, the position of

the neutral line in the ULS must obey the following limits:

These limits can be altered if special reinforcement details are used, like for example, those that produce

contention in these regions.

cross section, the ratio between the coefficient of redistribution and the position of the neutral line in this

cross section x/d, for the reduced moment M, must be given by:

Redistribution out of the limits established in this Norm can be adopted, as long as the structure is calculated

through the employment of non-linear analysis or plastic analysis, with explicit verification of the rotation

capacity of plastic girders.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

For verifications of ultimate limit states the plastic analysis of the structure can be carried out, with the

simulation of plastic girders located at the critical cross sections.

The verification of the rotations in plastic girders, corresponding to the adopted mechanisms, is obligatory,

which cannot exceed the plastic rotation capacity of the corresponding transversal cross sections.

This limit, function of the relative depth x/d of the neutral line in the cross section for the bending moment

considered in the girder, can be determined through figure 14.7, for ratio a/d equal to 6 (where a is the

distance between points of null moment of the region that contains the plasticized cross section). For other

ratios a/d, multiply the values extracted from figure 14.7 by (a / d ) / 6 .

steel CA-60

other steels

- Curve 1: for x/d 0.17 1000 p = 2 d/x

- Curve 2: for x/d 0.15 1000 p = 3.5 d/x

The verification of the rotation capacity of plastic girders must be done for each one of the considered load

combinations. Special attention must be given to the verification of cracking in the girders for service

conditions.

Non-linear analyses are permitted for verifications of ultimate limit states as well as for verifications of service

limit states.

The classic model of continuous beams can be used, simply supported on columns, for the study of the

vertical loads, where the need for the following additional corrections are observed:

a) positive moments lesser than those that could be obtained if there was perfect inlaying of the beam in the

internal supports must not be considered;

b) when the beam is harmonious with the intermediate column and the support width, measured in the

direction of the axis of the beam, is greater than a fourth part of the column, no negative moment of absolute

value lesser than that of the perfect inlaying in these support can be considered;

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

c) when the accurate calculation of the influence of the solidarity of the columns with the beam is not

performed, bending moment equal to the moment of perfect inlay multiplied by the coefficients established in

the following relations must be considered:

- at the beam:

such that :

where

ri is the stiffness of the element I in the considered node, evaluated as indicated in figure 14.8.

Alternatively, the continuous beam model can be improved, by considering the solidarity of the columns with

the beam, through the introduction of bending stiffness of the extreme and intermediate columns.

The adaptability of the employed model must be verified through careful analysis of the obtained results.

Precautions must be taken to assure the equilibrium of the moments in the beam-column nodes, especially

in the simpler models, like that of continuous beams.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The building floors can be modeled as grids, for study of vertical loads, by considering the bending stiffness

analogously, to what was prescribed for the continuous beams.

Approximately, in the grids and in the spatial porticos, the torsion stiffness of the beams can be reduced

through cracking by using 15% of the elastic stiffness, except for the structural elements with limited or

complete prestressing (levels 2 or 3).

Open thin wall profiles can be modeled considering what is disposed in 17.5.

For building structures where the variable load is at a maximum equal to 20% of the total load, the structural

analysis can be carried out without the load alternate considerations.

The slab of a floor can be considered as a totally stiff sheath on its plane, as long as it does not present large

openings and whose larger side of the rectangle circumscribed to the floor on the plan does not exceed three

times the smaller side.

When the supports can be considered sufficiently stiff with respected to vertical translation, the effective

span must be calculated through the following expression:

ef = 0 + a1 + a2

The values of a1 and a2, in each extremity of the span, can be determined by the appropriate values of ai in

figure 14.5.

Methods based on the theory of elasticity are applied to the plate structures, with Poissons coefficient equal

to 0.2.

The general conditions expressed in 14.5.2 and 14.5.3 and the specific conditions presented in 14.7.3.1 and

14.7.3.2 must be satisfied.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

For verification of the limit state of excessive deformation the stiffness values of stage I can be used,

considering the secant modulus of elasticity of the concrete, as long as the bending moments are lesser than

that of the cracking.

The eventual cracking and slow deformation effects must be considered in an analogous manner to the

procedures exposed in section 17.

When a redistribution is carried out, the ratio between the coefficient (according to 14.6.4.3) and the

position of the neutral line is given by:

For the consideration of the ultimate limit state, the analysis of stresses can be performed through the theory

of plastic flaps.

For assurance of the appropriate ductility conditions, exempting the explicit verification of the plastic rotation

capacity, prescribed in 14.6.5, the position of the limited neutral line must be obtained in :

X/d 0.30

In the lack of better experimental data, minimum ratio of 1.5:1 between border moments (with continuity and

undisplaceable support) and moments in the span must be adopted for rectangular slabs.

Special cares must be taken in relation to cracking and verification of deflections in ULS, mainly when the

ratio between moment is adopted very different from which results from an elastic analysis.

Non-linear analyses are permitted for verifications of ultimate limit states as well as for verification of service

limit states.

For the calculation of support reactions of the rectangular solid slabs with uniform load the following can be

done:

a) the reactions in each support are those corresponding to the loads acting in the triangles or trapezoids

determined through the plastic flaps corresponding to the executed analysis with the criteria of 14.7.4, where

these reactions, in an approximate manner, can be considered uniformly distributed on the structural

elements that serve them as support;

b) when the plastic analysis is not carried out, the flaps can be estimated by inclined straight lines, from the

vertices with the following angles:

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- 60 from the considered inlaid support, if the other is considered simply supported;

When there is predominance of permanent loads, the neighboring slabs can be considered as isolated,

where compatibilization of the moments on the supports are performed in an approximate manner.

In the case of plastic analysis, the compatibilization can be carried out through alteration of the ratios

between border and span moments, in iterative procedures, until the obtainment of balanced values at the

borders.

The adoption of greater value of negative moment is permitted, in a simplified way, instead of balancing the

moments of different slabs on a common border.

Ribbed slabs are the molded slabs in the site or with pre-molded ribs, whose traction zone for positive

moments is located at the ribs between which inert material can be placed.

The slabs with pre-molded ribs must additionally comply with the prescriptions of specific Brazilian Norms.

All previous prescriptions relative to slabs can be considered valid, as long as the conditions of 13.2.4.2 are

obeyed.

When these hypotheses are not verified, the ribbed slab must be analyzed considering the cover as solid

slab supported on grid of beams.

The unidirectional ribbed slabs must be calculated according to the direction of the neglected ribs at

transversal stiffness and torsion stiffness.

The bidirectional ribbed slabs (according to ABNT NBR 14859-2) can be calculated, for effect of stressing

strengths, like solid slabs.

Mushroom slabs are slabs supported directly on columns with capitals, while smooth slabs are those

supported on columns without capitals.

The structural analysis of smooth and mushroom slabs must be performed through employment of adequate

numeric procedure, for example, finite differences, finite elements and outline elements.

In the cases where the columns are disposed in orthogonal rows, in a regular manner and with little different

spans, the calculation of the strengths can be performed through the approximate elastic process, with

redistribution, which consists of adopting in each direction multiple porticos, for obtainment of the stressing

strengths.

For each portico the total load must be considered. The distribution of the moments, obtained in each

direction, according to the bands indicated in figure 14.9, must be performed in the following manner:

b) 27.5% of the positive moments for each one of the external bands;

d) 37.5% of the negative moments for each one of the external bands.

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The connections of the slabs with the columns must be studied carefully, with special attention to the cases

where there is no symmetry of slab form or load in relation to the support.

The moments of connection between extreme slab and column must obligatorily be considered.

Figure 14.9 Slab bands for distribution of strengths in the multiple porticos

For wall-beams or wall-columns the linear analysis or the non-linear analysis can be used.

The linear analysis, in most of the cases, must be performed with the employment of adequate numeric

procedure, like, for example, finite differences, finite elements and outline elements.

For the consideration of a wall-beam or a wall-column as component of a structural system, it is permitted for

it to be represented by linear element, as long as the shear deformation and an adjustment of its bending

stiffness to real behavior are considered.

14.8.2 Blocks

For blocks linear analysis, plastic analysis or non-linear analysis can be used.

Linear analysis, in most of the cases, must be performed with the employment of adequate numeric

procedure, like, for example, finite differences and finite elements.

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15.1 Specific symbols of this section

So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the

most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

e1 1st order eccentricity (it does not include the accidental eccentricity)

Instability parameter

z Coefficient of increase of final global 1st order strengths for obtainment of the final 2nd order strengths

1 Limit value for slenderness index (it contemplates accidental eccentricity of the column)

This section is applied mainly to structures constituted by bars submitted to compound bending, where the

torsion contribution, in the 2nd order effects, can be neglected.

The principles of this section can be applied to other types of structural elements, like shells, walls and wall-

beams.

In the reinforced concrete structures, the ultimate limit state of instability is achieved whenever, in increasing

the intensity of the load and, therefore, of deformations, there are elements submitted to bending-

compression where the increase of the resisting capacity becomes lower than the increase of stress.

a) in the structures without initial geometric imperfections, there can be (for special loading cases) loss of

stability by equilibrium bifurcation (buckling);

b) in particular situations (fatigued structures), there can be loss of stability without equilibrium bifurcation by

sudden passage of a configuration to another reversed from the previous (limit point with reversion);

c) in structures of non-linear behavior material, with initial geometric imperfections, there is no loss of stability

by equilibrium bifurcation, however, there is loss of stability when, in increasing the intensity of the load, the

increase of the resisting capacity of the structure becomes lesser than that increase of the stress (limit point

without reversion).

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Cases a) and b) can occur for structures of linear or non-linear behavior material.

The 2nd order effects are those that are summed to those obtained in a first order analysis (where the

equilibrium of the structure is studied in the initial geometric configuration), when the analysis of the

equilibrium is carried out considering the deformed configuration.

The 2nd order effects, in whose determination the non-linear behavior of the materials must be considered,

can be neglected whenever they do not represent increase greater than 10% in the relevant reactions and in

the stresses of the structure.

The structural analysis with 2nd order effects must assure that, for the most unfavorable combinations of

actions of calculation, loss of stability or break down of the calculation resisting capacity does not occur.

The physical non-linearity, present in the reinforced concrete structures, must be obligatorily considered.

The deformability of the elements must be calculated based on the stress deformation diagrams of the

materials defined in section 8. The peak stress of the concrete must equal to 1.10 fcd, which already includes

the maintained load effect (Rsch), and that of the steel equal to fyd, with the values of c and s used for

ULS.

The verification of the resisting capacity must be performed according to prescriptions of section 17.

Possible uncertainties in the characteristics of supports of the structure and in its deformability must be

considered in the analysis.

The main effect of non-linearity can, in general, be considered through the construction of the moment-

curvature ratio for each cross section, with known supposed reinforcement, and for the value of the acting

normal force.

The safety formulation can also be considered where the 2nd order effects of the increased loads of f/f3 are

calculated, which later are increased by f3, with f3 = 1.1, with the following equation:

where:

For choice of the combination of actions and coefficients f and 0, please see section 11.

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Curve obtained

Secant

with 1.10 fcd

Curve obtained

with 0.85 fcd

Secant stiffness

The full curve AB, which, in favor of safety, can be linearized through straight line AB, is used in the

calculation of the deformations.

The curve with broken line, obtained with the calculation values of the concrete and steel resistances, is

used only to define the resisting strengths MRd and NRd (maximum point).

The straight line AB is characterized by the secant stiffness (EI)sec, which can be used in approximate

processes for normal or oblique compound bending.

where:

This value of adimensional secant stiffness can be placed, together with ultimate values of NRd and MRd, in

frames of normal force-bending moment interaction.

Geometric imperfections (global and local) must be considered in accordance with that prescribed in

11.3.3.4.

Under the action of vertical and horizontal loads, the nodes of the structure are displaced horizontally. The

2nd order stresses resulting from these displacements are called global 2nd order effects. In the bars of the

structure, like a column side, the respective axes are not maintained rectilinear, emerging, from there, local

2nd order effects that, in principle, affect mainly the stressing strengths along them.

In wall-columns (simple or compound) a region can be obtained that presents non-rectilinearity greater than

that of the columns axis as a whole. In these regions larger 2nd order effects emerge, called located 2nd

order effects (please see figure 15.2). The located 2nd order effect, besides increasing in this region the

longitudinal bending, also increases the transversal bending, where there is the need to increase the stirrups

in these regions.

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located 2nd

located 2nd order

order

The structures are considered, for effect of calculation, as fixed nodes, when the horizontal displacements of

the nodes are small and, as a result, the global 2nd order effects are negligible (lesser than 10% of the

respective 1st order stresses). In these structures, it is sufficient to consider the local and located 2nd order

effects.

The moving node structures are those where the horizontal displacements are not small and, as a result, the

global 2nd order effects are important (greater than 10% of the respective 1st order stresses). In these

structures the global as well as the local and located 2nd order stresses must be considered.

However, there are structures where the horizontal displacements are large and that, nevertheless, exempt

the consideration of the 2nd order effects because the normal forces are small and, therefore, the increases

of the displacements produced by them are small; this can happen, for example, in posts and in certain

columns of industrial sheds.

15.4.3 Bracing

For convenience of analysis, it is possible to identify, inside the structure, substructures that, due to their

large stiffness to horizontal actions, resist to most part of the stresses resulting from these actions. These

substructures are called bracing substructures.

The elements that do not participate in the bracing substructure are called braced elements.

The bracing substructures can be fixed nodes or moving nodes, in accordance with the definitions of 15.4.2.

d) the elements of the bracing substructures of moving nodes as long as, to the stresses on the extremities,

obtained in a 1st order analysis, those determined through global 2nd order analysis are increased.

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15.5.1 Generalities

The approximate processes, presented in 15.5.2 and 15.5.3, can be used to verify the possibility of

exemption from the consideration of global 2nd order stresses, that is, to indicate if the structure can be

classified as fixed nodes, with the need for rigorous calculation.

A symmetric reticulated structure can be considered as fixed nodes if its instability parameter is lesser than

the value 1, according to the expression:

where:

1 = 0.6 if: n 4

where:

n is the number of levels of horizontal bars (floors) above the foundation or a little displaceable level

of the basement;

Htot is the total height of the structure, measured from the top of the foundation or of a little

displaceable level of the basement;

Nk is the sum of all acting vertical loads in the structure (from the considered level to the calculation

of Htot), with its characteristic value;

EcsIc represents the sum of the stiffness values of all columns in the considered direction. In the case

of structures of porticos, lattices or mixed, or with columns of variable stiffness along the height, the value of

the expression EcsIc of an equivalent column of constant cross section can be considered.

NOTE In the analysis of global stability the value of the modulus of elasticity or modulus of initial tangent

deformation given in 8.2.8 can be adopted.

The value of Ic must be calculated considering the brute column cross sections.

The stiffness of the equivalent column must be determined in the following manner:

- calculate the displacement of the top of the bracing structure, under horizontal loading action;

- calculate the stiffness of an equivalent column of constant cross section, inlaid at the base and free

at the top, of the same height Htot, such that, under the action of the same loading, it suffers the same

displacement on the top.

The limit value 1 = 0.6 prescribed for n 4 is, generally, applicable to usual building structures. It can be

adapted to associations of wall-columns and for porticos associated to wall-columns. It can be increased to

1 = 0.7, in the case of bracing constituted exclusively by wall-columns and must be reduced to 1 = 0.5

when there are only porticos.

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15.5.3 Coefficient z

The coefficient z of evaluation of the importance of the global second order stresses is valid for reticulated

structures with a minimum of four floors. It can be determined from the results of a first order linear analysis,

for each loading case, where the stiffness values given in 15.7.2 are adopted.

where:

M1,tot,d is the tumbling moment, that is, the sum of the moments of all horizontal forces of the

considered combination, with their calculation values, in relation to the base of the structure;

Mtot,d is the sum of the products of all acting vertical forces in the structure, in the considered

combination, with their calculation values, through the horizontal displacements of their respective points of

application, obtained from the 1st order analysis;

It is considered that the structure is fixed nodes if the condition is obeyed: z 1.1.

In fixed node structures, the calculation can be performed considering each compressed element separately,

as bar linked at the extremities to the other structural elements that compete there, where the stresses

obtained from the analysis of the executed structure are applied according to the 1st order theory.

The analysis of the local 2nd order effects must be carried out in accordance with what is established in 15.8.

Under the action of horizontal forces, the structure is always calculated as displaceable. The fact that the

structure is classified as fixed nodes exempts only the consideration of global 2nd order stresses.

The equivalent length e of the compressed element (column), supposed linked in both extremities, must be

the least of the following values:

where:

0 is the distance between the internal faces of the structural elements, supposed horizontal, which

link the column;

h is the height of the transversal cross section of the column, measured on the plane of the structure

under study;

is the distance between the axes of the structural elements to which the column is linked.

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15.7.1 Generalities

In structural analysis of moving node structures, the geometric non-linearity and physical non-linearity effects

must obligatorily be considered and, therefore, in the dimensioning the global and local 2nd order effects

must obligatorily be considered.

An approximate solution for the determination of global 2nd order stresses consists of the evaluation of the

final stresses (1st order + 2nd order) from the additional increase of the horizontal stresses of the considered

loading combination by 0.95 z. This process is only valid for z 1.3.

For the analysis of global 2nd order stresses, in reticulated structures with a minimum of four floors, the

physical non-linearity can be considered in an approximate manner, by taking as stiffness of the structural

elements the following values:

- slabs:

- beams: to and

to

- columns:

where:

Ic is the moment of inertia of the brute concrete cross section, including, when it is the case, the

collaborating beds.

When the bracing structure is exclusively composed by beams and columns and z is lesser than 1.3, the

stiffness of beams and columns is permitted to be calculated through:

The stiffness values adopted in this subsection are approximates and cannot be used to evaluate local 2nd

order stresses, even with a greater modeling discretization.

The global 2nd order analysis provides only the stresses at the extremities of the bars, where an analysis of

the local 2nd order effects must be performed along the axes of the compressed bars, in accordance with

what is prescribed in 15.8.

The isolated elements, for purposes of local verification, must be formed by the compressed bars removed

from the structure, with length e, in accordance with that established in 15.6, however, by applying to their

extremities the stresses obtained from the global 2nd order analysis.

15.8.1 Generalities

The subsections 15.8.2, 15.8.3.2 and 15.8.4 are applicable only to isolated elements of constant cross

section and constant reinforcement along their axis, submitted to bending-compression.

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The columns must have slenderness index lesser than or equal to 200 (. 200). Only in the case of posts

with normal force lesser than 0.10 fcdAc, the slenderness index can be greater than 200.

The local 2nd order stresses in isolated elements can be negligible when the slenderness index is lesser than

the limit value 1 established in this subsection.

In the case of inlaid column at the base and free at the top, the value of e is equal to 2. In the other cases,

adopt the calculated values according to 15.6.

The value of 1 depends on diverse factors, but the predominant ones are:

where:

such that:

where:

MA and MB are the 1st order moments at the extremes of the column. The largest absolute value

must be adopted for MA along the bi-supported column and for MB the positive sign, if the same face is

submitted to traction as MA, and otherwise, negative.

b) for bi-supported columns with significant transversal loads along the height:

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such that:

where:

MA is the 1st order moment in the inlay and Mc is the 1st order moment in the middle of the column in

overhang.

d) for bi-supported columns or in overhang with moments lesser than the minimum moment established in

11.3.3.4.3:

The calculation can be done through the general method or through approximate methods, in accordance

with 15.8.3.2 or 15.8.3.3.

The flow consideration is obligatory for > 90, where the portion corresponding to the eccentricity ecc defined

in 15.8.4 must be added to M1d.

It consists of the non-linear 2nd order analysis carried out with adequate discretization of the bar,

consideration of the real moment-curvature ratio in each cross section, and consideration of the geometric

non-linearity in a non-approximate manner.

15.8.3.3.1 Generalities

The determination of the local 2nd order stresses can be performed through approximate methods like that of

the standard column and that of the improved standard column.

It can be employed only in the calculation of columns with 90, constant cross section and symmetric and

constant reinforcement along its axis.

The geometric non-linearity is considered in an approximate manner, where it is supposed that the

deformation of the bar is sine.

The physical non-linearity is considered through an approximate expression of curvature in the critical cross

section.

The total maximum moment in the column must be calculated through the expression:

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such that 1/r is the curvature in the critical cross section, which can be evaluated by the approximate

expression:

where:

where:

The moment M1d,A and the coefficient b have the same definitions in 15.8.2, such that M1d,A is the 1st order

calculation value of the moment MA.

It can be employed only in the calculation of columns with 90, constant rectangular cross section,

symmetric and constant reinforcement along its axis.

The geometric non-linearity must be considered in an approximate manner, where it is supposed that the

deformation of the bar is sine.

The total maximum moment in the column must be calculated from the increase of the 1st order moment by

the expression:

such that the adimensional stiffness value is given approximately by the expression:

The variables h, , M1d,A and b are the same ones defined in the previous subsection. Usually two or three

iterations are sufficient when an iterative calculation is opted.

The determination of the local 2nd order stresses in columns with 140 can be performed through the

standard column or improved standard column method, where the values obtained from M, N and 1/r

diagrams specific for the case are used for the critical cross section curvature.

If > 90, the consideration of the effects of flow, in accordance with 15.8.4, is obligatory.

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15.8.3.3.5 Standard column method for rectangular cross section columns submitted to oblique compound

bending

When the slenderness of a rectangular cross section column submitted to oblique compound bending is

lesser than 90 ( < 90) in the two main directions, the approximate process described in 15.8.3.3.3 can be

applied simultaneously in each one of the two directions.

The amplification of the 1st order moments in each direction is different, since it depends on distinct stiffness

and slenderness values.

Once the distribution of the total 1st and 2nd order moments is obtained, in each direction, it must be verified,

for each cross section along the axis, if the composition of these stressing moments is inside the covering of

resisting moments for the chosen reinforcement. This verification can be performed in only three cross

sections: at the extremities A and B and at an intermediate point where the moments Md,tot are admitted to

act concomitantly in the two directions (x and y).

Flow consideration must obligatorily be performed in columns with slenderness index > 90 and it can be

carried out in an approximate manner, by considering the given additional eccentricity ecc that follows:

where:

Msg and Nsg are the stressing strengths due to the almost permanent combination;

e is defined in 15.6.

The consideration of the 2nd order effect must be done according to 15.8.3, as if it were an immediate effect,

which is summed to the eccentricity e1.

15.9.1 Generalities

So that the wall-columns may be included as linear elements in the resisting set of the structure, it must be

assured that its transversal cross section has its form maintained by adequate lockings in the diverse floors

and that the located 2nd order effects are conveniently evaluated.

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The located 2nd order effects of wall-columns can be neglected if, for each one of the component sheets of

the wall-column, the following conditions are obeyed:

a) the base and the top of each sheet must be conveniently set on the slabs of the building, which confer to

all the horizontal diaphragm effect;

b) the slenderness i of each sheet must be lesser than 35, where the calculation of this slenderness i can

be carried out through the given expression that follows:

hi is the thickness.

The value of e depends on the bonds of each one of the vertical extremities of the sheet, according to figure

15.3.

Top Top

Base Base

Top Top

Base Base

If the top and the base are inlaid and 1, the values of i can be multiplied by 0.85.

15.9.3 Approximate process for consideration of the located 2nd order effect

In the simple or compound wall-columns, where the slenderness of each sheet that constitutes it is lesser

than 90, the approximate procedure described as follows can be adopted for a simple wall-column.

The located 2nd order effect must be considered through the decomposition of the wall-column in vertical

bands, of width ai, which must be analyzed as isolated columns, submitted to the stresses Ni and Myid,

where:

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where:

Ni is the normal force in the band I, calculated from nd(x) according to figure 15.4;

Top Top

Vertical

bands

stresses nd(x) due to Nd and M1xd

The located 2nd order effect on the band I is assimilated to the local 2nd order effect of the isolated column

equivalent to each one of these bands.

The safety to lateral instability of beams must be assured through appropriate procedures.

As the approximate procedure, the following conditions can be adopted, for concrete beams, with negative or

positive reinforcements, subject to lateral buckling:

where:

0 is the length of the compressed flange, measured between supports that assure lateral bracing;

fl is the coefficient that depends on the form of the beam (please see table 15.1).

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0.40

0.20

Where:

Compressed zone

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16.1 Objective

The objective of these three stages (dimensioning, verification and detailing), which are developed

immediately after the structural analysis, is to assure safety, in relation to the ultimate (ULS) and service

(SLS) limit states, the structures as a whole and each one of their parts.

This safety requires that the analytical conditions be observed, of the type:

Sd Rd

where it is imposed that the calculation stresses are lesser than the calculation resistances for all limit states

considered important for the structure in question.

Besides a structural arrangement that assures safety to the assembly, rules such as those of minimum

dimensions must be applied for the definition of the forms, as well as the rules of detailing of the

reinforcements.

16.2.1 Generalities

These three project stages are oriented by the general principles established in 16.2.2 to 16.2.4.

These three stages must always be supported in a global view of the structure, even when a single mode is

detailed (region of connection between two structural elements).

This node must do its part for the safety of the assembly.

On the other hand, the detailing of a particular element must take into account that its performance depends

on local aspects that were not taken into account in the global analysis.

This is the case of the verification of the deflection of a beam, which must take into account stiffness lesser

than the average of the structure, as well as the loss of stiffness with the cracking.

This is the case even, when the ULS of a column side is verified, which must take into account local

construction errors and local 2nd order effects, which were not considered in the global analysis.

When a structure is dimensioned or is verified it is necessary to bear in mind if what is being verified

effectively are cross sections of the elements.

It is the safety of these cross sections that can, usually, be expressed analytically.

It is fundamental that this safety is extended to the rest of the elements through an adequate detailing.

Adequate detailing permits the seaming of parts of the same element, as well as elements that arrive at the

same node.

There are two types of detailing rules, namely: those of elements like slabs, beams, columns, etc., and those

for special regions where there are geometric or static singularities.

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In relation to the ULS, aside from assuring the adequate safety, that is, a sufficiently small probability of

destruction, it is necessary to assure a good ductility, so that an eventual destruction may occur in a

sufficiently warned manner, alerting the users.

In safety verification in relation to the SLS, analytical safety expression and constructive rules must also be

analogously satisfied.

The models to be used in this SLS verification are different from those used in the ULS. Besides that they

support smaller loads (of service), they have different stiffness, usually greater.

In order to assure the good performance of a structure in service, limitations of deflections, opening of

cracks, or vibrations must usually be observed, but also it is possible that it may be important to think in the

water-tightness, in the thermal and acoustic comfort, etc.

Basing on these general principles, this Norm establishes project criteria to be observed in the dimensioning

and detailing of each one of the structural elements and the connections that make viable the construction of

the structure as a whole.

In order to facilitate the application in the project, these criteria were organized into sections.

In section 17, relative to the dimensioning and the verification of linear elements, ULS as well as SLS criteria

are found, considering normal stresses (normal forces and bending moments) as well as tangential stresses

(shear forces and torsion).

It must be observed that these criteria are provided for the structural concrete, going from the reinforced

concrete to the prestressed concrete.

It must also be observed that the dimensioning of columns for centered load is not accepted.

This section also established minimum ductility criteria, including the minimum reinforcements.

In section 18, relative to the detailing of linear elements, minimum criteria are provided for the detailing of the

elements dimensioned according to section 17.

Criteria for the detailing of negative longitudinal and transversal reinforcements, as well as prestressing

reinforcements are included.

In section 19, relative to the dimensioning and the verification of slabs, criteria for ULS and SLS are found,

whether they are reinforced or prestressed.

These criteria cover the normal as well as tangential stresses, including the punch.

As it was required in section 17, the dimensioning of columns always with eccentric load, when not oblique,

the punch, in section 19, covers the corresponding cases of eccentric punch.

In section 20, relative to the detailing of slabs, minimum criteria for the detailing of these structural elements

are gathered, dimensioned according to section 19, whether they are reinforced or prestressed slabs.

In section 21, relative to special regions, criteria are found for verification of the regions of singularity,

whether geometric or static.

Often these criteria establish only qualitative requirements to be observed in these regions.

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Section 22, relative to special elements, establishes only the evaluation of the most common special

elements and suggests the use of specialized bibliography for their dimensioning and detailing.

In section 23, relative to dynamic actions and fatigue, criteria are found to evaluate the damages generated

in the structures due to cyclic actions, to be considered in the SLS verification, and even criteria for

verification of fatigue ULS.

The verification of fatigue of the reinforcements is approached, from bending as well as from shear, as well

as concrete fatigue, whether to compression (in the bending or in the shear force) or to traction, especially in

the calculation of the portion of shear force supported only by the concrete, without reinforcement, Vc.

Section 24, relative to plain concrete, defines the structural elements that can be executed in plain concrete

and establishes the criteria to be observed in their verification.

16.4 Durability

So that the verified safety as described in 16.2.3 and 16.2.4 may subsist in the course of the entire useful life

planned for the structure, it is fundamental that durability requirements may be observed that limit the

deterioration of the structure provoked by aggression from the environment where it is introduced (please

see sections 6 and 7).

In the particular case of significant cyclic loads, as it happens in bridges and in viaducts in general, and also

in the bearing beams of rolling bridges, special attention must be given to the deleterious effects generated

by these loads.

In the verification of SLS, it must be taken into account that the cyclic loads provoke a greater microcracking

of the concrete, making the structural elements more deformable.

The deleterious effect of cyclic load does not only make the structural elements more deformable, that is,

relatively damaged, but it can expand this damage, provoking rupture due to fatigue. Section 23 deals with

these two issues.

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17.1 Specific symbols of this section

So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the

most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

at Displacement of the bending moment diagram, parallel to the axis of the part, to substitute the effects

provoked by oblique cracking

c1 Distance between the axis of the longitudinal reinforcement of the corner and the lateral face of the

structural element

d Distance between the axis of the compressive reinforcement and the closest face of the element

he Real wall thickness for hollow cross sections or equivalent for full cross sections (studies as equivalent

hollow cross sections)

s Spacing between axes of the stirrups, measured according to the longitudinal axis of the part

ue Perimeter of Ae

A90 Transversal cross section area of the number of branches of a stirrup, contained in the equivalent wall

Ae Area limited by the middle line of the hollow, real or equivalent cross section wall, including the hollow

part

As - Sum of the areas of the cross sections of the longitudinal torsion bars

M0 Value of the bending moment that cancels the normal compression stress at the border of the cross

section (traction stressed by Md,max), provoked by the normal forces of diverse origins, concomitant with Vd

Md,min Minimum calculation bending moment that permits the calculation of the minimum traction

reinforcement (negative or positive)

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

TRd2 Torsion calculation resisting moment, which represents the resistance limit of the compressed

concrete diagonals

TRd3 Torsion calculation resisting moment, which represents the limit for the portion resisted by normal

stirrups at the axis of the part

TRd4 Torsion calculation resisting moment, which represents the limit for the portion resisted by longitudinal

bars

TSdi Portion of TSd to be resisted by each constituent rectangle of the cross section composed by

rectangles

Vc Portion of the shear force resisted by complementary mechanisms to the lattice model

VRd1 Calculation resisting shear force, relative to elements without reinforcement for shear force

VRd2 Calculation resisting shear force, relative to the destruction of the compressed concrete diagonals

VRd3 Calculation resisting shear force, relative to the destruction due to diagonal traction

Coefficient function of s (defined in 17.2.5.1) and the type of transversal cross section analyzed

(rectangular or circular)

e Ratio between the modulus elasticity of the steel and the concrete

- Geometric rate of the adherent longitudinal reinforcement, at a distance of 2d from the face of the

support, considering the bars of the span effectively anchored on the support

min Minimum geometric rate of longitudinal reinforcement of beams and columns (As,min/Ac)

si Traction stress at the center of gravity of the considered reinforcement, calculated in stage II

As ,min f yd

min Minimum mechanical rate of longitudinal bending reinforcement for beams min =

Ac f cd

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

17.2.1 Introduction

This section establishes criteria for the determination of the resisting stresses of the cross sections of beams

columns and supporting brackets, submitted to normal force and bending moments.

The dimensioning of the longitudinal reinforcements must lead to a set of resisting stresses (NRd, MRd) that

constitute cover of the stressing strengths (NSd, MSd) determined in the structural analysis (please see

sections 14 and 15).

For the calculation of the resisting stresses of T or L beams, the collaborating bed values defined in 14.6.2.2

can be adopted.

In the analysis of the resisting stresses of a beam or column cross section, the following basic hypotheses

must be considered:

b) the deformation of the adherent negative bars or the increase of deformation of the adherent positive bars

under traction or compression must be the same as the concrete in its environment;

c) for non-adherent positive reinforcements, in the lack of adequate experimental values and non-linear

analyses, the values of the increase of the stresses for usual building structures are presented as follows,

which must even be divided by the proper weighted coefficients:

- for elements with useful span / height ratio equal to or lesser than 35;

f ck

p = 70 + , in megapascal, which cannot exceed 420 MPa

100 p

- for elements with useful span / height ration greater than 35:

f ck

p = 70 + , in megapascal, which cannot exceed 210 MPa

300 p

where:

where:

d) the traction stresses in the concrete, normal to the transversal cross section, can be neglected, obligatorily

in the ULS;

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

e) the distribution of stresses in the concrete is done in accordance with the parabola-rectangle diagram,

defined in 8.2.10, with peak stress equal to 0.85 fcd, with fcd defined in 12.3.3 This diagram can be substituted

by the rectangle of height 0.8 x (where x is the depth of the neutral line), with the following stress:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

- 0.85 fcd in the case of the width of the cross section, measured in parallel to the neutral line, which

does not reduce from this to the compressed border;

The differences of results obtained with these two diagrams are small and acceptable, without need of

additional coefficient of correction.

f) the stress in the reinforcements must be obtained from the stress- deformation diagrams, with calculation

values, defined in 8.3.6 and 8.4.5.

g) the ultimate limit state is characterized when the distribution of the deformations in the transversal cross

section pertains to one of the domains defined in figure 17.1.

Tensioning Shortening

- straight line a: uniform traction;

- domain 1: non-uniform traction, without compression;

- domain 2: simple or compound bending without compressive rupture of the concrete (c < 3.5% and with

the maximum permitted tensioning);

- domain 3: simple (sub-reinforced cross section) or compound bending with compressive rupture of the

concrete and with steel drainage (s yd);

- domain 4: simple (sub-reinforced cross section ) compound bending with compressive rupture of the

concrete and traction stressed steel without drainage (s < yd);

- domain 4a: compound bending with compressed reinforcements;

- domain 5: non-uniform compression, without traction;

- straight line b: uniform compression.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

In beams, mainly in the support zones, or when redistribution of stresses is performed, it is important to

assure good ductility conditions, where if needed, compressive reinforcement is adopted that assures the

adequate position of the neutral line (x), observing the limits of 14.6.4.3.

The introduction of the compression to assure the satisfaction of the smaller values of the position of the

neutral line (x), which are in the domains 2 or 3, does not lead to structural elements with fragile rupture

(usually called super-reinforced). The fragile rupture is associated to positions of the neutral line in domain 4,

with or without compressive reinforcement.

17.2.4.1 Generalities

The stresses in the reinforcements can be considered concentrated at the corresponding center of gravity, if

the distance from this center to the point of the farthest reinforcement cross section of the neutral line,

measured normally to this, is lesser than 10% of h.

The lateral reinforcements of beams can be considered in the calculation of the resisting stresses, as long as

they are conveniently anchored and joined.

17.2.4.2 Prestressing

17.2.4.2.1 Generalities

In the verification of the ULS only the prestressing hyperstatic stressing strengths must be considered,

besides the effect of other actions. The prestressing isostatics must be included.

The consideration of the positive reinforcements in the resisting stresses must be done from the stress-

deformation diagrams specified in 8.4.5 and of the consideration of their pretensionings.

These pretensionings must be calculated based on initial prestressing tensions with calculation values

(please see 11.7.1) and with the consideration of losses at the age t under analysis (please see 9.6.3).

17.2.4.3.1 Generalities

Besides the basic hypotheses presented in 17.2.3, the following supplementary hypotheses must further be

observed:

a) it is considered as characteristic resistance of the concrete fckj that corresponding to the fictitious age j (in

days), at the act of prestressing, where the resistance of fckj must be clearly specified in the project;

b) for this verification, the following values are admitted for the weighted coefficients, with the loads that

effectively act on this occasion:

c = 1.2;

s = 1.15;

p = 1.0 at pre-traction;

p = 1.1 at post-traction;

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

It is admitted that safety in relation to the ultimate limit state at the act of prestressing is verified in stage I

(non-cracked concrete and linear elastic behavior of the materials), as long as the following conditions are

satisfied:

a) the maximum compression stress in the concrete cross section, obtained through weighted stresses of p

= 1.1 and f = 1.0 must not exceed 70% of the characteristic resistance fckj planned for the application age of

the prestressing [(17.2.4.3.1-a)];

b) the maximum traction stress of the concrete must not exceed 1.2 times the traction resistance fctm

corresponding to the specified value fckj;

c) when in the transversal cross sections there are traction stresses, there must be calculated traction

reinforcement in stage II. For effects of calculation, in this construction phase, the force in this reinforcement

can be considered equal to the result of the traction stresses in the concrete in stage I. This force must not

provoke, in the corresponding reinforcement, increases of stress greater than 150 MPa in the case of

smooth wires or bars and 250 MPa in ribbed bars.

The calculation for the dimensioning of rectangular or circular cross sections with symmetric reinforcement,

subject to normal bending-compression, in which the reduced normal force () is greater than or equal to 0.7,

it can be performed as a case of equivalent centered compression, where:

where:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The adopted reinforcement arrangement for detailing (please see figure 17.2) must be faithful to the

presupposed values of s and d/h.

nh bars of

area Asi

nv bars of

area Asi

In situations of simple of oblique compound bending, the estimation given by the expression of interaction

can be adopted:

where:

MRd,x; MRd,y are the components of the calculation resisting moment in compound oblique bending,

according to the two main axes of inertia x and y, of the brute cross section, with a normal calculation

resisting stress NRd equal to the stressing normal NSd. These are the values that are desired to obtain;

MRd,xx; MRd,yy are the calculation resisting moments according to each one of the referred axes in

normal compound bending, with the same value of Nrd. These values are calculated from the arrangement

and the quantity of reinforcement under study;

is an exponent whose value depends on several factors, among them the value of the normal

force, the form of the cross section, the arrangement of the reinforcement and their percentages. Generally it

can be adopted = 1, in favor safety. In the case of rectangular cross sections, = 1.2 can be adopted.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

17.3.1 Generalities

In the service limit states the structures partially work in stage I and partially in stage II. The separation

between these two parts is defined by the moment of cracking. This moment can be calculated by the

following approximate expression:

where:

where:

is the factor that correlates approximately the traction resistance in the bending with the direct

traction resistance;

yt is the distance from the center of gravity of the cross section to the most traction stressed fiber;

fct is the direct traction resistance of the concrete, according to 8.2.5, with the appropriate quintile to

each particular verification. For determination of the moment of cracking fctk,inf must be used in the limit state

of crack formation and fct,m in the limit state of excessive deformation (please see 8.2.5).

In the case of use of positive reinforcements the prestressing effect must be considered in the calculation of

the moment of cracking.

The verification of the limit values established in table 13.2 for the deformation of the structure, more

properly rotations and displacements in linear structural elements, analyzed separately and submitted to

combination of actions according to section 11, must be performed through models that consider the

effective stiffness of the cross sections of the structural element, that is, take into consideration the presence

of the reinforcement, the existence of cracks in the concrete along this reinforcement and the deformations

deferred in time.

The real deformation of the structure also depends on the constructive process, as well as on material

properties (mainly on the modulus of elasticity and traction resistance) at the time of its effective stress. In

face of the great variability of the cited parameters, there is a greater variability of real deformations. It

cannot be expected, therefore, great precision in the forecasts of displacements given by the prescribed

analytical processes that follow.

The behavior model of the structure can admit the concrete and the steel as materials of elastic and linear

behavior, so that the cross sections along the structural element can have the specific deformations

determined at stage I, as long as the stresses do not exceed those that start the cracking, and, otherwise, in

stage II.

The value of the secant modulus of elasticity Ecs defined in section 8 must be used in the calculation, where

the consideration of the effect of flow is obligatory.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

For an approximate evaluation of the immediate deflection in beams, the given equivalent stiffness

expression can be used as follows:

where:

III is the moment of inertia of the cracked concrete cross section in stage II, calculated with

ES

e = ;

ECS

Ma is the bending moment in the critical cross section of the considered span, maximum moment in

the span for bi-supported or continuous beams and moment in the support for overhangs, for the

combination of actions considered in this evaluation;

Mr is the moment of cracking of the structural element, whose value must be reduced to half in the

case of use of smooth bars;

17.3.2.1.2 Calculation of the deflection deferred in time for reinforced concrete beams

The deferred additional deflection, resulting from the long duration loads in function of the flow, can be

calculated in an approximate manner through the multiplication of the immediate deflection by the fact f

given by the expression:

where:

is function coefficient of time, which can be obtained directly in table 17.1 or can be calculated

through the following expressions:

to months

to months

Table 17.1 Values of coefficient in function of time

Time (t)

0 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 10 20 40 > 70

months

Coefficient

0 0.54 0.68 0.84 0.95 1.04 1.12 1.36 1.64 1.89 2

(t)

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

such that:

t is the time, in months, when the value of the deferred deflection is desired;

t0 is the age, in months, relative to the date of application of the long duration load. In the case of

portions of long duration load are applied in different ages, the weighted value that follows can be taken for

t0:

where:

The value of the total deflection must be obtained multiplying the immediate deflection by (1 + f).

In structural elements with positive reinforcements it is sufficient to consider (EI)eq = EcsIc, as long as the limit

state of crack formation is not exceeded. Otherwise, the complete expression of 17.3.2.1.1 can be applied,

as long as III, Mr and Ma are calculated considering the structural concrete element submitted to the chosen

combination of actions, added from the represented prestressing as equivalent external action (generating

normal force and bending moment) (please see 11.3.3.5).

For consideration of the deformation deferred in time, it is sufficient to multiply the permanent portion of the

immediate deflection referred above by (1 + ), where is the coefficient of flow (please see 8.2.11).

17.3.3.1 Generalities

This section defines the criteria for the verification of the limit values established in 13.4 for the opening of

cracks in the linear structural elements, analyzed separately and submitted to the combination of actions

according to section 11.

17.3.3.2 Control of cracking through the limitation of the estimated opening of the cracks

The value of the opening of cracks can suffer the influence of restrictions to volumetric variations of the

structure, which are difficult to be considered in this evaluation in a sufficiently accurate manner. Besides

this, this opening also suffers the influence of the execution conditions of the structure.

For these reasons, the criteria presented as follows must be tackled as acceptable evaluations of the general

behavior of the element, but do not assure accurate evaluation of the opening of a specific crack.

For each element or group of elements of the adherent negative and positive reinforcements (excluding the

prestressed cables that are inside the sheaths), which control the cracking of the structural element, an area

Acr of cover concrete must be considered, constituted by an rectangle whose sides do not have a distance of

more than 7.5 from the axis of the reinforcement bar (please figure 17.3).

NOTE It is convenient that the entire skin reinforcement i of the beam, in its traction stressed zone, limits

the opening of cracks in the corresponding region Acri, and that a spacing lesser than or equal to 15 is

maintained.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Cover region of i

Neutral with area Acri

line

Traction stressed

skin reinforcement

of the beam

The characteristic value of the opening of cracks, wk, determined for each part of the cover region, is the

least among those obtained by the expressions that follow:

where:

si, i, Esi, ri are defined for each cover area under analysis;

Esi is the modulus of elasticity of the steel of the considered bar, of diameter i;

i is the diameter of the bar that protects the considered cover region;

ri is the adherent negative or positive reinforcement rate (which is not inside the sheath) in relation

to the area of the cover region (Acri);

si is the traction stress at the center of gravity of the considered reinforcement, calculated in stage II.

In the structural elements with prestressing, si is the increase of tensioning, at the center of gravity of the

reinforcement, between the limit state of decompression and the considered loading. It must be calculated in

stage II, considering the entire positive reinforcement, including that inside the sheaths.

The calculation in stage II (which admits linear behavior of the materials and disregards the traction

resistance of the concrete) can be done considering the ratio e between the modulus of elasticity of the steel

and the concrete equal to 15.

1 is the coefficient of surface conformation of the considered reinforcement, given in 9.3.2.1 for the negative

and substituted by p1, for the positive, according to 9.3.2.2.

In the usual beams, with height lesser than 1.2 m, the condition of opening of cracks in the entire traction

stressed skin can be considered satisfied, if the opening of cracks calculated in the region of the most

traction stressed bars is verified and if there is a lateral reinforcement that satisfies 17.3.5.2.3.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

In order to be exempted from the evaluation of the magnitude of the opening of cracks and satisfy the limit

state of cracking (expected maximum openings of the order of 0.3 mm for the reinforced concrete and 0.2

mm for the concrete with positive reinforcements), a structural element must be dimensioned observing the

restrictions of table 17.2 with respect to the maximum diameter (max) ad the maximum spacing (Smax) of the

reinforcements, as well as the cover requirements (section 7) and minimum reinforcement (please see

17.3.5.2). The stress s must be determined in stage II.

Table 17.2 Maximum diameter and spacing values, with high adherence bars

Maximum values

Stress in the bar

Concrete without positive reinforcements Concrete with positive reinforcements

s max Smax max Smax

MPa mm cm mm cm

160 32 30 25 20

200 25 25 16 15

240 16 20 12.5 10

280 12.5 15 8 5

320 10 10 6 -

360 8 6 - -

In the structural elements where prestressing reinforcements are used, the safety verification may be

necessary in relation to the limit states of decompression and crack formation.

This verification can be performed by calculating the maximum traction stress of the concrete in stage I (non-

cracked concrete and linear elastic behavior of the materials).

e = 15 for the ratio between the modulus of elasticity of the steel and concrete with frequent or

almost permanent loads;

e = 10 for the ratio between the modulus of elasticity of the steel and the concrete with rare loads.

The fragile rupture of transversal cross sections, at the formation of the first crack, must be avoided by

considering, for the calculation of the reinforcements, a minimum moment given by the value corresponding

to what the rupture of the plain concrete cross section would produce, supposing that the traction resistance

of the concrete is given by fctk,sup, which must also obey the conditions relative to the control of the opening of

cracks given in 17.3.3.

The specification of maximum values for the reinforcements results from the need of assuring ductility

conditions and of observing the field of validity of the tests that caused the working prescriptions of the steel-

concrete assembly.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The minimum traction reinforcement, in reinforced or prestressed structural elements must be determined by

the dimensioning of the cross section to a minimum bending moment given by the expression that follows,

where the minimum absolute rate of 0.15% is observed:

where:

W0 is the modulus of resistance of the brute concrete transversal cross section, relative to the most

traction stressed fiber;

fctk,sup is the upper characteristic traction resistance of the concrete (please see 8.2.5).

The dimensioning for Md,min can be considered satisfied if the minimum reinforcement rates of table 17.3 are

observed.

Values of min 1) (As,min/Ac)

Form of the

%

cross

fck

section 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

min

Rectangular 0.035 0.150 0.150 0.173 0.201 0.230 0.259 0.288

T

(compresse 0.024 0.150 0.150 0.150 0.10 0.158 0.177 0.197

d bed)

T

(traction

0.031 0.150 0.150 0.153 0.178 0.204 0.229 0.255

stressed

bed)

Circular 0.070 0.230 0.288 0.345 0.403 0.460 0.518 0.575

1)

The values of min established in this table presuppose the use of steel CA-50, c = 1.4 and s = 1.15. In case these

factors are different, min must be recalculated based on the given value of min.

NOTE In the T type cross sections, the area of the cross section to be considered must be characterized by the web

increased from the collaborating bed.

In superdimensioned structural elements, reinforcement lesser than the minimum can be used, with value

obtained form the a bending moment equal to twice of Md. In this case, the determination of the stressing

strengths must consider rigorously all possible load combinations, as well as the effects of temperature,

deferred deformations and supporting pressures. Special care must even be obtained with the diameter and

spacing of the reinforcements of cracking limitation.

17.3.5.2.2 Minimum values for the traction reinforcement under imposed deformations

In structural elements where the control of cracking is indispensable for reasons of water-tightness or

aesthetics, in the lack of a more rigorous method of evaluation of the stresses generated by the restriction of

imposed deformations and as long as technological measures are taken that restrict these stresses, the

minimum traction reinforcement for control of cracking can be calculated by the ratio:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

where:

s is the maximum permitted stress in the reinforcement immediately after crack formation. A value

lower than the drainage resistance may be necessary to satisfy the crack opening limits (please see table

17.2);

fct,ef is the effective average traction resistance of the concrete at the instance in which the first

cracks are formed. In many cases such as whose in which the imposed predominant deformations result

from hydration heat dissipation this can occur at age between 1 d and 5 d after molding, which depends on

the environment conditions, the form of the structural element, the nature of the forms and the type of

cement used. Values of fct,ef can be obtained with aid of the equations of 8.2.5, adopting the concrete

compressive resistance at the age in which the occurrence of the cracking is supposed. When this age

cannot be defined with reliable value, it is recommended to adopt minimum traction resistance value equal to

3 MPa.

0.8 m;

c is a coefficient that considers the nature of the distribution of stresses in the cross section, immediately

before the cracking, with the following values;

- c = 0.4 for ribs of prestressed structural elements or under compound bending, in hollow cross

sections (cellular or box);

- c = 0.8 for the traction stressed bed of the prestressed structural elements or under compound

bending, in hollow cross sections (cellular or box);

- the value of c can be interpolated between 0.4 (corresponding to the case of simple bending) and

zero, when the height of the traction stressed zone, calculated in stage II under the stresses that lead to the

start of cracking, does not exceed the least of the two values: h/2 and 0.5 m.

The minimum lateral reinforcement must be 0.10% Ac,web on each face of the beam web and composed by

high adherence bars (1 2.25) with spacing not greater than 20 cm, where what is disposed in 17.3.3.2 is

observed.

In beams with height equal to or lesser than 60 cm, the use of skin reinforcement can be disregarded.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The sum of the traction and compression reinforcements (As + As) must not have value greater than 4% Ac,

calculated in the region outside of the joint zone.

The largest possible reinforcement in columns must be 8% of the real cross section, considering even the

overlapping of existing reinforcement in joint regions, where what is disposed in 18.4.2.2 is observed.

The prescriptions that are followed are applied to reinforced or prestressed linear elements, submitted to

shear forces, eventually combined with other stressing strengths.

They are not applied to elements of volume, slabs, wall-beams and short brackets, which are treated in other

sections of this Norm.

The conditions set by this Norm for linear elements admit two calculation models that presuppose the

analogy with lattice model, parallel chord members, associated to complementary resisting mechanisms

developed inside the structural element and translated by an additional component Vc.

17.4.1.1.1 All linear elements submitted to shear force, at the exception of the cases indicated in 17.4.1.1.2,

must contain minimum transversal reinforcement constituted by stirrups, with geometric rate:

where:

s is the spacing of the stirrups, measured according to the longitudinal axis of the structural element;

is the inclination of stirrups in relation to the longitudinal axis of the structural element;

bw is average web width, measured along the useful height of the cross section, where the restriction

indicated in (17.4.1.1.2) is observed;

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

a) the linear structural elements with bw > 5 d (where d is the useful height of the cross section), case that

must be treated as slab (please see 19.4);

b) the ribs of ribbed slabs, described in 13.2.4.2-a) and b), can also be verified as slabs. In this case the sum

of the widths of the ribs in the considered section must be taken as basis, where the transversal

reinforcement can be disregarded, when what is disposed in 19.4.1 is satisfied;

c) the linear foundation columns and elements submitted predominantly to compression, which satisfy

simultaneously, in the most unfavorable combination of the actions in ultimate limit state, where the cross

section in stage I is calculated according to the following conditions:

In this case, the minimum transversal reinforcement is that defined in section 18.

17.4.1.1.3 The transversal reinforcement (Asw) can be constituted by stirrups (closed in the support region of

the diagonals, covering the longitudinal reinforcement) or through the composition of stirrups and bent bars;

while, when bent bars are used, these must not support more than 60% of the total stress resisted by the

reinforcement.

17.4.1.1.4 Welded vertical bars combined with closed stirrups can be used, maintained at resisting

proportion established in 17.4.1.1.3, when these bars are anchored in accordance with 9.4.6.2. However,

when these bars are not combined with stirrups, in the proportion indicated in 17.4.1.1.3, the welded

longitudinal elements must obligatorily constitute the totality of the longitudinal traction reinforcement.

17.4.1.1.5 The angle of inclination of the transversal reinforcements in relation to the longitudinal axis of

the structural element must be situated at the interval 45 90.

17.4.1.1.6 The maximum and minimum spacings between reinforcement elements must comply with the

requirements of section 18.

For the calculation of the transversal reinforcement, in the case of direct support (if the load and the

supporting reaction are applied in opposite faces of the structural element, by compressing it), the following

prescriptions are valid:

a) the shear force originating from distributed load can be considered, in the section between the support

and the cross section situated at a distance d/2 from the support face, constant and equal to that of this

cross section;

b) the shear force due to a concentrated load applied at a distance a 2d from the theoretical axis of the

support can, in this section of length a, be reduced by multiplying it by a/(2d). However, this reduction is not

applied to the shear forces coming from the inclined prestressing cables.

The reductions indicated in this section are not applied to the verification of diagonal compressive resistance

of the concrete. In the case of indirect supports, these reductions are not also permitted.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

In the value of VSd the projection effect of the prestressing force in its direction must be considered, with the

calculation value corresponding to the considered time t. However, when this effect is favorable, the

longitudinal traction reinforcement along with the bending traction stressed face must satisfy the condition:

The shear force that is resisted by the web of the beams of variable height can be evaluated by:

where:

VSd,red is the reduced shear force, considering the variable height effect;

c is the angle between the compression chord member and the longitudinal axis of the structural

element;

t is the angle between the traction reinforcement and the longitudinal axis of the structural element;

is the angle of inclination of the compression coupling rods considered in the shear force

dimensioning;

The signs of c and t must be obtained considering the direction of the final bending compression and

traction forces with the concomitant shear force.

The expression above considers the reduction of the compression force in bending when there is

concomitant shear force.

The resistance of the structural element, in a determined transversal cross section, must be considered

satisfactory when the following conditions are verified simultaneously:

where:

VRd2 is the calculation resisting shear force, relative to the destruction of the compressed concrete

diagonals, in accordance with the process indicated in 17.4.2.2 or 17.4.2.3;

VRd3 = Vc + Vsw, is the calculation resisting shear force, relative to destruction due to diagonal traction,

where Vc is the portion of shear force absorbed by mechanisms complementary to that of the lattice and Vsw

is the portion resisted by the transversal reinforcement, in accordance with the process indicated in 17.4.2.2

or 17.4.2.3.

In the region of the supports, the calculations must consider the shear forces acting in the respective faces,

taking into account the reductions prescribed in 17.4.1.2.1.

ABNT 2005 All rights reserved 123

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Model I admits inclined compression diagonal of = 45 in relation to the longitudinal axis of the structural

element and admits even the complementary portion Vc to have constant value, regardless of VSd.

where:

where:

Vc = 0 in the traction stressed structural elements when the neutral line is situated outside the cross

section;

Vc = Vc0 in simple bending and in bending-traction with the neutral line cutting the cross section;

where:

bw is the shorter width of the cross section, included along the useful height d; however in the case of

prestressed structural elements, when there are injected sheaths with diameter > bw / 8, the resisting width

to consider must be (bw 1/2), in the position of the web in which this difference may be more

unfavorable, at the exception of the level that defines the traction stressed chord member of the beam;

d is the useful height of the cross section, equal to the distance from the compressed border to the

center of gravity of the traction reinforcement; however in the case of prestressed structural elements with

cables distributed along the height, d does not need to be taken with value lesser than 0.8h, as long as there

is reinforcement along with the traction stressed face in order to satisfy 17.4.1.2.2;

s is the spacing between the elements of the transversal reinforcement Asw, measured according to

the longitudinal axis of the structural element;

fywd is the stress in the negative transversal reinforcement, limited to the value fyd in the case of

stirrups and at 70% of this value in the case of bent bars, where, for both cases, the values greater than 435

MPa are not taken; however, in the case of positive transversal reinforcement, the stress increase due to the

shear force cannot exceed the difference between fpyd and the prestressing strength, or cannot be greater

than 435 MPa;

is the angle of inclination of the transversal reinforcement in relation the longitudinal axis of the

structural element, where 45 90 can be taken;

M0 is the value of the bending moment that cancels the normal compression stress on the border of

the cross section (traction stressed by Md,max), provoked by normal forces of diver origins concomitant with

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

VSd, where this stress is calculated with values of f and p equal to 1.0 and 0.9 respectively; the moments

corresponding to these normal forces must not be considered in the calculation of this stress since they are

considered in MSd; only prestressing isostatic moments must be considered;

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

MSd,max is the calculation bending moment, maximum in the section under analysis, which can be

taken as that of the largest value in the considered semi-span (for this calculation the prestressing isostatic

moments are not considered, only the hyperstatic moments);

When the longitudinal traction reinforcement is determined through the equilibrium of the stresses in the

normal cross section to the axis of the structural element, the effects provoked by the oblique cracking can

be substituted in the calculation for the force diagram offset in the traction stressed chord member, given by

the expression:

where:

This offset can be substituted, approximately, by the corresponding offset of the bending moment diagram.

The force diagram offset in the traction stressed chord member can also be obtained simply by increasing

the traction force, in each cross section, through the expression:

Model II admits inclined compression diagonals of in relation to the longitudinal axis of the structural

element, with freely variable between 30 and 45. It further admits that the complementary portion Vc

suffers reduction with the increase of VSd.

where:

Vc = 0, in traction stressed structural elements when the neutral line is situated outside the cross

section;

Vc = Vc1, in the simple bending and in the bending-traction with the neutral line cutting the cross

section;

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

If the conditions established in 17.4.2.2-c) are maintained, the displacement of the bending moment diagram,

by applying the process described in this section, must be:

where

17.5.1.1 Generalities

The conditions set by this Norm presuppose a resisting model constituted by spatial lattice, defined from a

structural element of hollow cross section equivalent structural element to dimension.

The compression diagonals of this lattice, formed by concrete elements, have inclination that can be

arbitrated by the project at interval 30 45.

Whenever the torsion is needed for the equilibrium of the structural element, there must be reinforcement

intended to resist the traction stresses originating from the torsion. This reinforcement must be constituted by

normal vertical stirrups to the axis of the structural element and longitudinal bars distributed along the

perimeter of the resisting cross section, calculated in accordance with the prescriptions of this section and

with minimum geometric rate give by the expression:

When the torsion is not needed for equilibrium, in case of compatibility torsion, it is possible to neglect it, as

long as the structural element has the adequate plastic adaptation capacity and that all other stresses are

calculated without considering the effects provoked by it. In regions where the length of the element subject

to the torsion is lesser than or equal to 2 h, in order to assure a reasonable level of plastic adaptation

capacity, the minimum torsion reinforcement must be observed and the shear force must be limited, such

that: VSd 0.7 VRd2.

The structural element resistance, in a given cross section, is admitted to be satisfied, when the following

conditions are simultaneously verified:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

where:

TRd,2 represents the line given by the resistance of the compressed diagonals of the concrete;

TRd,3 represents the line defined by the portion resisted by the normal stirrups to the axis of the

structural element;

TRd,4 represents the line defined by the portion resisted by the longitudinal bars, parallel to the axis of

the structural element.

The equivalent hollow cross section is defined from the full cross section with equivalent wall thickness he

given by:

where:

c1 is the distance between the axis of the longitudinal bar of the corner and the lateral face of the

structural element.

The total torsion moment must be distributed among the rectangles according to their linear elastic stiffness.

Each rectangle must be verified separately with the equivalent hollow cross section defined in 17.5.1.4.1.

Thus, the torsion moment that is fitting to the rectangle i (TSdi) is given by:

where:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

- the calculated equivalent thickness supposing the full cross section of the same external outline

of the hollow cross section.

The resistance resulting from the compressed concrete diagonals must be obtained by:

where:

where:

is the angle of inclination of the concrete diagonals, arbitrated at the interval 30 45;

Ae is the area limited by the middle line of the hollow cross section wall, real or equivalent, including

the hollow part;

he is the equivalent thickness of the hollow cross section wall, real or equivalent, at the considered

point.

The reinforcements contained in the area corresponding the equivalent wall must be considered effective,

when:

a) the resistance resulting from the normal stirrups to the axis of the structural element satisfies the

expression:

where:

fywd is the calculation value of the drainage resistance of the negative reinforcement steel, limited to

435 MPa;

b) the resistance resulting from the longitudinal reinforcements satisfies the expression:

where:

As is the sum of the areas of the cross sections of the longitudinal bars;

The longitudinal torsion reinforcement, of the total area As, may have distributed or concentrated

arrangement, where the ratio As/u is obligatorily kept constant, where u is the perimeter section, of the

effective cross section, corresponding to each bar or bundle of bars of area As.

In the polygonal cross sections, in each vertex of the torsion stirrups, at least one longitudinal bar must be

placed.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

17.5.2.1 Generalities

When the structural element under torsion could be assimilated to an open thin wall profile, the project must

also contemplate, besides the uniform torsion, the bending-torsion effects.

In general case, uniform torsion and bending-torsion are manifested in a compatible manner, dividing

variably among them the external load along the structural element. Considering the good plastic adaptation

capacity of the structural elements to the torsion, it is permitted to disregard one of these mechanisms, as

long as the one considered does not have stiffness lesser than the one disregarded.

The stiffness values must be calculated considering the cracking effects, where 0.15 of elastic stiffness in the

case of uniform torsion and 0.50 in the case of bending-torsion can be adopted.

In the lack of more accurate calculation, when the profile has parallel or approximately parallel opposite walls

(case of profiles I, C, Z, U and alike), which can resist through differentiated bending the bending-torsion

stress, the structural stiffness of this profile, measured for example by the coefficient of spring in kilonewtons

meter per radian (kNm/rad), can be calculated through the expression (please see figure 17.4):

where:

where:

T is the external moment that provokes torsion, supposedly applied in the middle of the span;

is the cross section rotation, provoked by the differentiated bending of the opposite walls 1 and 2;

a1 is the deflection provoked by the bending of wall 1 under action of the force F = T/z;

a2 is the deflection provoked by the bending of wall 2 under action of the force F = T/z in opposite

direction to what is applied to wall 1.

In the calculation of deflections a1 and a2, half of the elastic stiffness of the walls must be considered.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

where:

The bending-torsion resistance of the entire structural element can be calculated from the bending

resistance of the opposite walls, through the following expression:

where:

where:

FRd is the transversal force that breaks down the resistance of the isolated wall, without the torsion

effect;

FSd is the portion of the total transversal force applied to the structural element, which is fitting to the

isolated wall, without the torsion effect.

The value FRd,min is the least between the two considered walls.

17.6 Limit state of inclined web cracking Shear force and torsion

Usually it is not necessary to verify the diagonal web cracking of the structural concrete elements. In special

cases, where this is considered important, the spacing of the transversal reinforcement must be limited to 15

cm.

17.7.1.1 Generalities

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

In the structural elements submitted to torsion and to simple or compound bending, the verifications can be

carried out separately for the torsion and for the normal stresses, where the prescriptions of 17.7.1.2 to

17.7.1.4 must complementarily be fulfilled.

In the zone traction stressed by bending, the torsion reinforcement must be added to the reinforcement

needed for normal stresses, considering in each cross section the strengths that act concomitantly.

In the chord member compressed by bending, the longitudinal torsion reinforcement can be reduced in

function of the compression strengths that act in the effective thickness h and in the section of length u

corresponding to the considered bar or bundle of bars.

In the cross sections where the torsion acts simultaneously with intense normal stresses, which reduce

excessively the depth of the neutral line, particularly in cellular cross sectional beams, the calculation value

of the main compression stress must not exceed the value 0.85 fcd.

This main stress must be calculated as in the a plane state of stresses, from the average normal stress that

acts in the bending compressed chord member and the tangential torsion stress calculated by:

17.7.2.1 Generalities

In the combination of torsion with shear force, the project must plan angles of inclination of the coinciding

concrete coupling rods for the two stresses.

When model I (please see 17.4.2.2) is used for shear force, which presumes = 45, this must also be the

considered value for the torsion.

17.7.2.2 The diagonal compression resistance of the concrete must be satisfied complying with the

expression:

where:

VSd and TSd are the calculation stresses that act concomitantly in the cross section.

17.7.2.3 The transversal reinforcement can be calculated through the sum of the reinforcements calculated

separately for VSd and TSd.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

18.1 Specific symbols of this section

So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the

most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

a - Displacement of the bending moment diagram, parallel to the axis of the part, in order to substitute the

effects provoked by oblique cracking

st,max Maximum transversal spacing between successive reinforcement branches constituted by stirrups

As,support Transversal cross section area of needed longitudinal reinforcement along with the structural

element support

As,span Transversal cross section area of longitudinal traction reinforcement in the span

VRd2 Calculation resisting shear force, relative to the destruction of compressed concrete diagonals

The arrangement of reinforcements must comply not only with its structural function but also with adequate

execution conditions, particularly with relation to concrete placement and densification.

The spaces must be designed for the introduction of the vibrator and so as to impede the segregation of the

aggregates and the occurrence of empty spaces inside the structural element.

The inner diameter of curvature of a bent longitudinal reinforcement bar, in order to resist the shear force or

in portico node, must not be lesser than 10 for steel CA-25, 15 for CA-50 and 18 for CA-60.

If the stress in the traction reinforcement, determined with the calculation stress, is lesser than the calculation

drainage stress, fyd, these diameters of curvature can be reduced proportionally, but never to values lower

than those required for the hooks.

If there are curved traction bars in the same plane and the spacing between them is lesser than twice the

permitted minimum (18.3.2.2), the minimum diameter of curvature value established in this section must be

multiplied by the number of bars in these condition.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

When there is a possibility of concrete cracking in the bent bar plane, occasioned by normal traction stresses

to this plane, transversal reinforcement must be placed or the diameter of curvature of the bar must be

increased.

When there is tendency towards traction stressed bar rectification in regions where the resistance to these

displacements is provided by insufficient concrete cover, the permanence of the bar in its position must be

assured by means of conveniently distributed stirrups or clips. Preference must be given to the substitution

of the bar for another two extended bars, besides their crossing and anchored according to section 9 (please

see figure 18.1).

Wrong Correct

Whenever there is possibility of buckling of the reinforcement bars, situated along the structural element

surface, precautions must be taken in order to avoid it.

The polygonal stirrups assure against the buckling of longitudinal bars situated at their corners and those

covered by them, situated at a maximum at a distance of 20 t from the corner, if in this section of length 20

t there is no more than two bars, not counting that of the corner. When there are more than two bars in this

section or bar outside of it, there must be supplementary stirrups.

If the supplementary stirrup is constituted by a straight bar, ended in hooks, it must cross the cross section of

the structural element and its hooks must cover the longitudinal bar. If there are more than one longitudinal

bar to be protected along the same extremity of the supplementary stirrup, its hooks must cover a main

stirrup at a point along one of the bars, which must be indicated in the project in well highlighted manner

(please see figure 18.2).

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

In the case of curvilinear stirrups whose concavity is directed towards the concrete interior, there is no need

for supplementary stirrups. If the cross sections of longitudinal bars are situated in a curve of concavity

directed outwards the concrete, each longitudinal bar must be anchored through the hook of a straight stirrup

or through the corner of a polygonal stirrup.

18.3 Beams

18.3.1 Generalities

The prescriptions that follow refer to isostatic beams with ratio /h 3.0 and the continuous beams with ratio

/h 2.0, where is the length of the theoretical span (or twice the theoretical length, in the case of

overhand) and h is the total height of the beam.

Beams with smaller ratios /h must be treated as wall-beams, in accordance with section 22.

The minimum quantity of bending reinforcement must be calculated in accordance with 17.3.5.

The free minimum spacing between the faces of longitudinal bars, measured at the plane of the transversal

cross section, must be equal to or greater than the largest of the following values:

- 20 mm;

- 1.2 times the characteristic maximum dimension of the full grained aggregate.

- 20 mm;

- 0.5 times the characteristic maximum dimension of the full grained aggregate.

These values are also applied to the regions of joints due to transfer of bars.

The section of the extremity of the traction bar, considered as of anchorage, starts at the theoretical cross

section where its stress s begins to reduce (the reinforcement strength begins to be transferred to the

concrete). It must be extended at least 10 beyond the theoretical null stress s point, where in no case, it

can be lesser than the needed length stipulated in 9.4.2.5. Thus, in the longitudinal traction reinforcement of

structural elements stressed by simple bending, the anchorage section of the bar must start at point A (figure

18.3) of the force diagram RSd = MSd/z offset from the length a, according to 17.4.2. This diagram is

equivalent to the corrected force diagram RSd,corr. If the bar is not bent, the anchorage section must be

extended beyond B, at a minimum of 10 .

ABNT 2005 All rights reserved 135

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

If the bar is bent, the start of the bending can coincide with point B (please see Figure 18.3).

please see 9.4.2.5

Force diagram of

stressing traction

RSd,cor

Force diagram of

resisting traction

Figure 18.3 Covering of the stressing traction force diagram by the resisting diagram

At intermediate points between A and B, the linearized resisting diagram must cover the stressing diagram

(please see Figure 18.3).

If point A is on the face of the support or beyond it and the force RSd reduces in direction towards the center

of support, the anchorage section must be measured from this face and must obey what is disposed in

18.3.2.4-b).

For accommodated bars in beds or slabs, and that form part of the beam reinforcement, the point of

interruption of the bar is obtained through the same previous process, considering further an additional

length equal to the distance from the bar to the closest face of the web.

The traction stresses along with the supports of simple or continuous beams must be resisted by longitudinal

reinforcements that satisfy the severest of the following conditions:

a) in the case of occurrence of positive moments, the reinforcements obtained through cross section

dimensioning;

b) in extreme support, in order to assure anchorage of the compression diagonal, reinforcements capable of

resisting a traction force RSd = (a/d) Vd + Nd, where Vd is the shear force in the support and Nd is the

eventually existing traction force;

c) in extreme and intermediate supports, through extension of a part of the traction reinforcement of the span

(As,span), corresponding to the maximum positive moment of the span (Mspan), such that:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

- As,support 1/3 (As,span) if Msupport is null or negative and of absolute value |Msupport| 0.5 Mspan;

- As,support 1/4 (As,span) if Msupport is negative and of absolute value |Msupport| 0.5 Mspan.

When it deals with the case of 18.3.2.4-a), the anchorages must obey the criteria of figure 18.3.

For the cases of 18.3.2.4-b) and c), in extreme supports, the reinforcement bars must be anchored from the

face of the support, with lengths equal to or greater than the largest of the following values:

- (r + 5.5 );

- 60 mm.

When there is bar cover at the section of the hook, measured normally at the plane of the hook, of at least 70

mm, and the accidental actions do not occur with large frequency with its maximum value, the first of the

three previous values can be disregarded, where the other two conditions prevail.

For the cases of 18.3.2.4-b) and c), in intermediate supports, the anchorage length can be equal to 10 , as

long as there is no possibility of occurrence of positive moments in this region, provoked by unforeseen

situations, particularly due to effects of wind and eventual pressures. When this possibility exists, the bars

must be continuous or joined on the support.

18.3.3.1 Generalities

The reinforcements intended to resist traction stresses provoked by shear forces can be constituted by

stirrups, combined or not with bent bars or welded bars, and must be designed in accordance with the

prescriptions of 17.4.

The stirrups for shear forces must be closed through a horizontal branch, covering the bars of longitudinal

traction reinforcement, and anchored on the opposite face. When this face can also be traction stressed, the

stirrup must have the horizontal branch in this region, or complemented by means of additional bar.

The diameter of the bar that constitutes the stirrup must be greater than or equal to 5 mm, without exceeding

1/10 of the width of the beam web. When the bar is smooth, its diameter cannot be greater than 12 mm. In

the case of stirrups formed by welded screens, the minimum diameter can be reduced to 4.2 mm, as long as

precautions are taken against the corrosion of this reinforcement.

The minimum spacing between stirrups, measured according to the longitudinal axis of the structural

element, must be sufficient to permit the passage of the vibrator, assuring a good mass densification. The

maximum spacing must comply with the following conditions:

The transversal spacing between successive reinforcement branches constituted by stirrups must not

exceed the following values:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The joints due to transfer are permitted only when the stirrups are constituted by screens or by high

adherence bars.

18.3.3.3.1 Anchorage

In the case of traction resisting bent bars provoked by shear forces, the straight anchorage section must be

greater than or equal to b,nec (please see 9.4.2.5).

The longitudinal spacing between bent bars must not be greater than smax = 0.6 d (1 + cotg ), where is the

angle of inclination of the bent bar.

The reinforcement intended to resist the traction stresses provoked by torsion must be constituted by normal

stirrups to the axis of the beam, combined with longitudinal bars parallel to the same axis, and must be

designed in accordance with the prescriptions of 17.5.

The stirrup branches and the longitudinal reinforcements contained inside the fictitious wall of the equivalent

hollow cross section are considered effective in the resistance (please see 17.5.1.4).

The stirrups for traction must be closed in its entire outline, covering the longitudinal traction reinforcement

bars, and with the extremities adequately anchored by means of hooks at an angle of 45.

The prescriptions of 18.3.3.2, relative to the diameter of the bars that form the stirrup and their longitudinal

spacing, must be obeyed.

The longitudinal torsion reinforcement bars may have distributed or concentrated arrangement along the

inner perimeter of the stirrups, spaced at a maximum of 350 mm.

The ratio As/u, where u is the perimeter section of the effective cross section corresponding to each bar

or bundle of bars of area As, required for dimensioning, must be respected.

The polygonal cross sections must contain, in each vertex of the torsion stirrups, at least one bar.

The skin reinforcement calculated in accordance with 17.3.5.2.3 must be disposed so that the separation

between the bars does not exceed d/3 and 20 cm.

In the proximities of concentrated loads transmitted to the beam by other beams or discrete elements that

are supported on it along or in part of its height, or are hung on it, suspension reinforcement must be placed.

The connection planes between beds and webs or butts and webs of beams must be verified with relation to

the tangential effects resulting from the variations of normal stresses along the length of the beam, under the

aspect of concrete resistance, as well as the necessary reinforcements to resist the tractions resulting from

these effects.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The bending reinforcements of the slab, existing on the connection plane, can be considered as part of the

connection reinforcement, where the difference between both is complemented, if needed. The minimum

transversal cross section of this reinforcement, which is extended throughout the entire useful width and

anchored in the web, must be 1.5 cm per meter.

18.4 Columns

18.4.1 Introduction

The requirements that follow refer to columns whose larger dimension of the transversal cross section does

not exceed five times the smaller dimension, and are not valid for special regions (please see section 21).

When the first condition is not satisfied, the column must be treated as wall-column, where that disposed in

18.5 is applied.

The diameter of longitudinal bars must not be lesser than 10 mm or greater than 1/8 of the smaller

transversal dimension.

The geometric reinforcement rate must observe the maximum and minimum values specified in 17.3.5.3.

The longitudinal reinforcements must be disposed in the transversal cross section so as to assure the

adequate resistance of the structural element. In polygonal cross sections, there must be at least one bar in

each vertex; in circular cross sections, a minimum of six bars distributed along the perimeter.

The free minimum spacing between the faces of the longitudinal bars, measured on the transversal cross

section plane, outside the region of joints, must be equal to or greater than the largest of the following

values:

- 20 mm;

- 1.2 times the characteristic maximum dimension of the full grained aggregate.

These values are also applied to the regions of joints due to transfer of bars.

When the densification through lateral opening on the face of the form is provided in the concreting plane,

the spacing of the reinforcements must be sufficient to permit the passage of the vibrator.

The maximum spacing between axes of the bars, or from centers of bundles of bars, must be lesser than or

equal to twice the smaller dimension of the cross section in the considered section, without exceeding 400

mm.

The transversal reinforcement of columns, constituted by stirrups and, when it is the case, by supplementary

clips, must be placed in the entire column height, where its placement in the intersection region with beams

and slabs is obligatory.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The diameter of stirrups on columns must not be lesser than 5 mm or of the diameter of the isolated bar or

of the equivalent diameter of the bundle that constitutes the longitudinal reinforcement.

The longitudinal spacing between stirrups, measured at the direction of the column axis, in order to assure

the positioning, impede buckling of the longitudinal bars and assure the seaming of the joints of longitudinal

bars on the usual columns, must be equal to or lesser than the least of the following values:

- 200 mm;

The value t < / 4 can be adopted, as long as the reinforcements are constituted by the same type of steel

and the spacing also respects the limitation:

When there is need of transversal reinforcements for shear forces and torsion, these values must be

compared with the minimum specified in 18.3 for beams, where the least of the specified limits is adopted.

18.5 Wall-columns

In the case of columns whose greater dimension of the transversal cross section exceeds in five times the

smaller dimension besides the requirements listed in this subsection, what section 15 establishes in relation

to stressing strengths in the transversal direction resulting from 1st and 2nd order effects, especially the

located 2nd order effects, must also be met.

The transversal reinforcement of wall-columns must respect the minimum bending reinforcement of plates, if

this bending and the corresponding reinforcement are calculated. Otherwise, the transversal reinforcement

must respect the minimum of 25% of the longitudinal reinforcement of the face.

18.6.1.1 Traced

The prestressing reinforcement can be rectilinear, curvilinear, polygonal or mixed traced, where the

requirement referring to the reinforcement in the region of supports, is respected according to 18.3.2.4-a)

and b). In intermediate supports, a reinforcement must be disposed, extension of the reinforcements of the

adjacent spans, capable of resisting a traction force equal to :

In this expression Vd is the maximum shear force difference from one side to another of the support and Nd

the eventually existing traction force. The reinforcement to dispose on this support is the one obtained for the

largest of the RSd calculated for each one of the support sides.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

18.6.1.2 Curvatures

The curvatures of prestressing reinforcements must respect the minimum radii required in function of the

diameter of the wire, cordage or bar, or the outer diameter of the sheath.

The establishment of the minimum radii of curvature can be performed experimentally, as long as resulting

from adequately performed and documented investigation. The justification of the adopted radius of

curvature is disregarded, as long as it is greater than 4 m, 8 m and 12 m, respectively, in the cases of wires,

bars and cordages.

When the curvature occurs in the region next to the face of the structural element, provoking abutment in the

vacuum, reinforcements that assure the maintenance of cable position must be designed without affecting

concrete integrity in this region.

In the regions close to anchorages, the minimum radii of curvature of the wires, cordages or bundles can be

reduced, as long as properly proven through conclusive tests. In these regions, concrete resistance in

relation to splitting and the maintenance of the cable position when it provokes abutment in the vacuum,

must be assured.

The permanence of the prestressing reinforcement in its position during execution of the structural element

must be assured through appropriate devices.

The prestressing cables must have in their extremities straight segment that permit the alignment of their

axes with the axes of the respective anchoring devices. The length of these segment must not be lesser than

100 cm or 50 cm in the case of greased single-mode cordages.

The prestressing cable must have extensions of extremity that are extended beyond the positive

anchorages, with length adequate to the setting of prestressing equipments.

18.6.1.7 Joints

The prestressing reinforcement bars can be joined, as long as through thread or glove.

The individual joints of wires, cordages and cables are permitted, through special device of efficiency

dedicated for use or properly proven through conclusive tests.

The type and the position of joints must be perfectly characterized in the project.

18.6.1.8 Anchorages

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

18.6.2.1 Sheaths

The sheaths of prestressing reinforcement must be metallic, designed with diameter adequate for free

movement of the cables, for the employed executive system and cables of resisting, without appreciable

deformation, for the pressure of fresh concrete and for the mounting strengths. Besides this, they must be

relatively sealed to the paste and to the mortar on occasion of concreting.

The sheaths can be of weather-resistant plastic material and with adequate reinforcement protection.

The cables accommodated in sheaths can constitute groups of two, three and four cables in straight

sections, as long as dispositions do not occur in line with more than two adjacent cables. In curved sections

they can be disposed only in pairs, whose curvatures are in parallel planes, so that there may not be

transversal pressure among them.

The elements of prestressing reinforcement must be sufficiently separated from each other, so as to remain

assured its perfect covering by the concrete.

The separations in the horizontal direction aims to permit the free passage of the concrete and, when needle

vibrator is employed, its introduction and operation. The minimum spacing values are indicated in tables 18.1

and 18.2.

Free space

Disposition of sheaths ah av

(horizontal) (vertical)

> 4cm > 5cm

> 4cm > 5cm

Where:

ext is the outer diameter of the sheath

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Free space

Disposition of wires or cordages ah av

(horizontal) (vertical)

> 2 > 2

> 1.2dmax > 1.2dmax

> 2cm > 2cm

> 3 > 3

> 1.2dmax > 1.2dmax

> 2.5cm > 2.5cm

> 3 > 3

> 1.2dmax > 1.2dmax

> 3cm > 3cm

Where:

is the diameter of the wire or cordage

dmax is the characteristic maximum dimension of the full

grained aggregate

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

19.1 Specific symbols of this section

So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the

most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

C Critical outline, external and distance 2d from outline C, on the slab plane

K Coefficient that provides the portion of MSd transmitted to the column punch

MSd* - Calculation moment resulting from the eccentricity of the reduced critical perimeter u* in relation to the

center of the column punch

MSd1 Calculation moment transmitted by the slab to the border column, on the plane perpendicular to the

free border

MSd2 Calculation moment transmitted by the slab to the border column, on the plane parallel to the free

border

Wp Parameter referring to the critical perimeter u, defined as modulus of plastic resistance of the critical

perimeter

Pd Shearing stress due to the effect of prestressing cables that cross the considered outline and pass by

less than d/2 of the column face punch

Rd1 Limit calculation resisting shearing stress, so that a slab may be able to dispense of transversal

reinforcement to resists the shear force

Rd2 Limit calculation resisting shearing stress for verification of the concrete diagonal compression at the

slab column connection

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

In the determination of resisting stresses of slab cross sections submitted to normal stresses and bending

moments, the same principles established in 17.2.1 to 17.2.3 must be used.

In the regions of slab support good ductility conditions must be assured, where the dispositions of 14.6.4.3

are met.

When, in the critical cross section adopted for dimensioning, the direction of the reinforcements differ from

the directions of the main stresses in more than 15, this fact must be considered in the structural

calculation.

The criteria given in 17.3.2 must be used, considering the possibility of cracking (stage II).

The basic principles for the establishment of maximum and minimum reinforcements are those given in

17.3.5.1. Since the reinforced slabs in two directions have other possible resisting mechanisms, the

minimum values of the positive reinforcements are reduced in relation to those given for linear structural

elements.

In order to improve performance and bending ductility, as well as to control cracking, minimum negative

reinforcement values are necessary, given in table 19.1. This reinforcement must be constituted preferably

by high adherence bars or by welded screens.

In the case of smooth slabs or mushroom slabs with non-adherent positive reinforcement, the positive

negative reinforcements must respect the minimum values of table 19.1 and the negative negative

reinforcement on the support must have as minimum value:

where:

is the average span of the slab measured in the direction of the reinforcement to be placed.

This reinforcement must cover the region transversal to it, included through the dimension of the supports

added by 1.5 h for each side.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Structural elements Structural elements with Structural elements with non-

Reinforcement without positive adherent positive adherent positive

reinforcements reinforcement reinforcement

Negative reinforcements s > min s > min s > 0.67 min s > min 0.5 > 0.67 min

Positive reinforcements of

reinforced slabs in two s > 0.67 min s > 0.67 min s > 0.5 min s > min 0.5 > 0.5 min

directions

Positive reinforcement (main)

of reinforced slabs in one s > min s > min s > 0.5 min s > min 0.5 > 0.5 min

direction

Positive reinforcement As/s > 20% reinforcement main

2

(secondary) of reinforced slabs As/s > 0.9 cm /m -

in one direction s > 0.5 min

where:

s = As/bw h and p = Ap/bw h.

NOTE The values of min are listed in table 17.3.

The maximum bending reinforcement value must respect the limit given in 17.3.5.2 and 17.3.5.3.

Solid or ribbed slabs, according to 17.4.1.1.2-b), can dispense of transversal reinforcement to resist the

traction stresses originating from shear force, when the calculation shear force obeys the expression:

where:

bwd

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

- for elements where 50% of the lower reinforcement does not arrive up to the support: k = |1|;

- for the other cases: k = |1.6 d|, not lesser than |1|, with d in meters;

where:

As1 is the are of the traction reinforcement that is extended up to no lesser than d + b,nec besides the

considered cross section; with b,nec defined in 9.4.2.5 and figure 19.1;

NSd is the longitudinal force in the cross section due to prestressing or loading (positive

compression).

In the anchorage zone of elements with prestressing with previous adherence, the equation that defines VRd1

is only applied when the anchorage requirements are satisfied according to 9.4.5. Analogously for the

elements containing negative reinforcement.

In the case of pre-traction, the effective prestressing reduction in the transmission length must be taken into

account.

The distribution of this reinforcement along the slab must respect that prescribed in 18.3.2.3.1, considering

for a the value 1.5d.

The resistance of the stirrups can be considered with the following maximum values, where linear

interpolation is permitted:

- 435 MPa (fywd), for slabs with thickness greater than 35 cm.

The calculation model corresponds to the verification of shearing in two or more critical surfaces defined in

the environment of concentrated forces.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

On the first critical surface (outline C), of the column of concentrated load, the diagonal compression stress

of the concrete must be verified indirectly, through the shearing stress.

On the second critical surface (outline C) separated 2d from the column or concentrated load, the punch

connection capacity must be verified, associated to the diagonal traction resistance. This verification is also

done through a shearing stress, in the outline C.

The third critical surface (outline C) must only be verified when it is necessary to place transversal

reinforcement.

19.5.2.1 Internal column, with symmetric load (please see figure 19.2)

where:

where:

d is the useful height of the slab along the critical outline C, external to the outline C of the force

application area and from this distant 2d on the slab plane;

The punch force FSd can be reduced from the distributed force applied on the opposite face of the slab,

inside the considered outline in the verification, C or C.

Critical Curved

perimeter section

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

In the case where, besides the vertical force, there is moment transfer from the slab to the column, the

asymmetry effect must be considered, in accordance with the expression:

where:

K is the coefficient that provides the portion of MSd transmitted to the column through shearing, which

depends on the ratio C1/C2.

C1/C2 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0

K 0.45 0.60 0.70 0.80

Where:

C1 is the dimension of the column parallel to the force eccentricity;

C2 is the dimension of the column perpendicular to the force eccentricity.

where:

Wp can be calculated disregarding the curvature of the corners of the critical perimeter, through the

expression:

where:

e is the distance from d to the axis that passes through the center of the column and on which the

bending moment MSd acts.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

a) when moment does not act on the plane parallel to the free border:

where:

where:

MSd is the calculation moment on the plane perpendicular to the free border;

MSd * is the calculation moment resulting from the eccentricity of the reduced critical perimeter u* in

relation to the center of the column;

WP1 is the modulus of plastic resistance perpendicular to the free border, calculated for perimeter u.

The coefficient K1 assumes the established values for K in table 19.2, with C1 and C2 in accordance with

figure 19.3.

1.5d and 0.5C1

Critical perimeter u

of the slab the slab

Reduced critical

perimeter u*

where:

MSd2 is the calculation moment on the plane parallel to the free border;

WP2 is the modulus of plastic resistance in the direction parallel to the free border, calculated by

perimeter u.

The coefficient K2 assumes the established values for K in table 19.2, substituting C1/C2 for C2/2C1 (such that

C1 and C2 are established in figure 19.3).

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The disposition for the border column is applied when moment does not act on the plane parallel to the

border.

Since the corner column presents two free borders, verification must be done separately for each one of

them, considering the bending moment whose plane is perpendicular to the adopted free border.

In this case, K must be calculated in function of the proportion C1/C2, such that C1 and C2, respectively, are

the sides of the column perpendicular and parallel to the adopted free border, according to table 19.2 (please

see figure 19.4).

Free borders of the slab

1.5d and 0.5C

perimeter u*

19.5.2.5 Capital

When there is capital, two verifications must be done on the critical outlines C1 and C2, as figure 19.5

indicates.

where:

d is the useful height of the slab in the outline C2;

dc is the useful height of the slab on the face of the column;

da is the useful height of the slab in the outline C1;

c is the distance between the border of the capital and the face of the column. When:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

If the outline C presents recesses, the critical outline C must be parallel to the polygon circumscribed to

outline C (please see figure 19.6).

If there is opening in the slab situated less than 8d from outline C, the section of critical outline C between

the two straight lines that pass through the center of gravity of the application area of the force and that are

tangent to the opening outline must be considered (please see figure 19.7).

Opening

Figure 19.7 Critical perimeter along with the opening in the slab

The verification of the influence of normal stresses, resulting from simple or compound bending of the slab,

in the punch resistance, is not required.

19.5.3.1 Verification of the concrete diagonal compression resisting stress on the critical surface C

This verification must be done on outline C, on slabs submitted to punch, with or without reinforcement.

where:

The value of Sd can be expanded by 20% due to multiple state effect of stresses along with an internal

column, when the spans that arrive at this column do not differ more than 50% and there are no openings

along with the column.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

19.5.3.2 Resisting stress on the critical surface C in structural elements or sections without punch

reinforcement

where:

where:

d is the useful height of the slab along the critical outline C of the application area of the force, in

centimeter;

disregarded);

x and y are the reinforcement rates in two orthogonal directions thus calculated:

- in the width equal to the dimension or loaded area of the column increased by 3d for each one of

the sides;

- in the case of proximity of the border prevails the distance up to the border when lesser than 3d.

This verification must be done on critical outline C or on C1 and C2, in the case that there is capital.

19.5.3.3 Resisting stress on the critical surface C in structural elements or sections with punch

reinforcement

where:

where:

sr is the radial spacing between punch reinforcement lines, not greater than 0.75d;

is the angle of inclination between the punch reinforcement axis and the plane of the slab;

u is the critical perimeter or reduced critical perimeter in the case of border or corner column.

fywd is the calculation resistance of the punch reinforcement, not greater than 300 MPa for connectors

or 250 MPa for stirrups (of steel CA-50 or CA-60). For slabs with thickness greater than 15 cm, these values

can be increased as 19.4.2 establishes.

This reinforcement must be preferably constituted by three or more lines of pin type connectors with widened

extremities, radially disposed from the perimeter of the column. Each one of these extremities must be

anchored outside the plane of the corresponding bending reinforcement.

ABNT 2005 All rights reserved 153

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

When it is necessary to use transversal reinforcement, it must be extended in outlines parallel to C until, in

an outline C separated 2d from the last reinforcement outline (please see figures 19.8 and 19.9),

reinforcement is not longer necessary, that is, sd Rd1 (19.5.3.2).

Critical

perimeter u

Critical

perimeter u

Figure 19.8 Disposition of the punch reinforcement in plan and outline of critical

surface C

In the case that the punch reinforcement is necessary, three verifications must be performed:

- punch resisting stress in outline C, considering the punch reinforcement, according to 19.5.3.3;

In the case that the global stability of the structure depends on the resistance of the slab to punch, punch

reinforcement must be planned, even though Sd may be greater than Rd1. This reinforcement must balance

a minimum of 50% of FSd.

In order to assure the local ductility and the consequent protection against progressive collapse, the lower

bending reinforcement that crosses outline C must be sufficiently anchored besides outline C, according to

figure 19.10, and must be such that:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

where:

As is the sum of all areas of the bars that cross each one of the faces of the column.

Bending

reinforcement

Outline C or C

Reinforcement against

progressive collapse

where:

where:

Pd is the stress due to the effect of inclined prestressing cables that cross the considered outline and

pass by less than d/2 from the face of the column (please see figure 19.11);

i is the inclination of cable i in relation to the plane of the slab in the considered outline;

u is the critical perimeter of the considered outline, where Sd,ef and Sd are calculated.

Outline

Cable i

ABNT 2005 All rights reserved 155

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

20 Detailing of slabs

20.1 General prescriptions

The reinforcements must be disposed such that their positioning during concreting may be assured.

Any bending reinforcement bar must have a maximum diameter equal to h/8.

The main bending reinforcement bars must present a maximum spacing equal to 2h or 20 cm, where the

least of the two values in the region of the largest bending moments prevail.

The secondary bending reinforcement must be equal to or greater than 20% of the main reinforcement,

maintaining, even, a spacing between bars of, at a maximum, 33 cm. The joint of these bars must respect

the same joint criteria of the main reinforcement bars.

The stirrups in ribbed slabs, when necessary, must not have spacing greater than 20 cm.

In free borders and along the openings the minimum prescriptions contained in Figure 20.1 must be

respected.

In slabs without solid or ribbed beams, calculated through the approximate process given in 14.7.8, the

dispositions contained in figure 20.2 must be respected.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

minimum % of

the total

reinforcement

Upper bars

Remaining

50

Region of supports

External band

Reinforcement

Lower bars

against

progressive

collapse

Upper bars

Central region

Internal band

Lower bars

Remaining

33

Axis of

external Axis of internal

Support face support

support

At least two lower bars must pass continuously over the supports, where the reinforcement against

progressive collapse is also respected, according to 19.5.4.

In slabs with capitals, the interrupted lower bars, besides meeting the other prescriptions, must penetrate at

least 30 cm or 24 in the capital.

Between cables of bundles of cables a maximum spacing 6 h must be maintained, without exceeding 120

cm.

Cables disposed in external support band must be contained in a slab portion, such that its width does not

exceed the dimension on plan of the support column, taken transversally to the longitudinal direction of the

band, increased by 3.5 times the thickness of the slab for each one of the column sides.

Between cables or bundles of cables, or between cables and negative reinforcements, a minimum spacing of

5 cm must be maintained.

The minimum cover of cables in relation to the face of openings on the slabs must be 7.5 cm.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

20.3.2.5 Deviation

The deviation on the plane of the slab of a cable or bundle of cables must produce a maximum inclination of

1/10,on the imaginary chord that joins the beginning to the end of this section, maintaining its development in

accordance with a parabolic curve on plan. Along the deviation, the set of cables or bundles must be

disposed so as to maintain a distance of 5 cm between cables in the central region of the curve.

For the cases where the deviation exceeds the specified limits, reinforcement capable of resisting the force

provoked by this deviation must be planned.

The negative reinforcement against progressive collapse can be dispensed, if at least one cable, on each

orthogonal direction, passes through the interior of the longitudinal reinforcement contained in the

transversal cross section of the columns or supporting elements of mushroom slabs of commercial and

residential buildings.

On the supports of prestressed mushroom slabs, the existence of a minimum of four bars in the traction

stressed face is obligatory, disposed in a width that does not exceed the width of the support added three

times the total height of the slab. The bars must be spaced at a maximum of 30 cm and developed at a

minimum distance equal to 1/6 of the free span between supports in the direction of the reinforcement, and

measured from the face of the support.

In the slabs prestressed by non-adherent single-mode cordages, a maximum of four cables can be disposed

in bundle.

When necessary, the reinforcements to resisting punch must be constituted by vertical stirrups or connectors

(studs), with preference for the use of these latter ones.

The diameter of the reinforcement of stirrups cannot exceed h/20 and there must be mechanical contact of

the longitudinal bars with the corners of the stirrups (mechanical anchorage).

The minimum regions where the punch reinforcements must be disposed, as well as the regulatory distances

to be obeyed are shown in figure 20.3.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Punch reinforcement

Reinforcement against

progressive collapse

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

21 Special regions

21.1 Introduction

For the effects of this Norm, those not covered by the previously described models are considered as special

regions, due to non-validity, in these regions, of the flat cross section hypothesis.

Having load in reduced area, reinforcement to resist all traction stresses must be disposed, whenever the

possibility of concrete cracking could promise the resistance of the structural element.

When the load acts in area lesser than that of the surface of the structural element, the concrete resistance

can be considered increased, without exceeding the calculation resisting value corresponding to the

crashing, given by the expression:

where:

Ac1 is the maximum area of the same form and the same center of gravity as Ac0, inscribed in the

area Ac2;

In the case that Ac0 is rectangular, the proportion between the sides must not be greater than 2.

The values given by this equation must be reduced if the load is not uniformly distributed or is there are

shearing stresses. This expression does not apply to prestressing anchorages, whose safety must be

assured by certification tests of the system.

Figure 21.1 illustrates some cases where the cracking can compromise the resistance of the structural

element and reinforcement must be disposed to resist the traction stresses.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Elevation

Plan

They are joints obtained by means of a reduced nucleus of the concrete, transmitting stresses that can be

reduced to a force, whose inclination must be at a maximum equal to 1/8, as shown in figure 21.2.

Compression result

Volume to be loaded

Joint

For the calculation of these regions tridimensional models must be considered, given that the support

surface dimensions of the anchorage are small, if compared with the transversal cross section of the

structural element.

These zones can be calculated with the help of the method for coupling rods and straining beams, which

must be analyzed and designed considering:

ABNT 2005 All rights reserved 162

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

b) the effects of transversal traction (ring splitting) due to anchorages, individually and as a whole;

Loads applied through metallic inserts, rock bolt, etc. are fitted in this subsection, which can correspond to

stresses of compression, traction, shearing or compound stresses.

The verification of the local effects in the case of compression must comply with what is disposed in 21.2.1.

In the case of traction, the fretting must be verified and in the case of shearing, the crashing on the concrete

border in contact with the rock bolt, in accordance with the pertinent sections of this Norm or specialized

technical literature.

Special cares must be taken in the dimensioning and detailing of the reinforcement of the structural element,

so as to obtain the transfer and continuity of resistance to traction forces introduced by the rock bolts,

assuring the equilibrium of the assembly. Figure 21.3 shows example of this case.

Lateral view

Rupture

Compression

trajectories

Development of stresses on

concrete / steel interface

Figure 21.3 Pressures along with a pin embedded on a concrete structural element

21.3.1 Generalities

Structures whose project requires the presence of openings must be calculated and detailed considering the

disturbance of the stresses that are concentrated around these openings, planning, besides the

reinforcements to resist the traction stresses already mentioned in this Norm, also complementary

reinforcements disposed on the outline and at the corners of the openings.

The limits for the dimensions of holes and openings are listed in section 13.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

When the openings are located in less stressed regions and do not significantly modify the working of the

structural element, it is sufficient to place an opening compatibilization reinforcement with the assembly.

Otherwise, a specific calculation model must be adopted for the case in question, based, for example, on the

method of finite elements or coupling rods and straining beams (please see figure 21.4).

Opening

Opening

21.3.3 Holes that cross the beams in the direction of the height

The openings on beams, contained in its main plane, like holes for passage of vertical pipeline in the

buildings (please see figure 21.5), must not have diameters greater than 1/3 of the width of these beams in

the regions of the holes. The reduction of shearing- or bending-bearing capacity in the region of the opening

must be verified.

The minimum distance from a hole to the closest face of the beam must be at a minimum equal to 5 cm and

twice the cover planned in this face. The remaining cross section in this region, where the area occupied by

the hole has been subtracted, must be capable of resisting the stresses planned in the calculation, besides

permitting good concreting.

In the case that a set of holes is necessary, the holes must be aligned and the distance between their faces

must be at a minimum 5 cm or the diameter of the hole and each interval must contain at least a stirrup.

In the case of structural elements submitted to torsion, these limits must be adjusted so as to permit an

adequate operation.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Hole of diameter

lesser than b/3

Greater than 5 cm

and twice the cover

Beam

In the case of openings in slabs, the following conditions must be respected in any situation, obeying also

what is disposed in section 13:

a) the cross section of the remaining concrete of the central part or on the slab support must be capable of

balancing the stresses in the ultimate limit state, corresponding to this cross section without openings;

b) the cross sections of interrupted reinforcements must be substituted by equivalent properly anchored

reinforcement cross sections;

c) in the case of openings in regions close to columns, in smooth or mushroom slabs, the calculation model

must plan the equilibrium of the acting shear forces in these regions.

As consequence of the direction change of structural elements, the resistance of the assembly depends on

the traction resistance of the concrete and the reinforcement disposition, which must be considered in the

dimensioning.

The prescriptions of ABNT NBR 9062 must be met.

The execution project of a concreting joint must indicate precisely the site and the configuration of its

surface.

Whenever the adherence and the roughness between the new and existing concrete is not assured, seam

reinforcements must be planned, properly anchored in regions capable of resisting traction stresses.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

22 Special elements

22.1 Introduction

For the effects of this Norm the structural elements that are characterized by a behavior that does not

respect the hypothesis of flat cross sections, because they are not sufficiently long so that they may

dissipate the located disturbances, are considered as special elements. Wall-beams, brackets and Gerber

corbels, as well as shoes and blocks, are elements of this type.

The special elements must be calculated and dimensioned through appropriate theoretical models, when not

contemplated by this Norm.

Taking into consideration the responsibility of these elements in the structure, the calculation stresses must

be increased by an additional coefficient n according to ABNT NBR 8681.

22.2 Wall-beams

22.2.1 Conceptualization

High beams where the ratio between the span and the height /h is lesser than 2 in bi-supported beams and

lesser than 3 cm in continuous beams, are considered wall-beams. They can receive higher or lower loads

(please see figure 22.1).

The structural behavior of the wall-beams has some specific characteristics, highlighting among them, in first

place, inefficiencies, whether to bending or shearing, when compared with the usual beams.

Wall-beams, for being high, present stability problems as stiff body and at times, elastic stability. Support

enhancers or locks are almost always necessary.

The disturbances generated by concentrated loads, openings or thickenings must even be considered.

These disturbances can influence significantly in the behavior and resistance of the structural element.

For calculation and dimensioning of wall-beams elastic plane or non-linear models and coupling rod-straining

beam models are permitted. Whichever the chosen model may be, it must contemplate adequately the

aspects described in 22.2.2.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

22.2.4 Detailing

In wall-beams the traction straining beams cannot be concentrated in one or a few reinforcement layers, but

they must cover the entire effectively traction stressed zone, according to the adopted calculation model.

In bi-supported beams as figure 22.2 shows, this reinforcement must be distributed in height of the order of

0.15h.

The fact that in continuous wall-beams the distribution height of negative reinforcement of the supports is

even greater must be considered.

The bending reinforcement must be extended integrally up to the supports and from there, well anchored.

Hooks must not be used on the vertical plane, giving preference to loops or clips on the horizontal plane, or

special devices (please see figure 22.2).

The transversal reinforcement must be calculated considering that disposed in 22.2.2 and respecting a

minimum value of 0.075% bh per face.

In the case of loading through the lower part of the beam, this reinforcement must be capable of suspending

the totality of the applied load (please see figure 22.2).

Distributed vertical

reinforcements

Distributed

horizontal

reinforcements

0.85h

Lower main

reinforcements

0.15h

22.3.1 Brackets

22.3.1.1 Conceptualization

The elements in overhang are considered brackets in which the distance (a) of the load applied to the face of

the support is lesser than or equal to the useful height (d) of the bracket (please see figure 22.3).

The case where a > d must be treated as beam in overhand and no longer as bracket.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Straining beam

Coupling rod

Figure 22.3 Coupling rod- straining beam model for short bracket

The short brackets have a typical behavior that can be described by a coupling rod- straining beam model.

The straining beam, on top of the bracket, is anchored in the coupling rod under a vertical external load Fd on

one side and on the column or support on the other. The inclined coupling rod goes from the load up to the

face of the column or support, using the entire available bracket height (please see figure 22.3). Some

aspects are fundamental for the success of this behavior:

a) adequate anchorage of the straining beam, encompassing the coupling rod immediately below the

supporting device;

b) the reinforcement rate of the straining beam to be considered in the calculation must be highly limited, so

as to assure the drainage, before the rupture of the concrete;

c) verification of the compressive resistance of the coupling rod or the equivalent shearing on the face of the

column, assuring with adequate safety that the fragile rupture, through the coupling rod, is separated. For the

verification of the coupling rod the load opening under the support plate must be considered, as indicated in

figure 22.3, limited to a maximum inclination of 1:2 in relation to the vertical, at the extreme points A and C

(or E) of the expanded support area;

d) the consideration of horizontal stresses in the dimensioning of brackets and their consequent unfavorable

effect is fundamental in the inclination of the resultant Fd (please see figure 22.3). ABNT NBR 9062

establishes minimum values of these stresses;

e) in general case where there are horizontal or transversal loads or eccentricity of vertical load in the width

of the bracket, it is said that there is torsion of the bracket; the structural behavior that is observed, in this

case, is that of a coupling rod-straining beam model, usually with narrower coupling rod and straining beam,

that is, the spatial lattice observed in the torsion of beams is not formed, since it lacks sufficient length for

such end.

ABNT 2005 All rights reserved 168

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The very short brackets have a behavior similar to that of the short brackets, but the differences must not be

neglected. The coupling rod is curved or arched on the plane of the bracket and as consequence it increases

the importance of the seam reinforcement, which acquires significant participation in the resistance of the

bracket, not only in its ductility.

For calculation and dimensioning of brackets, linear and non-linear plane models (not planes in the case of

torsion), coupling rod-straining beam models or friction-shearing models can be used, respecting in each

case its field of application.

Whichever the adopted model may be, it must contemplate the fundamental aspects described in 22.3.1.2

and possess experimental support or be derived from already widely test-proven basic model.

22.3.1.4 Detailing

Since the straining beam is very short, from the external face of the bracket up to the opposite face of the

column (or support), it is essential to take care of the anchorage of the reinforcement planned for this

straining beam, in two extremities, especially on the one along the extremity of the bracket.

In this face hook in the vertical plane must not be used, in order to avoid destructions due to rupture of

corner or lateral cover of the hook. These vertical hooks can only be accepted in brackets of slabs.

In this region, under concentrated load, a more efficient anchorage must be used, like flaps in the horizontal

plane or transversal bars welded to straining beam reinforcement or metallic sheets welded in the extremities

of the bars of this reinforcement (straining beam) (please see figure 22.4), according to 9.4.7.1.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Welding

Welding

Straining beam

Welding

Seam

Welding

for

for

The position and dimensions of the supporting device must be adopted so as to permit the straining beam to

encompass the coupling rod, according to the detail in plan of the straining beam (please see figure 22.4),

taking into account the unfavorable effect of the inclined resultant of the loads on the support plate, due to

horizontal forces.

The project of short or very short brackets is not permitted without seam reinforcement. It is fundamental to

permit a more ductile rupture of the bracket and avoid reduction of the rupture load.

When there is indirect load, suspension reinforcement must be planned for the totality of the applied load.

22.3.2.1 Conceptualization

The Gerber corbel is a protrusion that is designed on the upper part of the extremity of a beam, with the

objective of supporting it on bracket created on the face of a column or in the lower region of the extremity of

another beam.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Usually, both, bracket and Gerber corbel, have height a little less than half of the height of the beam. The

same conceptualizations and geometric limitations created for the brackets are also valid for the Gerber

corbels.

22.3.2.2 Behavior

The Gerber corbels have a structural behavior similar to those of the brackets, which can also be described

by a coupling rod-straining beam model. The most important differences are:

a) the coupling rod is usually more inclined, because it must look for support in the suspension

reinforcement, inside the beam, at the extremity opposite to the point of load application (please see figure

22.5);

b) the main reinforcement must penetrate in the beam, looking for anchorage in the coupling rods due to

shearing in the beam;

c) the suspension reinforcement must be calculated for the total force Fd.

Straining

beam

Suspension

For calculation and dimensioning, the same principles established for the brackets can be used, as long as

the necessary corrections are made to contemplate the differences presented in 22.3.2.2.

22.3.2.4 Detailing

22.3.2.4.1 Generalities

The recommendations made in 22.3.1.4 are applied, with exception of 22.3.1.4.4, since the Gerber corbel

loses sense in the case of indirect load.

This reinforcement must preferably be constituted by stirrups, at the complete height of the beam,

concentrated at its extremity, according to figure 22.5.

The main reinforcement must be anchored from its intersection with the first coupling rod of the beam, at its

complete height.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The bending reinforcement of the beam must be well anchored in the section where the suspension

reinforcement is applied.

In case this section is not sufficiently large, the use of horizontal clips of welded transversal bars is

recommended.

In case it is desired to use bent bars to suspend the load or longitudinal prestressing reinforcements of the

beam, the calculation model must be adapted to this.

22.4 Shoes

22.4.1 Conceptualization

Shoes are volume structures used to transmit to the ground the foundation loads, in the case of direct

foundation.

When the expression that follows is verified, the shoe is considered stiff. Otherwise, the shoe is considered

as flexible:

where:

For stiff shoe the distribution of normal stresses at the shoe-ground contact can be admitted plane, in case

more detailed information are not available to this respect.

For flexible shoes or extreme cases of rock foundation, even with stiff shoe, this hypothesis must be

reviewed.

22.4.2.1 Generalities

The structural behavior of shoes, eliminated the complexity of the ground-structure interaction through the

hypothesis of 22.4.1, can be described by separating the shoes into stiff and flexible.

a) bending work in two directions, where it is admitted that, for each one of them, the traction in the bending

is uniformly distributed in the corresponding width of the shoe. This hypothesis is not applied to compression

in the bending, which is more concentrated in the region of the column that is supported on the shoe and is

also not applied to the case of very extended shoes in relation to the form of the column;

b) shearing work also in two directions, which does not present rupture due to diagonal traction, and in fact

diagonal compression verified according to 19.5.3.1. This occurs because the stiff shoe is entirely inside the

hypothetical punch cone, where, therefore, there is no physical possibility of punch.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Although of rarer use, these shoes are used for foundation of small loads and relatively weak grounds, Their

behavior is characterized by:

a) bending work in two directions, where it is not possible to admit traction in the bending uniformly

distributed in the corresponding width of the shoe. The bending concentration along with the column must

be, in principle, evaluated;

b) shearing work that can be described through the punch phenomenon (please see 19.5).

For calculation and dimensioning of shoes, linear tridimensional models or tridimensional coupling rod-

straining beam models must be used, where bending models can be used, when it is the case. These

models must contemplate the aspects described in 22.4.2. The calculation models need only exceptionally to

contemplate the ground-structure interaction.

22.4.4 Detailing

The bending reinforcement must be uniformly distributed along the width of the shoe, extending itself

integrally from face to face and ending in hook at the two extremities.

For bars with 20 mm hooks of 135 or 180 must be used. For bars with 25 mm the splitting on

horizontal plane must be verified, since parceling of the entire reinforcement mesh can occur.

The shoe must have sufficient height to permit the anchorage of the startup reinforcement. In this anchorage

the favorable effect of the compression transversal to the bars, resulting from the bending of the shoe can be

considered (please see section 9).

The requirements relative to slabs and punch must be met (please see sections 19 and 20).

22.5.1 Conceptualization

Blocks are volume structures used to transmit the foundation loads to the piles, through criterion analogous

to that defined for shoes.

In the case of assemblies of stiff blocks and piles, with spacing of 2.5 to 3 (where is the diameter of

the pile), the load distribution on the piles can be admitted plane.

For flexible blocks or extreme cases of short piles, supported on very stiff substrate, this hypothesis must be

reviewed.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

a) bending work in two directions, but with essentially concentrated tractions on the lines over the piles

(reticulated defined by axis of the piles, with width bands of width equal to 1.2 times its diameter);

b) load transmitted from the column to the piles essentially through compression coupling rods, of complex

form and dimensions;

c) shearing work also in two directions, which does not present rupture due to diagonal traction, and in fact

due to compression of the coupling rods, analogously to the shoes.

For this type of block a more complete analysis must be performed, from the distribution of the stresses in

the piles, the traction straining beams up to the need for punch verification.

For calculation and dimensioning of the blocks linear or non-linear tridimensional models and tridimensional

coupling rod-straining beam models are accepted, where these latter ones are preferred for defining better

the distribution of stresses through the straining beams. These models must adequately contemplate the

aspects described in 22.5.2.

Whenever there are significant horizontal stresses or strong asymmetry, the model must contemplate the

ground-structure interaction.

22.5.4 Detailing

The bending reinforcement must be essentially disposed (more than 85%) on the bands defined by the piles,

in proportions of equilibrium of the respective coupling rods.

The bar must be extended from face to face of the block and end in hook at two extremities. For bars with

20 mm hooks of 135 or 180 must be used.

The anchorage of reinforcements of each one of these bands, on the piles, measured from the face of the

piles, must be assured. The favorable effect of the compression transversal to the bars, resulting from the

compression of the coupling rods, can be considered (please see section 9).

In order to control cracking, additional reinforcement in uniformly distributed mesh in two direction must be

planned at a maximum of 20% of the total stresses, completing the main reinforcement, calculated with a

calculation resistance of 80% of fyd.

If distribution reinforcement is planned for more than 25% of the total stresses or if the spacing between piles

is greater than 3 , suspension reinforcement must be planned for the portion of load to be balanced.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The block must have sufficient height to permit the anchorage of the startup reinforcement. In this anchorage

the favorable effect of the compression transversal to the bars resulting from bending of the shoe can be

considered (please see section 9).

The requirements relative to slabs and punch must be met (please see section 19 and 20).

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

23.1 Specific symbols of this section

So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the

most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

f frequency

23.2 Generalities

The dynamic actions can provoke service limit states and ultimate limit states due to excessive vibrations or

due to fatigue of the materials.

The analysis of vibrations can be done in linear system in the case of usual structures.

In order to assure satisfactory behavior of the structures subject to vibrations, the proper frequency of the

structure (f) must be separated as much as possible from the critical frequency (fcrit) that depends on the

destination of the respective building.

The behavior of the structures subject to cyclic dynamic actions that originate vibrations can be modified by

means of alterations in some factors, like dynamic actions, natural frequency (through the change of stiffness

of the structure or the mass in vibration) and increase of the shock-absorbing characteristics.

When the critical action is originated in a machine, the critical frequency becomes that of the machines

operation.

In this case, it may not be sufficient to separate the two frequencies, proper and critical. Mainly when the

machine is turned on, during its acceleration process, it is usually necessary to increase the mass and the

shock absorption of the structure to absorb part of the energy involved.

In special cases, where the previous prescriptions could not be met, a more accurate dynamic analysis must

be performed, as established in international norms, while there is no specific Brazilian Norm.

In the lack of experimentally determined values, the values indicated in table 23.1 for fcrit can be adopted.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Table 23.1 Critical frequency for some special cases of structures submitted to

vibrations due to action of people

fcrit

Case

Hz

Sports gymnasium 8.0

Dance or concert halls without fixed chairs 7.0

Offices 3.0 to 4.0

Concert halls with fixed chairs 3.4

Pedestrian or cyclist overpasses 1.6 to 4.5

The dynamic amplification can be determined in linear elastic system in usual cases. When the coefficient of

impact is defined in specific Brazilian Norm, this is the value that must be used.

Fatigue is a phenomenon associated to repeated dynamic actions, which can be understood as a process of

progressive and permanent modifications of the internal structure of a material submitted to the oscillation of

stresses resulting from these actions.

The actions of high intensity fatigue, capable of provoking damages with less than 20,000 repetitions are not

treated in this Norm.

The actions of medium and low intensity fatigue and number of repetitions up to 2,000,000 cycles are

considered in the dispositions established in this section. For the consideration of the spectrum of actions, it

is admitted that those of vehicles with total load up to 30 kN can be excluded, for the case of road bridges.

For the combination of actions of a determined spectrum of loads, the rule of Palmgren-Miner is considered

valid, that is, it is supposed that the damages due to fatigue are accumulated linearly with the number of

cycles applied at certain level of stresses, where the following expression must be obeyed:

where:

Ni is the number of repetitions that would cause the rupture due to fatigue for the same condition of

applied stresses.

Although the fatigue phenomenon is controlled through the accumulation of the deleterious effect of repeated

stresses, fatigue verification can be performed by considering a single level of stress, expressed by the

frequent combination of actions (please see section 11), given as follows:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

For fatigue verification the reduction factor value 1 must be adopted according to the type of work and

structural part.

1 = 1.0.

1 = 1.0.

In special cases of rolling bridges of less frequent operation, where the number of cycles is significantly

lesser than 2 x 106, the fatigue resistance can be increased according to 23.5.5.

For fatigue verification, whether concrete or steel, the stressing strengths can be calculated in elastic system.

The calculation of stresses resulting from compound bending can be performed in stage II, where the

traction resistance of the concrete is disregarded.

The calculation of stresses resulting from the shear force must be performed through the application of

models I or II, according to 17.4.2.2 and 17.4.2.3, respectively, with reduction of concrete contribution, as

follows:

- in model II the inclination of the compression diagonals, , must be corrected through the equation:

f = 1.0

c = 1.4

s = 1.0

For calculation of the stressing strengths and the verification of stresses, the elastic linear model is admitted

with = 10 (ration of the modulus of elasticity of the steel and the concrete).

For the calculation of stresses in the negative or adherent positive reinforcement steel, the linear elastic

behavior can be considered compatibilizing the deformations and multiplying the stress in the steel by the

factor ns in order to take into account the difference of adherence between the prestressing steel and the

negative reinforcement steel.

ABNT 2005 All rights reserved 178

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

where:

s is the smaller diameter of the negative reinforcement steel in the considered cross section;

p is the diameter of the prestressing steel (for bundles, eq = 1.6 Ap , where Ap is the transversal

cross section area of the bundle);

is the ratio between the prestressing steel adherence and the negative (high adherence)

reinforcement steel resistances.

Values of at post-traction:

Values of at pre-traction:

The established criterion for fatigue verification resulting from shear force on the beams is based on the

reduction of concrete contribution and alternative layouts, evaluated from the reduction of the traction

resistance of the concrete under equivalent cyclic load to adopt to 107 cycles, 50% of the static traction

resistance. This corresponds to reducing the value Vc of the concrete contribution by 50% of its static value.

where:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

where:

|c1| is the smaller value, in modulus, of the compression stress at a distance not greater than 300

mm from the face under the relevant combination of loads (figure 23.1);

|c2| is the greater value, in modulus, of compression stress at a distance not greater than 300 mm

from the face under the same combination of load used for calculation of |c1| (figure 23.1).

where:

This verification is satisfied if the maximum calculated stress variation, s, for the frequent combination of

loads satisfies:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Table 23.2 Parameters for the S-N curves (Woeller) for the steels inside the

concrete 1)

Negative reinforcement, steel CA-50

Values of fsd,fad,min, for 2 x 106 cycles

MPa

Case mm Type 2)

10 12.5 16 20 22 25 32 40

Straight or bent bars with

190 190 190 185 180 175 165 150 T1

D 25

Straight or bent bars with:

D < 25

105 105 105 105 100 95 90 85 T1

D = 5 < 20 mm

D = 8 20 mm

Stirrups

85 85 85 - - - - - T1

D = 3 10 mm

Marine environment

65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 T4

Class IV

Welded bars (including welding by point or the

85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 T4

extremities) and mechanical connectors

Positive reinforcement

Values of fpd,fad,min, for 2 x 106 cycles

Case

MPa

Pre-traction, wire or straight cordage 150 T1

Post-traction, curved cables 110 T2

Straight cables 150 T1

Mechanical connectors and anchorages (case of

70 T3

greased cordage)

1)

It is admitted, for certification of productive processes, to justify the values of this table in tests of air bars. The

fluctuation of stresses must be measured from the maximum stress of 80% of the nominal drainage stress and frequency

of 5 Hz to 10 Hz.

2)

Please see table 23.3

Type N* k1 k2

6

T1 10 5 9

6

T2 10 3 7

T3 106 3 5

7

T4 10 3 5

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The function of the fatigue resistance for the steel, represented in log.log scale (please figure 23.2), consists

of straight line segments of the form (fSd,fad)m x N = constant.

curve 1 m = k1

curve 2 m = k2

Figure 23.2 Format of fatigue characteristic resistance curves (S-N curves) for steel

In no case fatigue resistance greater than that of the straight bar must be considered.

In the case where it can experimentally be proven that the steel to be used in the structure presents fatigue

resistance characteristics higher than those indicated here, the use of these characteristics in the calculation

is permitted.

In the case of identification marks of the manufacturer, this must present the fatigue resistance values as

consequence of eventual concentration of stresses provoked by the relief format of the mark on the bar.

It is considered that the presented values for the fatigue resistance from negative reinforcement steels refer

to high adherence ribbed bars, in which the transversal and longitudinal corbels do not cross each other or

present:

where:

r is the radius of the concordance curve of the corbel with the body of the bar.

In the lack of specific experimental data that prove that bars that do not respect this configuration satisfy

table 23.2, it is permitted to use them with a reduction of 30% of fluctuation of the limit stress given in table

23.2.

The modifications introduce through the repetition of stresses can affect significantly the structures from the

point of view of their behavior in service, particularly in what refers to the emergence of non-existing cracks

under static actions, the worsening of already existing cracking and the increase of deformations.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The increase of deformations is progressive under cyclic dynamic actions and is summed to the increase of

deformations resulting from flow. In the lack of conclusive experimental data, the cyclic effect can be

estimated through the expression:

where:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

24 Plain concrete

24.1 Specific symbols of this section

So as to simplify the understanding and, therefore, the application of concepts set forth in this section, the

most used symbols, or that could generate doubts, are found defined as follows:

symbols have the same meaning as presented in 4.3.

ea Additional eccentricity

Ae Effective area

The plain structural concrete must have assured some basic conditions, like lateral contention (case of piles

or tubes), compression in entire transversal cross section (case of arches), continuous vertical support on

the ground or in another structural part (case of columns, walls, blocks or pedestals).

The use of plain concrete in structures subject to earthquakes or explosions and in cases where ductility is

important quality of the structure is not permitted.

The requirements for concrete listed in section 8 must be met, where concrete from class C10 can be used

(ABNT NBR 8953).

The expansion joints must be planned at least for every 15 m. In the case that larger separation is needed,

the effects of thermal retraction of the concrete (as consequence of hydration heat), hydraulic retraction and

temperature drops must be considered in the calculation.

Any reinforcement eventually existing in the plain concrete must end at least 6 cm from the joints.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Lateral stability of the plain concrete parts must be assured by means of bracings (please see section 15).

24.5.1 Generalities

The structural elements of plain concrete must be designed through the limit states method, using the same

weighted coefficients already prescribed for reinforced concrete (please see sections 10 and 11).

The traction resistance of the concrete can be considered in the calculation, as long as under the effect of

the increased actions the ultimate values are not exceeded, in traction as well as in compression.

In the case of long duration loads, the concrete flow must be considered, according to section 8.

24.5.2.1 The maximum stress in the plain concrete fibers due to increased loads and stresses must not

exceed the values of the calculation resisting stresses. In all cases of application of plain structural concrete

c = 1.2 x 1.4 = 1.68 must be adopted. In the case of traction, this maximum stress must be based on the

f ctk ,inf

lower characteristic value of the traction resistance, according to 8.2.5, such that: f ctd =

c

24.5.2.2 The values of the calculation resisting stresses (limit values of the stresses determined with the

calculation acting stresses) are given as follows:

24.5.2.3 The values of the calculation resisting shearing stresses, relative to the shear force in linear parts,

are given as follows:

where the determination of the influence of the external normal force of compression is given by the factor:

24.5.2.4 The value of the calculation resisting shearing stress in plain concrete slabs, submitted to bending

or to bending-traction, must be calculated by:

24.5.2.5 The value of the calculation resisting shearing stress, in structural elements submitted to simple

torsion, must be calculated by:

Curved parts or that are subject to torsion of equilibrium must not be of plain concrete.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

24.5.2.6 The value of the calculation punch resisting shearing stress, in outline C (19.5.2.6), must be

calculated by:

24.5.3 Dimensioning

The plain concrete works may have distribution reinforcement, which must not be considered in the

calculation of the resisting stresses, but that can be considered to reduce the cracking effect.

Concrete elements with reinforcement lesser than the minimum must be dimensioned like plain concrete.

This does not apply to reinforcement used for transferring stresses to plain concrete elements.

In the calculation of stresses due to bending, compound bending and tangential stresses, the total

transversal cross section of the element must be considered, except in the case of concrete placed against

the ground, where the total height h to be considered must be 5 cm lesser than the real.

Using the calculation hypotheses established in 24.5.2, the deformations in the extreme fibers must be

limited by:

As simplification, it can be admitted that the stress deformation diagram has the parabola-rectangle

configuration, in compression as well as traction. Concrete flow must be considered for long duration loads

(figure 24.1).

Figure 24.1 Concrete stress deformation calculation diagram with flow consideration

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

- in compression, with small eccentricity, in the fiber at a distance 0.43 h from the most compressed:

c 0.002;

- in traction, with small eccentricity, in the fiber at a distance 0.43 h from most traction stressed: ct

0.0002.

As additional simplification, constant values for the calculation resisting stresses can be adopted, as follows:

- for compressed region: the linear stress diagram with peak cRd = 0.85 fcd.

24.5.5.1 The shearing stresses wd for rectangular cross section must be calculated by (please see 24.5.2.3):

where:

h is the total height of the transversal cross section of the structural element.

24.5.5.2 The maximum shearing stress wd must be calculated for the shear force at a distance h from the

face of the support. For closest cross sections of the support, this same shear force value is admitted.

24.5.5.3 In the case of slabs the reduction of the shear force value in the supports cannot be performed and

the shearing stress must be (please see 24.5.2.4):

24.5.6 Torsion

The stresses coming from the torsion must be calculated through the theory of elasticity formulas and their

effects added to those coming from other stressing strengths, in order to be examined as multiple stress

state.

In elements submitted to torsion and simple or compound bending, the stresses must be calculated

separately for the torsion (Td) and for the shear force (wd), where they must obey the relations:

24.5.7.1 Generalities

The cases of cross sections compressed due to normal force and cross sections subject to compression and

shear force acting simultaneously (inclined force of compression) are considered.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

In the cross sections of plain concrete elements submitted to force of compression Nd, applied at a point G,

with the eccentricities ex and ey in relation to the x and y axes, respectively (please see figure 24.2), the

calculation must be performed by applying this force at point G1(e1x, e1y) that may result the most

unfavorable between the two following:

or

where:

Where:

The stress d must be calculated by adopting uniform distribution of stresses in the effective triangular cross

section of area Ae (please see figure 24.2), with center of gravity at the virtual point of application G1 of

normal force, considering inactive the rest of the cross section. The safety condition must be calculated by:

In a cross section of a plain concrete element on which an inclined force of compression acts, with its

calculation components NSd and VSd, applied at point G, virtual point of application G and the effective area

Ae are calculated as established in 24.5.7.2. The safety conditions must be calculated by:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

24.6.1 Wall-columns

Plain concrete wall-columns of rectangular cross section can be dimensioned through the equation given as

follows, when the resultant of all calculation loads is within the middle third of the thickness of the wall-

column:

where:

= 1.0 when there are no restrictions to rotation on top and at the base of the wall-column;

= 0.8 when there is some restriction against rotation, on top, at the base or in both extremities of

the wall-column.

where:

The horizontal length of the wall-column to be considered for each concentrated vertical load on top cannot

exceed:

- distance between supports increased by four times the thickness of the wall-column.

- 10 cm;

In the openings of doors or windows at least two bars of = 10 mm must be planned, which are extended

50 cm from the receding angles.

The global stability of the assembly and the junction between panels must be assured.

The base area of foundation blocks must be determined from the admissible stress from the ground for non-

increased loads. The average thickness of the block must not be lesser than 20 cm.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

The dimensioning of transversal cross sections must be performed through the limit states method. The

increased bending moment must be determined in the critical cross section, which can be considered on the

face of the column or wall.

The increased shear force must be calculated for the critical cross section on the face of the column,

pedestal or wall, and must not exceed:

24.6.3 Columns

Plain concrete columns must be calculated in the same manner as the wall-columns (please see 24.6.1)

and, in the absence of lateral actions, the acting load must be inside or at the limit of the central nucleus of

inertia of the cross section. In the case that lateral actions act concomitantly, like the wind, the cross sections

must be verified without considering the traction resistance of the concrete. In the case the compressed part

of the cross section must contain the center of gravity.

The maximum compression stress in the ultimate limit state, with increased actions, must not exceed the

value of cRd.

24.6.4 Arches

The plain concrete arches must be designed such that in the ultimate limit state no tractions stresses may

appear at any transversal cross section.

The global stability of the arch must be assured, where an increase of bending moments can be considered

due to 2nd order effects up to a maximum of 10% above the 1st order moments.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

25.1 Project acceptance

It falls on the contracting party to proceed with the reception of the project, when the requirements of this

Norm are fulfilled, in particular those prescribed in section 5.

Once the existence of non-conformities is verified, provisional acceptance term of the project must be

issued, of which must consist all pending issues.

In the lack of technical qualification of the contracting party for the acceptance of the project, it must

designate a representative legally qualified for such task.

Once the pending issues are solved, the definitive acceptance term of the project must be issued.

The concrete and the steel must be received, as long as all requirements of ABNT NBR 12655, ABNT NBR

7480, ABNT NBR 7481, ABNT NBR 7482 and ABNT NBR 7483 are met.

In the case of existence of non-conformities, the following corrective actions must be adopted:

a) review of the project to determine if the structure, in all or in part, can be considered accepted, considering

the values obtained in the tests;

b) in negative case, markers must be extracted and tested as disposed in ABNT NBR 7680, if there is also

deficiency of concrete resistance whose results must be evaluated in accordance with ABNT NBR 12655,

where the new verification of the structure is conducted as follows, aiming at its acceptance, where what is

disposed in 12.4.1 can be used;

c) if the non-conformity is not finally eliminate, what is disposed in 25.3.3 is applied. There are cases where

load test can also be recommended, as long as there is no risk of fragile rupture.

The load test must be planned seeking to represent the combination of loads that determined the non-

conformity in the analytical verification. In the case of non-conformity that indicates the possibility of fragile

rupture, the load test is not a recommendable resource. In this test a continued monitoring of the load and

the response of the structure must be performed, such that this is not unnecessarily damaged during the test

execution.

a) acceptance test aims to confirm that the global performance of the structure is in conformity with the

prescriptions of the project. The load is applied up to values between the characteristic value and the project

value for the ULS. Requirements can be established for displacements, the degree of non-linearity and the

residual deformations, after the test;

b) resistance test aims to show that the structure of the structural element has at least the adopted

resistance for the project. When an evaluation is desired only of an element, it is sufficient to bring the load

up to the value of the project for the ULS. Obviously, as already pointed out, care must be taken so as not to

damage the structure unnecessarily.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Once the final non-conformity of part or the entire structure is established, one of the following alternatives

must be chosen:

Depending on the size of the construction and the aggressiveness of the medium and the possession of

information of the projects, materials and products used and the execution of the works, a use, inspection

and maintenance manual must be produced by qualified professional, duly hired by the contracting party.

This manual must specify clearly and briefly, the basic requirements for the use and preventive maintenance,

necessary to assure the planned useful life for the structure, as indicated in ABNT NBR 5674.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Annex A

(informative)

Effect of time in the structural concrete

A.1 Generalities

The prescriptions of this annex is informative in character that can, in the lack of better data, be used in the

structural projects with group I concretes of ABNT NBR 8953 covered by this Norm. Other values can be

used, as long as experimentally proven, by means of tests performed in accordance with specific Brazilian

Norms, taking into account variations in characteristics and properties of concrete components, or even as

long as supported by international norms or technical literature.

A.2.1 Introduction

When there is no impediment to free concrete deformation, and it is applied to it, at time t0, a constant stress

at interval t t0, its total deformation, at time t, has the value:

where:

c (t) = c (t0) / Eci (t0) is the immediate deformation, on occasion of the load, with Eci (t0) calculated,

for j = t0, by the expression: Eci (t0) = 5600 fckj ;

cc (t) = [c (t0) / Eci28] (t, t0) is the deformation due to flow, at the time interval (t, t0), with Eci28

calculated for the same expression for j = 28 days;

cs (t) is the deformation due to retraction, at the time interval (t, t0).

A.2.2.1 Generalities

The deformation due to concrete flow (cc) is composed of two parts, one fast and another slow. The rapid

deformation (cca) is irreversible and occurs during the first 24 hours after load application that originated it.

The slow deformation is in turn composed of two other portions, the irreversible slow deformation (ccf) and

the reversible slow deformation (ccd).

where:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

A.2.2.2 Hypotheses

For the calculation of the effects of flow, when the stresses on the concrete are those of service, the

following hypotheses are admitted:

a) the deformation due to flow cc varies linearly with the applied stress;

b) for applied increments of stress at distinct instances, the respective effects of flow are overlapped;

c) rapid deformation produces constant deformations in the course of time; the values of the coefficient a

are function of the ratio between concrete resistance at the time of load application and its final resistance;

d) the coefficient of reversible slow deformation d depends only on the duration of the load; its final value

and its development in the course of time are independent from the age of the concrete at the time of load

application;

- fictitious age of the concrete (please see A.2.4) at the instance (t0) of load application;

f) for the same concrete, the irreversible slow deformation curves in function of time, corresponding to

different ages of the concrete at the time of loading, are obtained, some in relation to others, through

displacement parallel to the axis of the deformations, according to A.1.

Irreversible slow deformation

Time

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

with calculated Ec28, for j = 28 days, through the expression: Ec28 = Eci,28 = 5600 fck

The coefficient of flow (t, t0), also valid for traction, is given by:

where:

t0 is the fictitious age of the concrete when single load is carried out, in days;

t0i is the fictitious age of the concrete when load is carried out, in days;

where:

f c (t 0 )

is the resistance growth function of the concrete with the age, defined in 12.3;

f c (t )

1c is the coefficient dependent on the relative humidity of the environment U, in percentage, and

concrete consistency given by table A.1;

2c is the coefficient dependent on the fictitious thickness hfic of the part, defined in A.2.4.

where:

f (t) or f (t0) is the coefficient relative to the irreversible slow deformation, function of the age of the

concrete (please see figure A.2);

d is the final value of the coefficient of reversible slow deformation that is considered equal to 0.4;

d (t) is the coefficient relative to the reversible slow deformation time function (t t0) elapsed after

loading.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

where:

h is the fictitious thickness, in meters; for values of h outside the interval (0.05 h 1.6), where the

following extremes are adopted;

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

where:

1s is the coefficient dependent on the relative humidity of the environment and on concrete

consistency (please see Table A.1);

where:

s (t) or s (t0) is the coefficient relative to retraction, at the instance t or t0 (figure A.3);

t0 is the fictitious age of the concrete at the instance in which the effect of retraction on the part

beings to be considered, in days.

Table A.1 Usual numeric values for the determination of flow and retraction

Flow Retraction

1) 3)

Humidity 1c 1041s2) 3)

Environment U Reduction in accordance with ABNT NM 67 4)

% cm

0-4 5-9 10 - 15 0-4 5-9 10 - 15

In water - 0.6 0.8 1.0 + 1.0 + 1.0 + 1.0 30.0

In very humid

environment

90 1.0 1.3 1.6 - 1.0 - 1.3 - 1.6 5.0

immediately above

the water

In open air, in

70 1.5 2.0 2.5 - 2.5 - 3.2 - 4.0 1.5

general

In dry environment 40 2.3 3.0 3.8 - 4.0 - 5.2 - 6.5 1.0

1)

1c = 4.45 0.035U for reduction at the interval of 5 cm to 9 cm and U 90%.

2)

1041s = -6.16 (U/484) + U2 / 1590) for reductions from 5 cm to 9 cm and U 90%.

3)

The values of 1c and 1s for U 90% and reduction between 0 cm and 4 cm are 25% lesser and for reductions

between 10 cm and 15 cm are 25% greater.

4)

= 1 + exp (-7.8 + 0.1 U) for U 90%.

NOTES

1 For effect of calculation, the same expressions and the same numeric values can be employed in the case of traction.

2 For the calculation of flow and retraction values, the consistency of concrete is that corresponding to the one obtained

with the same proportion without the addition of superplasticizing agents and superfluidifying agents.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

where:

h is the fictitious thickness, in meters; for the values of h outside the interval (0.05 h 1.6), where

the following extremes are adopted;

The age to consider is the fictitious age (, tef), in days, when the hardening is done at room temperature of

20C and, in other cases, when there is not vapor curing, the age to consider is the fictitious age given by:

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

where:

is the coefficient dependent on the speed of hardening of the cement; in the lack of experimental

data the employment of the values listed in table A.2 is permitted;

tef,i is the period, in days, during which the average daily temperature of the environment, Ti, can be

admitted constant.

Table A.2 Flow and retraction values in function of the speed of hardening of the

cement

Portland Cement (CP)

Flow Retraction

Slow hardening (CP III and CP IV, all classes of resistance) 1

Normal hardening (CP I and CP II, all classes of resistance) 2 1

Quick hardening (CP V-ARI) 3

Where:

CP I and CP I-S common Portland Cement;

CP II-E, CP II-F and CP II-Z Compound Portland Cement;

CP III High kiln Portland cement;

CP IV Pozzolanic Portland Cement;

CP V-ARI Initial high resistance Portland Cement;

RS Sulfate resistant Portland Cement (specific property of some of the cited type of cement).

where:

is the coefficient dependent on the relative humidity of the environment (U%) (please table A.1),

where:

Uar is the part of the external perimeter of the transversal cross section of the part in contact with the

air.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

When there is variation of stress along the interval, induced by external actions or agents of different

rheological properties (including reinforcement, concretes of different ages, etc.), the total deformation in the

concrete can be calculated by:

where the first three terms represent the non-impeded deformation and the integral, the variations effects of

stresses occurred in the interval.

c (t, t0) is the total stress variation in the concrete, in the interval (t, t0);

is the characteristic coefficient that has the variable according to the case.

In the calculation of prestressing losses in usual cases where the part can be considered as

concreted only once and the prestressing as applied only once, = 0.5 can be adopted and admit Ec (t0) =

E28, as it was done in 9.6.3.4.2. Observe that, that subsection considers that the coefficient of concrete flow:

= a + f + d is a coefficient of irreversible slow deformation with the defined properties for f.

In other usual cases = 0.8 can be considered, maintaining Ec (t0) Ec28 whenever significant.

This approximation has the advantage of treating as a single function, without separating a, f and d.

It is possible to separate a, f and d, but for this reason, it is necessary to apply the integral expression to

the problem under study. The simplified expression does not apply in this case.

Special attention must be given to the cases where the foundations are deformable or part of the structure

does not present slow deformation, as the case of metallic straining beams.

A.3.1 When the reinforcement is stressed in situation analogous to that described in A.2.1, its deformation

has the value:

where:

[c (t0) / Es] (t, t0) is the deformation due to flow, occurred in the time interval (t, t0) and considered

whenever c (t0) > 0.5 fptk.

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

A.3.2 When the free deformation due to flow is impeded, in situation analogous to that described in A.2.5 for

the concrete, the total deformation can be calculated by:

where:

s (t, t0) is the total stress variation in the reinforcement, in the interval (t, t0).

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Annex B

(informative)

General index

Item Page

Preface ........................................................................................................................................................... iv

1 Objective ........................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Definitions......................................................................................................................................... 4

3.1 Structural concrete definitions............................................................................................................ 4

3.2 Limit state definitions.......................................................................................................................... 4

3.3 Definition relative to those involved in the constructive process........................................................ 5

4 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................ 6

4.1 Generalities ........................................................................................................................................ 6

4.2 Base-symbols..................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2.1 Generalities ........................................................................................................................................ 6

4.2.2 Lower case letters .............................................................................................................................. 6

4.2.3 Upper case letters .............................................................................................................................. 7

4.2.4 Greek letters....................................................................................................................................... 8

4.3 Subscript symbols ............................................................................................................................ 10

4.3.1 Generalities ...................................................................................................................................... 10

4.3.2 Lower case letters ............................................................................................................................ 10

4.3.3 Upper case letters ............................................................................................................................ 12

4.3.4 Numbers........................................................................................................................................... 12

5.1 Structural quality requirements ........................................................................................................ 13

5.1.1 General conditions ........................................................................................................................... 13

5.1.2 Classification of structural quality requirements............................................................................... 13

5.2 Project quality requirements............................................................................................................. 13

5.2.1 Quality of adopted solution............................................................................................................... 13

5.2.2 Conditions imposed on the project................................................................................................... 13

5.3 Project conformity evaluation ........................................................................................................... 14

6.1 Durability requirements .................................................................................................................... 15

6.2 Useful project life.............................................................................................................................. 15

6.3 Aging and deterioration mechanisms............................................................................................... 15

6.3.1 Generalities ...................................................................................................................................... 15

6.3.2 Predominating deterioration mechanisms relative to the concrete .................................................. 15

6.3.3 Predominating deterioration mechanisms relative to the reinforcement.......................................... 15

6.3.4 Deterioration mechanism of the structure itself................................................................................ 15

6.4 Aggressiveness of the environment ................................................................................................. 16

7.1 Specific symbols of this section ....................................................................................................... 17

7.2 Drainage........................................................................................................................................... 17

7.3 Architectonic and structural forms.................................................................................................... 17

7.4 Quality of cover concrete ................................................................................................................. 17

7.5 Reinforcement details....................................................................................................................... 19

7.6 Cracking control ............................................................................................................................... 19

7.7 Special measures............................................................................................................................. 20

7.8 Inspection and preventive maintenance........................................................................................... 20

8.1 Specific symbols of this section ....................................................................................................... 21

8.2 Concrete........................................................................................................................................... 22

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8.2.1 Classes............................................................................................................................................. 22

8.2.2 Specific mass ................................................................................................................................... 22

8.2.3 Coefficient of thermal expansion...................................................................................................... 22

8.2.4 Compressive resistance................................................................................................................... 22

8.2.5 Traction resistance ........................................................................................................................... 22

8.2.6 Resistance in the multiaxial stress state .......................................................................................... 23

8.2.7 Fatigue resistance ............................................................................................................................ 23

8.2.8 Modulus of elasticity ......................................................................................................................... 23

8.2.9 Poissons coefficient and modulus of transversal elasticity ............................................................. 24

8.2.10 Stress - deformation diagrams ......................................................................................................... 24

8.2.11 Flow and retraction........................................................................................................................... 25

8.3 Negative reinforcement steel ........................................................................................................... 26

8.3.1 Category........................................................................................................................................... 26

8.3.2 Type of surface................................................................................................................................. 26

8.3.3 Specific mass ................................................................................................................................... 26

8.3.4 Coefficient of thermal expansion...................................................................................................... 26

8.3.5 Modulus of elasticity ......................................................................................................................... 26

8.3.6 Stress deformation diagram, drainage and traction resistance .................................................... 26

8.3.7 Ductility characteristics..................................................................................................................... 27

8.3.8 Fatigue resistance ............................................................................................................................ 27

8.3.9 Weldability ........................................................................................................................................ 27

8.4 Positive reinforcement steel ............................................................................................................. 27

8.4.1 Classification .................................................................................................................................... 27

8.4.2 Specific mass ................................................................................................................................... 27

8.4.3 Coefficient of thermal expansion...................................................................................................... 28

8.4.4 Modulus of elasticity ......................................................................................................................... 28

8.4.5 Stress deformation diagram, drainage and traction resistance .................................................... 28

8.4.6 Ductility characteristics..................................................................................................................... 28

8.4.7 Fatigue resistance ............................................................................................................................ 28

9.1 Specific symbols of this section ....................................................................................................... 30

9.2 General dispositions......................................................................................................................... 31

9.2.1 Generalities ...................................................................................................................................... 31

9.2.2 Prestressing levels ........................................................................................................................... 31

9.3 Adherence verification...................................................................................................................... 31

9.3.1 Position of the bar during concreting................................................................................................ 31

9.3.2 Adherence resistance values ........................................................................................................... 32

9.4 Reinforcement anchorage................................................................................................................ 33

9.4.1 General conditions ........................................................................................................................... 33

9.4.2 Anchorage of negative reinforcements by adherence ..................................................................... 33

9.4.3 Anchorage of bundles of bars by adherence ................................................................................... 36

9.4.4 Anchorage of welded screens by adherence................................................................................... 36

9.4.5 Anchorage of positive reinforcements (pre-traction stressed wires and cordages) by adherence .. 36

9.4.6 Anchorage of stirrups ....................................................................................................................... 37

9.4.7 Anchorage by means of mechanical devices................................................................................... 38

9.5 Bar joints .......................................................................................................................................... 39

9.5.1 Types................................................................................................................................................ 39

9.5.2 Joints by transfer .............................................................................................................................. 39

9.5.3 Joints by threaded gloves ................................................................................................................ 41

9.5.4 Joints by welding .............................................................................................................................. 42

9.6 Prestressing ..................................................................................................................................... 43

9.6.1 Prestressing force ............................................................................................................................ 43

9.6.2 Introduction of prestressing forces ................................................................................................... 44

9.6.3 Losses of prestressing force ............................................................................................................ 45

10.1 Safety criteria ................................................................................................................................... 50

10.2 Limit states ....................................................................................................................................... 50

10.3 Ultimate limit states (ULS)................................................................................................................ 50

10.4 Service limit states (SLS) ................................................................................................................. 50

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11 Actions ............................................................................................................................................ 51

11.1 Specific symbols of this section ....................................................................................................... 51

11.2 Actions to consider ........................................................................................................................... 51

11.2.1 Generalities ...................................................................................................................................... 51

11.2.2 Classification of actions.................................................................................................................... 52

11.3 Permanent actions ........................................................................................................................... 52

11.3.1 Generalities ...................................................................................................................................... 52

11.3.2 Direct permanent actions ................................................................................................................. 52

11.3.3 Indirect permanent actions............................................................................................................... 52

11.4 Variable actions................................................................................................................................ 56

11.4.1 Direct variable actions ...................................................................................................................... 56

11.4.2 Indirect variable actions ................................................................................................................... 56

11.5 Exceptional actions .......................................................................................................................... 57

11.6 Values of the actions ........................................................................................................................ 57

11.6.1 Characteristic values ........................................................................................................................ 57

11.6.2 Representative values...................................................................................................................... 58

11.6.3 Calculation values ............................................................................................................................ 58

11.7 Weighted coefficients of the actions................................................................................................. 58

11.7.1 Weighted coefficients of actions in the ultimate limit state (ULS) .................................................... 58

11.7.2 Weighted coefficients of actions in the service limit state (SLS)...................................................... 59

11.8 Combination of actions..................................................................................................................... 60

11.8.1 Generalities ...................................................................................................................................... 60

11.8.2 Ultimate combinations ...................................................................................................................... 60

11.8.3 Service combinations ....................................................................................................................... 62

12 Resistances .................................................................................................................................... 63

12.1 Specific symbols of this section ....................................................................................................... 63

12.2 Characteristic values ........................................................................................................................ 63

12.3 Calculation values ............................................................................................................................ 63

12.3.1 Calculation resistance ...................................................................................................................... 63

12.3.2 Calculation resisting stresses........................................................................................................... 63

12.3.3 Concrete calculation resistance ....................................................................................................... 63

12.4 Weighted coefficients of the resistances.......................................................................................... 64

12.4.1 Weighted coefficients of resistances in the ultimate limit state (ULS) ............................................. 64

12.4.2 Weighted coefficients of resistances in the service limit state (SLS)............................................... 65

12.5 Safety verification ............................................................................................................................. 65

12.5.1 Constructive safety conditions ......................................................................................................... 65

12.5.2 Analytical safety conditions .............................................................................................................. 65

12.5.3 Calculation resisting stresses........................................................................................................... 65

12.5.4 Calculation stress strengths ............................................................................................................. 65

13.1 Specific symbols of this section ....................................................................................................... 66

13.2 Limit dimensions............................................................................................................................... 66

13.2.1 Introduction....................................................................................................................................... 66

13.2.2 Beams and wall-beams .................................................................................................................... 66

13.2.3 Columns and wall-columns .............................................................................................................. 66

13.2.4 Slabs ................................................................................................................................................ 67

13.2.5 Holes and openings.......................................................................................................................... 67

13.2.6 Embedded beam pockets ................................................................................................................ 68

13.3 Limit displacements.......................................................................................................................... 69

13.4 Cracking control and reinforcement protection ................................................................................ 71

13.4.1 Introduction....................................................................................................................................... 71

13.4.2 Limits for cracking and protection of the reinforcements with respect to durability ......................... 71

13.4.3 Control of cracking with respect to sensorial acceptability and use................................................. 72

14.1 Specific symbols of this section ....................................................................................................... 73

14.2 General structural analysis principles .............................................................................................. 73

14.2.1 Objective of structural analysis ........................................................................................................ 73

14.2.2 Necessary assumptions for structural analysis................................................................................ 73

14.3 Basic Hypotheses............................................................................................................................. 74

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14.3.2 Compatibility conditions.................................................................................................................... 74

14.3.3 Monotonic load ................................................................................................................................. 74

14.4 Structural elements .......................................................................................................................... 74

14.4.1 Linear elements................................................................................................................................ 74

14.4.2 Surface elements ............................................................................................................................. 75

14.5 Types of structural analysis.............................................................................................................. 75

14.5.1 Generalities ...................................................................................................................................... 75

14.5.2 Linear analysis ................................................................................................................................. 75

14.5.3 Linear analysis with redistribution .................................................................................................... 76

14.5.4 Plastic analysis................................................................................................................................. 76

14.5.5 Non-linear analysis........................................................................................................................... 76

14.5.6 Analysis through physical models .................................................................................................... 76

14.6 Structures of linear elements ........................................................................................................... 77

14.6.1 Basic hypotheses ............................................................................................................................. 77

14.6.2 Characterization of the geometry ..................................................................................................... 77

14.6.3 Rounding of the bending moment diagram ...................................................................................... 80

14.6.4 Linear analysis with or without redistribution ................................................................................... 81

14.6.5 Plastic analysis................................................................................................................................. 82

14.6.6 Non-linear analysis........................................................................................................................... 82

14.6.7 Usual building structures Permitted estimations ........................................................................... 82

14.7 Structures with plate elements ......................................................................................................... 84

14.7.1 Basic hypotheses ............................................................................................................................. 84

14.7.2 Characterization of the geometry ..................................................................................................... 84

14.7.3 Linear analysis with or without redistribution ................................................................................... 84

14.7.4 Plastic analysis................................................................................................................................. 85

14.7.5 Non-linear analysis........................................................................................................................... 85

14.7.6 Solid slabs ........................................................................................................................................ 85

14.7.7 Ribbed slabs..................................................................................................................................... 86

14.7.8 Smooth slabs and mushroom slabs ................................................................................................. 86

14.8 Structures containing other elements............................................................................................... 87

14.8.1 Wall-beams and wall-columns ......................................................................................................... 87

14.8.2 Blocks............................................................................................................................................... 87

15.1 Specific symbols of this section ....................................................................................................... 88

15.2 Field of application and fundamental concepts................................................................................ 88

15.3 Basic calculation principle ................................................................................................................ 89

15.3.1 Moment- curvature ratios ................................................................................................................. 89

15.3.2 Geometric imperfections .................................................................................................................. 90

15.4 Definitions and classification of structures ....................................................................................... 90

15.4.1 Global, local and located 2nd order effects ....................................................................................... 90

15.4.2 Fixed node structures and moving node structures ......................................................................... 91

15.4.3 Bracing ............................................................................................................................................. 91

15.4.4 Isolated elements ............................................................................................................................. 91

15.5 Exemption from the consideration of global 2nd order stresses ....................................................... 92

15.5.1 Generalities ...................................................................................................................................... 92

15.5.2 Instability parameter ......................................................................................................................... 92

15.5.3 Coefficient z .................................................................................................................................... 93

15.6 Analysis of fixed node structures ..................................................................................................... 93

15.7 Analysis of moving node structures ................................................................................................. 94

15.7.1 Generalities ...................................................................................................................................... 94

15.7.2 Non-linear 2nd order analysis............................................................................................................ 94

15.7.3 Approximate consideration of physical non-linearity........................................................................ 94

15.7.4 Analysis of local 2nd order effects..................................................................................................... 94

15.8 Analysis of isolated elements........................................................................................................... 94

15.8.1 Generalities ...................................................................................................................................... 94

15.8.2 Exemption from the analysis of local 2nd order effects..................................................................... 95

15.8.3 Determination of local 2nd order effects............................................................................................ 96

15.8.4 Flow consideration ........................................................................................................................... 99

15.9 Analysis of wall-columns .................................................................................................................. 99

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15.9.2 Exemption from analysis of the located 2nd order effects............................................................... 100

15.9.3 Approximate process for consideration of the located 2nd order effect .......................................... 100

15.10 Lateral instability of beams............................................................................................................. 101

16.1 Objective ........................................................................................................................................ 103

16.2 General principles .......................................................................................................................... 103

16.2.1 Generalities .................................................................................................................................... 103

16.2.2 Global and local view ..................................................................................................................... 103

16.2.3 Safety in relation to the ULS .......................................................................................................... 103

16.2.4 Safety in relation to the SLS (performance in service)................................................................... 104

16.3 Project criteria ................................................................................................................................ 104

16.4 Durability ........................................................................................................................................ 105

16.5 Case of cyclic loads........................................................................................................................ 105

17.1 Specific symbols of this section ..................................................................................................... 106

17.2 Linear elements subject to normal stresses Ultimate limit state ................................................. 108

17.2.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 108

17.2.2 Basic hypotheses ........................................................................................................................... 108

17.2.3 Ductility in beams ........................................................................................................................... 111

17.2.4 Positive and negative reinforcements ............................................................................................ 111

17.2.5 Approximate processes for compound bending dimensioning ...................................................... 112

17.3 Linear elements subject to normal stresses Service limit states ................................................ 114

17.3.1 Generalities .................................................................................................................................... 114

17.3.2 Limit state of deformation............................................................................................................... 114

17.3.3 Limit state of cracking..................................................................................................................... 116

17.3.4 Limit state of decompression and crack formation......................................................................... 118

17.3.5 Maximum and minimum longitudinal reinforcements..................................................................... 118

17.4 Linear elements subject to shear force Ultimate limit state ........................................................ 121

17.4.1 Basic hypotheses ........................................................................................................................... 121

17.4.2 Verification of the ultimate limit state.............................................................................................. 123

17.5 Linear elements subject to torsion Ultimate limit state................................................................ 127

17.5.1 Uniform torsion ............................................................................................................................... 127

17.5.2 Torsion in open thin wall profiles.................................................................................................... 130

17.6 Limit state of inclined web cracking Shear force and torsion...................................................... 131

17.7 Combined stresses......................................................................................................................... 131

17.7.1 Bending and torsion ....................................................................................................................... 131

17.7.2 Torsion and shear force ................................................................................................................. 132

18.1 Specific symbols of this section ..................................................................................................... 133

18.2 General dispositions relative to the reinforcements ....................................................................... 133

18.2.1 Arrangement of Reinforcements .................................................................................................... 133

18.2.2 Curved bars.................................................................................................................................... 133

18.2.3 Reinforcement direction changes................................................................................................... 134

18.2.4 Protection against buckling of bars ................................................................................................ 134

18.3 Beams ............................................................................................................................................ 135

18.3.1 Generalities .................................................................................................................................... 135

18.3.2 Longitudinal reinforcement............................................................................................................. 135

18.3.3 Transversal reinforcement for shear force ..................................................................................... 137

18.3.4 Reinforcement for traction.............................................................................................................. 138

18.3.5 Skin reinforcement ......................................................................................................................... 138

18.3.6 Suspension reinforcement ............................................................................................................. 138

18.3.7 Bed-web or butt-web connection reinforcements........................................................................... 138

18.4 Columns ......................................................................................................................................... 139

18.4.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 139

18.4.2 Longitudinal reinforcements ........................................................................................................... 139

18.4.3 Transversal reinforcements............................................................................................................ 139

18.5 Wall-columns.................................................................................................................................. 140

18.6 Prestressing cables ........................................................................................................................ 140

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ABNT NBR 6118:2003

18.6.2 Transversal arrangement ............................................................................................................... 142

19.1 Specific symbols of this section ..................................................................................................... 144

19.2 Dimensioning and verification of slabs Ultimate limit state ......................................................... 145

19.3 Dimensioning and verification of slabs Service limit states ........................................................ 145

19.3.1 Limit state of deformation............................................................................................................... 145

19.3.2 Limit states of cracking and decompression or crack formation .................................................... 145

19.3.3 Maximum and minimum longitudinal reinforcements..................................................................... 145

19.4 Shear force in slabs and linear elements with bw 5d................................................................... 146

19.4.1 Slabs without reinforcement for shear force .................................................................................. 146

19.4.2 Slabs with reinforcement for shear force........................................................................................ 147

19.5 Dimensioning of punch slabs ......................................................................................................... 147

19.5.1 Calculation model........................................................................................................................... 147

19.5.2 Definition of stressing tension on critical surfaces C and C .......................................................... 148

19.5.3 Definition of the resisting stress on the critical surfaces C, C and C........................................... 152

19.5.4 Progressive collapse ...................................................................................................................... 154

19.5.5 Verification of prestressed structural elements .............................................................................. 155

20.1 General prescriptions ..................................................................................................................... 157

20.2 Free borders and openings ............................................................................................................ 157

20.3 Slabs without beams ...................................................................................................................... 157

20.3.1 Negative reinforcements ................................................................................................................ 157

20.3.2 Prestressed slabs........................................................................................................................... 158

20.4 Punch reinforcements .................................................................................................................... 159

21.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 161

21.2 Regions of introduction of concentrated loads............................................................................... 161

21.2.1 Contact pressure in reduced area.................................................................................................. 161

21.2.2 Concrete joints ............................................................................................................................... 162

21.2.3 Region of introduction of prestressing............................................................................................ 162

21.2.4 Load applied on the surface of structural elements ....................................................................... 163

21.3 Holes and openings........................................................................................................................ 163

21.3.1 Generalities .................................................................................................................................... 163

21.3.2 Walls and wall-beams .................................................................................................................... 164

21.3.3 Holes that cross the beams in the direction of the height .............................................................. 164

21.3.4 Openings in slabs........................................................................................................................... 165

21.4 Nodes of porticos and connections between walls ........................................................................ 165

21.5 Connections of pre-molded structural elements ............................................................................ 165

21.6 Concreting joints............................................................................................................................. 165

22.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 166

22.2 Wall-beams .................................................................................................................................... 166

22.2.1 Conceptualization........................................................................................................................... 166

22.2.2 Structural behavior ......................................................................................................................... 166

22.2.3 Calculation model........................................................................................................................... 166

22.2.4 Detailing ......................................................................................................................................... 167

22.3 Brackets and Gerber corbels ......................................................................................................... 167

22.3.1 Brackets ......................................................................................................................................... 167

22.3.2 Gerber corbels................................................................................................................................ 170

22.4 Shoes ............................................................................................................................................. 172

22.4.1 Conceptualization........................................................................................................................... 172

22.4.2 Structural behavior ......................................................................................................................... 172

22.4.3 Calculation model........................................................................................................................... 173

22.4.4 Detailing ......................................................................................................................................... 173

22.5 Blocks on piles ............................................................................................................................... 173

22.5.1 Conceptualization........................................................................................................................... 173

22.5.2 Structural behavior ......................................................................................................................... 174

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22.5.4 Detailing ......................................................................................................................................... 174

23.1 Specific symbols of this section ..................................................................................................... 176

23.2 Generalities .................................................................................................................................... 176

23.3 Limit state of excessive vibrations.................................................................................................. 176

23.4 Ultimate limit states provoked by resonance or dynamic amplification.......................................... 177

23.5 Ultimate limit state of fatigue .......................................................................................................... 177

23.5.1 Cyclic actions ................................................................................................................................. 177

23.5.2 Combinations of actions to consider .............................................................................................. 177

23.5.3 Calculation model........................................................................................................................... 178

23.5.4 Concrete fatigue verification........................................................................................................... 179

23.5.5 Fatigue verification of the reinforcement ........................................................................................ 180

23.6 Service limit states ......................................................................................................................... 182

24.1 Specific symbols of this section ..................................................................................................... 184

24.2 Field of application ......................................................................................................................... 184

24.3 Materials and properties................................................................................................................. 184

24.4 Constructive joints and dispositions ............................................................................................... 184

24.5 Structural project ............................................................................................................................ 185

24.5.1 Generalities .................................................................................................................................... 185

24.5.2 Calculation resisting stresses......................................................................................................... 185

24.5.3 Dimensioning.................................................................................................................................. 186

24.5.4 Stresses and deformation in bending............................................................................................. 186

24.5.6 Torsion ........................................................................................................................................... 187

24.5.7 Calculation of cross sections submitted to compression and shear force ..................................... 187

24.5.8 Global stability ................................................................................................................................ 189

24.6 Structural elements of plain concrete............................................................................................. 189

24.6.1 Wall-columns.................................................................................................................................. 189

24.6.2 Foundation blocks .......................................................................................................................... 189

24.6.3 Columns ......................................................................................................................................... 190

24.6.4 Arches ............................................................................................................................................ 190

25.1 Project acceptance......................................................................................................................... 191

25.2 Concrete and steel reception ......................................................................................................... 191

25.3 Existence of non-conformities in executed works .......................................................................... 191

25.3.1 Corrective actions........................................................................................................................... 191

25.3.2 Structure load test .......................................................................................................................... 191

25.3.3 Final non-conformity....................................................................................................................... 192

25.4 Use, inspection and maintenance manual ..................................................................................... 192

A.1 Generalities .................................................................................................................................... 193

A.2 Concrete deformations ................................................................................................................... 193

A.2.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 193

A.2.2 Concrete flow ................................................................................................................................. 193

A.2.3 Concrete retraction......................................................................................................................... 197

A.2.4 Fictitious age and thickness ........................................................................................................... 199

A.2.5 Total deformation of the concrete .................................................................................................. 201

A.3 Deformations in reinforcements ..................................................................................................... 201

C.1 Figures ........................................................................................................................................... 210

C.2 Tables............................................................................................................................................. 211

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Annex C

(informative)

Index of figures and tables

C.1 Figures

Page

Figure 3.1 Limit state of partial decompression ..................................................................................... 5

Figure 8.1 Resistance in multiaxial stress state................................................................................... 23

Figure 8.2 Idealized stress deformation diagram.............................................................................. 24

Figure 8.3 Bilinear traction stress deformation diagram ................................................................... 25

Figure 8.4 Stress deformation diagram for negative reinforcement steels ....................................... 27

Figure 8.5 Stress deformation diagram for positive reinforcement steels......................................... 28

Figure 9.1 Anchorage with welded transversal bars ............................................................................ 34

Figure 9.2 Anchorage of transversal reinforcement by means of welded bars ................................... 38

Figure 9.3 Joints supposed as in the same transversal cross section................................................. 39

Figure 9.4 Transversal reinforcement in the joints............................................................................... 41

Figure 9.5 Joints by welding................................................................................................................. 42

Figure 9.6 Introduction of prestressing................................................................................................. 45

Figure 11.1 Global geometric imperfections .......................................................................................... 54

Figure 11.2 Local geometric imperfections ............................................................................................ 55

Figure 13.1 Limit dimensions for slab openings with exemption from verification................................. 68

Figure 14.1 Stiff sections........................................................................................................................ 77

Figure 14.2 Collaborating bed width ...................................................................................................... 78

Figure 14.4 Effective height and width of a transversal cross section ................................................... 79

Figure 14.5 Effective span ..................................................................................................................... 80

Figure 14.6 Rounding of bending moment diagram............................................................................... 80

Figure 14.7 Rotation capacity of plastic girders ..................................................................................... 82

Figure 14.8 Estimation in extreme supports .......................................................................................... 83

Figure 14.9 Slab bands for distribution of strengths in the multiple porticos ......................................... 87

Figure 15.1 - Moment-curvature ratio....................................................................................................... 90

Figure 15.2 Located 2nd order effects..................................................................................................... 91

Figure 15.3 Equivalent length e .......................................................................................................... 100

Figure 15.4 Approximate evaluation of the located 2nd order effect..................................................... 101

Figure 17.1 Ultimate limit state domains of a transversal cross section .............................................. 110

Figure 17.2 Reinforcement arrangement characterized by parameter s ............................................ 113

Figure 17.3 Cover concrete of the reinforcement ................................................................................ 117

Figure 17.4 Profile bending-torsion with opposite walls....................................................................... 131

Figure 18.1 Reinforcement direction change ....................................................................................... 134

Figure 18.2 Protection against buckling of bars................................................................................... 134

Figure 18.3 Covering of the stressing traction force diagram by the resisting diagram....................... 136

Figure 19.1 Necessary anchorage length ............................................................................................ 147

Figure 19.2 Critical perimeter in internal columns................................................................................ 148

Figure 19.3 Critical perimeter in border columns ................................................................................. 150

Figure 19.4 Critical perimeter in corner columns ................................................................................. 151

Figure 19.5 Definition of the useful height in the case of capital ......................................................... 151

Figure 19.6 Critical perimeter in the case of outline C presenting recess ........................................... 152

Figure 19.7 Critical perimeter along with the opening in the slab ........................................................ 152

Figure 19.9 Disposition of the punch reinforcement in cut................................................................... 154

Figure 19.10 Reinforcement against progressive collapse .................................................................... 155

Figure 19.11 Favorable effect of the inclined cables ............................................................................. 155

Figure 20.1 Free borders and openings............................................................................................... 157

Figure 20.2 Slabs without beams......................................................................................................... 158

Figure 20.3 Punch reinforcement......................................................................................................... 160

Figure 21.2 Located pressure regions ................................................................................................. 162

Figure 21.2 Concrete joint region......................................................................................................... 162

Figure 21.3 Pressures along with a pin embedded on a concrete structural element......................... 163

Figure 21.4 Openings in reinforced concrete wall beams.................................................................... 164

Figure 21.5 Vertical opening in beams................................................................................................. 165

Figure 22.1 Two most common types of wall-beams in relation to load .............................................. 166

Figure 22.2 Typical wall-beam reinforcement with h ...................................................................... 167

ABNT 2005 All rights reserved 210

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Figure 22.3 Coupling rod- straining beam model for short bracket...................................................... 168

Figure 22.4 Typical reinforcement of a short bracket........................................................................... 170

Figure 22.5 Coupling rod-straining beam model for a Gerber corbel .................................................. 171

Figure 23.1 Definitions of stresses c1 and c2 .................................................................................... 180

Figure 23.2 Format of fatigue characteristic resistance curves (S-N curves) for steel ........................ 182

Figure 24.1 Concrete stress deformation calculation diagram with flow consideration .................... 186

Figure 24.2 Bending-compressed cross section.................................................................................. 188

Figure A.1 Variation of ccf (t).............................................................................................................. 194

Figure A.2 Variation of f (t)................................................................................................................ 197

Figure A.3 Variation of s (t) ............................................................................................................... 199

C.2 Tables

Page

Table 6.1 Classes of environmental aggressiveness ......................................................................... 16

Table 7.1 Correspondence between class of aggressiveness and concrete quality.......................... 18

Table 7.2 Correspondence between class of environmental aggressiveness and nominal cover for

c = 10 mm......................................................................................................................... 19

Table 8.1 Characteristic values greater than the specific retraction deformation cs(t, t0) and the

coefficient of flow (t, t0).................................................................................................... 25

Table 8.2 Ratio between 1 and b ..................................................................................................... 26

Table 8.3 Value of 1000 in percentage ............................................................................................... 29

Table 9.1 Diameter of bending pins (D) .............................................................................................. 34

Table 9.2 Diameter of bending pins for stirrups.................................................................................. 38

Table 9.3 Maximum proportion of joined traction stressed bars......................................................... 40

Table 9.4 Coefficient 0t values........................................................................................................... 40

Table 11.1 Coefficient f = f1 . f3 ......................................................................................................... 59

Table 11.2 Values of the coefficient f2 ................................................................................................. 59

Table 11.3 Ultimate combinations......................................................................................................... 61

Table 11.4 Service combinations.......................................................................................................... 62

Table 12.1 Values of the coefficients c and s ..................................................................................... 64

Table 13.1 Values of the additional coefficient n ................................................................................. 66

Table 13.2 Limits for displacements ..................................................................................................... 70

Table 13.3 Durability requirements related to reinforcement cracking and protection in function of

the classes of environmental aggressiveness .................................................................... 72

Table 15.1 Values of fl ....................................................................................................................... 102

Table 17.1 Values of coefficient in function of time.......................................................................... 115

Table 17.2 Maximum diameter and spacing values, with high adherence bars................................. 118

Table 17.3 Minimum bending reinforcement rates for beams ............................................................ 119

Table 18.1 Minimum spacings Post-traction case ........................................................................... 142

Table 18.2 Minimum spacings Pre-traction case............................................................................. 143

Table 19.1 Minimum values for adherent negative reinforcements.................................................... 146

Table 19.2 - K Values............................................................................................................................ 149

Table 23.1 Critical frequency for some special cases of structures submitted to vibrations due to

action of people................................................................................................................. 177

Table 23.2 Parameters for the S-N curves (Woeller) for the steels inside the concrete 1) ................. 181

Table 23.3 Types of S-N curve ........................................................................................................... 181

Table A.1 Usual numeric values for the determination of flow and retraction................................... 198

Table A.2 Flow and retraction values in function of the speed of hardening of the cement ............. 200

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Annex D

(informative)

Remissive index

Openings in the concrete .................. 13.2.5, 13.2.6, figure 13.1, 20.2, figure 20.1, 21.3, figures 21.4 and 21.5

Steel

Negative reinforcement steel .......................................................................................................................8.2.3

Positive reinforcement steel ........................................................................................................................8.2.4

Concrete and steel reception ........................................................................................................................25.2

Actions .............................................................................................................................................................11

Action of the wind ...................................................................................................................................11.4.1.2

Action of water ........................................................................................................................................11.4.1.3

Cyclic actions .............................................................................................................................................23.5.1

Dynamic actions ..............................................................................................................................................23

Exceptional actions .......................................................................................................................................11.5

Permanent actions ....................................................................................................11.3, 11.6.1 and table 11.3

Variable actions ...................................................................................11.4, 11.6.1.2, table 11.3 and table 11.4

Weighted coefficient of actions .....................................................................................................................11.7

Combination of actions ............................................................. 11.8, tables 11.3, table 11.4, table 13.3, 15.3.1

Value of actions ............................................................................................................................................11.6

- Characteristic values ...............................................................................................................................11.6.1

- Calculation values ...................................................................................................................................11.6.3

- Representative values .............................................................................................................................11.6.2

Additives ......................................................................................................................................................7.4.4

Aggregate .................................................................................................................................................7.4.7.6

Classes ..................................................................................................................................................table 6.1

Correspondence between class of aggressiveness and concrete quality .............................................table 7.1

Correspondence between class of aggressiveness and nominal cover for c = 10 mm ......................table 7.2

Tensioning and pre-tensioning ......................... 3.1.3, 3.1.6, 3.1.8, 3.1.9, 8.3.9, 8.4.5, 9.6.3.2, 11.3.3.5, 17.2.2

Anchorage ......................................................................................................................................................9.4

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Reduced area

Contact pressure in ....................................................................................................................................21.2.1

Adherence .......................................................................................................................please see Anchorage

Anchorage .............................................................. 9.4, 18.3.2.4.1, 18.3.3.3.1, 22.2.4.2, 22.3.2.4.3, 22.3.2.4.4

Skin reinforcement ............................................................................................................ 17.3.5.2.3 and 18.3.5

Obligatory punch reinforcement .............................................................................................................19.5.3.5

Minimum and maximum longitudinal reinforcements ..................................................17.3.5, 19.3.3, table 19.1

- Limit values for longitudinal reinforcements of beams .................................................17.3.5.2 and table 17.3

- Limit values for longitudinal reinforcements of columns .......................................................................17.3.5.3

Negative reinforcement ...................................................................................................................3.1.5 and 8.3

Positive reinforcement ............................................................................................................ 3.1.6, 8.4 and 9.6

- Pre-traction stressed .................................................................................................................................3.1.7

- Post-traction stressed ............................................................................................................... 3.1.8 and 3.1.9

Calculation of reinforcements ..................................................................................... 17, 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23

Reinforcement cover ................................................................................................................. 7.4 and 20.3.2.4

Deformations in the reinforcement ................................................................................................................ A.3

Detailing of reinforcements .............................................................................................................................7.5

- Punch reinforcements .................................................................................................................................20.4

- Blocks on piles .........................................................................................................................................22.5.4

- Prestressing cables ....................................................................................................................................18.6

- Project criteria aiming at durability ...............................................................................................................7.5

- Brackets ................................................................................................................................................22.3.1.4

- Gerber corbels ......................................................................................................................................22.3.2.4

- Linear elements .......................................................................................................................................18.2.1

- Slabs without beams and with negative reinforcement ...........................................................................20.3.1

- Prestressed slabs ....................................................................................................................................20.3.2

- Columns .....................................................................................................................................................18.4

- Wall-columns ..............................................................................................................................................18.5

- Shoes ......................................................................................................................................................22.4.4

- Beams ........................................................................................................................................................18.3

- Wall-beams ..............................................................................................................................................22.2.4

Reinforcement deterioration ........................................................................................................................6.3.3

Joints ..............................................................................................................................................................9.5

Reinforcement protection .............................................................................................................................13.4

Verification of reinforcement fatigue ..........................................................................................................23.5.5

Joints .........................................................................................................................................................21.2.2

Calculation

Calculation resisting strengths ...................................................................................................................12.5.3

Calculation stressing strengths ..................................................................................................................12.5.4

Prestressing force calculation values .......................................................................................................9.6.1.4

Calculation values of actions .....................................................................................................................11.6.3

Calculation values of resistances .................................................................................................................12.3

- Calculation resisting stresses ..................................................................................................................12.3.2

- Concrete calculation resistance ..............................................................................................................12.3.3

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Capitals

Slabs ..........................................................................................................................................................14.7.8

Punch ......................................................................................................................................................19.5.2.5

Characteristics

Characteristic values of actions .................................................................................................................11.6.1

Characteristic values of resistances .............................................................................................................12.2

Load

Planned accidental loads for the use of the construction .......................................................................11.4.1.1

Consideration of variable loads in usual building structures Permitted estimations ...........................14.6.7.3

Structure load test ......................................................................................................................................25.3.2

Regions of introduction of concentrated loads .............................................................................................21.2

Cement ........................................................................................................................................................7.4.3

Theoretical concrete compressive resistance growth curve ......................................................................12.3.3

Flow and retraction values in function of cement hardening speed ..................................A.2.4.1 and table A.2

Transversal reinforcement for shear force

- Bent longitudinal reinforcement bar .........................................................................................................18.2.2

- Columns ..................................................................................................................................................18.4.3

- Beams .....................................................................................................................................................18.3.3

Plain concrete ................................................................................................. 24.5.2, 24.5.5, 24.5.6 and 24.5.7

Linear elements subject to shear forces (ULS) ............................................................................................17.4

Linear elements subject to shear force and torsion (limit state of incline web cracking) .............................17.6

Linear element submitted to combined stresses ..........................................................................................17.7

Fatigue calculation of stresses resulting from shear force in beams .....................................................23.5.3

Shear force in slabs and linear elements with bw 5d .................................................................................19.4

Ribbed slabs ...........................................................................................................................................13.2.4.2

Slabs with reinforcement for shear force ...................................................................................................19.4.2

Slabs without reinforcement for shear force ..............................................................................................19.4.1

Slabs submitted to punch ..........................................................................................................................19.5.1

Special regions Applied load on the surface of structural elements .......................................................21.2.4

Welding shear resistance of welded transversal bars .......................................................... 9.4.2.2 and 9.4.6.2

Wall-beams and wall-columns ...................................................................................................................14.8.1

Coefficient

Coefficient of steel surface conformation ....................................................................................................8.3.2

Coefficient of steel thermal expansion (positive reinforcement) ..................................................................8.4.3

Coefficient of steel thermal expansion (negative reinforcement) ................................................................8.3.4

Coefficient of concrete thermal expansion ..................................................................................................8.2.3

Coefficient of concrete flow .................................................................................................8.2.11 and Annex A

Coefficients of increase of actions for columns and wall-columns ....................................13.2.3 and table 13.1

Coefficient of increase of global 1st order stresses for obtainment of the final 2nd order stresses ............15.5.3

Concretes Poissons coefficient ..................................................................................................................8.2.9

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Weighted coefficients of resistances ....................................................................................12.4 and table 12.1

Weighted coefficients for the ultimate limit state in the act of prestressing ............................................17.2.4.3

Coefficient of moment redistribution ................................................................................. 14.6.4.3 and 14.7.3.2

Compression

Limit state of excessive compression (ELS-CE) .........................................................................................3.2.7

Concrete compressive resistance ...............................................................................................................8.2.4

Stress deformation diagram of concrete under compression ..............................................................8.2.10.1

Verification of fatigue of the compressive concrete ................................................................................23.5.4.1

Concrete .........................................................................................................................................................8.2

Concrete joints ...........................................................................................................................................21.2.2

Plain concrete ..................................................................................................................................................24

Definitions of structural concrete ....................................................................................................................3.1

Effect of time on structural concrete ...................................................................................................... Annex A

Concrete flow ............................................................................................................ 11.3.3.1 and Annex A, A.2

Predominating deterioration mechanisms relative to the concrete .............................................................6.3.2

Concrete and cover quality .............................................................................................................................7.4

Concrete and steel reception ........................................................................................................................25.2

Concrete calculation resistance .................................................................................................................12.3.3

Concrete retraction ...........................................................................................................11.3.3.2 and Annex A

Verification of concrete fatigue ..................................................................................................................23.5.4

Brackets .....................................................................................................................................................22.3.1

Deformation

Deformation resulting from concrete flow .........................................................................11.3.3.2 and Annex A

Specific retraction deformation of the concrete ................................................................11.3.3.1 and Annex A

Stress deformation diagrams ..........................................................................................please see Diagrams

Limit state of deformation for linear elements subject to normal stresses ................................................17.3.2

Limit state of deformation for slabs ............................................................................................................19.3.1

Displacement

Displacements ................................................................................................................ please see Deflections

Support displacements ...........................................................................................................................11.3.3.3

Limit displacements ..............................................................................................................13.3 and table 13.2

Diagram

Stress deformation diagrams for the concrete ................................. 8.2.10, 24.5.1, figures 8.2, 8.3 and 24.1

Stress deformation diagrams for the steel (negative reinforcement) ............................... 8.3.6 and figure 8.4

Stress Deformation diagrams for the steel (positive reinforcement) ................................ 8.4.5 and figure 8.5

Blocks on piles ..............................................................................................................................................22.5

Brackets .....................................................................................................................................................22.3.1

Gerber corbels ...........................................................................................................................................22.3.2

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Linear elements subject to normal stresses (ULS) .......................................................................................17.2

Linear elements subject to normal stresses (SLS) .......................................................................................17.3

Linear elements subject to shear forces (ULS) ............................................................................................17.4

Linear elements subject to torsion (ULS) .....................................................................................................17.5

Linear elements subject to shear force and torsion (LE of inclined web cracking) ......................................17.6

Linear elements submitted to combined stresses ........................................................................................17.7

Fatigue (ULS) ...............................................................................................................................................23.5

Fatigue (SLS) ................................................................................................................................................23.6

Concreting joints ...........................................................................................................................................21.6

Slabs (ULS) ..................................................................................................................................................19.2

Slabs (SLS) ...................................................................................................................................................19.3

Slabs and linear elements with bw 5d subject to shear force ....................................................................19.4

Slabs subject to punch ..................................................................................................................................19.5

Connections of pre-molded structural elements ...........................................................................................21.5

Nodes of porticos and connections between walls .......................................................................................21.4

Regions of introduction of concentrated loads .............................................................................................21.2

Regions with holes and openings .................................................................................................................21.3

Shoes ............................................................................................................................................................22.4

Wall-beams ...................................................................................................................................................22.2

Project criteria aiming at durability .....................................................................................................................7

Guidelines for concrete structure durability .......................................................................................................6

Durability .......................................................................................................................................................16.4

Limit for reinforcement cracking and protection with respect to durability .................................................13.4.2

Ductility

Ductility in beams .......................................................................................................................................17.2.3

Redistribution of ductility moments and conditions in structures of linear elements ..............................14.6.4.3

Redistribution of ductility moments and conditions in structures with plate elements ............................14.7.3.2

Analysis of local 2nd order effects ..............................................................................................................15.7.4

Determination of local 2nd order effects .....................................................................................................15.8.3

Exemption from analysis of local 2nd order effects ................................................................. 15.8.2 and 15.9.2

Global, local and located 2nd order effects ................................................................................................15.4.1

Approximate process for consideration of the located 2nd order effect .....................................................15.9.3

Joints ..............................................................................................................................................................9.5

Strengths

Calculation resisting strengths ...................................................................................................................12.5.3

Calculation stressing strengths ..................................................................................................................12.5.4

Limit States ............................................................................... 3.2, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 17.3, 17.4, 17.5 and 17.6

Ultimate limit state (ULS) ................................................................................................... 3.2.1 and figure 17.1

Limit state of crack formation (ELS-F) .........................................................................................................3.2.2

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Limit state of excessive deformations (ELS-DEF) .......................................................................................3.2.4

Limit state of decompression (ELS-D) .........................................................................................................3.2.5

Limit state of partial decompression (ELS-DP) ................................................................... 3.2.6 and figure 3.1

Limit state of excessive compression (ELS-CE) .........................................................................................3.2.7

Limit state of excessive vibrations (ELS-VE) ...............................................................................................3.2.8

Spacing

Skin reinforcement ............................................................................................................ 17.3.5.2.3 and 18.3.5

Cracking control without crack opening verification .......................................................17.3.3.3 and table 17.2

Transversal distribution of longitudinal reinforcement of beams ............................................................18.3.2.2

Reinforced structural elements without stirrups .....................................................................................18.3.3.2

Spacing between ribs of ribbed slabs .....................................................................................................13.2.4.2

Longitudinal spacing between bent transversal reinforcement bars for shear force ...........................18.3.3.3.2

Stirrups

Anchorage of stirrups ...................................................................................................................................9.4.6

Punch reinforcement .....................................................................................................................................20.4

Torsion reinforcement (beams) .................................................................................................................18.3.4

Suspension reinforcement for Gerber corbels .....................................................................................22.3.2.4.2

Diameter of bending pins for stirrups .....................................................................................................table 9.2

Reinforced structural elements with stirrups

- Linear elements subject to shear force (ULS) ................................................................... 17.4.1.1 and 17.4.2

- Linear elements subject to torsion (ULS) ....................................................................... 17.5.1.2 and 17.5.1.6

- Columns ..................................................................................................................................................18.4.3

- Beams ..................................................................................................................................................18.3.3.2

Slabs with reinforcement for shear force ...................................................................................................19.4.2

Protection against buckling of bars .................................................................................. 18.2.4 and figure 18.2

Structure

Definitions and classification of structures ...................................................................................................15.4

- Analysis of fixed node structures ................................................................................................................15.6

- Analysis of movable node structures ..........................................................................................................15.7

Guidelines for durability of structural concretes ................................................................................................6

Structure load test ......................................................................................................................................25.3.2

Structures containing other elements ...........................................................................................................14.8

Structures of linear elements ........................................................................................................................14.6

Usual building structures Permitted estimations ....................................................................................14.6.7

Structural quality requirements .......................................................................................................................5.1

Fatigue .............................................................................................................................................................23

Limit state of excessive vibrations ................................................................................................................23.3

Ultimate limit states provoked by resonance of dynamic amplification ........................................................23.4

Ultimate limit state of fatigue ........................................................................................................................23.5

- Cyclic actions ...........................................................................................................................................23.5.1

- Combinations of actions to consider .......................................................................................................23.5.2

- Calculation model ....................................................................................................................................23.5.3

- Verification of concrete fatigue ................................................................................................................23.5.4

- Verification of reinforcement fatigue ........................................................................................................23.5.5

Service limit states ........................................................................................................................................23.6

Steel fatigue resistance (positive reinforcement) ........................................................................................8.4.7

Steel fatigue resistance (negative reinforcement) .......................................................................................8.3.8

Concrete fatigue resistance .........................................................................................................................8.2.7

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Bundles of bars

Anchorage of bundles of bar by adherence ................................................................................................9.4.3

Joints by transfer in bundles of bars .........................................................................................................9.5.2.5

Minimum spacing between cables of bundles of cables in slabs without beams ...................................20.3.2.3

Cracking control (project criteria) ....................................................................................................................7.6

Dimensioning and verification of linear elements

- Limit state of cracking ..............................................................................................................................17.3.3

Cracking control through limitation of estimated crack opening ......................................................17.3.3.2

Cracking control without the verification of crack opening ...............................................................17.3.3.3

- Limit state of decompression and crack formation ..................................................................................17.3.4

- Limit state of inclined web cracking Shear force and torsion ..................................................................17.6

Dimensioning and verification of slabs

- Limit states of cracking and decompression or crack formation .............................................................19.3.2

Limit state of crack formation (ELS-F) .........................................................................................................3.2.2

Limit state of opening of cracks (ELS-W) ....................................................................................................3.2.3

Limits for dimensions, displacements and openings of cracks .......................................................................13

- Cracking control and reinforcement protection ..........................................................................................13.4

Buckling

Lateral instability of beams .........................................................................................................................15.10

Protection against buckling of bars ............................................................................................................18.2.4

Deflections

Approximate evaluation of deflection in beams ......................................................................................17.3.2.1

- Immediate deflection in reinforced concrete beams ..........................................................................17.3.2.1.1

- Calculation of deflection deferred in time for reinforced concrete beams .........................................17.3.2.1.2

- Deflection in beams with positive reinforcements .............................................................................17.3.2.1.3

Bending

Traction reinforcements in simple bending, anchored by adherence ..................................................18.3.2.3.1

Approximate processes for the dimensioning of linear compound bending elements ..............................17.2.5

- Normal bending-compression ..............................................................................................................17.2.5.1

- Oblique compound bending .................................................................................................................17.2.5.2

Bending and torsion (linear elements) .......................................................................................................17.7.1

Minimum bending reinforcement rates for beams table ...............................................................................17.3

Stresses and deformations in bending (plain concrete) ............................................................................24.5.4

Flow

Flow and retraction ....................................................................................................................................8.2.11

Concrete flow ......................................................................................................... Annex A, A.2.2 and 11.3.3.2

Upper characteristic values of specific retraction deformation and coefficient of flow ..........................table 8.1

Hooks

Hooks of traction reinforcements ..............................................................................................................9.4.2.3

Stirrup hooks .............................................................................................................................................9.4.6.1

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Joint

Concreting joints ...........................................................................................................................................21.6

Joints and constructive dispositions (plain concrete) ...................................................................................24.4

Expansion joints .........................................................................................................................................3.1.10

Partial expansion joints ..............................................................................................................................3.1.11

Slabs

Openings in slabs ......................................................................................................................................21.3.4

Openings that penetrate slabs in the direction of their thickness ...........................................................13.2.5.2

Structural analysis

- Solid slabs ...............................................................................................................................................14.7.6

- Ribbed slabs ............................................................................................................................................14.7.7

- Smooth and mushroom slabs ..................................................................................................................14.7.8

Minimum and maximum longitudinal reinforcements ................................................................................19.3.3

Limit dimensions for slabs .........................................................................................................................13.2.4

- Solid slabs ............................................................................................................................................13.2.4.1

- Ribbed slabs .........................................................................................................................................13.2.4.2

Dimensioning and verification of slabs (ULS) ...............................................................................................19.2

Dimensioning and verification of slabs (SLS) ...............................................................................................19.3

Dimensioning of punch slabs ........................................................................................................................19.5

Shear force in slabs and linear elements with bw 5d ................................................................................19.4

- Slabs without reinforcement for shear force ............................................................................................19.4.1

- Slabs with reinforcement for shear force .................................................................................................19.4.2

Effective spans of slabs or plates ....................................................................................................................20

- General prescriptions .................................................................................................................................20.1

- Free borders and openings ........................................................................................................................20.2

- Slabs without beams ..................................................................................................................................20.3

Negative reinforcements .....................................................................................................................20.3.1

Prestressed slabs ................................................................................................................................20.3.2

- Punch reinforcements .................................................................................................................................20.4

Width

Collaborating width of T cross section beams .............................................................. 14.6.2.2 and figure 14.2

Effective width ....................................................................................................................figures 14.3 and 14.4

Maximum width for disposition of cables in external supporting band in prestressed slabs ..................20.3.2.2

Beams and wall-beams .............................................................................................................................13.2.2

Gloves

Joints by threaded gloves ............................................................................................................................9.5.3

Materials

Combined material behavior ..............................................................................................................................9

Material properties .............................................................................................................................................8

Plain concrete ...............................................................................................................................................24.3

Supporting brackets

Supporting brackets and sudden variations of cross sections ...............................................................14.6.2.3

Supporting brackets and sudden variations of thicknesses ...................................................................14.7.2.1

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Modulus of elasticity

Positive reinforcement steel

- Modulus of elasticity ..................................................................................................................................8.4.4

- Stress deformation diagram, drainage and traction resistance ..............................................................8.4.5

Negative reinforcement steel

- Modulus of elasticity ..................................................................................................................................8.3.5

- Stress deformation diagram, drainage and traction resistance ..............................................................8.3.6

Concrete

- Modulus of elasticity ..................................................................................................................................8.2.8

- Poissons coefficient and modulus of transversal elasticity .......................................................................8.2.9

- Stress deformation diagrams .................................................................................................................8.2.1

Skin

Skin reinforcement ............................................................................................................ 17.3.5.2.3 and 18.3.5

Columns

Analysis of wall-columns ..............................................................................................................................15.9

- Generalities .............................................................................................................................................15.9.1

- Exemption from analysis of located 2nd order effects ..............................................................................15.9.2

- Approximate process for consideration of located 2nd order effect .........................................................15.9.3

Startup reinforcement of columns ............................................................................... 22.4.4.1.2 and 22.5.4.1.4

Transversal reinforcement .........................................................................................................................18.4.3

Flow consideration .....................................................................................................................................15.8.4

Project criteria ...............................................................................................................................................16.3

Determination of local 2nd order effects .....................................................................................................15.8.3

- Bars submitted to normal bending-compression ..................................................................................15.8.3.1

- General method ....................................................................................................................................15.8.3.2

- Approximate methods ..........................................................................................................................15.8.3.3

Standard column with approximate curvature ...............................................................................15.8.3.3.2

Moment increased with approximate stiffness ...........................................................................15.8.3.3.3

Dimensions of columns and wall-columns ............................................................................. 11.7.1 and 13.2.3

Dimensioning ...................................................................................................................................................17

Exemptions from analysis of local 2nd order effects ..................................................................................15.8.2

Local imperfections ..................................................................................................... 11.3.3.4.2 and 11.3.3.4.3

Columns (definition) ................................................................................................................................14.4.1.2

Columns (detailing) .......................................................................................................................................18.4

- Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................18.4.1

- Longitudinal reinforcements ....................................................................................................................18.4.2

Minimum diameter and reinforcement rate ......................................................................................18.4.2.1

Transversal distribution ....................................................................................................................18.4.2.2

- Transversal reinforcements .....................................................................................................................18.4.3

Plain concrete columns ..............................................................................................................................24.6.3

Limit values for longitudinal column reinforcements ...............................................................................17.3.5.3

Wall-columns

Structural analysis with wall-beams and wall-columns ..............................................................................14.8.1

Analysis of 2nd order effects of wall-columns ................................................................................................15.9

Nodes of porticos and connections between walls .......................................................................................21.4

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Columns and wall-columns (dimensions) ..................................................................................................13.2.3

Wall-columns .......................................................................................................................... 14.4.2.4 and 18.5

Project

Project acceptance .......................................................................................................................................25.1

Project conformity evaluation .........................................................................................................................5.3

Project criteria aiming at durability .....................................................................................................................7

Project interfaces with construction, use and maintenance ............................................................................25

Project quality requirements ...........................................................................................................................5.2

- Quality of adopted solution ........................................................................................................................5.2.1

- Conditions imposed on the project ............................................................................................................5.2.2

- Documentation of adopted solution ...........................................................................................................5.2.3

Structural project (plain concrete structures) ................................................................................................24.5

Prestressing

Positive reinforcement (of prestressing) ......................................................................................................3.1.6

Prestressing cables ......................................................................................................................................18.6

- Longitudinal arrangement ........................................................................................................................18.6.1

Traced ..............................................................................................................................................18.6.1.1

Curvatures ........................................................................................................................................18.6.1.2

Curvature in proximities of anchorages ...........................................................................................18.6.1.3

Setting during execution ...................................................................................................................18.6.1.4

Straight extremities ..........................................................................................................................18.6.1.5

Extension of extremity ......................................................................................................................18.6.1.6

Joints ................................................................................................................................................18.6.1.7

Anchorages ......................................................................................................................................18.6.1.8

- Transversal arrangement ........................................................................................................................18.6.2

Sheaths ............................................................................................................................................18.6.2.1

Cable groupings in post-traction ......................................................................................................18.6.2.2

Minimum spacings ...........................................................................................................................18.6.2.3

Concrete with pre-traction stressed positive reinforcement (prestressing with initial adherence) ..............3.1.7

Concrete with post-traction stressed positive reinforcement (prestressing with later adherence) ..............3.1.8

Concrete with post-traction stressed positive reinforcement without adherence (prestressing without

adherence) ...................................................................................................................................................3.1.9

Prestressing levels .......................................................................................................................................9.2.2

Prestressing .................................................................................................................. 9.6, 11.3.3.5.3, 17.2.4.2

- Prestressing force ......................................................................................................................................9.6.1

Generalities ........................................................................................................................................9.6.1.1

Limit values of force in the prestressing reinforcement .....................................................................9.6.1.2

Representative values of prestressing force ......................................................................................9.6.1.3

Calculation values of prestressing force ............................................................................................9.6.1.4

- Introduction of prestressing forces ............................................................................................................9.6.2

Generalities ........................................................................................................................................9.6.2.1

Post-traction cases .............................................................................................................................9.6.2.2

Pre-traction cases ..............................................................................................................................9.6.2.3

- Losses of prestressing force .....................................................................................................................9.6.3

Generalities ........................................................................................................................................9.6.3.1

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Immediate losses of prestressing force .............................................................................................9.6.3.3

Progressive losses .............................................................................................................................9.6.3.4

Region of introduction of prestressing .......................................................................................................21.2.3

Punch

Punch reinforcements ...................................................................................................................................20.4

Plain concrete .........................................................................................................................................24.5.2.6

Dimensioning of punch slabs ........................................................................................................................19.5

- Calculation model ....................................................................................................................................19.5.1

- Definition of stressing strengths in the critical surface C and C .............................................................19.5.2

Internal column, with symmetric load ...............................................................................................19.5.2.1

Internal column, with moment effect ................................................................................................19.5.2.2

Border columns ................................................................................................................................19.5.2.3

Corner columns ................................................................................................................................19.5.2.4

Capital ..............................................................................................................................................19.5.2.5

Special cases of definition of critical outline .....................................................................................19.5.2.6

Interaction of normal and tangential stresses ..................................................................................19.5.2.7

- Definition of resisting stress in critical surface C, C and C ...................................................................19.5.3

Verification of resisting stress of concrete diagonal compression on critical surface C ..................19.5.3.1

Resisting stress on critical surface C in structural elements or sections without punch reinforcement 19.5.3.2

Resisting stress on surfaces C in structural elements or sections with punch reinforcement ........19.5.3.3

Definition of critical surface C .........................................................................................................19.5.3.4

- Progressive collapse ...............................................................................................................................19.5.4

- Verification of prestressed structural elements .......................................................................................19.5.5

Resistance

Positive reinforcement steel

- Fatigue resistance .....................................................................................................................................8.4.7

- Stress deformation diagram, drainage and traction resistance ..............................................................8.4.5

Negative reinforcement steel

- Fatigue resistance .....................................................................................................................................8.3.8

- Stress deformation diagram , drainage and traction resistance .............................................................8.3.6

Concrete

- Compressive resistance ............................................................................................................................8.2.4

- Traction resistance ....................................................................................................................................8.2.5

- Resistance in the multiaxial stress state ........................................................................... 8.2.6 and figure 8.1

- Fatigue resistance .....................................................................................................................................8.2.7

Resistances .....................................................................................................................................................12

- Characteristic values ..................................................................................................................................12.2

- Calculation values ......................................................................................................................................12.3

Calculation resistance .........................................................................................................................12.3.1

Calculation resisting stresses ..............................................................................................................12.3.2

Concrete calculation resistance ..........................................................................................................12.3.3

- Weighted coefficients of resistances ..........................................................................................................12.4

Weighted coefficients of resistances in the ultimate limit state (ULS) ................................................12.4.1

Weighted coefficients of resistances in the service limit states (SLS) ................................................12.4.2

- Safety verification .......................................................................................................................................12.5

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Analytical safety conditions .................................................................................................................12.5.2

Calculation resisting strengths ............................................................................................................12.5.3

Calculation stressing strengths ...........................................................................................................12.5.4

Values of adherence resistances ..........................................................................................................9.3.2

Resonance ....................................................................................................................................................23.4

Ultimate limit state (ULS) .............................................................................................................................3.2.1

Resisting capacity of the structure ............................................................................................................5.1.2.1

Calculation domains figure ...........................................................................................................................17.1

Shoes ............................................................................................................................................................22.4

Cross section

Ultimate limit state domains of a transversal cross section ................................................................figure 17.1

Geometry of resisting cross section .......................................................................................................17.5.1.4

- Full convex polygonal cross sections ................................................................................................17.5.1.4.1

- Compound cross sections of rectangles ...........................................................................................17.5.1.4.2

- Hollow cross sections ........................................................................................................................17.5.1.4.3

Safety

Safety and limit states ......................................................................................................................................10

Safety criteria ................................................................................................................................................10.1

Safety verification .........................................................................................................................................12.5

- Constructive safety conditions .................................................................................................................12.5.1

- Analytical safety conditions .....................................................................................................................12.5.2

- Calculation resisting strengths ................................................................................................................12.5.3

- Calculation stressing strengths ...............................................................................................................12.5.4

Safety in relation to the ULS ......................................................................................................................16.2.3

Safety in relation to the SLS (performance in service) ..............................................................................16.2.4

Service

Weighted coefficients of actions in service limit state (SLS) .....................................................................11.7.2

Weighted coefficients of resistance in service limit state (SLS) ................................................................12.4.2

Service combinations (actions) ..................................................................................................................11.8.3

- Classification ........................................................................................................................................11.8.3.1

- Usual service combinations ..................................................................................................................11.8.3.2

Dimensioning and verification of slabs Service limit states .......................................................................19.3

Linear elements subject to normal stresses Service limit states ...............................................................17.3

Service limit states (SLS) .............................................................................................................................10.4

Service limit states (fatigue) .........................................................................................................................23.6

Safety in relation to the SLS (performance in service) ..............................................................................16.2.4

Welding

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Weldability ...................................................................................................................................................8.3.9

Stresses

Calculation of stresses of combinations of actions .............................................................tables 11.3 and 11.4

Linear elements subject to normal stresses .................................................................................................17.2

Linear elements subject to normal stresses (SLS) .......................................................................................17.3

Linear elements subject to shear forces (ULS) ............................................................................................17.4

Linear elements subject to torsion (ULS) .....................................................................................................17.5

Linear elements subject to shear force and torsion (LS of inclined web cracking) ......................................17.6

Linear elements submitted to combined stresses ........................................................................................17.7

Calculation stressing strengths ..................................................................................................................12.5.4

Calculation stressing strengths (plain concrete) .....................................................................................24.5.2.2

Interaction of normal and tangential stresses .........................................................................................19.5.2.7

Slabs and linear elements with bw 5d subject to shear force ....................................................................19.4

Slabs subject to punch ..................................................................................................................................19.5

Regions of introduction of concentrated loads .............................................................................................21.2

Suspension

Suspension reinforcement

Blocks on piles .....................................................................................................................................22.5.4.1.3

Brackets ...............................................................................................................................................22.3.1.4.4

Gerber corbels .....................................................................................................................................22.3.2.4.2

Linear elements .........................................................................................................................................18.3.6

Temperature

Uniform temperature variations ..............................................................................................................11.4.2.1

Non-uniform temperature variations .......................................................................................................11.4.2.2

Torsion

Reinforcement for torsion ..........................................................................................................................18.3.4

Linear elements subject to torsion Ultimate limit state ..............................................................................17.5

- Uniform torsion ........................................................................................................................................17.5.1

Generalities ......................................................................................................................................17.5.1.1

General conditions ...........................................................................................................................17.5.1.2

Resistance of structural element Pure torsion ..............................................................................17.5.1.3

Geometry of resisting cross section .................................................................................................17.5.1.4

Verification of concrete diagonal compression ................................................................................17.5.1.5

Calculation of reinforcements ...........................................................................................................17.5.1.6

- Torsion in open thin wall profiles .............................................................................................................17.5.2

Generalities ......................................................................................................................................17.5.2.1

General considerations ....................................................................................................................17.5.2.2

Bending-torsion stiffness ..................................................................................................................17.5.2.3

Bending-torsion resistance ...............................................................................................................17.5.2.4

Limit state of inclined web cracking Shear force and torsion ....................................................................17.6

Combined stresses .......................................................................................................................................17.7

- Bending and torsion .................................................................................................................................17.7.1

Generalities ......................................................................................................................................17.7.1.1

Longitudinal reinforcement ...............................................................................................................17.7.1.2

Longitudinal reinforcement in bending compressed chord member ................................................17.7.1.3

Compressed chord member resistance ...........................................................................................17.7.1.4

- Torsion and shear force ..........................................................................................................................17.7.2

Generalities ......................................................................................................................................17.7.2.1

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Torsion .......................................................................................................................................................24.5.6

Traction

Stress deformation diagrams of traction concrete ...............................................................................8.2.10.2

Stress deformation diagram, drainage and traction resistance

- Negative reinforcement steel .....................................................................................................................8.3.6

- Positive reinforcement steel ......................................................................................................................8.4.5

Linear elements Traction reinforcement in simple bending, anchored by adherence ......................18.3.2.3.1

Linear elements Traction reinforcement in supporting cross sections ................................................18.3.2.4

Hooks of traction reinforcements (anchorage of negative reinforcement by adherence) ........................9.4.2.3

Traction concrete resistance .......................................................................................................................8.2.5

Limit values for longitudinal reinforcements of beams ...........................................................................17.3.5.2

- Traction reinforcement .......................................................................................................................17.3.5.2.1

- Minimum values for traction reinforcement under imposed deformations ........................................17.3.5.2.2

- Skin reinforcement .............................................................................................................................17.3.5.2.3

- Traction and compression reinforcements ........................................................................................17.3.5.2.4

Verification of concrete fatigue under traction ........................................................................................23.5.4.2

Use

Control of acceptance with respect to sensorial acceptability and use .....................................................13.4.3

Project interfaces with construction, use and maintenance ............................................................................25

Use, inspection and maintenance manual ...................................................................................................25.4

Values

Calculation values of prestressing force ...................................................................................................9.6.1.4

Calculation values of actions ......................................................................................................................11.6.3

Calculation values of resistances .................................................................................................................12.3

Characteristic values of actions .................................................................................................................11.6.1

Characteristic values of resistances .............................................................................................................12.2

Wind

Action of the wind ...................................................................................................................................11.4.1.2

Vibration

Limit state of excessive vibrations ............................................................................................... 3.2.8 and 23.3

Beams

Anchorage of lower beam reinforcement .............................................................................................22.3.2.4.4

Approximate evaluation of deflection in beams ......................................................................................17.3.2.1

- Immediate deflection in reinforced concrete beams ..........................................................................17.3.2.1.1

- Calculation of deflection deferred in time for reinforced concrete beams .........................................17.3.2.1.2

- Deflection in beams with positive reinforcements .............................................................................17.3.2.1.3

Ductility in beams .......................................................................................................................................17.2.3

Structures in linear elements ........................................................................................................................14.6

- Basic hypotheses ....................................................................................................................................14.6.1

- Characterization of the geometry ............................................................................................................14.6.2

Stiff sections .....................................................................................................................................14.6.2.1

Collaborating width of T cross section beams .................................................................................14.6.2.2

Supporting brackets and sudden variations of cross sections .........................................................14.6.2.3

Effective spans of beams .................................................................................................................14.6.2.4

Dimensioning ...................................................................................................................................................17

Holes that penetrate the beams in the direction of the height ...................................................................21.3.3

Holes that penetrate the beams in the direction of their width ...............................................................13.2.5.1

ABNT NBR 6118:2003

Walls and wall-beams ................................................................................................................................21.3.2

Limit values for longitudinal reinforcements of beams ...........................................................................17.3.5.2

Beams (definition) ...................................................................................................................................14.4.1.1

Beams (detailing) ..........................................................................................................................................18.3

- Generalities .............................................................................................................................................18.3.1

- Longitudinal reinforcement ......................................................................................................................18.3.2

Minimum quantity .............................................................................................................................18.3.2.1

Transversal distribution ....................................................................................................................18.3.2.2

Longitudinal distribution ...................................................................................................................18.3.2.3

Traction reinforcement in supporting cross sections .......................................................................18.3.2.4

- Transversal reinforcement for shear force ..............................................................................................18.3.3

Generalities ......................................................................................................................................18.3.3.1

Structural elements reinforced with stirrups .....................................................................................18.3.3.2

Structural elements reinforced with bent bars ..................................................................................18.3.3.3

Reinforcement for torsion ....................................................................................................................18.3.4

Skin reinforcement ..............................................................................................................................18.3.5

Suspension reinforcement ..................................................................................................................18.3.6

Bed-web or butt-web connection reinforcements ................................................................................18.3.7

Continuous beams ..................................................................................................................................14.6.7.1

Wall-beams

Structural analysis with wall-beams and wall-columns ..............................................................................14.8.1

Nodes of porticos and connections between walls .......................................................................................21.4

Walls and wall-beams ................................................................................................................................21.3.2

Beams and wall-beams (dimensions) ........................................................................................................13.2.2

Wall-beams ...................................................................................................................................................22.2

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