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Twin Wheel FAHUs

Kitchen Extract System

Venue : Dubai Municipality


Dated : 25/6/2014
Presented By : Rajat Upadhyay
AGENDA
ASHRAE Falcon Chapter

Twin Wheel FAHUs

Kitchen Extract System

Question & Answer

Duration Approx 2.00 Hrs.


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Twin Wheel FAHU
Problem???
35C @ 80% RH
45C @ 30% RH
35C @ 20% RH 35C @ 80% RH

20C @ 90% RH

45C @ 30% RH

20C @ 90% RH

35C @ 20% RH
Peak Design Dew Point
ASHRAE Fundamental 1997,2001,2005,2009,2013
Dubai
ASHRAE Peak Design Condition

0.4% Dry Bulb 0.4% Wet Bulb Difference at Peak DP

42.9 DB C 33.3 MCDB C (-) 9.6 C (dB)

23.6 MCWB C 30.07 WB C

10.40 g/Kg 26.04 g/Kg (+) 15.64 g/Kg


Do we Know

Wet bulb temperature in UAE


increased 0.6DegF in past 6 years.
Design Assumptions
Summer 46.1C/31% Rh/19.9 g/kg

Supply Air 20.6C/61% Rh/9.0 g/kg

Return Air 24.0C/50% Rh/9.2 g/kg

Air Flow 1 cms/2120 CFM

Exhaust Air 90% of SA

COP 3
Generations of FAHU
Without Recovery
Sensible Recovery Wheel FAHU
Total Recovery Wheel FAHU
Total Wheel & Heat Pipe FAHU
Total & Sensible Wheel FAHU
FAHU without Recovery
Sensible Wheel FAHU
Total Wheel FAHU
Total Wheel + Heat Pipe
SOURCE: Sterling [1984] ASHRAE Transactions V.90, Part 2.
Twin Wheel FAHU
Process
Total Wheel Sensible Wheel

14.4C/9.3 g/Kg 24C/9.3 g/kg

20.6C/8.7 g/Kg
46.1C/ 19.9g/kg 23.9C/11.7g/kg 12.8C/8.7 g/Kg

Cool Recovery : 53Kw/Cms


Cooling Load : 22 Kw/Cms
Electrical Load : 7 Kw/Cms
Reheating :0
Broad Comparison
System Cooling % Heating Other extra Total electric % Recovery
load load power: power load Electricity
kW/m3/s kW/m3/s additional kW/m3/s
fan, drive COP = 3
motor

w/o energy 75 0% 10 0 35 0%
recovery
Sensible 55 -27% 10 0.2 29 -17%
wheel
Sorption/tot 35 -53% 10 0.3 22 -37%
al energy
wheel
Sorption 27 -64% 3(7) 0.5 16 -54%
wheel + heat
pipe
Double 22 -71% 0 0.5 8 -77%
wheel
Observations

The twin wheel system can make substantial energy savings.

Close to 30% of cooling and 100% of reheat.

Constant RH & g/Kg possible

Saving on Chilled Water Requirement

Downsizing chiller and field pipe


Design Guidance
- Comply ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2013
- FA/SA ratio (80/20%)
- Variable speed Fans
- Dont oversize the equipment
- HRW max face velocity 700 FPM
- Heat Pipe Face Velocity 400 FPM
- HRW & Heat Pipe Testing should follow
ANSI/ARI Standard 1060 2001
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 84-1991
KITCHEN EXHAUST & PURIFICATION
DO WE KNOW?????
AGENDA
A) CODES AND STANDARDS

B) WHAT MAKES KITCHEN EXHAUST SYSTEM

C) TYPE OF HOOD ( TYPE I vs TYPE II)

D) BRIEF OF DIFFERENT HOOD

E) EXHAUST REQUIREMENT HOW MUCH?

F) MAKE UP AIR REQUIRMENT HOW MUCH?

G) KITCHEN EFFLUENT & CONTROL


CODES & STANDARDS

2003 ASHRAE Handbook Chapter 31


ASHRAE Standard 154-2003,
UL 710,
2001 NFPA 96
Australian Standard AS 1668.2-2012
Uniform Mechanical Code
International Mechanical Code
KICTHEN EXHAUST SYSTEM
Effective Exhaust System get Rid of

Heat

Particulate Matter

Grease Laden Steam

Cooking Vapor

Increases Efficiency
FREQUENT PROBLEM
WHY???????
Not Enough Exhaust Rate

Hood is Undersized

Cross Draft in Kitchen

High Velocity for MA

Short Circuit Ratio??


Hood Type
Type I & Type II

Type I Hood Type II Hood


Remove all type of cooking Effluent. Remove only heat, odor, and vapor.

It has light fire suppression system. Does not have fire suppression system.

Must Have UL classified Filters. Standard HVAC duct can be used

Must meet NFPA 96 fully welded duct


requirement
KITCHEN HOOD TYPE

BACKSHELF OR PROXIMITY HOOD

CANOPY HOOD
EHAUST AIR HOW MUCH????

Required Exhaust Air for Canopy Hoods

A = Horizontal Area in Sqft


D = Distance (ft.) between lower lip of hood to cooking surface
P = Perimeter (ft.)
Q = Exhaust Air CFM
Uniform Mechanical Code Method
Base Exhaust Flow = 50 x Hood (L) x Hood (W) Ft
Additional Air Requirement
Equipment Type Additional CFM/Sqft

Low Temp (400 DegF) 0


Ovens,Roaster,Steam Kettles,Non Greece Item
Med to High Temp (600 DegF) 37
Fryers,Grills,Griddles etc.
Maximum Temp (700 DegF) 95
Solid Fuel Appliances, Charbroiler
Total Exhaust = Base + Additional
Example

Base Air Flow : 10 x 4.5 x 50 = 2,250 CFM


Additional Flow
Griddle : 37 x 4 = 148 CFM
Oven :0
Charbroiler : 8 x 95 = 760 CFM
Total Additional : 908 CFM

Required Exhaust : 908 + 2,250 = 3,158 CFM


NFPA 96 Method
Calculation of Exhaust Air
Inputs
1. Wall Mounted Hood (13.6 x 4.6)
2. Clearance 6 (0.5) both side
3. Gas Convection Oven : 175 CFM/ft.
4. Gas Deep Fryer : 265 CFM/ft.
5. Spacer : 100 CFM/ft.
6. Electric Griddle : 255 CFM/ft.
7. Gas Stove : 275 CFM/ft.
8. Spacer (Clearance) : 100 CFM/ft.
Calculation
Left Clearance : 0.5 x 100 CFM/ft. = 50 CFM
Gas Convection Oven : 3.5 x 175 CFM/ft. = 613 CFM
Gas Deep Fryer : 1.5 x 265 CFM/ft. = 398 CFM
Spacer : 1.5 x 100 CFM/ft. = 150 CFM
Electric Griddle : 3 x 255 CFM/ft. = 765 CFM
Gas Stove : 3 x 275 CFM/ft. = 825 CFM
Right Clearance : 0.5 x 100 CFM/ft. = 50 CFM

Total : 2851 CFM


Correction factor Type of Installation

Total CFM = 2851 x CF (1.0)


MAKE UP AIR
WHY??????

Outdoor Air + Replacement Air = MUA


To provide better IAQ ASHRAE 90.1-2010
To avoid excessive depressurization
To comply code requirement
To increase efficiency of Hood
Productivity Loss Chart
How Much MUA
No magic its simple Air In = Air out

NFPA # 96 states

Replacement Air Quantity be adequate


to prevent negative pressure in cooking
area from exceeding 4.98 Kpa
Rule of Thumb
Supply dedicated MA @ 80~85%
15~20% from adjacent space
Designer keep ratio of 60/40%
Use ERVs for Make-up air and energy recovery
Energy Management
Manual Control System with VFD motor
No temperature Sensor
Can be adjusted by 3 speed of Exhaust and FA blower
100% working on high speed
Operated by individual

Auto Control System with VFD motor & Temp Sensor


Temp sensor in Duct Collar
EA & FA varies with temp requirement
Interlocked with Fire Alarm (Common with manual)
During fire SA off (Common with manual)
Auto operation Expensive
Ways of Make Up Supply
IMPORTANT CONSIDERATION
High Speed Duct Velocity should be 7.6 ~ 9.0m/s

ASHRAE research suggest if velocity goes


lowered upto 2.5 m/s grease deposition doesnt
increase

The above is useful for VFD driven EA & Multi-


hood connection
Multi-Hood System
Standard (IMC ICC 2009)
-All hood should be at same floor
-It should prevent fire from one hood to other
-Protect fire against common duct
-Each hood should have own fire extinguisher
-Should comply NFPA 17 & 17A
-EA/MA fan should be designed to cater minimum
and maximum air flow
WHAT WE SHOULD OPT???
Mandatory Requirement
ETL Listing under UL 710 & UL 867
Filters Should be UL Listed
Fan Should be VFD driven
Fire Damper should be placed
Fan has to AMCA certified
Motor has to be 4 or 6pole
Why Odor Control
Ecology Section
Pre filter 40%, ASHRAE 52.2 listed UL/ULC class II
Bag Filter 95%, ASHRAE 52.2 listed UL/ULC class II
Absolute Filter or ESP
Carbon Filter
UV light (Extra heavy kitchen)
Blower
Control Panel
ESP WORKING
UV-C WORKING
RECOMMENDATION

- Calculate correct exhaust flow rate


- Selection of hood
- Adequate overhanging
- Minimizing cross draft
- Supply/Extract has to VFD controlled
- Timely maintenance
- Odor control solution
- Requirement like ETL/UL has to followed
Thank You