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SCIbird

SCIbird ID



--

V BT

123

A B

B
nds = 0
A

1
mv 2 = gmy
2

v = 2gy

ds ds
v= dt =
dt v

xB
ds 1 1 + y (x ) 2
T = = dx
v 2g xA y

y = y (x ) minT

i vi
sin 1 sin 2 sin 3
= = ="
v1 v2 v3

sin
= const
v
v = 2gy
1 1
sin = cos = =
1 + tan 2 1 + (y ) 2

1
= const
2gy 1 + (y ) 2

y[1 + (y ) 2 ] = 2a
a
x = a ( sin ) , y = a (1 cos )

a
T =
g

x2
J [y (x )] = F (x , y (x ) , y (x )) dx
x1

y (x )

y (x ) M
y (x ) y (x ) M , J [y (x )] J [y (x )] .


y (x ) = y (x ) + (x )
(x ) (x1 ) = (x 2 ) = 0 .

x2
() = F (x , y + , y + ) dx
x1

() (0) (0) = 0
x2
(0) = [Fy(x , y , y ) + Fy (x , y , y ) ] dx = 0
x1

(x1 ) = (x 2 ) = 0
x2 x2 d
x1
Fy dx =
x1
F dx
dx y

x2 d
x1
[Fy(x , y , y ) F (x , y , y )] (x ) dx = 0
dx y
f (x ) (x )
(x1 ) = (x 2 ) = 0
x2

x1
f (x ) (x ) dx = 0

f (x ) 0 .
-
d
Fy(x , y , y )
F (x , y , y ) = 0
dx y
F (x , y , y ) = 1 + (y ) 2 / 2gy


y (x ) y (x ) (x )


+ sin x
() = e x dx
0 x

() = f (x + h , y + k )


123
1 3 + 2

SCIbird


Atiyah-Singer Milnor 7


40


2014 10

y = f (x )

3 x


y = f (x ) [0 , c ] OA + AB .
OA + AB = f (c ) + c = 1 + c . c (0 , 1), f (c ) = max f (x ) = 1 .

c
A= 1 + f (x ) 2 dx XXX = c + f (c )
0

XXX

0
(1 + f (x )) dx = c + f (c ) f (0) = c + f (c )

a 2 +b 2 a +b , a , b > 0
a = 1 , b = f (x )
c c
A= 1 + f (x ) 2 dx (1 + f (x )) dx = c + f (c ) = 1 + c = OA + AB
0 0

SCIbird ID

100

13
13

200

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1.
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SCIbird

SCIbird
scibird@sina.cn
2014 6 1


1 ..........1
2 ....10
3 ....20
4 ........31
5 ....41
6 ....49
7 ....59
8 ....69
9 ....82
10 ....93
11 ..104
12 ..116
13 ..129

1 ..136
2 ..143
3 ..147
4 ..151
5 ..158
6 ..165
7 ..175
1

1
12


1.
2.
3.


1
sin(n + )x
1 2
+ cos x + cos 2x + " + cos nx =
2 1
2sin x
2
Fourier

e inx = cos nx + i sin nx


q = e ix

1
1


Deligne
Deligne

Deligne

Deligne

Deligne

--
t2
S (t 2 ) S (t1 ) v (ti )ti v (t ) dt
t1
i

S (t ) = v (t )
S (t + t ) S (t )
v (t ) := lim = S (t )
t 0 t


d (uv ) = udv + vdu

1 2 3 Riemann-Lebesgue

2
1

b b
lim f (x ) sin x dx = lim f (x ) cos x dx = 0
a a

sin x

Riemann g (x +T ) = g (x )

Riemann-Lebesgue
b 1 T b
lim f (x )g (x ) dx = g (x ) dx f (x ) dx
a T 0 a

f (x ) [a , b ] Riemann


(E )
f (x ) dx = f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt
E


1
1 x 2
dx = arcsin x +C

x 2 x 4
1
1 x 4
dx =

x 2 x n , n 3


C a C f
a
1
f (z ) =
z a
Cn ( n 2 )
Hartogs Cn K
K K f
F F K f .

3
1

12
3

n = 2
n

123

a
f (x ) dx = f (b ) f (a )


f (x )

4
1

b b
limD D lim
a a

AB BA


VS
f (x ) f (x ) bn b bn +1
lim = lim =A VS lim = lim n =A
x a + g (x ) x a + g (x ) n a n a a
n n n +1

VS Stolz

1
f ( ) = f (t )e itdt & f (t ) = f ( )e itd
2
VS

a0
f (x ) = + an cos nx + bn sin nx
2 n =1

Fourier VS Fourier
6


f (b ) f (a ) f ( )
=
g (b ) g (a ) g ( )

Stokes

M
d =
M

Stokes -

a
f (x ) dx = F (b ) F (a )

5
1

Q P
x y dxdy = D
Pdx +Qdy
D

P Q R
x + y + z dxdydz = Pdydz +Qdzdx + Rdxdy



f (z ) = an (z z 0 )n
n =0


F (z ) = cn (z z 0 )n


Riemann

100

12

20
Atiyah-Singer

D :V W V ,W
Df = g g W f V
ker D = { f V | Df = 0}

6
1


coker D = W / DV
dim ker D dim coker D
Ind(D ) = dimker D dimco ker D
D -

Df = g D
dim ker D dim coker D

Ind(D ) = dimker D dimco ker D

D M

D Ind(D )

M Ind(D )

Atiyah Singer

Atiyah-Singer
dimker D dimco ker D = Ch[ (D )] Td(TM C)
T* M

T * M TM C Ch
(D ) Td Todd


de
Rham

de Rham
Todd {Chern -Class }

7
1

dimker D dimco ker D = {Chern -Class }


M

{Chern -Class }

Atiyah-Singer 31

http://www.nim.nankai.edu.cn/activites/lecture_2007.htm

t - ind
t - ind = Ch[ (D )] Td(TM C)
T* M

Atiyah-Singer
= Ind(D ) = t - ind .


t ind
Ind(D )

Ind(D ) = t - ind


Gauss-Bonnet Riemann-Roch

Atiyah
Spin A-
Singer Singer Singer
A- Dirac Laplace

8
1

Atiyah Singer Dirac Smale 4


Poincare Atiyah Atiyah
Smale
Atiyah Atiyah Dirac
Atiyah-Singer

Atiyah
Atiyah K
T *M K
K (T *M ) t ind

{elliptic - D } Ind
Z
(D ) 8
t-ind
K (T M )
*
Z


Ind(D ) = t - ind ( (D ))

9
2


ODE PDE


RMI




x n x 0 | x n x 0 | < .

10
2

A , B A x
B 1 x . n k A

Pn (k ) = C nk x k (1 x )n k
Pn (i ) = 1 . n x Pn (k )
k nx
nx k Pn (k )
1 Pn (i ) = 1
n
i k
P (i )f (n )
i =1
n f ( ) f (x )
n

n
i
Bn ( f , x ) = f ( )C ni x i (1 x )n i
i =0 n

n Bn ( f , x ) f (x ) .

f (x ) = f (t ) (x t ) dt
R

11
2

| x | | x | <

n (x ) ( , + ) n
1. n (x ) 0
2.
+


n (x ) dx = 1

3. > 0
lim n (x ) dx = 1
n |x | <

n (x ) Fourier
n


+ , x = 0 +
(x ) = (x ) dx = 1

0,
x 0

x2
1
h (x ) = e h2

h
h 0 +
u x 2
1
+ h
f h (x ) =
h

f (u )e du

f (x ) .
[a , b ] h (x )
Q (x )
h (x ) , P (x ) ,

Landau
Q (x ) h (x )

12
2

Landau
n (x ) = cn (1 x 2 )n , 1 x 1

1
Pn (x ) = f (u ) n (u x ) dx
0

Bn ( f , x ) .


x | x |
| x | = x 2
| x |



(1 + x ) = x n

n =0 n

> 0 [1 , 1] (1 + x ) .
[0 , 2] x
1 1

x = [1 + (x 1)] = 2 (x 1)n
2
n
n =0


1 (x ) = x [0 , 1]

| x | +x 0 , x 0
(x ) = =
2 x , x > 0

(x ) [c , c ]

2 [a , b ] (x )
(x ) = c + c0 (x x 0 ) + " + cm (x x 0 )

13
2


[a , b ]

R
pn (x ) m n pn (x ) pm (x )
R f (x )
f (x )

Fourier
-
Muntz-Szasz
1 , x , x 2 , x 3 , 1 , x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ,

span{1 , x 1 , x 2 , x 3 , } = C [a , b ]
0 < 1 < 2 < 3 <

1

n =1
= +
n

1 , x 1 , x 2 , x 3 , Muntz-Szasz
Rudin
P.Lax


Riemann


C (C )
(C ) C
(C )

x 0
L (x ) = (x 0 ) + (x 0 )(x x 0 ) .
C x 0 C L (x ) = (x 0 ) + (x 0 )(x x 0 )
(x ) (x )

14
2

g =

A
(A(C )) = | det A | (C )

A = L det A = det (x 0 ) det A = det D (x 0 ) .


( (C )) | det (x 0 ) | (C ) .
f (x )( (C )) f ( (t )) | det (t 0 ) | (C )
x = (t ) . Riemann

(E )
f (x ) dx = f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt
E

x , t D (t ) = (t )

R m
: Rm
E
1 det D (t ) 0 , t int E
2 int E
(E ) (E ) f (x )

(E )
f (x ) dx = f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt .
E

15
2


Riemann

f (x )
f (x ) 0

D1 , D2
R n h : D1 D2 = h (D1 ) h h 1
h : D1 D2

h i (x )
J (x ) = det
x j

h f (x ) D2
f (h (u ))J (u ) D1

D2 =h ( D1 )
f (x ) dx = f [h (u )]J (u ) du
D1

16
2

x R n , max | x | = max | x i | , x i x i
1i n

p 2s | x p | s .

A (aij )nn

n n
A(x ) = A[x1 , " , x n ] = a1j x j , " , anj x j
j =1
j =1

n
| A | = max
1i n
a
j =1
ij

| A(x ) | | A | | x | .

h (x ) = [h1 (x ) , " , hn (x )] j (x ) = jik (x )


hi (x )
jik (x ) =
xk

S R n (S ) . p , 2s
C D1 | x p | s , (C ) = (2s )n

n
hi (x ) hi (p ) = jik [p + i (x )(x p )](xk pk )
k =1

0 i (x ) 1 .

| h (x ) h (p ) | s max | j (y ) |
y C

h (C )
| z h (p ) | s max | j (y ) |
y C

{ } (C )
n
(h (C )) max | j (y ) |
y C

A1h , A
(A1 (S )) = | det A1 | (S ) , S S = h (C ) ,
C h

17
2

{ } (C )
n
(A1h (C )) = | det A1 | (h (C )) max | A1 j (y ) |
y C

{ } (C )
n
(h (C )) | det A | max | A1 j (y ) |
y C

Riemann C
C1 , C 2 , " , C M , x1 , x 2 , " , x M .
> 0 M

C i , A = j (x i ) ,

{ } (C )
M n
(h (C )) | det j (x i ) | max | j (x i ) j (y ) | 1
i
y C i
i =1

j (x ) z y
j 1 (z ) j (y ) I

{max | j (x ) }
n
1
i j (y ) | 1 + ( )
y C i

( ) 0 ( ) 0 .

M
(h (C )) [1 + ( )] | det j (x i ) | (C i )
i =1

Riemann 0
(h (C )) J (x ) dx
C

f (x )
f (x ) 0 Riemann

D2 =h ( D1 )
f (x ) dx f [h (u )]J (u ) du
D1

D1 u

h 1

u = h 1 (x )

18
2

D2
f (x ) dx f [h (u )]J (u ) du f [h D h 1 (x )]J (h 1 (x ))J (x ) dx = f (x ) dx
D1 D2 D2

J (x ) h 1 : D2 D1
J (h 1 (x ))J (x ) = 1

Riemann

19
3

C 1 Fourier

d (uv ) = vdu + udv ,


udv = d (uv ) vdu

udv = uv vdu
vdu

f (u (x ))u (x ) dx = F (u (x )) +C , F (t ) = f (t )

20
3

f (x ) x = x (t ) t = t (x ) x (t (x )) x ,

f (x (t ))x (t ) dt = F (t ) +C

f (x ) dx = F (t (x )) +C

f (x ) U (x ) U (x ) = f (x ) .
F (t ) = f (x (t ))x (t )

dU (x (t ))
=U (x (t ))x (t ) = f (x (t ))x (t ) = F (t )
dt
U (x (t )) F (t )
U (x (t )) = F (t ) +C
t = t (x ) x (t (x )) x
U (x (t (x ))) =U (x ) = F (t (x )) +C

dF (t (x ))
=U (x ) = f (x )
dx

f (x ) dx = F (t (x )) +C

x = x (t )
t = t (x ) x (t (x )) x .
x (t (x )) x
x = x (t ) t = t (x ) x (t (x )) x ,

21
3

sin x 1
x dx , e dx , ln x dx , sin x cos x
x 2 2 2
dx , dx

dx
(1 x 2 )(1 k 2x 2 )

f , g g f (x )e g (x ) dx

h ,

f (x )e
g (x )
dx = h (x )e g (x ) +C .


(t ) = f (x )K (x , t ) dx
R

t K (x , t )
B
Landau
1
Pn (t ) = f (x ) n (t x ) dx
0

K (x , t ) = n (t x ) = cn (1 (t x ) 2 )n
Fourier
1
sin(m + )(t x )
1
2
Sm (x , f ) = f (t ) dt
1
2sin (t x )
2

22
3

+ sin x

0 x dx = ?
e tx
+ sin x
(t ) = e tx dx
0 x
(t )
+ 1
(t ) = e tx sin xdx =
0 1+ t 2

+ sin x
0 x dx = (0) = C = 2


P (x , y )dx +Q (x , y )dy
M (x , y ) U (x , y )
dU (x , y ) = M (x , y )P (x , y )dx + M (x , y )Q (x , y )dy
M (x , y )


dy
+ P (x )y = Q (x )
dx
dy + P (x )ydx = Q (x )dx

= e
P (x )dx

P (x )dx
d ye = Q (x )e P (x )dxdx

23
3

y .

U (x , y ) = ye
P (x )dx
, M (x , y ) =

n
Sn = a n
k =1

S1 + S 2 + " + Sm
?
m
lim Sn = S S ;
lim Sn = S
Fourier

RMI
(Relation)(Mapping)(Inversion)
A B

RMI

A A
A B B
1

24
3

,
RMI Fourier Laplace

Fourier p (D ) f = g p
D g = g (x ) f = f (x ) .

Fourier
Fourier
+
f ( ) = f (x )e ix dx

p (D ) f = g
q ( ) f ( ) = g ( )

f () = g () / q ( )
Fourier f = f (x ) .

R m
: Rm
E
1 det D (t ) 0 , t int E
2 int E
(E ) (E ) f (x )

(E )
f (x ) dx = f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt .
E

25
3

R n S
S

Rm E
: Rm

1 det D (t ) 0 , t int E
2 int E
f (E ) int E ,

()
f (x ) dx = f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt

(E )
f (x ) dx = f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt
E


h (t 1 , " , t m ) : R

x i = t i , i h

x h = h (t 1 , " , t m )

: Rm
t = (t 1 , " , t m )

R m E
: Rm

1 det D (t ) 0 , t int E
2 int E

26
3

f (E )

(E )
f (x ) dx = f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt
E

x = (t )
x i = t i , i = 1 , 2 ," , m 1

x m = (t 1 , " , t m )

5 int E ,

()
f (x ) dx = f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt .



det D (t ) = >0
t m


= R m 1 R

= [1 , 1 ]"[m 1 , m 1 ]
= [ , ]

x
() = (x , x m )
(x , ) x m (x , )

(x , )


()
f (x ) dx = dx
(x , )
f (x , x m ) dx m
(x , t m ) m
= dx f (x , (x , t m )) dt
t m
(t , t m ) m
= dt f (t , (t , t m )) dt
t m
= f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt

27
3

Rm
: Rm
. det D ( ) 0 > 0
U ( , )
E U ( , ) (E ) f ,


(E )
f (x ) dx = f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt .
E


(1 ," , m )
det D ( ) = ( ) 0
(t 1 , " , t m )

m 1 0 m 1
t 1 ,", t m det D ( ) m 1
(1 , " , m 1 )
( ) 0
(t 1 , " , t m 1 )

t 1 ,", t m det D ( )
0. t 1 ,", t m

m

x i = i (t 1 , " , t m ) , i k
k :
j
j
x =t , j >k

k = 1 , 2 , " , m .

det Dk ( ) det D ( ) k
det Dk ( ) 0 , k = 1 , 2 , " , m
> 0 m 1 , " , m U ( , )



1 = 1

1
k = k D k 1 , k = 2 , " , m

1 = 1 U ( , ) k = k D k11

28
3

k 1 (U ( , )) U ( , )
= m D m 1 D"D 1

(E )
f (x ) dx =
m D m 1 D"D 1 ( E )
f (x ) dx

= f (m (u )) | det Dm (u ) | du
m1 D"D 1 ( E )

= ""
= f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt
E

= m D m 1 D"D 1

R m : R m a .
a
det D (a ) 0
a a U b = (a )
V :U V

29
3

30
4


1 1
e z = 1+ z + z 2 +"+ z n +"
2! n!
e z
z n
Fourier

y = f (x + x ) f (x )

y = f (x )x + o (x )
y dy = f (x )x dy y


1 , 2
f (z + 1 ) = f (z + 2 ) = f (z )
1 , 2

31
4

= {m 1 + n 2 | m , n Z}
1 2

(z ) (z )

1 1 1
(z ) = + 2
z 2
0 (z )
2

1 1 1
cot z = + +
z n =1 z + n z n

(z )
z = 0 z =

1
(z )
0
2

1/ 2 . = 0
1/ 2 1/ z 2
1 1 1
(z ) = + 2
z 2
0 (z )
2

(z + 1 ) = (z + 2 ) = (z ) .
(z ) (z )
(z ) 2 = 4 (z )3 + g 2 (z ) + g 3

32
4

(z ) (z )

(z ) 1 , 2 1 , 2
f (z + 1 ) = f (z + 2 ) = f (z )

f (z ) = H ( (z )) + (z )Q ( (z ))
H (z ) , Q (z ) f (z )

(z ) (z )


Riemann
Riemann

f (x , y ) dxdy = dx f (x , y ) dy
XY X Y

(x , )

()
f (x ) dx = dx
(x , )
f (x , x m ) dx m
(x , t m ) m
= dx f (x , (x , t m )) dt
t m
(t , t m ) m
= dt f (t , (t , t m )) dt
t m
= f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt

an +1 = f (an )
f

33
4

an = sin n x dx
2
0

an an 2

an = 2 sin n x dx = 2 sin n 1 x d ( cos x ) = cos x sin n 1 x 2 + 2 cos x d (sin n 1 x )


0 0 0 0

= (n 1) sin n 2 x cos 2 x dx = (n 1)an 2 (n 1)an


2
0

n 1
an = a n 2
n

a 0 = , a1 = 1
2
(n 1)!!


, n = 2k
n !!
an =

(n 1)!!
, n = 2k + 1


n !! 2


---

f (x ) [a , b ]
f (a ) f (b ) < 0 , f (x ) 0 , x [a , b ]
f (x ) = 0 (a , b )
f (x ) 0


y = f (x ) x 0
y = f (x 0 ) + f (x 0 )(x x 0 )

34
4

f (x ) = 0 x .

f (x 0 ) + f (x 0 )(x x 0 ) = 0
f (x ) = 0

f (x 0 ) + f (x 0 )(x x 0 ) = 0
f (x 0 )
x1 = x 0
f (x 0 )

x1 x 0 x x 2
f (x1 )
x 2 = x1
f (x1 )

{x n }
f (x n 1 )
xn = xn 1 , n = 1 , 2, "
f (x n 1 )

xn c
f (c )
c =c
f (c )

f (c ) = 0 = c .

xn c

35
4

f (x ) [a , b ]
f (a ) f (b ) < 0 , f (x ) f (x ) 0 , x [a , b ]
x 0
f (x 0 ) f (x 0 ) > 0

f (x n 1 )
xn = xn 1 , n = 1 , 2, "
f (x n 1 )

{x n } f (x ) = 0 (a , b ) .

d 2y dy
2
+ p (x ) + q (x )y = 0
dx dx

p (x ) q (x ) | x x 0 | < r | x x 0 | < r
y = y (x ) y (0) = a 0 , y (0) = a1

y (x ) = an (x x 0 )n
n =0

y 2xy 4y = 0 , y (0) = 0 , y (0) = 1.


x 0 = 0

y (x ) = an x n
n =0

( , + ) .

(n +1)(n + 2)an +2x n 2nanx n 4anx n = 0


n =0 n =1 n =0


(2a 2 4a 0 ) + [(n + 2)(n + 1)an +2 2(n + 2)an ] x n = 0
n =1

0 0

36
4

2a 2 4a 0 = 0

(n + 2)(n + 1)an +2 2(n + 2)an = 0

n = 1, 2, 3,
2
an +2 = an , n = 1, 2, 3,
n +1

an
y (0) = a 0 = 0 , y (0) = a1 = 1
a 2 = a 4 = = a 2n = 0 , n = 1, 2, 3,
a 2n +1
1
a 2n +1 = a 2n 1 , n = 1, 2, 3,
n

1
a 2n +1 = a 2n 1
n
1
a 2n 1 = a 2n 3
n 1

1
a5 = a3
2
1
a 3 = a1
1
a1 = 1
1
a 2n +1 = , n = 0, 1, 2, 3,
n!
an

x 2n +1
(x 2 )n
y = an x n = a 2n +1x 2n +1 = = x
2
= xe x , x (, +)
n =0 n =0 n =0 n ! n =0 n !

2
y (x ) = xe x

a 0 , a1 , a 2 ,"

37
4

S (x ) = a 0 + a1x + a 2x 2 + "
a 0 , a1 , a 2 ," S (x )
an .

"
1,1, 2 , 3 , 5 , 8
a 0 = a1 = 1 , an +2 = an +1 + an .

S (x ) = a 0 + a1x + a 2x 2 + " a 0 = a1 = 1 , an +2 = an +1 + an
(1 x x 2 )S (x ) = 1
1
S (x ) =
1 x x 2

n +1
1 5
n +1
1
1 + 5

an = , n = 0 , 1 , 2 ,"
5
2 2


Fourier f (x )
[ , ] f ( ) = f ( ) .


f (x ) dx = 0


f 2 (x ) dx [ f (x )]2 dx

f (x ) = a sin x + b cos x .
f (x ) Fourier

a0
f (x ) = + an cos nx + bn sin nx
2 n =1

a 0 = 0 . f (x ) Fourier

f (x ) ~ nbn cos nx nan sin nx
n =1

f (x ) dx = (a + b ) (n 2an2 + n 2bn2 ) = [ f (x )]2dx


2 2
n
2
n

n =1 n =1

38
4

n 2 an = bn = 0 , f (x ) = a sin x + b cos x .
Wirtinger

(E )
f (x ) dx = f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt
E


x i = t i , i h

x h = h (t 1 , " , t m )

: Rm
t = (t 1 , " , t m )

x i = i (t 1 , " , t m ) , i k
k : j
x = t j , j > k

k = 1 , 2 , " , m . m 1 , " , m U ( , )

1 = 1

k = k D k11 , k = 2 , " , m

1 = 1 U ( , ) k = k D k11
k 1 (U ( , )) U ( , )
= m D m 1 D"D 1

39
4

40
5

1
+ cos x + cos 2x + " + cos nx = ?
2
sin 12 x

a + (b a ) + (c b ) +"
sin(n + 12 )x
1
2
1
sin(n + )x
1 2
+ cos x + cos 2x + " + cos nx =
2 1
2sin x
2
1 + 2 + " + 100 = 5050
sin 12 x

sin 12 x

e inx = cos nx + i sin nx


q = e ix
q (1q n )
q +q 2 +"+q n =
1q

q n = e inx = cos nx + i sin nx


cos x + cos 2x + " + cos nx

Fourier

sin 12 x

41
5


D n n f : D n D n x 0 D n
f (x 0 ) = x 0 .

D n D n
S n f (x ) = x ,
f : S n S n

g : D n S n 1
g (x ) = x , x S n 1 . g S n 1 D n

f f
g : D n S n 1 . Stokes
g

g = (g1 , g 2 , " , g n ) = g1dg 2 " dg n .


g (x ) = x S n 1 = D n , || g (x ) || = 1 , x S n 1

42
5

Dn
= n d = n d (g1dg 2 " dg n )
D D

(g1 ,", g n )
= dx1 " dxn = 0
D n
(x1 ,", x n )
g (x ) = x , x S n 1

Dn
= n d =
D Dn
dx1 " dx n = vol(D n ) > 0

g : D n S n 1 .

f
f : D n D n
|| f (x ) x || D n
= min || f (x ) x || > 0 . > 0
0 < 3 < = min || f (x ) x ||
p (x ) ,
|| f (x ) p (x ) || <
x Dn p (x ) D n
|| p (x ) || || p (x ) f (x ) || + || f (x ) || < 1 +

1
h (x ) = p (x )
1+

h : D n D n .


1 1
|| h (x ) f (x ) || = || p (x ) f (x ) || = || p (x ) f (x ) f (x ) ||
1+ 1+
1 2
|| p (x ) f (x ) || + || f (x ) || < < 2
1+ 1+ 1+

|| h (x ) x || || x f (x ) || || h (x ) f (x ) || 3 2 = > 0
h h (x ) = x

g : D n S n 1

43
5


Riemann

[a , b ] R {fn (x )} R
f (x ) fn (x ) f (x ) fn (x ) [a , b ] M > 0 ,

| fn (x ) | M , n , x [a , b ]

b b b b
lim fn (x ) dx = f (x ) dx lim D = D lim
n a a n a a n

Lebesgue L
Lebesgue

Lebesgue E fn (x )
| fn (x ) | M , x E , n N
M > 0 lim fn (x ) = f (x ) f (x ) L

lim fn (x ) dx = f (x ) dx
n E E

E m (E ) < fn E
f > 0 E E m (E ) < fn
E E f .


A E
m (E A) fn (x ) A


E
fn (x ) dx f (x ) dx | fn (x ) f (x ) | dx ,
E E

| fn (x ) f (x ) | dx + | fn (x ) f (x ) | dx
A E A

| fn (x ) f (x ) | dx + 2M dx <
A E A

44
5

m (E A)


y = f (x ), y (0) = 0 .
x
y (x ) = f (t )dt
0

d 1
D= Dy = f (x ) y = f (x )
dx D
1 x 1 1 1 x x
= 2 = =
D 0 D DD 0 0


P (D )y = f (x ), y (0) = y '(0) = y "(0) = " = y (n 1) (0) = 0
P (x ) n
1
y= f (x )
P (D )

1 / P (D ) 1 / D

1 a
= kk
P (D ) k =1 D

45
5

1
1
y= f (x ) = ak k f (x )
P (D ) k =1
D


y ' y = 1, y (0) = 0 (D 1)y = 1
1
1 1 1
1 =
1 1 1
y= 1
= 1 + + 2 + "1
D 1
D 1 D D D D

1 x 1 1 1 x x2 1 xn
1 = 1dt = x 2 1 = ( 1) = tdt = n 1 =
D 0 D D D 0 2 D n!

1 x2 1 x
y (x ) = 1 + x + + " = e x = e tdt = e x 1
D 2 D 0


Laplace-
L-
+
L[ f (t )] = f (t )e ptdt = F (p )
0

f (t ) p

46
5


P (D )y = f (x ), y (0) = y '(0) = y "(0) = " = y (n 1) (0) = 0
L-
L[y (x )] =Y (p ), L[y m (x )] = p mY (p ), L[ f (x )] = F (p )
L- P (p )Y (p ) = F (p ) ---
P (p ) P (D )
L-

1
a 1
Y (p ) = F (p ) = kk F (p ) = ak k F (p )
P (p ) k =1 p k =1
p

L - L1 L1
1 1
y (x ) = L1[Y (p )] = L1 ak k F (p ) = ak L1[ k F (p )]
k =1 p k =1 p

L-
x 1
L[ f (t )dt ] = F (p )
0 p

1
k L- F (p )
pk

1 x x
L1[
pk
F ( p )] = 0 dt "0 f (t )dt

1 1 x x

k
f (x ) = L1[ k F (p )] = dt " f (t )dt
D p 0 0

L-
Laplace

L1
L-

47
5


100


20 3

48
6


ODEPDE


Stoltz
Dini Levi Fourier Fourier

1. Stolz
Stolz
Stolz

00

f (x ) f (x )
lim = lim =A
x a + g (x ) x a + g (x )

Stolz

49
6

(a , b ) {tn } tn a .

f (x ) f (tn )
lim = lim
x a + g (x ) n g (t )
n

f (tn ) f (tn +1 ) f (n )
=
g (tn ) g (tn +1 ) g (n )

lim tn = lim n = a
f (tn ) f (tn +1 )
lim =A
n g (t ) g (t
n n +1 )

f (tn ) f (tn ) f (tn +1 )


lim = lim =A
n g (t ) n g (t ) g (t
n n n +1 )

bn = f (tn ) , an = g (tn )
bn b bn +1
lim = lim n =A
n a n a a
n n n +1


f , g bn = f (tn ) , an = g (tn ) .
lim bn = lim an = 0
g (x ) g (x ) 0 , x (a , b ) .
g (x ) > 0 g (x ) < 0 g (x )
an = g (tn )

Stolz {an } , {bn } lim bn = lim an = 0 {an }

bn bn +1
lim =A
n a a
n n +1

50
6

bn b bn +1
lim = lim n =A
n a n a a
n n n +1

{an } an

Stolz

Stolz Stolz

Stolz an

2. Lebesgue
Lebesgue

E m (E )

1. m (E ) 0
2. E F = m (E F ) = m (E ) + m (F ) ,

3. [0 , 1] m ([0 , 1]) = 1 m ([a , b ]) = b a .

b = a P m (P ) = 0 .
3
100 50 20 10 1

51
6

3
1 3 2
Lebesgue
Lebesgue Lebesgue

Lebesgue
m (P ) = 0, [0 , 1]
0 1


A = {E} R E A
m (E )
1. m (E ) 0
2. E1 , E 2 , , En ,

m (n =1 En ) = m (E1 ) + m (E 2 ) + + m (En ) +

3. m ([a , b ]) = b a .

3 m (E )
L

Riemann

E A
I1 , I 2 , , In ,

E n =1 I n


m * (E ) = inf { n =1 | I n |}

m * (E )

52
6

Riemann

Lebesgue

Lebesgue
E [a , b ] E [a , b ]
EC = [a , b ] E

m* (E ) := [a , b ] m * (EC )
E A
m* (E ) = m * (E )
E Lebesgue Lebesgue
m (E ) := m* (E ) = m * (E )


m * (n =1 En ) n =1 m * (En )

3. Fourier Fourier

Stoltz
Fourier Fourier Fourier
VS Fourier
PDE
T Fourier
2 nt
i
f (t ) =
n =
cne T

T 2 nt
1 i
cn =
T 0
f (t ) e T
dt

53
6

n = 0 , 1 , 2 , . l = T / 2 , n = n / l .

Fourier
[l , l ] l .

1 in t
f (t ) =
2 n =
( 2cn l )e l
l

1 l
cn =
2l
l
f (t )e intdt

l

c ( ) = f (t )e itdt

l c (n ) 2cnl
1
f (t )
2 n =
c (n )e int
l


n +1 n =
l
Riemann l
1
f (t ) =
2
c ( )e itd

Fourier c () = f ( )

f ( ) = f (t )e itdt

f (t ) Fourier f ( ) f (t ) Fourier


Fourier f ( ) Fourier
1
f (t ) =
2
f ( )e itd

2 Fourier
F

Fourier

54
6

f (t ) Fourier f ( )


f (t ) Fourier
f ( )

Fourier PDE
Fourier Laplace
Fourier

4.

sn u .
(u ) sn u .


z
dx
u=
0 (1x )(1k 2x 2 )
2

k 0 < k 2 < 1 . z = (u )
(u )


z
dx
u= = arcsin z
0 1x 2

z = sin u . k = 0

sin u
sin(u + v ) = sin u cos v + cos u sin v

55
6

sin(u + v ) = sin u sin v + sin u sin v


(u ) k = 0 sin u (u + v )
(u ) (v ) + (u ) (v )

(u ) (v ) + (u ) (v )
(u + v ) =
(u , v , k 2 )

(u , v , k 2 )


(u , v , 0) = 1
z
du 1
=
dz (1 z 2 )(1 k 2z 2 )

dz
(u ) = = (1 2 (u ))(1 k 2 2 (u ))
du
cosu
f (u ) = 1 2 (u ) , g (u ) = 1 k 2 2 (u )
(u ) = f (u )g (u ) , (0) = 0 , f (0) = g (0) = 1 , (0) = 1

(u + v ) u v
(0, v , k 2 ) = (u , 0, k 2 ) = 1

(u , v , k 2 ) k 2 = 1 .

z
dx 1+z
u=
1
= ln
0 1x 2 2 1z

e 2u 1
z = (u ) =
e 2u + 1

1 + (u )
e 2u = k 2 = 1
1 (u )

56
6

(u ) + (v )
(u + v ) =
1 + (u ) (v )

(u ) = 1 2 (u )
(u ) (v ) + (u ) (v ) = (u )(1 2 (v )) + (1 2 (u )) (v )
= ( (u ) + (v ))(1 (u ) (v ))

(u , v ,1) = (1 + (u ) (v ))(1 (u ) (v )) = 1 2 (u ) 2 (v )
(0, v , k 2 ) = (u , 0, k 2 ) = 1 (0) = 0
(u , v , k 2 ) = 1 k 2 2 (u ) 2 (v )


(u ) (v ) + (u ) (v )
(u + v ) =: D (u , v )
1 k 2 2 (u ) 2 (v )



(u + v ) = D (u , v ) .

D
[1 k 2 2 (u ) 2 (v )]2
u
= f (u )g (u ) f (v )g (v )[1 + k 2 2 (u ) 2 (v )] (u ) (v )[g 2 (u )g 2 (v ) + k 2 f 2 (u ) f 2 (v )]

D D
=
u v
u = (s + t ) / 2, v = (s t ) / 2
D 1 D D
= = 0
t 2 u v


D = (s ) = (u + v )
v = 0 (u ) = D (u , 0) = (u )
(u ) (v ) + (u ) (v )
(u + v ) =
1 k 2 2 (u ) 2 (v )

57
6

R(z , p (z )) dz

R p (z )

1
1 z 4
dz

58
7

dy
= y , y (0) = 1
dx
y (x ) = a 0 + a1x + a 2x 2 +"
nan = an 1 a 0 = y (0) = 1 an = 1/ n ! .

1 2 1
y (x ) = 1 + x + x +"+ x n +"
2! n!


A B C

A B

A
C A
C D. B
D. C A

59
7

A B


1 2
= .
n =1 n
2
6

f (x ) = | x | [ , ] Fourier

bn = 0

2
0
a0 = x dx =

2 2
an = x cos nx dx = [(1)n 1]
0 n 2

f (x ) = | x | Fourier


a0
f (x ) = + an cos nx + bn sin nx
2 n =1

a 2n = 0

4 cos(2n + 1)x
|x |=
2 n =0 (2n + 1)2


1 1 1 1 4 1
n
n =1
2
=
n =1 (2n )
2
+
n =0 (2n + 1)
2
n
n =1
2
=
3 n =0 (2n + 1) 2

60
7

x = 0

1 4 2 2

n =1 n
2
=
3 8
=
6



1 1 1 1
n
n =1
2
=
0
0 1 xy
dxdy

1 1 1 1 1 1
1
1 xy
dxdy = (xy )ndxdy = x
n
y ndxdy
0 0 0 0 n =0 n =0 0 0
1 1
1 1
= x ndx y ndy =
n =0 0 0 n =0 n + 1 n + 1

1 1
= =
n =0 (n + 1) n =1 n
2 2

sin n = 0 n = 1 , 2 , sin x = 0


sin x x2 x2 x2 x2
= (1 2 )(1 2 2 )(1 2 2 ) = 1 2 2
x 2 3 n
n =1

sin x
x 2

1 2

n =1 n
2
=
6

61
7


R f (x ) f (x )

f (x ) = s (x ) + c (x )
f (x ) = s (x ) + c (x ) f (x ) = s (x ) + c (x ) = s (x ) + c (x )
s (x ) c (x )
f (x ) f (x ) f (x ) + f (x )
f (x ) = +
2 2

f (x ) , g (x ) g (x +T ) = g (x )
-
T 1 T T
lim f (x )g (nx ) dx = g (x ) dx f (x ) dx
n 0 T 0 0

Fourier
b b
lim f (x ) sin x dx = lim f (x ) cos x dx = 0
a a

T
lim f (x )g (nx ) dx = 0
n 0

f (x ) 1
T T 1 nT T

0
f (x )g (nx ) dx = g (nx ) dx =
0
n 0
g (t ) dt = g (t ) dt
0

0
T

0
g (x ) dx = 0

g (x ) = sin x g (x )
0 g (x ) = 1 + sin x
T

0
g (x ) dx 0

g (x ) C

62
7

(x ) = g (x ) +C 0
T T T
0 = (x ) dx = g (x ) dx +C dx
0 0 0

1 T
C =
T 0
g (x ) dx

T
lim f (x ) (nx ) dx = 0
n 0

T T 1 T T
lim f (x )g (nx ) dx = lim f (x )( (nx ) C ) dx = g (x ) dx f (x ) dx
n 0 n 0 T 0 0


f (x )

f (x )

f (x ) = a 0 + a1x + a 2x 2 +
x = 0
f (0) = a 0 x x = 0 f (0) = a1
f (n ) (0) = n !an .
e x , sin x , cos x
f (x ) = a 0 + a1x + a 2x 2 +

63
7

1. f (x )
2.
3.


e ix = cos x + i sin x
e z f (z )

copy copy

z = x + iy z
i f (z ) = f (x + iy ) = u (x , y ) + iv (x , y ) .

copy
f (z + h ) f (z )
lim =: f (z )
h 0 h
f (z ) z f (z ) .

64
7

D f (z ) f (z ) D

h 0

x y C-R
u v u v
= , =
x y y x

u , v C-R f (z )
f (z ) C-R u , v

f (z ) 2 C
1 C
b


C
f (z ) dz := f (z (t ))z (t ) dt
a

z = x + iy f (z ) = u (x , y ) + iv (x , y )
x = x (t ) , y = y (t ) .
C : z (t ) = x (t ) + iy (t )
1

C
f (z ) dz := (u + iv ) (dx + idy ) = udx vdy + i vdx + udy
C C C

C
f (z ) C

C
f (z ) dz = udx vdy + i vdx + udy
C C

v u u v
= + dxdy + i dxdy = 0
x y x y
D D

C-R

C
f (z ) dz = 0

65
7

-
b

a
f (x ) dx = F (b ) F (a )


F (z )
z
F (z ) = f ( ) d
0

F (z )


z n f (z )
f (z ) C
i i
lim(z i ) f (z ) = 0
z i

f (z )
1
f (z ) = f (a ) + f (a )(z a ) + f (a )(z a ) 2 +
2!

f (z ) f (a ) 1
= + f (a ) + f (a )(z a ) +
z a z a 2!

f (z ) dz
C z a dz = f (a )C z a
C
C C : z = a + re i

dz 2 ire i d

C z a = 0 re i = 2i
C
C a C C C

C C
= 0

dz dz
C z a = C z a = 2i

66
7

1 f (z )
f (a ) =
2i C z a
dz

a
1 f (z )
f (a ) =
2i C (z a ) 2
dz

n! f (z )
f (n ) (a ) =
2i C (z a )n +1
dz

f (z )
1 f ( )
f (z ) =
2i C ( z ) 2
d

f (z ) | f (z ) | M C = {z : | z z 0 | = R}

1 M M
| f (z ) |
2 |z z0 | =R R 2
d =
R
f (z ) R +
| f (z ) | = 0 , f (z ) = const

P (z ) 0 1 / P (z )
1 / P (z ) P (z )


f (z ) f (z ) f (z ) = const .

67
7

f (z )
f (z )
z
F (z ) = f ( ) d
0

Morera
f (z ) D D C

C
f (z ) dz = 0

f (z )
z 0 D
z
F (z ) = f ( ) d
z0

F (z ) = f (z ) . F (z ) F (z )

68
8

Gauss-Bonnet

69
8

(x ) x

(x )
lim =1
x x / ln x

dt x
L i x =
(x )
2 ln t

L ix
lim =1
x x / ln x

lix
1 x dt
li x = lim
0
0
+
1+ ln t

L i x = li x li 2 .

(x )
(x ) / x

70
8

(x , x + 1000)
x
(x + 1000) (x ) 1

1000 ln x
L ix (x )

(uv )(n )

(uv ) = u v + uv
(uv ) = u v + 2u v + uv
(uv ) = u v + 3u v + 3u v + uv

3 4 5

71
8

1. )
2. u , v n .

n
(uv )(n ) = C nk u (k )v (n k )
k =0


y + p (x )y + q (x )y = 0

y + p (x )y + q (x )y = 0

p (x ) q (x ) y + p (x )y + q (x )y = 0


y = cn (x x 0 )n
n =0

cn

p (x ) q (x )

72
8

d
2
E (k ) =
0 1 k 2 sin 2

0 < k 2 < 1 . k 2

1 2 9 4 25 6
E (k ) = 1 + k + k + k + L
2 4 64 256

----

ugly

ugly

-----Fourier


2T T

=k2

x 2
t


T (0 , t ) = T ( , t ) = 0 , t > 0



T (x , 0) = f (x ) , 0 < x <




k 2
0

73
8

T (x , t ) = X (x )Y (t )
X (x )Y (t ) = k 2X (x )Y (t )
X (x ) Y (t )
= =:
k 2X (x ) Y (t )

> 0 = 0 < 0

:= 2 > 0 .
X (x ) + 2k 2X (x ) = 0 X (0) = 0 , X ( ) = 0
X (x ) = A cos kx + B sin kx A = 0
B sin k = 0 k = n
n
2

n = =
2
k

Y (t ) + Y (t ) = 0
Tn (x , t ) = bne nt sin nx


T (x , t ) = bne nt sin nx
n =1

T (x , 0) = f (x )

f (x ) = bn sin nx
n =1

[ , 0]


T T
(0 , t ) = ( , t )=0
x x


a0
f (x ) = + an cos nx
2 n =1

74
8

f (x )
f (x ) + f (x ) f (x ) f (x )
f (x ) = +
2 2


a0
f (x ) = + an cos nx + bn sin nx
2 n =1

Fourier

an , bn
an , bn
1

a0 = f (t ) dt

1
an = f (t ) cos nt dt

1
bn = f (t )sin nt dt

Fourier Fourier

f (x )
Fourier
+
F [ f (t )] = f ( ) = f (t )e itdt

Fourier
1 +

2
f (t ) = F 1[ f ( )] = f ( )e itd

Fourier Fourier
Fourier

75
8

Fourier

Fourier

-
SCIbird


a + bn
an +1 = n
2

bn +1 = anbn

a 0 = a , b0 = b (a > b > 0) -
A-G an bn
a a1 a 2 L an bn L b1 b

76
8

an bn
0 an +1 bn +1
2
bn anbn
A-G
lim an = lim bn =: M (a , b )
n n

M (a , b )
(1)
M (a , b ) =
2G (a , b )

d
2
G (a , b ) =
0 a 2 cos 2 + b 2 sin 2

G (a , b )
A-G
G (a , b ) 1


2a sin
sin =
(a + b ) + (a b ) sin 2

0 / 2

(a + b ) (a b ) sin 2
cos d = 2a cos d
[(a + b ) + (a b ) sin 2 ]2

sin 2 + cos 2 = 1

(a + b ) 2 (a b ) 2 sin 2
cos = cos
(a + b ) + (a b ) sin 2

(a + b ) (a b ) sin 2 d
d = 2a
(a + b ) + (a b ) sin (a + b ) (a b ) 2 sin 2
2 2

(a + b ) (a b ) sin 2
a 2 cos 2 + b 2 sin 2 = a
(a + b ) + (a b ) sin 2

77
8

d d
=
a 2 cos 2 + b 2 sin 2 a +b
2
cos 2 + ab sin 2
2

a +b
a1 = , b1 = ab
2

d d
2 2
G (a , b ) = =
0 a 2 cos 2 + b 2 sin 2 0 a12 cos 2 + b12 sin 2

d
2
G (a , b ) =
0 an2 cos 2 + bn2 sin 2

an bn

<G (a , b ) <
2an 2bn

n

G (a , b ) =
2M (a , b )


A-G M (a , b )

d d
2 2
G (a , b ) = =
0 a 2 cos 2 + b 2 sin 2 0
a +b 2
cos 2 + ab sin 2
2

A-G A-G

A-G
M (a , b )

78
8

A-G M (a , b )
1. M (a , a ) = a
2. M (ta , tb ) = tM (a , b ) , t 0

a +b
3. M (a , b ) = M ( , ab ) ,
2
M (a , b ) = M (a1 , b1 ) = M (a 2 , b2 ) = L

3
M (1 + x , 1)
M (1 + x , 1) = 1 + Ax + Bx 2 +Cx 3 + L (2)

3
M (1 + x , 1) = M (1 + 12 x , 1 + x ) (3)

x = 2t + t 2 3
t2 t2
M (1 + x , 1) = M (1 + t + , 1 + t ) = (1 + t )M (1 + , 1)
2 2(1 + t )

1 + A(2t + t 2 ) + B (2t + t 2 ) 2 +C (2t + t 2 )3 + L


t2 t4 t6
= (1 + t ) + A +B +C +L
2 4(1 + t ) 8(1 + t ) 2

1 1 1 21 31
A= , B = ,C = ,D = ,E = ,L
2 16 32 1024 2048
M (1 + x , 1)
1 1 1 21 4
M (1 + x , 1) = 1 + x x 2 + x 3 x +L (4)
2 16 32 1024
A-G M (a , b )

M (1 + x , 1 x ) 3
2x
M (1 + x , 1 x ) = (1 x )M (1 + , 1)
1 x
2x
4
1 x
1 5 11 6
M (1 + x , 1 x ) = 1 x 2 x 4 x L
4 64 256

79
8

1 1 9 25 6 (5)
= 1+ x 2 + x 4 + x +L
M (1 + x , 1 x ) 4 64 256

d
2
E (k ) =
0 1 k 2 sin 2

0 < k 2 < 1 . k 2

1 2 9 4 25 6
E (k ) = 1 + k + k + k + L
2 4 64 256

5

E (k ) =
2M (1 + k , 1 k )

a 2 b 2
k =
a

M (1 + k , 1 k ) = M (1 , 1 k 2 ) = M (1 , b / a ) = M (a , b ) / a

E (k )
a
M (a , b ) =
2E (k )

d
2
1
G (a , b ) = E (k ) =
a 0 a cos + b 2 sin 2
2 2


G (a , b ) = , A-G M (a , b )
2M (a , b )


x , t (1 , 1)

80
8

M (1 + x , 1)

1.
2. M M
A-G

3.

4.

5.

81
9

123


2
2

2
y = 1 x

Riemann

82
9

Riemann
b

a
f (x )dx = lim
max{xi } 0
f (i )x i

Riemann

Riemann

a
f (t ) dt

[a , x + x ] Riemann [a , x ]
Riemann f ( )x Riemann f ( )
x 0 x f ( ) f (x )

Riemann f (x )x
= x f (x )x x
f (x ) f (x )

f (x ) R[a , b ] F (x ) C [a , b ] F (x ) = f (x )
f (x ) F (x )
b

a
f (x ) dx = F (b ) F (a )

83
9

Riemann [a ,b ]
{xi } x 0 = a , xn = b
n n
F (b ) F (a ) = F (xk ) F (xk 1 ) = f (k )xk
k =1 k =1

Riemann
b
F (b ) F (a ) = f (x )dx
a

Riemann


---&

t S (t ) [t1 , t 2 ]
[t1 , t 2 ]

t2
S (t 2 ) S (t1 ) v (ti )ti v (t ) dt
t1
i

S (t ) = v (t )
S (t + t ) S (t )
v (t ) := lim = S (t )
t 0 t
-


y = f (x ) x 0
f (x 0 ) = 0

f (a ) = f (b ) (a , b )
f ( ) = 0 , (a , b ) . (a , b )
f () = 0 .

84
9


f (b ) f (a ) = f ( )(b a ) , (a , b )
x = g (t ) , y = f (t )

f (b ) f (a ) f ( )
= , (a , b )
g (b ) g (a ) g ( )

d (uv ) = udv + vdu

dudv
d (uv ) = udv + vdu

Young
f (x ) [0 , + ) f (0) = 0 f 1 (y ) f
a , b > 0
a b
ab f (x ) dx + f 1 (y ) dy
0 0

85
9

b = f (a ) .
Young
0 < b < f (a )

Young

----

: (x a ) 2 + (y b ) 2 = R 2 P
O1 , O | OP |

P
(x , y ) , f (x , y ) = x 2 + y 2 = | OP |2

f (x , y ) = x 2 + y 2 (x a ) 2 + (y b ) 2 = R 2

86
9


: x 2 + y 2 = r 2 ,
r

: x 2 + y 2 = r 2

1. 2.


w = f (x , y , z ) M : g (x , y , z ) = 0

C = {(x , y , z ) : f (x , y , z ) = C , C R}
C C

C g (x , y , z ) = 0
P (x 0 , y 0 , z 0 ) g (x , y , z ) = 0 f |M (P )

C f (x , y , z ) = f (x 0 , y 0 , z 0 ) M : g (x , y , z ) = 0
P (x 0 , y 0 , z 0 )

87
9

M : g (x , y , z ) = 0 P
gx (P )(x x 0 ) + gy (P )(y y 0 ) + g z (P )(z z 0 ) = 0
f (x , y , z ) = f (x 0 , y 0 , z 0 ) P

M : g (x , y , z ) = 0
P (x 0 , y 0 , z 0 )
(t ) = (x (t ) , y (t ) , z (t ))
(t ) M : g (x , y , z ) = 0 (0) = (x 0 , y 0 , z 0 ) P

(0) = (x (0) , y (0) , z (0))


(t ) = f (x (t ) , y (t ) , z (t )) t = 0 (t ) (0) = 0 ,
fx (P )x (0) + fy (P )y (0) + fz (P )z (0) = 0
f (x , y , z ) = f (x 0 , y 0 , z 0 ) P
{fx (P ) , fy (P ) , fz (P )}
(t ) = (x (t ) , y (t ) , z (t ))
(0) = (x (0) , y (0) , z (0))

f (x , y , z ) = f (x 0 , y 0 , z 0 ) P (0)
(0) f (x , y , z ) = f (x 0 , y 0 , z 0 ) P

P
P
f (P ) = k g (P )

= k ,
F (x , y , z ) = f (x , y , z ) + g (x , y , z )

F (P ) = 0 f (P ) = g (P )

88
9

1644

I
I T0 = 42.5
T0 15 T0 15

I
r = RE = 1.5108 km
R = RJ = 7.8108 km I RI = 4.2105 km .
c .

89
9

J E
OE OJ JE

JE = L ( ) = R 2 + r 2 2Rr cos

E / J = (R / r )3/2 12 =:1 / k
O O k

I I
I .
I

I
I E E .
l = JE JE

t = l / c


l = JE JE = L ( + k ) L ( ) L ( )(1 k )
cos = r / R
L ( ) L ( ) = 0 L ( )
E max JE max OEmax
JE max L ( ) E min

I = (Tmax +Tmin ) / 2 = T0
T = Tmax = Tmax T0 = 15 s
1 T0 = 1.75D .

90
9

L ( )(1 k )
r EE . cT = l = r ,
r
c= 3.05108 m
T
c = 3.0108 m

I
c 2.25108 m


240
B

A
---

91
9

AB s A
AC AD tan = AC / AD
+ = 90D
s s
C= 360 = 360
90

92
10

10

p1 , p2 , " , pn p1p2 " pn + 1


p1 , p2 , " , pn
p1p2 " pn + 1

1 + 2 + 3 + " + 100 = ?

1 + 2 + 3 + " + 100
100 + 99 + " + 2 + 1

1 + 2 + 3 + " + 100 = 101100 2 = 5050 .

3
2


x dt
ln x =
1 t

xy dt x dt y dt

1 t 1 t 1 t
= +

ln xy = ln x + ln y .
y = ln x x = e y y = e x .
e x +y = e x e y . e
e dt
1=
1 t

y = ln x y = 1 / x

93
10

y = e x
(e x ) = e x .
e ix = cos x + i sin x

y du
x := arcsin y =
0
1 u 2

x := arcsin y y = sin x .



1
d
: =dx

. -

f (x ) dx = F (x ) +C
C .
Lebesgue
y

Lebesgue

94
10

Riemann x
Riemann
n

f ( )(x
i =1
i i x i 1 )

max{x i x i 1} 0

f (x ) Riemann
{xi } f (i ) . x
Riemann

y f (i )
m f (x ) M [m , M ]
m = l 0 < l1 < " < ln = M

Ek = {x [a , b ] : lk f (x ) < lk +1}

Lebesgue m (Ek ) .
l m (E
k k )
max{lk +1 lk } 0

E
f (x ) dx

Lebesgue Riemann R
L Lebesgue Riemann
L
Ek = {x [a , b ] : lk f (x ) < lk +1}
Lebesgue m (Ek ) Ek
Lebesgue 6

Lebesgue

I = dxdy
D

x y
Lebesgue

95
10

f (x ) x
f (x ) x f (x )
y y x
x = g (y ) x
y x y
y L

Lebesgue
R L

E fn (x )
| fn (x ) | M , x E , n N
M > 0 lim fn (x ) = f (x ) f (x ) L

lim fn (x ) dx = f (x ) dx
n E E


Fourier an , bn
f (x ) . Fourier

Fourier

a0
f (x ) = + an cos nx + bn sin nx
2 n =1


Fourier

f (x ) Fourier f (x )

Fourier

96
10


n (x ) f (x ) Fourier
m
a0
Sm (x ) = + an cos nx + bn sin nx
2 n =1

C 1
1 n 1 S (x ) + S1 (x ) + " + Sn 1 (x )
n (x ) =
n k =0
Sk (x ) = 0
n

f (x ) n (x ) f (x ) .
{n }
+ " + n
n = 1
n
{Sn } Sn A {Sn A}

S1 + " + Sn
A
n
f (x ) Fourier
Sn (x ) g (x )
S 0 (x ) + S1 (x ) + " + Sn 1 (x )
g (x )
n
g (x ) = f (x )

Fourier Fourier
Fourier
Fourier f (x )

Riemann-Lebesgue
f (x ) , g (x ) g (x +T ) = g (x )
T 1 T T
lim f (x )g (nx ) dx = g (x ) dx f (x ) dx
n 0 T 0 0

97
10

Fourier
b b
lim f (x ) sin x dx = lim f (x ) cos x dx = 0
a a

T
lim f (x )g (nx ) dx = 0
n 0

f (x ) 1
T T 1 nT T


0
f (x )g (nx ) dx = g (nx ) dx =
0 n
0
g (t ) dt = g (t ) dt
0

0
T

0
g (x ) dx = 0

g (x ) = sin x g (x )
0 g (x ) = 1 + sin x
T

0
g (x ) dx 0

g (x ) C
(x ) = g (x ) +C 0
T T T
0 = (x ) dx = g (x ) dx +C dx
0 0 0

1 T
C =
T 0
g (x ) dx

T
lim f (x ) (nx ) dx = 0
n 0

T T 1 T T
lim f (x )g (nx ) dx = lim f (x )( (nx ) C ) dx = g (x ) dx f (x ) dx
n 0 n 0 T 0 0

98
10

z
dx
u=
0 (1x )(1k 2x 2 )
2


z = sn u


z
dx
u= = arcsin z
0 1x 2

z = sin u . k = 0

10
3 idea
idea

Fermats Last Theorem FLT

n > 2 x n + y n = z n xyz 0


350 Wiles
20

n n = mp p
(x m )p + (y m )p = (z m )p
n = 4 n = p p

99
10

n = p

p
up +vp +wp = 0
u = x , v = y , w = z .


(a , b , c )
p 5 a p + b p + c p = 0 b a = 4k + 3 .

Ea ,b ,c : y 2 = x (x a p )(x + b p )
Frey

Frey

modular .

Frey y 2 = x (x a p )(x + b p ) modular


Ribet Serre

Wiles Ribet 9
modular
Frey Wiles

Wiles
A , B AB (A + B ) = 16m , m Z (m 0)
EA , B : y 2 = x (x A)(x + B )
modular .

A = a p , B = b p b p 5
AB (A + B ) 32 Frey Ea ,b ,c : y 2 = x (x a p )(x + b p )
EA , B modular Ribet

100
10

Frey

Ribet Wiles
Wiles
Wiles. .

Riemann-Lebesgue

modular .

modular

Poincare H = {z | z = x + iy , y > 0}
0 (N )
a b
0 (N ) = a , b , c , d Z , ad bc = 1 , c 0(mod N )
c d

az + b
Mz := , M 0 (N )
cz + d


H f (z ) N
az + b
f = f (z )
cz + d

M 0 (N ) , z H . f (z )
f (z + 1) = f (z )
f (z ) Fourier
+
f (z ) = ae
n =
n
2 inz

101
10

f (z ) Fourier
+
f (z ) = ane 2 inz
n =0

an = 0 , n = 1, 2, 3, .



y 2 = Ax 3 + Bx 2 +Cx + D
A, B , C , D A 0 .


y 2 = 4x 3 + g 2x + g 3
g 2 , g 3

modular
E : y 2 = Ax 3 + Bx 2 +Cx + D modular
N f (z ) g (z )
f (z ) 2 = Ag (z )3 + Bg (z ) 2 +Cg (z ) + D .

modular
x 2 + y 2 = 1 x = sin z , y = cos z

sin 2 z + cos 2 z = 1

- Q

102
10

(g (z ) , f (z ))

E[C]

f (z ) 2 = Ag (z )3 + Bg (z ) 2 +Cg (z ) + D
-

103
11

11

(x ) x (x + 1) = (x ) .


(4n x )
f (x ) = , x R .
n =0 4n

lim Pn = P
P0 8 / 5

104
11


idea


1.
2.
C C
C
3.

f : D n D n f (x 0 ) = x 0 .
D n
f f (x ) = x
D n
g (x )

105
11

2009
x , y , z 0 , x + y + z = 2 cos x + 3cos y + 4 cos z

2 cos x + 3cos y + 4 cos z = 2 cos x + 3cos y 4 cos(x + y ) := f (x , y )


f (x , y ) D = {(x , y ) | 0 x , y , 0 x + y }
D f (x , y )

D 5 1

fx (x , y ) = 4sin(x + y ) 2sin x = 0

fy (x , y ) = 4sin(x + y ) 3sin y = 0



x , y x + y + z = .
x , y , z a , b , c

c b a
= =
sin(x + y ) sin y sin x

a = 2c , 3b = 4c . a = 6t , b = 4t , c = 3t


11 29 43
cos x = , cos y = , cos z =
24 36 48

11 29 43 61
2 + 3 + 4 = > 5
24 36 48 12

106
11

61
1.
12


(0 , 1) n n

(0 , 1) n
i Xi

P{min(X1 , , Xn ) x } = ?


P{min(X1 , , Xn ) x } = 1 P{min(X1 , , Xn ) > x }
= 1 P{X1 > x , , Xn > x } = 1 P{X1 > x } P{Xn > x }

Xi (0 , 1)
1
P{Xi > x } = du = 1 x
x

n
Fmin (x ) = P{min(X1 , , Xn ) x } = 1 (1 x )n , x (0 , 1)

(x ) = n (1 x )n 1
fmin (x ) = Fmin
X = min(X1 , , Xn )
1 1
EX = nx (1 x )n 1 dx = nB (2 , n ) =
0 n +1

B
(p )(q )
B (p , q ) = (n + 1) = n !
(p + q )


1/ (n + 1)

107
11

1 n n + 1

n + 1 1
n n + 1
1/ n + 1


e
P

1 f ( ) + P ( ) f ( ) = 0 .
x f (x ) + P (x ) f (x ) = 0 .

f (x )e
P (x )
=1

x e
P

f (x ) + P (x ) f (x ) = 0
f ( ) + P ( ) f ( ) = 0
F (x ) = e
P (x )
f (x )
F (x ) f ( ) + P ( ) f ( ) = 0 .

f ( ) + pf ( ) + qf ( ) = 0
p 2 4q 0 .

108
11

f (x )


D = d / dx t 2 + pt + q = 0 1 , 2
(D 1 )(D 2 ) f (x ) = 0


F (x ) = e 2x f (x )
f (x ) 3 g (x ) = (D 2 ) f (x ) 2
(x ) = e 1x g (x )
f ( ) + pf ( ) + qf ( ) = 0

p (z ) = an z n + an 1z n 1 ++ a1z + a 0 , an 0
n

f (z )
C D D

D
f (z ) dz = 0

109
11

p (z ) x R p (x ) R . p (z )p (z )
p (z )
p (z ) = an z n + an 1z n 1 ++ a1z + a 0 , ai C
x R p (x ) p (x )
p (x ) > 0 x R .
2 d
I = >0
0 p (2 cos )

z = cos + i sin 2 cos = z + z 1 dz = izd

1 dz 1 z n 1dz
i |z |=1 zp (z + z 1 ) i |z |=1 z n p (z + z 1 )
I= =

Q (z ) = z n p (z + z 1 ) Q (z ) C
z 0 p (x ) > 0 , x R Q (z ) 0 z = 0

Q (z ) = z n p (z + z 1 ) = an + z ()
Q (0) = an 0 . Q (z ) C
f (z ) = z n 1 / Q (z ) , f (z ) C
I = f (z ) dz = 0
|z |=1

p (z ) C

z 0 , p (z ) = (z z 0 )h (z ) , h (z )
n 1 p (z ) n

1 , 2

110
11

f (z + 1 ) = f (z + 2 ) = f (z )


= {m 1 + n 2 | m , n Z}
1 2

(z ) (z )

1 1 1
(z ) = + 2
z 2
0 (z )
2

1 1 1
cot z = + +
z n =1 z + n z n


(z )
z = 0 z =

1
(z )
0
2

1/ 2 . = 0
1/ 2 1/ z 2
1 1 1
(z ) = + 2
z 2
0 (z )
2

111
11

(z + 1 ) = (z + 2 ) = (z ) .

(z ) (z )
(z ) 2 = 4 (z )3 + g 2 (z ) + g 3
(z ) (z )

(z ) 1 , 2 1 , 2
f (z + 1 ) = f (z + 2 ) = f (z )

f (z ) = H ( (z )) + (z )Q ( (z ))
H (z ) , Q (z ) f (z )

d 2w dw
2
+ p (z ) + q (z )w = 0
dz dz

p (z ) q (z ) w1 (z ) w 2 (z )

w1 (z )
(z ) =
w 2 (z )

z w1 (z ) w 2 (z )
w1 (z ) = w1 (z ) + w 2 (z )
w 2 (z ) = w1 (z ) + w 2 (z )



(z ) +
(z ) =
(z ) +

, , , 0

(z ) z = z ( )

112
11

+
z ( ) = z
+

z + i
F (z ) = F i
i z + i

i , i , i , i i i i i = 1 F (z )

1 1 1
(z ) = +
z 2 0 (z ) 2 2

113
11

z +
M (z ) =
z +

H = {z | z = x + iy , y > 0}
> 0 H
H


a b
G = a , b , c ,d Z , ad bc = 1

c d

G = SL 2 (Z)
(z )
H (M (z ))
M G

H (u ) H

(cz + d )2m


1 a z + bi
(z ) = H i , m >1
i =1 (ci z + di ) 2m
ci z + di

M i , M j G M i M j G .
z +
= (z + ) 2m (z )
z +

2m
2m

1 (z )
F (z ) =
2 (z )

az + b a b
F = F (z ) , G
cz + d c d

sin z cosz tan z

114
11


a = b = d = 1 , c = 0 F (z + 1) = F (z )
G


Langlands

Google Langlands Program

115
12

12

1.
2.
3.
4. -
5.
6.
7.


-
b

a
f (x ) dx = F (b ) F (a )

116
12

Lebesgue f (x ) L
F (x ) = f (x )

F (x ) = f (x )


F (x ) C [a , b ] f (x ) L[a , b ] Lebesgue
F (x ) = f (x )
b

a
f (x ) dx = F (b ) F (a )

Riemann
F (x ) = f (x )

F (x )

117
12

(s )

L[0 , 2 ] Fourier


f (x ) Fourier f (x )
Lp [0 , 2 ] (p > 1)
L[0 , 2 ]

118
12

x dx
0
f (x ) dx =
0 1 + x 6 sin 2 x

x > 0 f (x ) > 0 f (n ) = n lim f (x ) = +


x
f (x ) x = n

119
12

mn 1 1
f (x ) = , x n ,n + , mn = 2n ; f (x ) = 0
n 2 m m
n n

lim f (x ) = +
x
+ mn 2 1
f (x ) dx = 2
= 2 2 < +
0 n mn n

bt
bt

f L[0 , 2 ] Fourier

a0
f (x ) ~ + an cos nx + bn sin nx
2 n =1

an , bn
1

a0 = f (t ) dt

1
an = f (t ) cos nt dt

1
bn = f (t ) sin nt dt

=
f (x ) . Fourier

120
12


n
a0
Sn ( f , x ) = + ak cos kx + bk sin kx
2 k =1

Sn ( f , x )
n
a0
Sn ( f , x ) = + ak cos kx + bk sin kx
2 k =1
1 1 n
=
2
f (t ) dt +
k =1



f (t ) cos kt cos kx dt +
f (t ) sin kt sin kx dt

1 1 n
= f (t ) + (cos kt cos kx + sin kt sin kx ) dt
2 k =1
1 1 n
=

f (t ) +
2 k =1
cos k (t x ) dt

1 sin(n + 12 )(t x )

= f (t ) dt
2sin 12 (t x )


1 sin(m + 12 )(t x )
Sm ( f , x ) = f (t ) dt
2sin 12 (t x )

Fourier m
t = x

f (x ) J 0 x J

1 sin(m + 12 )(t x )
J
Sm ( f , x ) = f (t ) dt
2sin 12 (t x )

f (x ) Riemann-Lebesgue
b b
lim f (x ) sin x dx = lim f (x ) cos x dx = 0
a a

m 0

n (t ) f (t )
J i J n (t ) m
Riemann-Lebesgue

121
12

n (t )
2
Ji
n (t ) dt =
n


| a | = | b + a b | | b | | a b |

sin(m + 12 )(t x )
Ji n (t ) 2sin 1 (t x ) dt
2

sin(m + 12 )(A x ) sin(m + 12 )(t x ) sin(m + 12 )(A x )


= Ji
n (t )
2sin 12 (A x )
dt + Ji n
(t )
2sin 12 (t x )
dt Ji n
(t )
2sin 12 (A x )
dt

sin(m + 12 )(A x ) sin(m + 1 )(t x ) sin(m + 1 )(A x )



Ji
n (t )
2sin 12 (A x )
dt Ji n 2 sin 1 (2t x ) 2sin 1 (2A x ) dt
(t )
2 2

A (m + 12 )A = 2 0 < | A x | ri

sin(m + 12 )(A x ) sin(m + 12 )(A x ) 2 | sin(m + 12 )x |


Ji n (t ) 2sin 1 (A x ) dt = 2sin 1 (A x ) Ji n (t ) dt nri
2 2

| sin 12 (A x ) | 12 | A x | 12 ri
A x nri


1
1 sin(m + 2 )t
+ cos t + cos 2t ++ cos mt = =: Dm (t )
2 2sin 12 t

| Dm (t ) | m 2 .

g (t ) = Dm (t x )
g (t ) g (A) = g ( )(t A)

sin(m + 1 )(t x ) sin(m + 1 )(A x )



Ji n (t ) 2sin 1 (2t x ) 2sin 1 (2A x ) dt
2 2

2m 2d
= Ji
n (t )g ( )(t A) dt m 2d n (t ) dt =
Ji n

122
12

0 < | t A | d .

sin(m + 12 )(t x ) 2 | sin(m + 12 )x | 2m 2d
Ji
n (t )
2sin 12 (t x )
dt
nri

n

x , t , A

n n (x ) En [0 , 2 ]
M n q n
2
1. n (x ) 0 , n (x ) dx = 2
0

2. n [0 , 2 ]

3. lim m (En ) = 2 , lim M n =


n n

4. x 0 En pn x0 qn n Fourier
| S pn x (x 0 , n ) | M n .
0


[0 , 2 ] n Ak = 4k / (2n + 1)
k = 1 , 2 , , n . 1 = 1 , 2 , , n
{mk } J k
1 1
m1 = n , 2mk + 1 = k (2n + 1) , J k = Ak 2 , Ak + 2
mk mk

mk n .

n (t )

mk2 / n , t J k


n (t ) =
n



0 , t [0 , 2 ] Jk

k =1

1 2
2
Ji
n (t ) dt =
n

123
12

E
x E Fourier Sm (x , f ) E
J i

{i }
2 2
i = Ai + 2 , Ai +1 2 , i = 1 , 2 , , n 1
n n

n J k
k {i } {J k }
1/ mk2 2 / n 2

m1 , m 2 , , mk 1
Riemann-Lebesgue mk x k 1 ,
sin(mk + 12 )(t x )
k 1
Ji
n (t )
2sin 12 (t x )
dt 1
i =1

k 1
x , t x k 1 t J i
i =1

| t x | n > 0 n n

{mi } .

i < k i k x k 1
4
0 < Ai x Ai Ak 1 = (i k + 1)
2n + 1
2mk + 1
(Ai Ak ) = (i k )2k
2
1
| t Ai |
mi2

124
12

4 1
A = Ai , ri = Ai Ak 1 = (i k + 1) d = 2
2n + 1 mi

i k , mi mk

1 sin(mk + 12 )(t x ) 2 | sin(mk + 12 )x | 2mk2d | sin(mk + 12 )x | 2



iJ
n (t ) 1
2sin 2 (t x )
dt
n ri

n
2
(i k + 1)

n

1 sin(mk + 12 )(t x ) | sin(mk + 12 )x | 2



Ji
n (t ) 1
2sin 2 (t x )
dt 2
(i k + 1)

n

n (t ) x k 1 , k = 2 , 3 , , n Fourier

1 2 sin(mk + 12 )(t x )
| Smk (x , n ) | = n (t ) dt = k 1 + n
0 2sin 12 (t x ) Ji Ji
i =1 i =k

1 1
| sin(mk + )x | n
1 2 | sin(mk + )x | n k +1
1

2
2

i =k i k + 1


1 >
2
2
i 2
i =1

2 k n n , x k 1
1
| Smk (x , n ) | 2 | sin(mk + 12 )x | ln n 2
2
k = n n

n k +1
1 1
i > ln(n k +1) > ln
i =1
n = ln n
2

k 1

1 1
k 1 = {x k 1 : 2
| sin(mk + 12 )x | }
2 ln n

n [ n ]1
qn = mn , M n = ln n 2 En =
i =1
i lim M n = .
n

lim m (En ) = 2 .
n

125
12

1 1
2
| sin(mk + 12 )x | ()
2 ln n

x
y = sin(mk + 12 )x = sin k (2n + 1)
2

()


22
arcsin 1
=2 = O
ln n

k (2n + 1) / 2 k n ln n

x
y = sin(mk + 12 )x = sin k (2n + 1)
2
[0 , 2 ] k (2n + 1) + 1
2 / k (2n + 1) k 1 4 / (2n + 1) 4 / n 2 . y
k 1 N = O (k )
1 1
2
| sin(mk + 12 )x |
2 ln n

1
N = O
n ln n

n [ n ]1
lim En = lim 4 42 O 1 = 2
n n 2n + 1 n n ln n
i =1

126
12


n (t ) Lebesgue (x )
Fourier n (t )
Fourier


M n {nk }
1. 1 i k 1 qni M nk / 2k
k 1
1
2. max | S
i =1
m ,x
m (x , ni ) |
2
M nk

2
ni Bni
max | Sm (x , ni ) | Bni <
m ,x


nk (x )
(x ) =
k =1 M nk

Levi L fn
sup fn <
E

f fn f
lim fn = f
n E E

Levi
Levi (x )

Si (x , ) = Si (x , nk ) / M nk
k =1

E = lim Enk m (E ) = 2 . x 0 E x 0 En j
k

j (x ) Fourier x 0


j 1
S pj , x 0 (x 0 , ) = S pj , x 0 (x 0 , nk ) / M nk + S pj , x 0 (x 0 , n j ) / M n j
k =1

+ S
k = j +1
pj , x 0 (x 0 , nk ) / M nk

127
12

2
| Sk (x , f ) | (k + 12 ) | f (t ) | dt
0

| S pj , x 0 (x 0 , ) | | S pj , x 0 (x 0 , n j ) | / M n j
j 1
| S pj , x0 (x 0 , nk ) | / M nk |S pj , x 0 (x 0 , nk ) | / M nk
k =1 k = j +1

1
M nj M n j 2(pn j + 12 ) / M nk
2 k = j +1

1
2pn j / M nk 1/ 2k 1 , 1/ M nk 1/ 2k

M n j lim | Si (x 0 , ) | = + , x 0 E .
i

(x ) L[0 , 2 ] Fourier [0 , 2 ]

f (x ) Fourier
[0 , 2] Fourier

128
13

13

----

f (x ) = e 1/x , x > 0 ; f (x ) = 0 , x 0 .
x = 0 0 x = 0
0

an lim an = 0 .

0
f (x ) dx < lim f (x ) = 0
x

f (x ) = sin x 2
f (x )
lim f (x ) = +
x +

x dx
0
f (x ) dx =
0 1 + x 6 sin 2 x

f (n ) = n lim f (x ) = + .
x
x = n

129
13


1 1
= + p < + , p > 1 .
n =1 n n =1 n


1
an = o ( ) an < + .
n n =1


1
= +
n =2 n ln n

show


x = 0 f (x )


D (x ) = 1 , x Q ; D (x ) = 0 , x R Q
D (x ) [0 , 1]

[0 , 1]
q1 , q 2 , q 3 ,
1 , x = q1 , q 2 , q 3 , , qn
Dn (x ) =
0,

Dn (x ) [0 , 1] Dn (x ) D (x )
1

0
Dn (x ) dx = 0

1 1 1
0 = lim Dn (x ) dx lim Dn (x ) dx = D (x ) dx
n 0 0 n 0

Riemann

130
13


Lebesgue
1 1
lim Dn (x ) dx =: (L ) D (x ) dx
n 0 0

(x ) x (x + 1) = (x ) .


(4n x )
f (x ) = x R
n =0 4n
n
(4n x )

131
13


L[0 , 2 ] Fourier
12 H.Levy

u u u
i + 2i (x + iy ) = f (x , y , z )
x y z

f (x , y , z ) C (R 3 )
H.Levy
F.


----- 7

Thom M 7
7 8 B 8 M 7 M 7 = B 8 .
M 7 = B 8 B 8

M 7
mod 7 (M 7 ) mod 7 (M 7 )
B 8 M 7

7 S 7 (S 7 ) = 0 7
M 7 S 7 (M 7 ) 0 . 7
M 7 S 7 . S 7

132
13

7
f (z1 , z 2 , z 3 , z 4 , z 5 ) = z15 + z 23 + z 32 + z 42 + z 52 , zi C

f (z1 , z 2 , z 3 , z 4 , z 5 ) = 0 8 M 8 C5 .
S 9 : | z1 |2 + | z 2 |2 + | z 3 |2 + | z 4 |2 + | z 5 |2 = 1 9

K 7 = M 8 S 9 . M 8 S 9 K 7
7 K 7 K 7 S 7
(K 7 ) 0 7


M 8 O C5
0 K 7 = M 8 S 9

S 7
28 28
(6r 1, 3, 2, 2, 2) : z16r 1 + z 23 + z 32 + z 42 + z 52 = 0 S 9

r = 1 , 2 , 3 , , 28 . K 7 = (5, 3, 2, 2, 2) .


n = 3 Perelman Poincare 3

4 S 4

7
n R n

133
13

n 4 R n

n = 4

R 4 Donaldson Yang-Mills

R 4

R 4
R 4 7
R 4 Milnor
z15 + z 23 + z 32 + z 42 + z 52 = 0 S 9

7 Milnor

6
6

134

L[0 , 2 ] Fourier


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

135

SCIbird


N-L
F (x ) C [a , b ] F (x ) = f (x ) f (x ) Lebesgue

a
f (x ) dx = F (b ) F (a )

Lebesgue

1. f (x ) Lebesgue
2. f (x ) F (x ) C [a , b ] f (x )

1 f (x )

a. f (x ) f (x )
x

a
f (t ) dt

f (x )
b. f (x )

1 , x Q
D (x ) =
0 , x R Q

D (x ) Lebesgue
D (x )


2 N-L

136
2 f (x ) F (x ) C [a , b ] . Riemann

Riemann f (x )

1

x 2 sin 2 , x 0
F (x ) = x



0, x =0

[1 , 1]
1 2 1
2x sin 2 2 cos 2 , x 0

f (x ) = F (x ) = x x x

0, x =0

f (x ) [1 , 1] Riemann

Volteraa F (x ) f (x ) = F (x )
Riemann f (x )
Riemann

Lebesgue f (x )
2
x cos 2 , x > 0
F (x ) = x

0 , x =0

2
2x cos 2 + sin 2 , x > 0
f (x ) = F (x ) = x x x

0, x =0

f (x ) [0 , 1] Lebesgue

F (x ) C [a , b ] f (x ) = F (x )
F (x ) f (x ) Lebesgue N-L
2
F (x ) C [a , b ] f (x ) = F (x ) F (x )
N-L
b

a
f (x ) dx = F (b ) F (a )

137

f :[a , b ] R > 0 , > 0 , [a , b ]
(ai , bi ) , i = 1 , 2 , , n
n

(b a ) <
i =1
i i

| f (b ) f (a ) | <
i =1
i i

f [a , b ]

f (x ) = F (x )

F (x ) Lebesgue
f (x ) = F (x )
x

a
f (x ) dx = F (x ) F (a )

F (x ) F (x ) Lebesgue

N-L
2

F (x ) C [a , b ] F (x ) = f (x ) f (x ) Lebesgue

a
f (x ) dx = F (b ) F (a )

F (x )


F (x ) C [a , b ] f (x ) L[a , b ] Lebesgue
F (x ) = f (x )
b

a
f (x ) dx = F (b ) F (a )

138
D F (x ) = f (x ) , x A = [a , b ] D
u , v (u < v ) [a , b ]
v
F (u ) F (v ) | f (x ) | dx
u

[u , v ] = [a , b ]
F (x ) [a , b ]
[an , bn ] [a , b ]

> 0 ci = i / (b a ) , i = 0 , 1 , 2 ,
Ei = {x A : ci 1 | f (x ) | < ci } , i N
f (x ) | f (x ) | Lebesgue Ei A Ei
A

m (A ) = b a = m (Ei )
i =1

ci 1m (Ei ) | f (x ) | dx ci m (Ei ) , i N
Ei


0 ci m (Ei ) | f (x ) | dx m (Ei )
Ei b a
i N Gi R

Gi Ei m (Gi ) m (Ei ) + ,i N
ci 2i

D D = {u j : j N}
H , M :[a , b ] R H (a ) = M (a ) = 0


H (x ) = ci m (Gi [a , x ]) , M (x ) = j
i =1 u j [a , x ) 2

a < x b . H , M
= sup{x [a , b ] : | F (x ) F (a ) | H (x ) + M (x )}

= b
a
< b

1 A Ek Ek k | f (x ) | < ck .
x1 ( , b )

139
[ , x1 ] Gk | F (x1 ) F ( ) | < ck (x1 )
F (x ) | F ( ) F (a ) | H ( ) + M ( ) .
| F (x1 ) F (a ) | | F (x1 ) F ( ) | + | F ( ) F (a ) |
< ck (x1 ) + H ( ) + M ( )

H (x ) H ( ) + ck (x1 ) H (x1 ) M ( ) M (x1 ) .


| F (x1 ) F (a ) | H (x1 ) + M (x1 )
[a , x1 ] = [a , ] [ , x1 ]

2 D m N = um . F (x )
x 2 ( , b )

| F (x 2 ) F ( ) | <
2m

| F (x 2 ) F (a ) | | F (x 2 ) F ( ) | + | F ( ) F (a ) |

< + H ( ) + M ( )
2m

M ( ) + ( 12 )m M (x 2 ) | F (x 2 ) F (a ) | H (x 2 ) + M (x 2 )
12 = b
m (Gi [a , x ]) m (Gi ) m (Ei ) + ci1 ( 12 )i
b
| F (b ) F (a ) | H (b ) + M (b ) | f (x ) | dx + 3
a


b
F (b ) F (a ) | f (x ) | dx
a

F (x ) f (x ) L[a , b ] Lebesgue
> 0 , > 0 , E [a , b ] , m (E ) < ,

E
| f (x ) | dx <

[a , b ] (ai , bi )
n

(b a ) <
i =1
i i

E = U (ai , bi ) m (E ) <
n n bi
| F (bi ) F (ai ) | | f (x ) | dx = | f (x ) | dx <
i =1 i =1
ai E

140
F (x ) -

H , M
sup

D
D

f (x )
b

a
f (x ) dx f (b ) f (a )


Riemann

f (x ) R[a , b ] F (x ) C [a , b ] F (x ) = f (x )
f (x ) F (x )
b

a
f (x ) dx = F (b ) F (a )

Riemann [a ,b ]
{xi } x 0 = a , x n = b
n n
F (b ) F (a ) = F (xk ) F (xk 1 ) = f (k )xk
k =1 k =1

Riemann
b
F (b ) F (a ) = f (x )dx
a

141
Riemann

---&

t S (t ) [t1 , t 2 ]
[t1 , t 2 ]

t2
S (t 2 ) S (t1 ) v (ti )ti v (t ) dt
t1
i

S (t ) = v (t )
S (t + t ) S (t )
v (t ) := lim = S (t )
t 0 t
-

142


[a , b ]


x | x |
| x | = x 2
| x |




(1 + x ) = x n

n =0 n

> 0 [1 , 1] (1 + x ) .
[0 , 2] x
1 1

x = [1 + (x 1)] = 2 (x 1)n
2
n
n =0


1 (x ) = x [0 , 1]

2 [c , c ] (x ) = | x |

{pn (x )} [0 , 1] (x ) = x .
x 2 = | x |
x 2
q n (x ) = cpn 2
c

{q n (x )} [0 , 1]

143
x 2 x2
c 2 = c 2 = | x | .
c c


| x | +x 0 , x 0
(x ) = =
2 x , x > 0

2 (x ) [c , c ]

(x )

3 [a , b ] (x )
(x ) = c + c0 (x x 0 ) + L + cm (x x 0 )

(x )
x 0 , x1 , L , x m , x m +1

a = x 0 < x1 < L < x m < x m +1 = b


[a , b ] a = x 0 b = x m +1
c , c0 , c1 , L , cm
c + c0 (x x 0 ) + L + cm (x x 0 )
x 0 , x1 , L , xm , xm +1

c + c0 (x x 0 ) + L + cm (x x 0 ) = (x ) [a , b ]
c , c0 , c1 , L , cm

c = (x 0 )

c + c0 (x1 x 0 ) = (x1 )

LL

c + c0 (x m x 0 ) + L + cm 1 (x m x m 1 ) = (x m )

c + c0 (x m +1 x 0 ) + L + cm 1 (x m +1 x m ) = (x m +1 )

m
c + ci (xk x i ) = (xk )
i =0

144
k = 0 , 1 , L , m + 1 .
c , c0 , c1 , L , cm 3

[a , b ]

f (x ) [a , b ] > 0 , > 0
x , y [a , b ] , | x y | <
| f (x ) f (y ) | <
[a , b ] m + 1
a = x 0 < x1 < L < x m < x m +1 = b

xk +1 xk < , k = 0 , 1 , L , m
(x )
f (x k +1 ) f (xk )
(x ) = f (xk ) + (x xk )
xk +1 xk

x [xk , xk +1 ] , k = 0 , 1 , L , m .


| f (x ) (x ) | < , x [a , b ]

xk +1 x x xk
(x ) = , (x ) =
x k +1 xk xk +1 xk

[xk , xk +1 ]
(x ) 0 , (x ) 0 , (x ) + (x ) = 1
(x ) f (x )
(x ) = (x ) f (xk ) + (x ) f (xk +1 )
f (x ) = (x ) f (x ) + (x ) f (x )
[xk , xk +1 ]
| f (x ) (x ) | (x ) | f (x ) f (xk ) | + (x ) | f (x ) f (x k +1 ) | <

| f (x ) (x ) | < , x [a , b ]
(x )

145

146


D n n f : D n D n x 0 D n
f (x 0 ) = x 0 .


D n = {(x1 , L , x n ) R n : x12 + L + x n2 1}
D n S n
f (x ) = x , f : S n S n

g : D n S n 1
g (x ) = x , x S n 1 . g S n 1 D n

f n = 2
n

D = {(x1 , x 2 ) | x12 + x 22 1} S ,

147
g : D S , g (x ) = x , x S .

g = (g1 , g 2 ) : D R 2
= g1dg 2

g = (g1 , g 2 ) g12 + g 22 = 1
(g1 , g 2 )
=0
(x1 , x 2 )

S = D
(g1 , g 2 )
D
= d =
D (x1 , x 2 )
dx1 dx 2 = 0
D

g (x ) = x , x S

D
= x1dx 2 = dx1 dx 2 = > 0
D
D

g = (g1 , g 2 )

g = (g1 , g 2 , L , g n ) = g1dg 2 L dg n .
g (x ) = x S n 1 = D n , || g (x ) || = 1 , x S n 1

Dn
= n d = n d (g1dg 2 L dg n )
D D

(g1 ,L, g n )
= dx1 L dxn = 0
D n
(x1 ,L, x n )
g (x ) = x , x S n 1

Dn
= n d =
D Dn
dx1 L dx n = vol(D n ) > 0

g : D n S n 1 .

f (x ) x
f (x ) x S n 1 g (x )
g : D n S n 1

148
g (x ) = x , x S n 1 f


f : D n D n
|| f (x ) x || D n
= min || f (x ) x || > 0 . > 0
0 < 3 < = min || f (x ) x ||
p (x ) ,
|| f (x ) p (x ) || <
x D p (x ) D n
n

|| p (x ) || || p (x ) f (x ) || + || f (x ) || < 1 +

1
h (x ) = p (x )
1+

h : D n D n .


1 1
|| h (x ) f (x ) || = || p (x ) f (x ) || = || p (x ) f (x ) f (x ) ||
1+ 1+
1 2
|| p (x ) f (x ) || + || f (x ) || < < 2
1+ 1+ 1+

|| h (x ) x || || x f (x ) || || h (x ) f (x ) || 3 2 = > 0
h h (x ) = x

gn (x ) f (x ) .
gn (x n ) = x n ,
x nk x 0 D n gnk (xnk ) x 0 .
f gnk
| f (x 0 ) gnk (xk ) | | f (x 0 ) f (x nk ) | + | f (x nk ) g nk (x nk ) | 0
f (x 0 ) = x 0

149
g : D n S n 1
g
g (x ) = f (x ) + t (x f (x ))
t = t (x ) || g (x ) || = 1
2

a (x )t 2 + 2b (x )t + c (x ) = 0

a (x ) =|| x f (x ) ||2 > 0 , b (x ) = (x f (x )) f (x )


c (x ) =|| f (x ) ||2 1 0
x Dn t = t (x ) .
t = t (x )

150

1
1 1
u 0 (x ) = | x | , x [ , ]
2 2

1
u 0 (x + 1) = u 0 (x ) , 0 u 0 (x ) .
2

1
uk (x ) = k
u 0 (4k x ) , k = 1 , 2 , L
4

151
1
uk (x + ) = uk (x )
4k
uk (x ) 1 / 4k
1 1
0 uk (x ) k , x R
2 4

m m +1 m m +1
m Z u 0 (x ) [ , ] uk (x ) [ , ]
2 2 2 4k 2 4k
uk (x ) k


f (x ) = uk (x ) , x R
k =0


1 1
24
k =0
k
< +

f (x ) R uk (x ) f (x ) R
f (x ) c R . n mn
mn 2 4n 1c < mn + 1

mn m +1
n 1
c < n n 1
2 4 2 4
n
mn mn +1
In = [ , )
2 4n 1 2 4n 1
xn
1
| x n c | =
4n
lim x n = c .

152

f (x n ) f (c ) u (x ) uk (c )
= k n
xn c k =0 x n c
1 1
k n uk (x ) k
| x n c | = n
4 4
uk (xn ) uk (c )
=0
x n c

k n 1 I n I k uk (x ) I k 1 .
mk mk + 1
Ik = [ , )
2 4k 1 2 4k 1
mk uk (x ) I k 1 mk uk (x ) I k
1 .

f (x n ) f (c ) u (x ) uk (c ) n 1 uk (x n ) uk (c ) n 1
= k n = = (1)
x n c k =0 x n c k =0 x n c k =0

n n c R
f (x )


---


X
S X S S S
Sn

E = Un =1Sn

X Sn Sn

Sn X

153


X Sn Sn


X = Un =1Sn

Sn

X [a , b ]
C [a , b ] max
|| f || = max | f (x ) |
a x b

C [a , b ] max X .


f (x + h ) f (x )
Sn = {f X : x [a , b ] , n , h > 0}
h

X Sn .
Sn

f X Un =1Sn

154


1. Sn X Sn = Sn
X fk Sn
fk f
Sn X f Sn
Sn xk [a , b ]
fk (xk + h ) fk (xk )
n , h > 0
h

{xk } xk x 0 x 0 [a , b ] .
h 0
| fk (xk + h ) f (x 0 + h ) | | fk (xk + h ) f (xk + h ) | + | f (xk + h ) f (x 0 + h ) |
fk
fk (xk + h ) f (xk + h ) 0
f
f (xk + h ) f (x 0 + h ) 0

fk (xk + h ) f (x 0 + h ) fk (xk ) f (x 0 )
k
f (x 0 + h ) f (x 0 )
n , h > 0
h

f Sn Sn X

2. Sn Sn
K = {g X :|| g f || < }
(x )
|| f || = max | (x ) f (x ) | <
a x b

n , Sn K


Un =1Sn X

Sn

155
Sn


. [0 , + )

f (x + h ) f (x )
x [a , b ] , n , h > 0
h

Lebesgue y

Sn
Sn Sn
n

BT


BT

Riemann

156


f (x ) = b n cos(a n x ) , x R
k =0

0 < a < 1 , ab 1 .

uk (x )

157

SCIbird

158
(x ) 2
1
f (x ) = e 22
, < x < + , > 0
2

(t ) 2
1 x
F (x ) =
2
e 22
dt , < x < +

N ( , 2 ) . = 0 , = 1
N (0 , 1)

6
99.99966%

- X n A
P{X = k } = C nk pkq n k , 0 < p < 1 , q = 1 p [a , b ] n

X np 1 b x2
lim P a < b =

n npq 2
a
e 2
dx

n

A
A

-
- X1 , X 2 ,L , Xn ,L
EX1 = DX1 = 2 > 0 Sn = X1 + X 2 + L + Xn x

159
t2
S n 1 x
lim P n x =

n
n 2

e 2
dt


---


f (x ) n x1 , x 2 , L , x n
n
L ( ) = L ( ; x1 , x 2 , L , x n ) = f (xk )
k =1

L ( ) = max L ( ) L ( )


1 n
x= xk
n k =1

160
= x f (x )
L (x ) = max L ( ) .

n
ln L ( ) = ln f (xk )
k =1


d ln L ( ) n
f (xk )
=
d k =1 f (x k )

g (x ) = f (x ) / f (x ) L (x ) = max L ( )
n

g (x
k =1
k x) = 0

g (x ) n = 2
x1 x = (x 2 x ) = x g (x ) + g (x ) = 0
g (x ) = g (x ), g (0) = 0
n n = m + 1 x1 = x 2 = L = x m = x , x n = mx x = 0
mg (x ) + g (mx ) = 0
g (x ) = g (x )
g (mx ) = mg (x )
m x g (mx ) = mg (x )
r g (rx ) = rg (x ) . r m / n
m > 0 mg (x ) = g (mx ) = g (nmx / n ) = ng (mx / n ) = ng (rx )
x = 1 g (r ) = g (1)r = cr r
g (x ) = cx

g (x )
g (x ) = cx x

g (x )
n x1 , x 2 ,L, x n g (x k x ) = 0 .

g (x ) = f (x ) / f (x )
1
cx 2
f (x ) = ke 2
+
f (x ) dx = 1 c < 0 c = 1 / h 2

161
x2
1 2
f (x ) = e 2h
2h

N (0 , h 2 )
(x1 , x 2 , L , x n )
1

1 n
2

exp 2
(x k )

2h
n
( 2h ) k =1

(xk ) 2


n x1 , x2 ,L, x n

a xk a k := xk a , k = 1, 2,L, n . a
xk a | 1 | , | 2 | , L, | n |
L = | 1 | + | 2 | +L+ | n |

n n
L (a ) = | 1 |2 + | 2 |2 +L+ | n |2 = k2 = (xk a ) 2
k =1 k =1

a L (a ) a x L (x )
x L (x ) = min L(x ) L (x ) = 0
1 n
x= xk
n k =1

x L (x ) = min L (x ) . x
a

162
L = (Ak ) 2 L Ak

L

k
+ 2


e x dx = ?

D = {(x , y ) : | x | R , | y | R} D

S D S 2R R .

2
R x 2 R 2 R 2 2 2
e dx = e x dx e y dy = e (x +y )dxdy
R R R
D

S D S
(x 2 +y 2 ) 2
+y 2 ) 2
+y 2 )
e dxdy < e (x dxdy < e (x dxdy
S D S

2 2 R
+y 2 ) 2 2

e dxdy = d e r rdr = (1e R )


( x
0 0
S

2
(1e 2R )
2 R 2 2
(1e R ) < ( e x dx ) 2 < (1e 2R )
R

R +
+ 2



e x dx =

163
x2
1 +

2


e 2
dx = 1

1
k = .
2 h

20 500

164

Riemann

C
(C ) (C )
(C ) C
(C )

g =

x 0
L (x ) = (x 0 ) + (x 0 )(x x 0 ) .

C x 0 C
L (x ) = (x 0 ) + (x 0 )(x x 0 ) (x )
(x )

A
(A(C )) = | det A | (C )

A = L det A = det (x 0 ) det A = det D (x 0 ) .

165
( (C )) | det (x 0 ) | (C ) .
f (x )( (C )) f ( (t )) | det (t 0 ) | (C )
x = (t ) . Riemann

(E )
f (x ) dx = f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt
E

x , t D (t ) = (t )

Rm
: Rm
E
1 det D (t ) 0 , t int E
2 int E
(E ) (E ) f (x )

(E )
f (x ) dx = f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt .
E

max (x , y ) = | x y | = max | x i y i | x i
x i max
max U (x , )

S Rm
(x , S ) = inf (x , y )
y S

1 R m
: Rm
K = (K )
| (x ) (y ) | | x y | , x , y K

166
2 R m
: Rm
R m Cl
()

Rm : R m E
(E ) Bd (E )

Bd (E ) = (Bd E )

R 2
E = {(x , y ) | x 2 + y 2 1 , y 0}

: R 2
R2
(x , y ) a (x 2 y 2 , 2xy )

w = z 2
E
2x 2y
det D (x , y ) = = 4(x 2 + y 2 ) > 0 , (x , y ) int E
2y 2x

Bd (E ) = (Bd E ) .
E (E )

Bd (E ) (Bd E ) .

3 Rm
: Rm
E
1 (E )
2
det D (x ) 0 , x int E

Bd (E ) (Bd E ) .
1 (E ) {vn } (E )

vn (E ) un E (un ) = vn .

167
E {un } {unk }
E x :
lim unk = x E

vnk = (unk ) (x ) (E )
(E )

2 (E ) Bd (E ) (E ) .
y Bd (E ) (E ) , x E , (x ) = y .
x int E
y = (x ) int (E )
x Bd E , y (Bd E )

Bd (E ) (Bd E ) .

R m
: Rm
E
det D (x ) 0 , x int E
(E )

R n S
S

4 R m
: Rm
E
det D (t ) 0 , t int E
> 0
S = S int E

168
(E \ S ) < ( (E ) \ (S )) < .

4
Riemann
5 5

5 R m E
: Rm

1 det D (t ) 0 , t int E
2 int E
f (E ) int E ,

()
f (x ) dx = f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt

(E )
f (x ) dx = f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt
E

4 > 0
S int E

(E \ S ) < ( (E ) \ (S )) < .
S ,

(S )
f (x ) dx = f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt
S

(E )
f (x ) dx
(S )
f (x ) dx = ( E ) \ (S )
f (x ) dx B( (E ) \ (S )) < B

B = sup | f (x ) | .
x ( E )

E
f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt
S

= E \S
f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt C (E \ S ) <C

C = sup f ( (t )) det D (t ) .
t E

169
0

(E )
f (x ) dx = f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt .
E

Riemann

h (t 1 , L , t m ) : R


xi = ti , i h

h
h 1 m
x = (t , L , t )

: Rm
t = (t 1 , L , t m )


6 R m E
: Rm

1 det D (t ) 0 , t int E
2 int E
f (E )

(E )
f (x ) dx = f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt
E

x = (t )

x i = t i , i = 1 , 2 , L , m 1

m
1
x = (t , L , t )

m

5 int E ,

()
f (x ) dx = f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt .

170

det D (t ) = >0
t m


= R m 1 R

= [1 , 1 ]L[m 1 , m 1 ]
= [ , ]

x
() = (x , x m )
(x , ) x m (x , )

(x , )

()
f (x ) dx = dx
(x , )
f (x , x m ) dx m
(x , t m ) m
= dx f (x , (x , t m )) dt
t m
(t , t m ) m
= dt f (t , (t , t m )) dt
t m
= f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt

7 Rm
: Rm
. det D( ) 0 > 0
U ( , )
E U ( , ) (E ) f ,

(E )
f (x ) dx = f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt .
E

171
(1 , L , m )
det D ( ) = ( ) 0
(t 1 , L , t m )

m 1 0 m 1
t 1 ,L , t m det D( ) m 1
(1 ,L , m 1 )
( ) 0
(t 1 , L , t m 1 )

t 1 ,L , t m det D ( )
0. t 1 ,L , t m

m
x i = i (t 1 , L , t m ) , i k
k : j
x = t j , j > k

k = 1 , 2 , L , m .

det Dk ( ) det D ( ) k
det Dk ( ) 0 , k = 1 , 2 , L , m
> 0 m 1 , L , m U ( , )

1 = 1

k = k o k11 , k = 2 , L , m

1 = 1 U ( , ) k = k o k11
k 1 (U ( , )) U ( , )
= m o m 1 oLo 1

(E )
f (x ) dx =
m o m 1 oLo 1 ( E )
f (x ) dx

= f (m (u )) | det Dm (u ) | du
m1 oLo 1 ( E )

= LL
= f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt
E

7.

172
= m o m 1 oLo 1


R m
: Rm
E
1 det D (t ) 0 , t int E
2 int E
(E ) (E ) f (x )

(E )
f (x ) dx = f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt .
E

5 int E

()
f (x ) dx = f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt


() = ()
f (x ) dx f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt

E = ( ) > 0 U ( , )
7

( )
U ( , ) E



2

173
E

1
U (1 , ) , L , U ( q , q )
2 2

q
h
E UU ( h , )
h =1 2

1
= min{ , L , q}
2 2

int E .
1 , L , r

l(k ) < , k = 1 , 2 , L r
k
h
U ( h , )
2
l(k ) < < 12 h , k U ( h , h )
(k ) = 0 , k =1, 2 , Lr .
1 , L , r ()

0 () (1 ) + L + (r )
() = 0

(E )
f (x ) dx = f ( (t )) | det D (t ) | dt .
E

2 3
R m : R m a .
a
det D (a ) 0
a a U b = (a )
V :U V

174

SCIbird

2 , 3 , 5 , 7 , L

7 N N.
N Tao N
500

p z , s (x ) x

(x ) x
lim = 1 (x ) ~
x x / ln x ln x

175
x dt
L i x =
2 ln t

L ix
lim =1
x x / ln x

li x
1 x dt
li x = lim
0
0
+
1+ ln t

L i x = li x li 2 li 2 1.04 .
(x )
(x ) / x (x )

(x , x + 1000)
x
(x + 1000) (x ) 1

1000 ln x
L i x (x )


(x ) ~ x / (ln x B ) B

176

(x )
a b
b
(b ) (a ) (x ) dx
a

x
x
(x ) (t ) dt
2

(x )
(x )
(x )

n ! p n ! p
n

n n n n n n n
p = + 2 + 3 + + + + =
p p p p p p p 1

[x ] x
p n n !
n

n != p p
p p 1

p n pn

ln n ! n ln n
ln p
ln n
pn p 1

x n
ln p
ln x
p x p 1

[2 , x )
2 = p1 < p2 < < pm
ln x / (x 1) [pi , pi +1 )

177
ln pi +1 pi+1 pi +1 ln t ln pi pi+1
pi +1 1 pi pi pi 1 pi
(t ) dt (t ) dt (t ) dt
t 1
pi +1
(x ) (t ) dt 1 pi .
pi

[2 , x )

x ln t ln p
(t ) dt
2 t 1 p x p 1


x ln t
ln x = (t ) dt
2 t 1
x
x 1
(x ) =
x ln x
x (x 1) / x 1 . x
x dt
L ix =
2 ln t

(x )

L ix
lim =1
x x / ln x

(x )
lim =1
x x / ln x
x / ln x L ix

178


1 ln p
(s ) = s
, (s ) = s , (x ) = ln p
n =1 n p p p x

(s )

(s )

1 1
(s ) = s
= s
, Re(s ) > 1
n =1 n p 1 p


1
= 1+ x + x 2 + L
1 x
x = p s
1
1 p
p
s
= (1 + 2s + 22s + L)(1 + 3s + 32s + L) L


1 1 1
= 1+
2s
+
3s
+ L =
n =1 n
s
= (s )

Re(s ) > 1 (s )
Re(s ) > 1 (s ) 0 .

(s )
s = 1 (s )
Re(s ) > 0
1
1 1 n +1 1
= s 1 dx
(s )
s 1 n =1 n 1 x
s
dx =
n =1
n
n s s
x

Re(s ) > 0
n +1 1 n +1 x 1 s |s |
1 dx = s
n n s x s n dx n u s+1 du nmax
u n +1 u s +1
= Re(s )+1
n

(s ) Re(s ) > 0 s = 1

(s ) Re(s ) = 1

179
1 (s ) Re(s ) 1 (s ) 0 .
1
x , y R x > 1
| 3 (x ) 4 (x + iy ) 2 (x + 2iy ) | 1
p
1 3 1 1
(1 x
) (1 x +iy ) 4 (1 x +2iy ) 2 1
p p p

r = 1/ p x , e i = 1/ p iy 0 < r < 1 .
| (1 r )3 (1 re i ) 4 (1 re 2i ) 2 | 1
0 < r < 1
1
| (1 re i ) 4 (1 re 2i ) 2 |
(1 r )3

r
| (1 re i ) 4 (1 re 2i ) 2 | = (1 + r 2 2r cos ) 2 (1 + r 2 2r cos 2 )
a = cos cos 2 = 2 cos 2 1 = 2a 2 1 -
| (1 re i ) 4 (1 re 2i ) 2 | = (1 + r 2 2ra ) 2 (1 + 2r + r 2 4ra 2 )
(1 + r 2 2ra ) + (1 + r 2 2ra ) + (1 + 2r + r 2 4ra 2 ) 3

3

3(1 + r + r 2 ) r (1 + 2a ) 2 3
= (1 + r + r 2 )3
3


1
(1 + r + r 2 + L)3 = ( r n )3 =
n =0 (1 r )3
1 y 0 (1 + iy 0 ) = 0 . (s )
s = 1 + 2iy 0 s = 1
lim (x )3 (x + iy 0 ) 4 (x + 2iy 0 ) 2 = 0
x 1+

3(1 + r + r 2 ) r (1 + 2a ) 2
-
h (a ) = (1 + r 2 2ra ) 2 (1 + 2r + r 2 4ra 2 )
max h (a )

180
(s ) 100

(s ) 0 < Re(s ) < 1 Re(s ) = 12

(x ) = Li x +O ( x ln x )

(s ) (s )
1
2 (s ) Re(s ) 1
s 1
(s )

(s ) 1

= ln( )
(s ) p 1 p s
p s ln p ln p
= (ln(1 p s )) = s
= s
p p 1 p p p 1

1 1 1
s
= s s s
p 1 p p (p 1)

(s ) ln p
= (s ) + s s
(s ) p p (p 1)

Re(s ) > 12

(s ) Re(s ) 1 s = 1 (s )
1 (s ) Re(s ) 1 (s ) 0 (s ) s = 1

1
(s ) Re(s ) 1
s 1

(s )

(x )
(x ) (x )
lim = lim =1
x x / ln x x x

(x )

181
3 (x ) ~ O (x ) . f ~ O (g ) c | f | cg

22n = (1 + 1) 2n = C 20n +C 21n + LC 22nn C 2nn

(2n )!
C 2nn = p = e ( 2n ) (n )
(n !) 2
n <p2n

(2n ) (n ) 2n ln 2

(2n ) < 2n +1 ln 2
x R (x 1) m 2m 1 x < 2m
(x ) (2m ) 2m +1 ln 2 = (4 ln 2)2m 1 (4 ln 2)x
(x ) ~ O (x ) .

(x ) ~ x .
Tauber Rudin 9 Tauber
f (t ) L[ f (t )]
f (t ) Laplace

(x ) x
4 dx
1 x2

4 4
(x ) ~ x .

> 1 x (x ) x

x (t ) t x x t u

x t2
dt x t 2 dt = 1 u 2 du > 0
< 1
x (x ) x
x (t ) t x x t 1 u

x t 2 dt x t 2 dt = u 2 du < 0
(x ) ~ x .
(x ) ~ x

182
(x )
lim =1
x x / ln x

(x ) = ln p ln x = (x ) ln x > 0
px p x

(x ) = ln p ln p (1 ) ln x
p x x 1 p x x 1 p x

= (1 ) ln x [ (x ) (x 1 )]

(x 1 ) x 1
(x ) (1 ) ln x [ (x ) x 1 ]

(x ) (x ) ln x 1 (x ) 1 ln x
+
x x 1 x 1 x
(x ) ~ x
(x )
lim =1
x x / ln x


4 4
Laplace

5 (x ) Laplace Re(s ) > 1


(s ) +
= (e t )e st dt
s 0

5 f (t ) = (e t )e t 1 g (z ) = (z + 1) / (z + 1) 1/ z
+
g (z ) = f (t )e zt dt (Re(z ) > 0)
0

x = e t z 0
(x ) x +

1 x 2 dx = 0 f (t ) dt
5

p1 , p2 , p3 ,L p0 = 0 .
ln pn < t < ln pn +1 (e t ) (x )

183
1 1
e st dt = (pn ) s s
ln pn +1 ln pn +1 1
ln pn
(e t )e st dt = (pn )
ln pn s pn pn +1

(pn ) (pn 1 ) = ln pn

1 1
+
(e t )e st dt =
ln pn +1
1
0
n =1
ln pn
(e t )e st dt = n ps ps
s n =1
( p )
n n +1

1 (pn ) (pn 1 ) 1 ln pn 1
= = s = (s )
s n =1 pns s n =1 pn s
5

f (t ) = (e t )e t 1 g (z ) = (z + 1) / (z + 1) 1/ z x = e t
(x ) x +

1 x 2 dx = 0 f (t ) dt
lim g (z )
z 0

6 t 0 f (t )
+
g (z ) = f (t )e zt dt (Re(z ) > 0)
0

g (z ) Re(z ) 0
+ +
g (0) = lim
z 0+ 0
f (t )e zt dt =
0
f (t ) dt

g (z ) = (z + 1) / (z + 1) 1/ z 2 g (z )
Re(z ) 0 4 6

T > 0
T
gT (z ) = f (t )e ztdt
0

gT (z )
lim gT (0) = g (0)
T

R > 0 R C
D = {z C :| z | R , Re(z ) > } C = D g (z ) D
C
z2
F (z ) := (g (z ) gT (z ))e zT 1 + 2
R

184
1 F (z )
g (0) gT (0) = F (0) =
2i C z
dz

1
zT z 2 dz
2i C
= (g (z ) g (z ))e 1 +
T
R 2 z

C + = {z C :| z | = R , Re(z ) 0} C = C {Re(z ) < 0} C = C + C

B = maxt 0 | f (t ) |
Be Re(z )T
| g (z ) gT (z ) | =
T
f (t )e ztdt B | e zt | dt =
T Re(z )

z2 1 2 Re(z )
e zT 1 + 2 = e Re(z )T
R z R2

2B
| F (z ) | , z C +
R2

1
zT z 2 dz B
2i C+ (g (z ) gT (z ))e 1 +
R 2 z

R

C = C {Re(z ) < 0} gT (z ) g (z )

185
gT (z ) C
C = {z C :| z | = R , Re(z ) < 0}
C
1
zT z 2 dz 1
zT z 2 dz
2i C T
g (z )e 1 +
R 2 z
=
2i C
gT (z )e 1 +
R z
2

T T Be Re(z )T
| gT (z ) | = 0
f (t )e ztdt B

| e zt | dt =
| Re(z ) |
, Re(z ) < 0

1
zT z 2 dz B
2i C
gT (z )e 1 + 2
R z R

1
zT z 2 dz
2i C g (z )e 1 +
R 2 z

Lebesgue
1
zT z 2 dz
lim
T 2i C g (z )e 1 + =0
R 2 z

2B
lim sup g (0) gT (0) = lim sup
T T C+
+
C

R

R
+ +
g (0) = lim
z 0+ 0
f (t )e zt dt =
0
f (t ) dt

6 4

Li x (x ) Li x
x / ln x
[1 , x ]

186
1 / ln x


(x ) li x < 0

x (x ) li x > 0 x (x ) li x < 0 .
(x ) li x

(x ) li x > 0
x

(x ) = Li x +O ( x ln x )


(s )
(s )

187
style

188

SCIbird