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Abstract

A condensed version of the entire paper; summarizes the four essential aspects of the paper, namely,
purpose of the experiment, results (% yield, % purity, etc.), significance of the study, and major
conclusions. It should give one an idea of the scope of the study. It includes a very brief summary of
the major steps/techniques used in the experiment. Do not include too much background
information. No detailed procedures and sources of errors. Typically, 100-200 words.
Sample:
Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was examined using fluorescence and absorbance spectra from sulfidic cave
and thermal and non-thermal surface-discharging spring waters. Many of the sites have a limited allochthonous supply of
organic matter (OM) and contain ecosystems that are dependent on chemolithoautotrophic microbial communities. Water-
extracted OM from microbial mats at the sites had fluorescence signatures consistent with the fluorescent amino acids. Based
on fluorescence-derived indices and absorbance spectral characteristics, the origin of the cave and spring CDOM appeared to
be from microbially-derived material, and the degree of OM humification was low. Little of the CDOM pool was represented by
terrestrial humic fluorescence signatures, which are typically observed in surface waters, as well as soil and sediment
porewaters. Comparison of the cave and spring waters with a wide array of reference humic substances and OM from other
environments showed a continuum of spectral properties constrained by origin and degree of humification.

Purpose
Results
Significance
Major Conclusion
Scope -one idea
Summary of Steps

What are Alkyl Hlides with significance , how to prepare with purpose (to synthesize) (discuss) ,
Significance ,Result ,

are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or


more halogens.
Alkyl halides are compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens and of which are often used as anaesthetics
,freons and pesticedes. These compounds can be synthesized when treated with a hydrogen halide undergoing nucleophilic substitution
(SN). Being insoluble in water, alkyl halides were separated from the aqueous layer after the reaction using a separatory funnel. The
alkyl halide was then purified using simple distillation with the use of the boiling point differences of tert-butyl chloride and not. A
colorless appearance was then acquired at the end of the experiment noting its boiling point as 49.5 with a percent recovery of
59.5% .

y, there is an slight deviation of the experimental value to the theoretical because of an imperfect set-
up and other various factors that contributed to inaccuracy of the data.
n this experiment, alkyl halides were synthesized using tert-butyl alcohol and hydrochloric acid
via SN1 method. SN1 mechanism involved protonation of the alcoholic oxygen, cleavage of the C-
O bond to allow the loss of the good leaving group and give a carbocation intermediate and
finally, attack of
Based on the experiment, alkyl halides undergoes SN1 reaction (unimolecular) with tert-butyl
alcohol and hydrochloric acid

Alkyl halides can be prepared by the reaction of alcohols with hydrogen halides, HX (X
can be Cl, Br or I). When treated with Cl, Br or I, alcohols undergo a nucleophilic substitution
(SN) reaction. There are two kinds of SN reactions, the SN 1 and SN2, which involves unimolecular
and biomolecular respectively. In this experiment, alkyl halides were synthesized using tert-butyl
alcohol and hydrochloric acid via SN 1 method. SN1 mechanism involved protonation of the
alcoholic oxygen, cleavage of the C-O bond to allow the loss of the good leaving group and give a
carbocation intermediate and finally, attack of the chloride ion on the electrophilic carbocation
to create an alkyl chloride. The insolubility of the alkyl halide in water allows the separation of it
from the aqueous layer using a separatory funnel. The alkyl halide, then, were purified by a
simple distillation apparatus using boiling point differences between the pure tert-butyl chloride
and not. The experiment was deemed a success after a colorless tert-butyl chloride with a
boiling point of 49.5 was gathered with a percent yield of 59.5% by the end of the experiment.

Alkyl Halides are compounds derived from alkanes with a halogen included in it. It can be synthesized
through the reaction of an alcohol and a hydrogen halide, thus the objective of the experiment. An
important process contained in this experiment is the simple distillation wherein the purification of a
compound is done. It is through from both the activity of evaporation and condensation that the
process of distillation occurs. The purified compound is the product that the objectives aim in which
the result was ## grams of tert-butyl compound. The end result was colorless in appearance and has a
boiling point of ## degrees Celsius.
With a ## percent recovery, there is an slight deviation of the experimental value to the
theoretical because of an imperfect set-up and other various factors that contributed to inaccuracy of
the data.