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Lecture Notes

Fundamentals of Control Systems

Instructor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Huynh Thai Hoang


Department of Automatic Control
Faculty of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology
Email: hthoang@hcmut.edu.vn
huynhthaihoang@yahoo.com
Homepage: www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/

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Course objectives

This course iis about


Thi b the
h analysis
l i anddddesign
i off
control systems with emphasis on modeling, state
variable representation
representation, computer solutions
solutions,
modern design principles.

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Course outline

Ch t 1:
Chapter 1 Introduction
I t d ti
Chapter 2: Mathematical model of continuous systems
Chapter 3: System dynamics
Chapter 4: Analysis of system stability
Chapter 5: Performances of control systems
Chapter 6: Design of control systems
Chapter 7: Mathematical model of continuous systems
Chapter 8: Analysis of discrete control systems
Chapter 9: Design of discrete control systems

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Textbook

Textbook:
T tb k Katsuhiko
K t hik Otaga,
Ot M d
Modern C t l Engineering,
Control E i i
3rd ed., Prentice Hall

Reference:
Franklin, Powell, and Emami-Naeini, Feedback Control
of Dynamic Systems,
Systems 6th ed.,
ed Prentice Hall,
Hall 2009
Farid Golnaraghi and Benjamin C. Kuo, Automatic
Control Systems, 9th ed., 2009, Prentice Hall.
Richard
Ri h d C.C Dorf
D f andd Robert
R b t H.
H Bishop,
Bi h M d
Modern C t l
Control
Systems, 11th ed, Peason.

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Grading

Class participation:
Cl ti i ti 10%
Homework: 20%
Midterm exam: 20%

Project presentation: 20%


Final exam: 30%

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How to learn the course???
( ) After 2 weeks we
(*)
tend to remember
10% of what we read Reading
20% of what we hear Hearing words
30% of what we see Looking at pictures
Watching a movie
50% of what we Looking at an exhibit
see and hear Watching a demostration PASSIVE
Seeing
S i it ddone on llocation
ti
70% of what Participating in a discussion
we say ACTIVE
Given a talk
90% of what Doing a dramatic presentation
we say Simulating the real experience
and do Doing the real thing
(*) Edgar Dale, Audio-Visual Methods in Teching, Holt, Rinehart and Winston
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Chapter
p 1

INTRODUCTION

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Topics

Whatt is
Wh i control
t l system?
t ?
Control principles
Components of control systems
Examples of control systems
Review
e e o of co
complex
p e variables
a ab es a
and
d Laplace
ap ace ttransform
a so

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What is control system?
?

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Exercise

Find examples of control systems?

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Exercise
Explain how a control system works?

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Example of a control process

Objective is to keep moving at constant speed.


Activities in controlling the car:
1 reading
1. di velocimeter
l i t
2. deciding to increase or decrease speed
3. actingg on the g
gas ppedal

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Definition of control concept

Control
C t l is
i the
th process off getting
tti i f
information,
ti
processing information and making decision, and
acting
ti on a system
t so that
th t the
th system
t reponses as
desired.

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Control loop

Desired
speed Car speed
+_

Measured
speed

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Components of a control system

R(s) E(s) Y(s)


+_ C(s) G(s)

H(s)
Yfb(s)

Notation:
C(s): controller R(s): setpoint
G( ) plant
G(s): l t Y( ) controlled
Y(s): t ll d output
t t
H(s): sensor Yfb(s): feedback signal
E( ) control
E(s): t l error

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A simple level control system

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Level control system in industry

LC

LV

LT
Liquid tank

LC: Level Controller


LT: Level Transmitter
LV Level
LV: L l valve
l

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Speed control of steam engine

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Why control?

I
Increase productivity
d ti it
Increase quality
Increase economic benefit

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Plants
Very diverse
Class of systems:
Electrical

Mechanical

Thermal
Th l
Fluid

Chemistry
Ch i t
Real systems consist of different kind of basic systems.

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Sensors
Temperature sensor
Position sensor
V l it sensor
Velocity
Accelocity sensor
Distant sensor
Flow sensor
Level sensor
Pressure sensor
Force sensor
Color sensor
...
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Controllers

M h i l controller
Mechanical ll
Electrical controller
Analog controller
Digital controller
Microcontroller, DSP based control
Computer based control
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

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Basic problems in control

System Analysis
System Design
System Identification

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Control schemes

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Open--loop control
Open

n(t)

r(t) u(t) y(t)


Controller Plant

Feedforward control
Control without feedback information

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Closed--loop control
Closed

n(t)

r(t) e(t)
(t) u(t)
(t) y(t)
Controller Plant

ym(t)

Sensor

Feedback control
Need to measure system output

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Exercise
Open-loop
Open loop or closed-loop
closed loop control system?
s stem?
Plant?
Sensor?
Controller?

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Feedback and feedforward control

FF control n(t)

r(t) e(t) y(t)


FB control ++ Plant
ym(t)

Sensor

This combined control scheme is widely used in


i d t
industry

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Multi--loop control system
Multi

Setpoint Output
C2 C1 P1 P2
r(t) y(t)

S1

S2

This control scheme is also refered as Cascade Control


Multi-loop control is widely used in industry

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Hierachy control

Decentralized control
Distributed
Di t ib t d control
t l

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Hierachy control
Example: SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition)

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Beer making process

Chit chai

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Control system clasification

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Control system classification

Continuous
C i system: All signals
i l iin the
h system are continous.
i
Discrete system: There exists discrete signals in the system
Linear system: The system satisfies the superposition
principle.
Nonlinear system:
y The system
y dont satisfies the
superposition principle.
Time Invariant System: Parameters of the system dont
change over time
time.
Time Varying System: Parameters of the system change over
time.
SISO system: Single Input Single Output system
MIMO system: Multi-Input Multi-Output system

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History of control theory

Classical control
Modern control
Intelligent control

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Classical control
Mathematic models used in analysis and design control
systems are transfer functions.
Features:
Simple, easy to understand
Advantages: easy to apply to analysis and design SISO
li
linear ti
time invariant
i i t system.
t
Frequency domain techniques.
Analysis and design techniques:
Root locus.
Frequency
q y response:
p Nyquist,
yq , Bode.
Controllers:
Lead lag controllers
PID (Proportional Integral Derivative)

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Modern control
Mathematical model used
sed in anal
analysis
sis and design is mainl
mainly the
state-space equation.
Features:
Can be applied to nonlinear systems, time varying
systems,
y multiple
p input-
p multiplep output
p system.
y
Time domain technique
Analysis and design method:
Optimal control.
Adaptive control.
Robust Control
Controller:
State feedback controller
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Intelligent control

In principle, mathematic models are not required in design


intelligent control system.
F t
Features:
Simulate / emulate biological intelligence system.
The controller is capable of processing uncertain
information, learning, and handling large amounts of data
Intelligent control techniques:
Fuzzy Control
Neural Networks
Genetic Algorithm

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Course objective

The course Fundamental


Th F d l off C
Controll S
Systems mainly
i l
presents the classic method for analysis and design
of SISO linear time invariant systems.
The knowledge gained from the course help student
to analyze and design control systems at the
executive level.

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Related courses

To be
T b able
bl to
t d
design
i ththe control
t l system
t att th
the
implementation level, in addition to knowledge of
automatic control theory
theory, a designer needs to master the
relevant knowledge, such as:
Circuits,
Circuits Electronic circuits
Industrial Measurement
Digital system,
system Microprocessor
Computer based control system, ...

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Graphic Symbols for
Process Displays

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Standard ISA 5.5

The purpose off this


Th thi standard
t d d is i to
t establish
t bli h a system
t off
graphic symbols for process displays that are used by plant
operators, engineers,
g etc., for process monitoringg and control.
The standard is intended to facilitate rapid comprehension by
the users of the information that is conveyed through displays,
and to establish uniformity of practice throughout the process
industries.
Resultingg benefits are intended to be as follows:
A decrease in operator errors
A shortening of operator training
Better communication of the intent of the control system
designer to the system users

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Symbol of process equipments

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Symbol of process equipments

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Symbol of valves

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Symbol of control valves

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Symbol of electrial component (cont.)

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Symbol of electrial component (cont.)

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Symbol of measurement equipment and indicator

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Symbol of power supply

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Symbol of power supply (cont.)

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Symbol of power supply (cont.)

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Symbol of signals

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Symbol of connection

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Symbol of measument equipment

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Symbol of level measurement equipment (cont.)

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Symbol of level measurement equipment (cont.)

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Symbol of flow measurement equipment

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Symbol of flow measurement equipment (cont.)

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Symbol of function blocks

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Symbol of function blocks

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Equipment Identification Label

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Equipment Identification Label

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Control process diagram Example 1

PT100

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Control process diagram Example 2

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Control process diagram Example 3

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Control process diagram Example 4

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Applications of control systems

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Applications of control theory
Feedback control can be found in many applications:
Production system: cement plants, sugar mills, ....
Industrial
dust a p processes:
ocesses te
temperature,
pe atu e, flow,
o ,ppressure,
essu e, speed, ...
Mechatronics: robot arms, computer numerical control
(CNC), ...
Information systems
Power generation and transmission
Transportation systems:
s stems cars,
cars trains,
trains aircraft,
aircraft spacecraft,
spacecraft ...
Military equipments
Measurement
Home appliances: air conditioners, televisions, refrigerators,
washing machines, cameras, rice cookers, ...
Medical equipments

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Temperature control

Temperature control plays an important role in many


manufacturing systems: production of cement, ceramic tiles,
pulp and paper,
paper rubber and plastic,
plastic oil and gas,
gas food and
beverage,

Cement factory Paper factory

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Examples of temperature control

Agricultural
A i lt l product
d t drying
d i system
t ( ff
(coffee, cashew
h nut,
t
black pepper,)

Agricultural product drying system


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Block diagram of a temperature control system

Differential Power Heater


Controller amplifier
p
amplifier

Measurement

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Temperature controller and user interface
VCC
4.7k 4.7k 4.7k 4.7k
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4

1k 1k
A1015 1k A1015 A1015 1k A1015
PORTD<5> PORTD<4> PORTD<6> PORTD<7>

D6

7
LED 7DOAN
LED_7DOAN

VCC1

VCC2

VCC3

VCC4
DOT
. . . .
G
D

C
E

A
F
10

12

11
8

2
A
B
C
D
E
VCC F
G
DOT VCC

SW5 10k
10k

PIC16F877A
1 33 DOT
MCLR*/VPP RB0/INT 34 A SW4
2 RB1 35 B
V_sensor RA0/AN0 RB2 C
3 36
4 RA1/AN1 RB3/PGM 37 D SW4
5 RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF RB4 38 E
VREF+ RA3/AN3/VREF+ RB5 F
6 39
7 RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT RB6/PGC 40 G
RA5/AN4/SS*/C2OUT RB7/PGD SW3
15 19 SW4
16 RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI RD0/PSP0 20 SW3
17 RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 RD1/PSP1 21 SW2 SW3
PORTC<2> RC2/CCP1 RD2/PSP2 SW1
18 22
23 RC3/SCK/SCL RD3/PSP3 27
RC4/SDI/SDA RD4/PSP4 PORTD<4>
24 28
RC5/SDO RD5/PSP5 PORTD<5>
25 29 SW2
RC6/TX/CK RD6/PSP6 PORTD<6>
26 30
RC7/RX/DT RD7/PSP7 PORTD<7>
C16
13 SW2
OSC1/CLKIN 8
33p RE0/RD*/AN5
10MHz 9
C17 CRYSTAL RE1/WR*/AN6 10 SW1
14 RE2/CS*/AN7
OSC2/CLKOUT
33p
12 11 SW1
VSS VDD VCC
31 32
VSS VDD

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Temperature measurement using thermocouple
5V
U1
5V
1
VC C

U2
LM35
35

7
1
VOUT
2 3 + V22 R1
6
C1 2 -
25k
OP07
GND

10uF 5V
4
8

-5V
5 U4 5
5V

7
1
U5
V3
3

7
1
3 +
0 6 3 + Vout
2 - R5 6
0 OP07 2 - PA0/ADC0
100 OP07
5V

4
8
-5V

4
8
U3 -5V
Thermo couple
7
1

R4
J1 3 + R2 1.8k R6
1 6 V1 R3
2 -
C2 100 100 3.9k
OP07
10uF
4
8

-5V 0
0 0

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Power circuit

R3 FUSE Heater
+12V
470

6
1
U15
2 MOC3020 Q2 220Vac
BTA16 0Vdc
4
PORTC<2> Q1
R1
Q2SC1815
47k

R2
330

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An industrial temperature control system

Temperature Furnace
controller

Thermocouple

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Motor control
Motors (DC,
(DC AC) are one of the most common actuators used
machinery and manufacturing factory.
Three basic control problems: speed control, position control,
torque control

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Antenna position control

Potentiometer
Antenna
i(t)

o(t)
Desired
azimuth angle Azimuth
angle
input
output

Differential amplifier
and power amplifier
Motor Potentiometer

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Analog PID control of DC motor

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Digital PID control of DC motor

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An industrial DC motor control system

DC Motor

E
Encoder
d

DC Driver

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Level control

Level control can be found


f in industrial processes such
as food and beverage, waste water treatment,
Level control, flow control
Sensor:
Level sensor: presure sensor, capacitor sensor, ultra
sonic
Flow sensor: ultra sonic

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Level control system in industry

LC

LV

LT
Li id ttank
Liquid k

LC: Level Controller


LT: Level Transmitter
LV: Level Valve
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Pulp concentration control

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Pitch angle control

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Block diagram of pitch angle control system

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CNC diagram

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Block diagram of CNC control system

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Distillation Process

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Steam Power Generator

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Course learning outcomes
Explain the concepts of open
open-loop
loop and closed-loop
closed loop control systems
Describe continuous and discrete control systems using transfer function
and state space model
Calculate the equivalent transfer function of control systems using block
diagram and signal flow graph
Analyze the dynamics of control systems in time domain and frequency
domain
Analyze the stability of control systems
Analyze the transient and steady-state performances of control systems
Analyze the controllability and observerbility of control systems
Design lead-lag compensator using root locus and frequency response
Design PID controller using frequency response, Zeigler-Nichols method
D i state
Design t t ffeedback
db k controller
t ll usingi polel placement
l t method
th d
Use teamwork and comunication skills in collaborating course design
projects
Use modern software in analysis and design control systems

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Review of complex
p
variables and matrix theory

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Review

Complex
C l variables:
i bl A
Appendix
di B,
B Feedback
F db k Control
C t l off
Dynamic Systems, Franklin, Powell, and Emami-Naeini, 6th
ed Prentice Hall,
ed., Hall 2009
Matrix theory: Appendix C, Feedback Control of Dynamic
Systems Franklin,
Systems, Franklin Powell,
Powell and Emami-Naeini,
Emami Naeini 6th ed.,
ed
Prentice Hall, 2009

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