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Department of Automatic Control

Faculty of Electrical & Electronics Engineering

Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology

Email: hthoang@hcmut.edu.vn

huynhthaihoang@yahoo.com

Homepage: www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/

Course objectives

Thi b the

h analysis

l i anddddesign

i off

control systems with emphasis on modeling, state

variable representation

representation, computer solutions

solutions,

modern design principles.

Course outline

Ch t 1:

Chapter 1 Introduction

I t d ti

Chapter 2: Mathematical model of continuous systems

Chapter 3: System dynamics

Chapter 4: Analysis of system stability

Chapter 5: Performances of control systems

Chapter 6: Design of control systems

Chapter 7: Mathematical model of continuous systems

Chapter 8: Analysis of discrete control systems

Chapter 9: Design of discrete control systems

Textbook

Textbook:

T tb k Katsuhiko

K t hik Otaga,

Ot M d

Modern C t l Engineering,

Control E i i

3rd ed., Prentice Hall

Reference:

Franklin, Powell, and Emami-Naeini, Feedback Control

of Dynamic Systems,

Systems 6th ed.,

ed Prentice Hall,

Hall 2009

Farid Golnaraghi and Benjamin C. Kuo, Automatic

Control Systems, 9th ed., 2009, Prentice Hall.

Richard

Ri h d C.C Dorf

D f andd Robert

R b t H.

H Bishop,

Bi h M d

Modern C t l

Control

Systems, 11th ed, Peason.

Grading

Class participation:

Cl ti i ti 10%

Homework: 20%

Midterm exam: 20%

Final exam: 30%

How to learn the course???

( ) After 2 weeks we

(*)

tend to remember

10% of what we read Reading

20% of what we hear Hearing words

30% of what we see Looking at pictures

Watching a movie

50% of what we Looking at an exhibit

see and hear Watching a demostration PASSIVE

Seeing

S i it ddone on llocation

ti

70% of what Participating in a discussion

we say ACTIVE

Given a talk

90% of what Doing a dramatic presentation

we say Simulating the real experience

and do Doing the real thing

(*) Edgar Dale, Audio-Visual Methods in Teching, Holt, Rinehart and Winston

6 December 2013 H. T. Hoang - www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 6

Chapter

p 1

INTRODUCTION

Topics

Whatt is

Wh i control

t l system?

t ?

Control principles

Components of control systems

Examples of control systems

Review

e e o of co

complex

p e variables

a ab es a

and

d Laplace

ap ace ttransform

a so

What is control system?

?

Exercise

Exercise

Explain how a control system works?

Example of a control process

Activities in controlling the car:

1 reading

1. di velocimeter

l i t

2. deciding to increase or decrease speed

3. actingg on the g

gas ppedal

Definition of control concept

Control

C t l is

i the

th process off getting

tti i f

information,

ti

processing information and making decision, and

acting

ti on a system

t so that

th t the

th system

t reponses as

desired.

Control loop

Desired

speed Car speed

+_

Measured

speed

Components of a control system

+_ C(s) G(s)

H(s)

Yfb(s)

Notation:

C(s): controller R(s): setpoint

G( ) plant

G(s): l t Y( ) controlled

Y(s): t ll d output

t t

H(s): sensor Yfb(s): feedback signal

E( ) control

E(s): t l error

A simple level control system

Level control system in industry

LC

LV

LT

Liquid tank

LT: Level Transmitter

LV Level

LV: L l valve

l

Speed control of steam engine

Why control?

I

Increase productivity

d ti it

Increase quality

Increase economic benefit

Plants

Very diverse

Class of systems:

Electrical

Mechanical

Thermal

Th l

Fluid

Chemistry

Ch i t

Real systems consist of different kind of basic systems.

Sensors

Temperature sensor

Position sensor

V l it sensor

Velocity

Accelocity sensor

Distant sensor

Flow sensor

Level sensor

Pressure sensor

Force sensor

Color sensor

...

6 December 2013 H. T. Hoang - www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 23

Controllers

M h i l controller

Mechanical ll

Electrical controller

Analog controller

Digital controller

Microcontroller, DSP based control

Computer based control

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

Basic problems in control

System Analysis

System Design

System Identification

Control schemes

Open--loop control

Open

n(t)

Controller Plant

Feedforward control

Control without feedback information

Closed--loop control

Closed

n(t)

r(t) e(t)

(t) u(t)

(t) y(t)

Controller Plant

ym(t)

Sensor

Feedback control

Need to measure system output

Exercise

Open-loop

Open loop or closed-loop

closed loop control system?

s stem?

Plant?

Sensor?

Controller?

Feedback and feedforward control

FF control n(t)

FB control ++ Plant

ym(t)

Sensor

i d t

industry

Multi--loop control system

Multi

Setpoint Output

C2 C1 P1 P2

r(t) y(t)

S1

S2

Multi-loop control is widely used in industry

Hierachy control

Decentralized control

Distributed

Di t ib t d control

t l

Hierachy control

Example: SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition)

Beer making process

Chit chai

Control system clasification

Control system classification

Continuous

C i system: All signals

i l iin the

h system are continous.

i

Discrete system: There exists discrete signals in the system

Linear system: The system satisfies the superposition

principle.

Nonlinear system:

y The system

y dont satisfies the

superposition principle.

Time Invariant System: Parameters of the system dont

change over time

time.

Time Varying System: Parameters of the system change over

time.

SISO system: Single Input Single Output system

MIMO system: Multi-Input Multi-Output system

History of control theory

Classical control

Modern control

Intelligent control

Classical control

Mathematic models used in analysis and design control

systems are transfer functions.

Features:

Simple, easy to understand

Advantages: easy to apply to analysis and design SISO

li

linear ti

time invariant

i i t system.

t

Frequency domain techniques.

Analysis and design techniques:

Root locus.

Frequency

q y response:

p Nyquist,

yq , Bode.

Controllers:

Lead lag controllers

PID (Proportional Integral Derivative)

Modern control

Mathematical model used

sed in anal

analysis

sis and design is mainl

mainly the

state-space equation.

Features:

Can be applied to nonlinear systems, time varying

systems,

y multiple

p input-

p multiplep output

p system.

y

Time domain technique

Analysis and design method:

Optimal control.

Adaptive control.

Robust Control

Controller:

State feedback controller

6 December 2013 H. T. Hoang - www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 39

Intelligent control

intelligent control system.

F t

Features:

Simulate / emulate biological intelligence system.

The controller is capable of processing uncertain

information, learning, and handling large amounts of data

Intelligent control techniques:

Fuzzy Control

Neural Networks

Genetic Algorithm

Course objective

Th F d l off C

Controll S

Systems mainly

i l

presents the classic method for analysis and design

of SISO linear time invariant systems.

The knowledge gained from the course help student

to analyze and design control systems at the

executive level.

Related courses

To be

T b able

bl to

t d

design

i ththe control

t l system

t att th

the

implementation level, in addition to knowledge of

automatic control theory

theory, a designer needs to master the

relevant knowledge, such as:

Circuits,

Circuits Electronic circuits

Industrial Measurement

Digital system,

system Microprocessor

Computer based control system, ...

Graphic Symbols for

Process Displays

Standard ISA 5.5

Th thi standard

t d d is i to

t establish

t bli h a system

t off

graphic symbols for process displays that are used by plant

operators, engineers,

g etc., for process monitoringg and control.

The standard is intended to facilitate rapid comprehension by

the users of the information that is conveyed through displays,

and to establish uniformity of practice throughout the process

industries.

Resultingg benefits are intended to be as follows:

A decrease in operator errors

A shortening of operator training

Better communication of the intent of the control system

designer to the system users

Symbol of process equipments

Symbol of process equipments

Symbol of valves

Symbol of control valves

Symbol of electrial component (cont.)

Symbol of electrial component (cont.)

Symbol of measurement equipment and indicator

Symbol of power supply

Symbol of power supply (cont.)

Symbol of power supply (cont.)

Symbol of signals

Symbol of connection

Symbol of measument equipment

Symbol of level measurement equipment (cont.)

Symbol of level measurement equipment (cont.)

Symbol of flow measurement equipment

Symbol of flow measurement equipment (cont.)

Symbol of function blocks

Symbol of function blocks

Equipment Identification Label

Equipment Identification Label

Control process diagram Example 1

PT100

Control process diagram Example 2

Control process diagram Example 3

Control process diagram Example 4

Applications of control systems

Applications of control theory

Feedback control can be found in many applications:

Production system: cement plants, sugar mills, ....

Industrial

dust a p processes:

ocesses te

temperature,

pe atu e, flow,

o ,ppressure,

essu e, speed, ...

Mechatronics: robot arms, computer numerical control

(CNC), ...

Information systems

Power generation and transmission

Transportation systems:

s stems cars,

cars trains,

trains aircraft,

aircraft spacecraft,

spacecraft ...

Military equipments

Measurement

Home appliances: air conditioners, televisions, refrigerators,

washing machines, cameras, rice cookers, ...

Medical equipments

Temperature control

manufacturing systems: production of cement, ceramic tiles,

pulp and paper,

paper rubber and plastic,

plastic oil and gas,

gas food and

beverage,

Examples of temperature control

Agricultural

A i lt l product

d t drying

d i system

t ( ff

(coffee, cashew

h nut,

t

black pepper,)

6 December 2013 H. T. Hoang - www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 73

Block diagram of a temperature control system

Controller amplifier

p

amplifier

Measurement

Temperature controller and user interface

VCC

4.7k 4.7k 4.7k 4.7k

Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4

1k 1k

A1015 1k A1015 A1015 1k A1015

PORTD<5> PORTD<4> PORTD<6> PORTD<7>

D6

7

LED 7DOAN

LED_7DOAN

VCC1

VCC2

VCC3

VCC4

DOT

. . . .

G

D

C

E

A

F

10

12

11

8

2

A

B

C

D

E

VCC F

G

DOT VCC

SW5 10k

10k

PIC16F877A

1 33 DOT

MCLR*/VPP RB0/INT 34 A SW4

2 RB1 35 B

V_sensor RA0/AN0 RB2 C

3 36

4 RA1/AN1 RB3/PGM 37 D SW4

5 RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF RB4 38 E

VREF+ RA3/AN3/VREF+ RB5 F

6 39

7 RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT RB6/PGC 40 G

RA5/AN4/SS*/C2OUT RB7/PGD SW3

15 19 SW4

16 RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI RD0/PSP0 20 SW3

17 RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 RD1/PSP1 21 SW2 SW3

PORTC<2> RC2/CCP1 RD2/PSP2 SW1

18 22

23 RC3/SCK/SCL RD3/PSP3 27

RC4/SDI/SDA RD4/PSP4 PORTD<4>

24 28

RC5/SDO RD5/PSP5 PORTD<5>

25 29 SW2

RC6/TX/CK RD6/PSP6 PORTD<6>

26 30

RC7/RX/DT RD7/PSP7 PORTD<7>

C16

13 SW2

OSC1/CLKIN 8

33p RE0/RD*/AN5

10MHz 9

C17 CRYSTAL RE1/WR*/AN6 10 SW1

14 RE2/CS*/AN7

OSC2/CLKOUT

33p

12 11 SW1

VSS VDD VCC

31 32

VSS VDD

Temperature measurement using thermocouple

5V

U1

5V

1

VC C

U2

LM35

35

7

1

VOUT

2 3 + V22 R1

6

C1 2 -

25k

OP07

GND

10uF 5V

4

8

-5V

5 U4 5

5V

7

1

U5

V3

3

7

1

3 +

0 6 3 + Vout

2 - R5 6

0 OP07 2 - PA0/ADC0

100 OP07

5V

4

8

-5V

4

8

U3 -5V

Thermo couple

7

1

R4

J1 3 + R2 1.8k R6

1 6 V1 R3

2 -

C2 100 100 3.9k

OP07

10uF

4

8

-5V 0

0 0

Power circuit

R3 FUSE Heater

+12V

470

6

1

U15

2 MOC3020 Q2 220Vac

BTA16 0Vdc

4

PORTC<2> Q1

R1

Q2SC1815

47k

R2

330

An industrial temperature control system

Temperature Furnace

controller

Thermocouple

Motor control

Motors (DC,

(DC AC) are one of the most common actuators used

machinery and manufacturing factory.

Three basic control problems: speed control, position control,

torque control

Antenna position control

Potentiometer

Antenna

i(t)

o(t)

Desired

azimuth angle Azimuth

angle

input

output

Differential amplifier

and power amplifier

Motor Potentiometer

Analog PID control of DC motor

Digital PID control of DC motor

An industrial DC motor control system

DC Motor

E

Encoder

d

DC Driver

Level control

f in industrial processes such

as food and beverage, waste water treatment,

Level control, flow control

Sensor:

Level sensor: presure sensor, capacitor sensor, ultra

sonic

Flow sensor: ultra sonic

Level control system in industry

LC

LV

LT

Li id ttank

Liquid k

LT: Level Transmitter

LV: Level Valve

6 December 2013 H. T. Hoang - www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 85

Pulp concentration control

Pitch angle control

Block diagram of pitch angle control system

CNC diagram

Block diagram of CNC control system

Distillation Process

Steam Power Generator

Course learning outcomes

Explain the concepts of open

open-loop

loop and closed-loop

closed loop control systems

Describe continuous and discrete control systems using transfer function

and state space model

Calculate the equivalent transfer function of control systems using block

diagram and signal flow graph

Analyze the dynamics of control systems in time domain and frequency

domain

Analyze the stability of control systems

Analyze the transient and steady-state performances of control systems

Analyze the controllability and observerbility of control systems

Design lead-lag compensator using root locus and frequency response

Design PID controller using frequency response, Zeigler-Nichols method

D i state

Design t t ffeedback

db k controller

t ll usingi polel placement

l t method

th d

Use teamwork and comunication skills in collaborating course design

projects

Use modern software in analysis and design control systems

Review of complex

p

variables and matrix theory

Review

Complex

C l variables:

i bl A

Appendix

di B,

B Feedback

F db k Control

C t l off

Dynamic Systems, Franklin, Powell, and Emami-Naeini, 6th

ed Prentice Hall,

ed., Hall 2009

Matrix theory: Appendix C, Feedback Control of Dynamic

Systems Franklin,

Systems, Franklin Powell,

Powell and Emami-Naeini,

Emami Naeini 6th ed.,

ed

Prentice Hall, 2009

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