You are on page 1of 85

Design of Structural

Steel Joints

Dr. Klaus Weynand


Feldmann + Weynand GmbH, Aachen, Germany

Prof. Jean-Pierre Jaspart


University of Lige, Belgium
Design of Structural
Steel Joints
Introduction
Integration of joints into
structural design process
Moment resistant joints
Simple joints
Design tools
Design of Structural
Steel Joints
Introduction
Integration of joints into
structural design process
Moment resistant joints
Simple joints
Design tools
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

EN 1993 Part 1.8


Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter 2 Basis of design
Chapter 3 Connections made with bolts, rivets or pins
Chapter 4 Welded connections
Chapter 5 Analysis, classification and modelling
Chapter 6 Structural joints connecting H or I sections
Chapter 7 Hollow section joints
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Design of simple joints


ECCS Publication No 126 (EN)

Background information
Design guidelines
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

2 Basis of design Partial safety coefficients


Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

3 Connections made mechanical fasteners


Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

4 Welded connections
Design of Structural
Steel Joints
Introduction
Integration of joints into
structural design process
Moment resistant joints
Simple joints
Design tools
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Actual joint response


Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Actual joint response


M
M Rd

S j,ini
cd
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Influence on the structural response


Displacements
Internal forces
Failure mode and failure load
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Four successive steps for structural integration


M ? M

? ?


Characterization Classification


Modelling Idealization
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Characterization
Search for a unified approach whatever the material

M
?

?
?

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Various configurations (1)


Continuity

Beam-to-beam

Column bases
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Various configurations (2)


Joints in portal frames
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Various configurations (3)


Connections and joints in
composite construction
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Various cross-section shapes (1)


Hot-rolled and
cold-formed
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Various cross-section shapes (2)


Built-up profiles
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Various connection elements

Splices
End plates

Cleats
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Economy


Reduced fabrication, transportation and erection costs


Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Specific design criteria


Robustness
Joints as key elements
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Characterization (1)
Search for a unified approach

M
?

?
?

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Characterization (2)
Eurocode 3 Part 1-8
Beam-to-beam joints, splices, beam-to-column joints and column
bases:
welded connections
bolted connections (anchors for column bases)

Background: COMPONENT METHOD


Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Characterization (3) - component method


column web column web column web
Three steps in shear in compression in tension

First step
Identification of the
active components

F F F
Second step: F3,Rd
F2,Rd
F1,Rd
Response of the
E k1 E k2 E k3
components

M M j ,Rd min Fi ,Rd z
Third step: Mj,Rd E z2
Assembly of the S j ,ini
1
components Sj,ini
k
cd i
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Characterization (4) - component method


EC3 Part 1-8 provides therefore:
a library of components
rules for the evaluation of the properties of the components
(stiffness, resistance, deformation capacity)
rules for the evaluation of the possible component interactions
assembly rules for components

Applicable for simple joint and moment resistant joint


Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Characterization (4) Hollow section joints


Different approach for lattice girder joints
For many types of joint configurations:
Joints considered as a whole
Check of relevant failure modes
Scope of application to be checked
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Four successive steps for structural integration


M ? M

? ?


Characterization Classification


Modelling Idealization
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Classification (1) Mj
Rigid
Rigid

Stiffness

Semi-rigid
Semi-rigid

Sj,ini
Pinned
Pinned

Classification
Boundaries for boundaries
stiffness
Initialinitial
Joint joint stiffness
stiffness
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Classification (2) Mj
Full resistance
Full-strength
Resistance

Mj,Rd
Partial-strength
Partial resistance

Pinned
Pinned

Boundaries for
Classification strength
boundaries
Joint
Jointresistance
strength
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Classification (3)
Ductility
Mj
Brittle
Semi-ductile
Ductile


Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Four successive steps for structural integration


M ? M

? ?


Characterization Classification


Modelling Idealization
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Modelling
JOINT BEAM-TO-COLUMN JOINTS BEAM COLUMN
MODELLING MAJOR AXIS BENDING SPLICES BASES

SIMPLE

SEMI-

CONTINUOUS

CONTINUOUS
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Four successive steps for structural integration


M ? M

? ?


Characterization Classification


Modelling Idealization
Design of Structural
Steel Joints
Introduction
Integration of joints into
structural design process
Moment resistant joints
Simple joints
Design tools
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Example
Single sided beam-to-column joint configuration, bolted end-plate connection

w= 4 M16 8.8
30 80 30 15
p=60 V
u=10 M 0 1,0
+ + 3 M 1 1,0
120 240 M
IPE220
+ + 10
60 HEB140

140 5
Material: S 235

To be evaluated:
Design moment resistance , initial stiffness
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

General data
Equivalent T-stub in tension
Ft
Column
Ft /4 Ft /4
hwc hc 2t fc 2rc 140 2 12 2 12 92mm

Ft /4 m e
Avc Ac 2bc t fc twc 2rc
4295,6 2 140 12 7 2 12 12 1307,6mm
Ft 2/4 l eff

w t fc 80 7
m 0,8 rc 0,812 26,9mm
2 2

bc w 140 80
e 30mm
2 2

t 2fc f yc 122 235


m pl , fc 0, 25 0, 25 8460 Nmm / mm
M0 1,0
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

General data
Beam w= 4 M16 8.8
30 80 30 15
p=60 u=10
+ + 3
120 240 z
IPE220
+ + 10
60
5
Lever arm 140

t fb 9, 2
z hb u p 220 10 60 165, 4 mm
2 2

W pl , yb f yb 285.406 235106
M c ,Rd (classe 1 section) 67,07 kNm
M0 1,0
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

General data
End plate mp2
w twb 80 5,9 mp
mp 0,8 2aw 0,8 2 3 33,66mm
2 2

mp 2 p u t fb 0,8 2a f 60 10 9,2 0,8 2 5 35,14mm

bp w 140 80
ep 30mm
2 2

t 2p f yp 152 235
m pl , p 0, 25 0, 25 13.218 Nmm / mm
M0 1,0
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

General data
End plate

Alpha factor for effective lengths

mp 33,66
1 0,53
mp ep 33,66 30

mp2 35,14
2 0,55
mp ep 33,66 30

5,5
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

General data
Bolts

0,9 fub As 0,9 800 157 103


Ft ,Rd 90, 43kN
Mb 1, 25

0,6 fub As 0,6 800 157 103


Fv ,Rd (shear plane in thread) 60,3kN
Mb 1.25

1
Lb t fc t p 0,5 hbolt hnut 12 15 10 14,8 2 4 47, 4mm
2
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Component No 1 Column web in shear

Resistance
0,9 Avc f y ,cw 0,9 1307,6 235 103
Vwc ,Rd 159,7 kN
F 3 M 0 3 1,0
Vwp Transformation parameter
M Assumption : 1

z Vwc ,Rd 159,7
FRd ,1 159,7 kN
Vwp 1
F
Stiffness coefficient
0,38 Avc 0,381307,6
k1 3,004mm
h 1165, 4
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Component No 2 Column web in compression


Resistance
beff ,c ,wc min t fb 2a f 2 2t p 5 t fc s ; t fb a f 2 t p u 5 t fc s
min 9, 2 2 5 2 2 15 5 12 12 ; 9, 2 5 2 15 10 5 12 12 161, 27 mm

Reduction factors to account for compression stresses and instability

Assumption : kwc min 1,0; 1,7 com ,Ed / f y ,wc 1,0

beff ,c ,wc d c f y ,wc 161, 27 92 235


p 0,932 0,932 0,543 0,673 1,0
Et 2
wc 210000 7 7

1 1
1 0,713
11,3 beff ,c ,wc twc / Avc 11,3 161, 27 7 1307,6
2 2

FRd ,2 kwc beff ,c ,wc twc f y ,wc / M 1 1 0,713 1161,27 7 23510 3 1,0 189,1kN
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Component No 2 Column web in compression

Stiffness coefficient

0,7 beff ,c ,wc twc 0,7 161, 27 7 F


k2 8,589mm
hwc 92

Fi ki E i
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Component No 3 Column web in tension


Resistance

beff ,t ,wc min 2 m ;4m 1, 25e min 2 26,9;4 26,9 1, 25 30 145,10 mm

1 1
1 0,749
11,3 beff ,t ,wc twc / Avc 11,3 145,1 7 1307,6
2 2

FRd ,3 beff ,t ,wc twc f y ,wc / M 0 0,749 145,1 7 235103 1,0 178,7 kN

Stiffness coefficient

0,7 beff ,t ,wc twc 0,7 145,1 7


k3 7,728mm
hwc 92
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Component No 4 Column flange in bending


Component No 5 End plate in bending

Equivalent T-stub in tension

Ft

Ft /4 Ft /4

Ft /4 m e

Ft /4 l eff
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

T-stub Effective length


Distinction between circular and non-circular yield line patterns

Circular patterns Non-circular patterns


Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

T-stub Effective length


Groups effects to consider in addition to the individual response of each bolt-row

Row 1
Row 2
Row 3

Group 1+2 Group 2+3 Group 1+2+3


Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

T-stub Effective length


Groups effects to consider in addition to the individual response of each bolt-row

Row 3

FRd ,3 min ( FRd ,3,indiv ; FRd ,3, group )


Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Bolt rows considered


In this example: only bolt row 1 is considered for tension forces

w= 4 M16 8.8
30 80 30 15
p=60 u=10
V
+ + Row 1
3
120 240 M
IPE220 Row 2
+ + 10
60 HEB140

140 5
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Component No 4 Column flange in bending

Resistance

leff ,t , fc beff ,t ,wc 145,1mm (see column web in tension)

n min e ;1, 25m ; bp w / 2 min 30;1, 25 26,9;30 30mm


Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Component No 4 Column flange in bending

Mode 1 - Complete yielding of the flange

4leff ,t , fc m pl , fc 4 145,1 8460


Ffc ,Rd ,t1 103 182,5kN
m 26,9

Mode 2 - Bolt failure with yielding of the flange


2 leff ,t , fc m pl , fc 2 Bt ,Rd n 2 145,1 8460 2 90, 4 103 30
Ffc ,Rd ,t 2 103 138,5kN
mn 26,9 30

Mode 3 - Bolt failure


Ffc ,Rd ,t 3 2 Bt ,Rd 2 90, 43 180,9kN
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Component No 4 Column flange in bending


Resistance

FRd ,4 min Ffc ,Rd ,t1 ; Ffc ,Rd ,t 2 ; Ffc ,Rd ,t 3 138,5kN

Stiffness coefficient

0,9 leff , fc ,t t 3fc 0,9 145,1123


k4 11,59mm
m3 26,93
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Component No 5 End plate in bending


Resistance

leff ,t , p min 2 m p ; m p min 2 33,66; 5,5 33,66 185 mm

n p min e p ;1, 25m p ; e min 30;1, 25 33,66;30 30mm

4leff ,t , p m pl , p 4 18513.218
Mode 1: Fep ,Rd ,1 103 291kN
mp 33,66

2 leff , p ,t m pl , p 2 Bt ,Rd n p 2 18513.218 2 90, 43 103 30


Mode 2: Fep ,Rd ,2 103 162,1kN
mp np 33,66 30

FRd ,5 min Fep ,Rd ,1 ; Fep ,Rd ,2 ; Fep ,Rd ,3 162,1kN


Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Component No 5 End plate in bending

Stiffness coefficient

0,9 leff ,t , p t 3p 0,9 185,0 153


k5 14,73mm
m3p 33,663
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Component No 7 Beam flange and web in compression

Resistance

FRd ,7 M c ,Rd / hb t fb
67,07
318, 2kN
210,8103

Stiffness coefficient

k7
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Component No 8 Beam web in tension

Resistance

beff ,t ,wb leff ,t , p 185mm

FRd ,8 beff ,t ,wb twb f yb / M 0 185 5,9 235 103 1,0 256,5kN

Stiffness coefficient

k8
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Component No 10 Bolts in tension

Resistance

FRd ,10 2 Bt ,Rd 2 90, 43 180,9kN Mode 3 in T-stubs for components:


column flange in bending
end plate in bending

Stiffness coefficient
As 157
k10 1,6 1,6 5,30mm
Lb 47, 4
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Design moment resistance

Relevant component
M j,Rd

FRd min FRd ,i 138,5kN (Column flange in bending)

Design plastic moment resistance

M j ,Rd FRd z 138,5 165,4 103 22,91kNm

Design elastic moment resistance


2
M j ,el ,Rd M j ,Rd 15, 27 kNm
3
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Stiffness


Initial stiffness
S j,ini
210000 165, 42 106
S j ,ini E h / 1 ki
2
6234 kNm / rad
1 1 1 1 1 1
i

3,004 8,589 7,728 11,59 14,73 5,30

Secant stiffness

S j S j ,ini / 2 3117 kNm / rad


Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Design moment-rotation characteristic

M
M j,Rd
Sj,ini

2/3Mj,Rd

Sj Secant stiffness
Ersatzsteifigkeit:
S j = S j,ini /


Design of Structural
Steel Joints
Introduction
Integration of joints into
structural design process
Moment resistant joints
Simple joints
Design tools
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Nominally pinned joints

Braced frame
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Nominally pinned joints

V0 M=0
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Design of simple joints


ECCS Publication No 126 (EN)

Background information
Design guidelines
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Classification and modelling of joints


Nominally pinned joints :

Mj
Rigid Sj,ini <<

Semi-rigid

Nominally pinned

Limits for classification of joints by stiffness
Initial stiffness of the joint
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Classification and modelling of joints


Semi-rigid joints :
Mj
Rigid Sj,ini

Semi-rigid

Nominally pinned

Limits for classification of joints by stiffness
Initial stiffness of the joint
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Classification and modelling of joints


As an alternative to a semi-continuous modelling (semi-rigid joints), is it safe to
model the joints as nominally pinned whilst they are actually semi-rigid?

Semi-rigid Sj,ini > 0,5EIb/Lb

Partial strength Mj,Rd > 0,25 Mfull-strength

Nominally pinned Sj,ini = 0


?? Nominally pinned Mj,Rd = 0
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Classification and modelling of joints


Yes, under the reservation the joint has:

a sufficient rotation capacity


= capacity to rotate
M
a sufficient ductility MRd Yielding criterion
= capacity to follow the actual
Actual loading
loading path in a ductile way
path

Supposed
loading path
V
VRd
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Supplementary design requirement


Sufficient resistance to catenary effects so as to provide required structural
robustness
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Example: Partial depth end-plate


Components

Bolts in shear
End-plate in bearing
End-plate in shear (gross section)
End-plate in shear (net section)
End-plate in shear block
End-plate in bending
Beam web in shear
Welds in shear
Column flange in bearing
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Partial depth end-plate


Strength requirement

Use of component method for the assessment of VRd

Assessment of the strength of all the constitutive


components of the joint
+
Assembly of these components
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Partial depth end-plate


Rotation capacity requirement

Bending moment

Bolts in tension

Bending Contact between


moment supported beam and
supporting element

Compression force

avail Rotation
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Partial depth end-plate


Rotation capacity
requirement
avail

hp
db hb
hp db
tp
he avail
he
tp
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Partial depth end-plate


Ductility requirement

Prevent premature fracture of the bolts

Prevent premature fracture of the welds

under unavoidable bending moment in the joint


Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Partial depth end-plate


Ductility requirements
Prevent premature collapse of the bolts

d f yp
2,8 for the end-plate
tp fub

d f ycf
2,8 for the supporting column
tp fub

d and fub : diameter and tensile strength of bolts

Yielding of end-plate prior to tensile fracture of bolts


Design of Structural
Steel Joints
Introduction
Integration of joints into
structural design process
Moment resistant joints
Simple joints
Design tools
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Practical design tools


Tables of standardized joints

Dedicated software
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Worked Example Configuration


Beam IPE 500
Column HEA 340
End plate connection

Design assumption
Rigid joint

Frame analysis
MEd = 220 kNm

CoP software used for this example: http://cop.fw-ing.com


Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Design resistance: MRd = 196 kNm < 220 kNm


Classification: Semi-rigid
Failure mode: Column web in compression
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Failure mode:
End plate in bending
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Failure mode:
Column web panel in shear
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Failure mode:
Column web panel in shear
Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Failure mode:
Column web panel in shear
Design of Structural
Steel Joints

Dr. Klaus Weynand


Feldmann + Weynand GmbH, Aachen, Germany

Prof. Jean-Pierre Jaspart


University of Lige, Belgium