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Eurocodes Steel

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Steel Joints

Feldmann + Weynand GmbH, Aachen, Germany

University of Lige, Belgium

Design of Structural

Steel Joints

Introduction

Integration of joints into

structural design process

Moment resistant joints

Simple joints

Design tools

Design of Structural

Steel Joints

Introduction

Integration of joints into

structural design process

Moment resistant joints

Simple joints

Design tools

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 2 Basis of design

Chapter 3 Connections made with bolts, rivets or pins

Chapter 4 Welded connections

Chapter 5 Analysis, classification and modelling

Chapter 6 Structural joints connecting H or I sections

Chapter 7 Hollow section joints

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

ECCS Publication No 126 (EN)

Background information

Design guidelines

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

4 Welded connections

Design of Structural

Steel Joints

Introduction

Integration of joints into

structural design process

Moment resistant joints

Simple joints

Design tools

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

M

M Rd

S j,ini

cd

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Displacements

Internal forces

Failure mode and failure load

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

M ? M

? ?

Characterization Classification

Modelling Idealization

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Characterization

Search for a unified approach whatever the material

M

?

?

?

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Continuity

Beam-to-beam

Column bases

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Joints in portal frames

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Connections and joints in

composite construction

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Hot-rolled and

cold-formed

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Built-up profiles

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Splices

End plates

Cleats

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Economy

Reduced fabrication, transportation and erection costs

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Robustness

Joints as key elements

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Characterization (1)

Search for a unified approach

M

?

?

?

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Characterization (2)

Eurocode 3 Part 1-8

Beam-to-beam joints, splices, beam-to-column joints and column

bases:

welded connections

bolted connections (anchors for column bases)

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

column web column web column web

Three steps in shear in compression in tension

First step

Identification of the

active components

F F F

Second step: F3,Rd

F2,Rd

F1,Rd

Response of the

E k1 E k2 E k3

components

M M j ,Rd min Fi ,Rd z

Third step: Mj,Rd E z2

Assembly of the S j ,ini

1

components Sj,ini

k

cd i

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

EC3 Part 1-8 provides therefore:

a library of components

rules for the evaluation of the properties of the components

(stiffness, resistance, deformation capacity)

rules for the evaluation of the possible component interactions

assembly rules for components

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Different approach for lattice girder joints

For many types of joint configurations:

Joints considered as a whole

Check of relevant failure modes

Scope of application to be checked

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

M ? M

? ?

Characterization Classification

Modelling Idealization

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Classification (1) Mj

Rigid

Rigid

Stiffness

Semi-rigid

Semi-rigid

Sj,ini

Pinned

Pinned

Classification

Boundaries for boundaries

stiffness

Initialinitial

Joint joint stiffness

stiffness

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Classification (2) Mj

Full resistance

Full-strength

Resistance

Mj,Rd

Partial-strength

Partial resistance

Pinned

Pinned

Boundaries for

Classification strength

boundaries

Joint

Jointresistance

strength

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Classification (3)

Ductility

Mj

Brittle

Semi-ductile

Ductile

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

M ? M

? ?

Characterization Classification

Modelling Idealization

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Modelling

JOINT BEAM-TO-COLUMN JOINTS BEAM COLUMN

MODELLING MAJOR AXIS BENDING SPLICES BASES

SIMPLE

SEMI-

CONTINUOUS

CONTINUOUS

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

M ? M

? ?

Characterization Classification

Modelling Idealization

Design of Structural

Steel Joints

Introduction

Integration of joints into

structural design process

Moment resistant joints

Simple joints

Design tools

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Example

Single sided beam-to-column joint configuration, bolted end-plate connection

w= 4 M16 8.8

30 80 30 15

p=60 V

u=10 M 0 1,0

+ + 3 M 1 1,0

120 240 M

IPE220

+ + 10

60 HEB140

140 5

Material: S 235

To be evaluated:

Design moment resistance , initial stiffness

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

General data

Equivalent T-stub in tension

Ft

Column

Ft /4 Ft /4

hwc hc 2t fc 2rc 140 2 12 2 12 92mm

Ft /4 m e

Avc Ac 2bc t fc twc 2rc

4295,6 2 140 12 7 2 12 12 1307,6mm

Ft 2/4 l eff

w t fc 80 7

m 0,8 rc 0,812 26,9mm

2 2

bc w 140 80

e 30mm

2 2

m pl , fc 0, 25 0, 25 8460 Nmm / mm

M0 1,0

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

General data

Beam w= 4 M16 8.8

30 80 30 15

p=60 u=10

+ + 3

120 240 z

IPE220

+ + 10

60

5

Lever arm 140

t fb 9, 2

z hb u p 220 10 60 165, 4 mm

2 2

W pl , yb f yb 285.406 235106

M c ,Rd (classe 1 section) 67,07 kNm

M0 1,0

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

General data

End plate mp2

w twb 80 5,9 mp

mp 0,8 2aw 0,8 2 3 33,66mm

2 2

bp w 140 80

ep 30mm

2 2

t 2p f yp 152 235

m pl , p 0, 25 0, 25 13.218 Nmm / mm

M0 1,0

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

General data

End plate

mp 33,66

1 0,53

mp ep 33,66 30

mp2 35,14

2 0,55

mp ep 33,66 30

5,5

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

General data

Bolts

Ft ,Rd 90, 43kN

Mb 1, 25

Fv ,Rd (shear plane in thread) 60,3kN

Mb 1.25

1

Lb t fc t p 0,5 hbolt hnut 12 15 10 14,8 2 4 47, 4mm

2

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Resistance

0,9 Avc f y ,cw 0,9 1307,6 235 103

Vwc ,Rd 159,7 kN

F 3 M 0 3 1,0

Vwp Transformation parameter

M Assumption : 1

z Vwc ,Rd 159,7

FRd ,1 159,7 kN

Vwp 1

F

Stiffness coefficient

0,38 Avc 0,381307,6

k1 3,004mm

h 1165, 4

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Resistance

beff ,c ,wc min t fb 2a f 2 2t p 5 t fc s ; t fb a f 2 t p u 5 t fc s

min 9, 2 2 5 2 2 15 5 12 12 ; 9, 2 5 2 15 10 5 12 12 161, 27 mm

p 0,932 0,932 0,543 0,673 1,0

Et 2

wc 210000 7 7

1 1

1 0,713

11,3 beff ,c ,wc twc / Avc 11,3 161, 27 7 1307,6

2 2

FRd ,2 kwc beff ,c ,wc twc f y ,wc / M 1 1 0,713 1161,27 7 23510 3 1,0 189,1kN

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Stiffness coefficient

k2 8,589mm

hwc 92

Fi ki E i

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Resistance

1 1

1 0,749

11,3 beff ,t ,wc twc / Avc 11,3 145,1 7 1307,6

2 2

FRd ,3 beff ,t ,wc twc f y ,wc / M 0 0,749 145,1 7 235103 1,0 178,7 kN

Stiffness coefficient

k3 7,728mm

hwc 92

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Component No 5 End plate in bending

Ft

Ft /4 Ft /4

Ft /4 m e

Ft /4 l eff

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Distinction between circular and non-circular yield line patterns

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Groups effects to consider in addition to the individual response of each bolt-row

Row 1

Row 2

Row 3

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Groups effects to consider in addition to the individual response of each bolt-row

Row 3

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

In this example: only bolt row 1 is considered for tension forces

w= 4 M16 8.8

30 80 30 15

p=60 u=10

V

+ + Row 1

3

120 240 M

IPE220 Row 2

+ + 10

60 HEB140

140 5

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Resistance

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Ffc ,Rd ,t1 103 182,5kN

m 26,9

2 leff ,t , fc m pl , fc 2 Bt ,Rd n 2 145,1 8460 2 90, 4 103 30

Ffc ,Rd ,t 2 103 138,5kN

mn 26,9 30

Ffc ,Rd ,t 3 2 Bt ,Rd 2 90, 43 180,9kN

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Resistance

FRd ,4 min Ffc ,Rd ,t1 ; Ffc ,Rd ,t 2 ; Ffc ,Rd ,t 3 138,5kN

Stiffness coefficient

k4 11,59mm

m3 26,93

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Resistance

4leff ,t , p m pl , p 4 18513.218

Mode 1: Fep ,Rd ,1 103 291kN

mp 33,66

Mode 2: Fep ,Rd ,2 103 162,1kN

mp np 33,66 30

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Stiffness coefficient

k5 14,73mm

m3p 33,663

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Resistance

FRd ,7 M c ,Rd / hb t fb

67,07

318, 2kN

210,8103

Stiffness coefficient

k7

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Resistance

FRd ,8 beff ,t ,wb twb f yb / M 0 185 5,9 235 103 1,0 256,5kN

Stiffness coefficient

k8

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Resistance

column flange in bending

end plate in bending

Stiffness coefficient

As 157

k10 1,6 1,6 5,30mm

Lb 47, 4

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Relevant component

M j,Rd

2

M j ,el ,Rd M j ,Rd 15, 27 kNm

3

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Stiffness

Initial stiffness

S j,ini

210000 165, 42 106

S j ,ini E h / 1 ki

2

6234 kNm / rad

1 1 1 1 1 1

i

3,004 8,589 7,728 11,59 14,73 5,30

Secant stiffness

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

M

M j,Rd

Sj,ini

2/3Mj,Rd

Sj Secant stiffness

Ersatzsteifigkeit:

S j = S j,ini /

Design of Structural

Steel Joints

Introduction

Integration of joints into

structural design process

Moment resistant joints

Simple joints

Design tools

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Braced frame

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

V0 M=0

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

ECCS Publication No 126 (EN)

Background information

Design guidelines

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Nominally pinned joints :

Mj

Rigid Sj,ini <<

Semi-rigid

Nominally pinned

Limits for classification of joints by stiffness

Initial stiffness of the joint

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Semi-rigid joints :

Mj

Rigid Sj,ini

Semi-rigid

Nominally pinned

Limits for classification of joints by stiffness

Initial stiffness of the joint

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

As an alternative to a semi-continuous modelling (semi-rigid joints), is it safe to

model the joints as nominally pinned whilst they are actually semi-rigid?

?? Nominally pinned Mj,Rd = 0

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Yes, under the reservation the joint has:

= capacity to rotate

M

a sufficient ductility MRd Yielding criterion

= capacity to follow the actual

Actual loading

loading path in a ductile way

path

Supposed

loading path

V

VRd

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Sufficient resistance to catenary effects so as to provide required structural

robustness

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Components

Bolts in shear

End-plate in bearing

End-plate in shear (gross section)

End-plate in shear (net section)

End-plate in shear block

End-plate in bending

Beam web in shear

Welds in shear

Column flange in bearing

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Strength requirement

components of the joint

+

Assembly of these components

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Rotation capacity requirement

Bending moment

Bolts in tension

moment supported beam and

supporting element

Compression force

avail Rotation

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Rotation capacity

requirement

avail

hp

db hb

hp db

tp

he avail

he

tp

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Ductility requirement

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Ductility requirements

Prevent premature collapse of the bolts

d f yp

2,8 for the end-plate

tp fub

d f ycf

2,8 for the supporting column

tp fub

Design of Structural

Steel Joints

Introduction

Integration of joints into

structural design process

Moment resistant joints

Simple joints

Design tools

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Tables of standardized joints

Dedicated software

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Beam IPE 500

Column HEA 340

End plate connection

Design assumption

Rigid joint

Frame analysis

MEd = 220 kNm

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Classification: Semi-rigid

Failure mode: Column web in compression

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Failure mode:

End plate in bending

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Failure mode:

Column web panel in shear

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Failure mode:

Column web panel in shear

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Failure mode:

Column web panel in shear

Design of Structural

Steel Joints

Feldmann + Weynand GmbH, Aachen, Germany

University of Lige, Belgium

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