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Volume 13 Issue 3 Version 1.0 Year 2013

Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal

Publisher: Global Journals Inc. (USA)

Online ISSN: 2249-4596 & Print ISSN: 0975-5861

for the Simulation of the Reverse Bending and Straightening

of Wires for Civil Engineering Applications

By Kazeem K Adewole

Newcastle University, UnitedKingdom

Abstract - The industry requires an understanding of the effects of reverse bending and straightening test

wires for civil engineering applications undergo to detect laminations in them on their tensile properties. In

this paper, the identification of the appropriate plasticity hardening model for the simulation of wires

reverse bending and straightening test which involves double strain reversal is presented. Finite element

Simulations revealed that the isotropic hardening model predicted a continuous work hardening of the

wire during the bending, reverse bending, and straightening operations and did not capture the softening

of the wire due to the Bauschinger effect. Conversely, the combined hardening model adequately

captured both the work hardening and Bauschinger effect that are associated with the reverse bending

and straightening processes. Consequently, it is demonstrated that the combined hardening model is the

appropriate plasticity hardening model for the simulation of reverse bending and straightening of carbon

steel wires used for civil engineering applications. This paper thus established the appropriate plasticity

hardening model required for the FE simulation of the wires reverse bending and straightening test

Needed to investigate the effects of reverse bending and straightening test on the tensile and fracture

properties of a typical wire used for civil engineering applications.

Keywords : bauschinger effect, combined hardening, finite element simulation, isotropic hardening,

laminations, reverse bending strain reversal wires.

GJRE Classification : FOR Code: 090599

Determination of the Appropriate Plasticity Hardening Model for the Simulation of the Reverse Bending and Straightening of Wires for Civil Engineering Applications

2013. Kazeem K Adewole. This is a research/review paper, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-

Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org /licenses/by-nc/3.0/), permitting all non commercial use,

distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Determination of the Appropriate Plasticity

Hardening Model for the Simulation of the

Reverse Bending and Straightening of Wires for

Civil Engineering Applications

Kazeem K Adewole

Year 2013

Abstract - The industry requires an understanding of the straightening of the wire over the rotating right hand

effects of reverse bending and straightening test wires for civil roller as shown in Figure 1 to detect laminations in the

engineering applications undergo to detect laminations in wires. A lamination is an elongated line-type defect or a 43

them on their tensile properties. In this paper, the identification long crack that is usually invisible and usually parallel to

of the appropriate plasticity hardening model for the simulation

Global Journal of Researches in Engineering ( ED) Volume XIII Issue vIII Version I

the surface of metal products (such as wires) produced

of wires reverse bending and straightening test which involves

double strain reversal is presented. Finite element

through rolling or drawing process (Smith et al, 1957). It

simulations revealed that the isotropic hardening model is essential to detect laminations in wires/bars used for

predicted a continuous work hardening of the wire during the civil engineering applications as the catastrophic rupture

bending, reverse bending, and straightening operations and of pre-stressed concrete pipes has been attributed to

did not capture the softening of the wire due to the the presence of long straight pre-service longitudinal

Bauschinger effect. Conversely, the combined hardening cracks (i.e. laminations) in the pre-stressing wires used

model adequately captured both the work hardening and for pre-stressing the ruptured pre-stressed concrete

Bauschinger effect that are associated with the reverse pipes by the United States Bureau of Reclamation,

bending and straightening processes. Consequently, it is

1994.

demonstrated that the combined hardening model is the

appropriate plasticity hardening model for the simulation of

reverse bending and straightening of carbon steel wires used

for civil engineering applications. This paper thus established

the appropriate plasticity hardening model required for the FE

simulation of the wires reverse bending and straightening test

needed to investigate the effects of reverse bending and

straightening test on the tensile and fracture properties of a

typical wire used for civil engineering applications.

Keywords : bauschinger effect, combined hardening,

finite element simulation, isotropic hardening,

laminations, reverse bending, strain reversal, wires.

I. Introduction

C

arbon steel wires are used in the construction of Figure 1 : Industrial reverse bending equipment

many civil engineering structures. Specifically, with three rollers

carbon steel wires are used as pre-stressing In the current work, three dimensional FE

tendons and as suspension and/or cable-stayed bridge simulations were conducted to identify the appropriate

wires. Carbon steel wires are also incorporated into hardening model for the simulation of the wire reverse

flexible pipes used for offshore oil and gas bending and straightening test. The FE simulation of the

transportation as axial stress reinforcement. These wires wire reverse bending and straightening test was

are subject to a number of non-destructive tests to conducted as a part of the research to investigate the

detect defects that could threaten their integrity in effects of the combination of reverse bending and

service. One of these tests is the reverse bending and laminations on the tensile properties of a typical wire

straightening test which involves bending of the wire used for civil engineering applications. FE simulation

over the rotating left hand roller, reverse bending of the was employed for the investigation of the effects of the

wire over the rotating middle roller and finally combination of reverse bending and laminations on the

Author : School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, tensile properties of the wire because it was not

Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom, experimentally possible to simulate the long straight

NE1 7RU. E-mails : kkadewole@yahoo.com, k.k.adewole@ncl.ac.uk longitudinal cracks or laminations that are parallel to the

Determination of the Appropriate Plasticity Hardening Model for the Simulation of the Reverse Bending

and Straightening of Wires for Civil Engineering Applications

length of the wire specimens (such as the lamination reverse bending and strain reversal due to straightening

found in the pre-stressing wires used to pre-stress the of the wires) has been published.

ruptured pre-stressed concrete pipe) using machining In this work, the three dimensional FE

techniques. For an accurate simulation of the wires simulations were conducted using the isotropic elastic-

reverse bending and straightening test, it is essential to plastic hardening model and the combined hardening

employ an appropriate material constitutive model, plasticity models in-built in the Abaqus v 6.9.3 FE

particularly the plasticity hardening model that is able to software materials library. The FE simulations with the

capture the wires behavior(s) during the various stages isotropic and the combined hardening models were

(bending, reverse bending and straightening) of the conducted in combination with the phenomenological

reverse bending and straightening test/process. shear damage and failure criterion. The details of the

Most of the published literature on reverse phenomenological shear failure model can be found in

Year 2013

bending of metal products (for example Firat (2007); the work of Adewole and Bull, (2013). The details of the

Gau and Kinzel (2001)), are in sheet metal forming. The isotropic elastic-plastic and isotropic elastic-combined

importance of using appropriate material constitutive hardening plasticity models are presented in the

model(s) in the finite element (FE) formability and following sections.

springback predictions in sheet metal forming

44 a) Isotropic Elastic-Plasticity Model

simulations has been emphasised by Gau and Kinzel

The isotropic elastic-plasticity model in Abaqus

(2001), Firat, (2007) and Taherizadeh et al, (2010).

E ) Volume XIII Issuev vIII Version I

Material constitutive models that have been used in FE

uniaxial-stress, plastic-strain strain-rate relationship

sheet metal forming predictions and springback

(Simulia, 2007). The elastic aspect of the model is

analyses include the isotropic, kinematic and anisotropic

defined in terms of its volumetric and deviatoric

hardening models. Combinations of two or more of

components given in equations (1) and (2) respectively

these hardening models have also been used for FE

obtained from Simulia, (2007). The model is based on a

sheet metal forming simulation and spring back

prediction. Firat, (2007), Zhao and Lee, (1999), and Ken- von Mises yield surface with the yield function, f , given

ichiro, (2001) observed that the isotropic hardening in equation (3) and a flow rule given in equation (4)

model when used in reverse bending simulation obtained from (Simulia, 2007).

overestimates the hardening component and does not

predict the through-thickness stress distribution

p KH vol (1)

accurately because it does not consider the

Bauschinger effect. The Bauschinger effect is S 2Ge el (2)

Global Journal of Researches in Engineering ( D

and the static yield strength of a metal when it is 3

f q S :S (3)

subjected to strain reversal (Takeda and Chen (1999). 2

Zhao and Lee, (1999) reported that the kinematic

hardening rule underestimates the hardening de pl de pl n (4)

component and exaggerates the Bauschinger effect.

The shortcomings associated with using the isotropic Here p is the hydrostatic stress, H vol is the

and kinematic hardening models has led to an emerging el

volume strain, S is the deviatoric stress, e is the

new standard of models with mixed or combined

hardening (a combination of two or more different deviatoric elastic strain, q is the von Mises equivalent

hardening models) which has proven to increase the stress, e

pl

is the deviatoric plastic strain, e

pl

is the

numerical reliability of sheet metal formability and 3S

springback predictions (Carbonnie et al, 2008). equivalent plastic strain, n , K is the bulk

An acceptable material model should be 2q

able to capture the many different material phenomena modulus and G is the shear modulus. K and G are

that occur during plastic deformation, such as work calculated from the Young's modulus, E , and Poisson's

hardening and the Bauschinger effect, and should be ratio, , of the material.

able to provide the best possible fit to the actual material

properties (Taherizadeh et al, 2010). Consequently, it is b) Isotropic Elastic-Combined Hardening Plasticity

essential to understand the applicability of these models Model

and their limitations in order to increase the accuracy of The combined hardening model is a

FE reverse bending simulations. To the best of the combination of the nonlinear kinematic and isotropic

authors knowledge, no guidance on the appropriate hardening models. The isotropic cyclic hardening

plasticity hardening model for the simulation of the component is based on the exponential law given in

reverse bending and straightening of a wire which equation (5) obtained from Simulia, (2007). The

involves double strain reversal (strain reversal due to kinematic hardening component is based on the

2013 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Determination of the Appropriate Plasticity Hardening Model for the Simulation of the Reverse Bending

and Straightening of Wires for Civil Engineering Applications

evolution of the backstress (a nonlinear evolution of the b) Reverse Bending, Straightening and Tensile Testing

centre of the yield surface) D given in equation (6) Simulation Procedures

obtained from Simulia, (2007). Figure 3 shows the model of a 305m long wire

length, the left and right rollers and a guide plate

V0 Yi Qf (1 e bHpl ) (5) introduced to prevent roller 2 from lifting vertically

upward during the bending simulation. The whole model

1 was meshed with C3D8R elements (8-node hexahedral

D C (V I )e pl JIe pl (6) linear brick reduced integration elements with hourglass

V 0

control). The rollers and the guide plate were meshed

Here V is the size of the yield surface (size of with 3mmx3mmx3mm elements. The outer sections of

0

the elastic range), Qf (Q infinity) is the maximum the wire length were meshed with 3mmx3mmx0.5mm

elements and the middle 50mm length designated as

Year 2013

increase in the elastic range, b is a material parameter the FE tensile test specimen was meshed with a finer

that defines the rate at which the maximum size is mesh with 3mmx1mmx0.5mm dimensions. The

reached as plastic straining develops and Yi is the 3mmx1mmx0.5mm element size was established

initial yield stress. C and J are kinematic hardening through mesh convergence studies to be the optimum

45

mesh size required for accurate predictions of the

parameters, which are material parameters that define

bending and tensile behaviours of the FE tensile test

Global Journal of Researches in Engineering ( ED) Volume XIII Issue vIII Version I

the initial hardening modulus and the rate at which the specimen. The 3mm, 1mm and the 0.5mm dimensions

hardening modulus decreases with increasing plastic are in the FE tensile test specimens width, length and

strain, respectively (Simulia, 2007). thickness respectively.

II. Experimental and FE Analysis

Procedures

The details of the experimental and FE

simulations are presented in this section.

a) Laboratory Reverse Bending, Straightening and

Tensile Testing of Wires

A length of the wire was bent and reverse bent

round a 100mm diameter cylindrical steel block as

shown in Figure 2 and the reverse bent wire was finally

straightened and cut into tensile test specimens

hereinafter referred to as the experimental reverse bent

and straightened (ERBS) wire specimens. The ERBS Figure 3 : Meshed model of rollers, guide plate

specimens and tensile specimens cut from the as- and wire

received unbent wire specimen hereinafter referred to as The left hand roller was rotated in an

unbent wire tensile specimens were tested using an anticlockwise direction to bend the wire round the left

Instron universal testing machine (IX 4505) fitted with an hand roller. After the bending simulation, the left hand

Instron 2518 series load cell with a maximum static roller and the right hand roller were simultaneously

capacity of 100 kN. The displacement was measured rotated in a clock wise and antilock wise directions

with an Instron 2630-112 clip-on strain gauge respectively to unwind the wire from the left hand roller

extensometer with a 50 mm gauge length. and reverse bend the wire round the right hand roller.

After the reverse bending simulation, the right hand

roller was rotated in a clockwise direction to unwind the

reverse bent wire whilst simultaneously pulling the left

hand roller longitudinally and vertically upward until the

FE reverse bent test specimen was straightened. The FE

reverse bent and straightened wire tensile specimen

hereinafter referred to as FERBS was subjected to

tensile testing by fixing the left hand end roller; the

remaining section of the wire length at the left hand end

of the specimen and the left hand end of the FERBS

tensile specimen, and pulling the right hand end roller;

Figure 2 : Experimental simulation of reverse bending the remaining section of the wire length at the right hand

of wires for civil engineering applications end of the specimen and the right hand end of the

Determination of the Appropriate Plasticity Hardening Model for the Simulation of the Reverse Bending

and Straightening of Wires for Civil Engineering Applications

FERBS tensile specimen. The right hand end roller; the the modelling parameters at which the FE predicted

remaining section of the wire length at the right hand force-displacement curve agreed with the experimental

end of the specimen and the right hand end of the curve. The phenomenological curve fitting was

FERBS tensile specimen were free to move only in the conducted by carrying out FE simulations of the tensile

tensile load direction (i.e. longitudinally in X-axis testing of unbent wire specimens with varying combined

direction). hardening modelling parameters until the FE predicted

The same model arrangement shown in Figure force-displacement curve agreed with the experimental

3 and the same boundary conditions employed for the curve up to the fracture initiation point.

simulations of the tensile testing of the FERBS wire

specimen were employed for the simulations of the III. Results

tensile testing of the unbent wire except that the The deformed shapes of the wire showing the

Year 2013

bending, reverse bending and straightening simulations longitudinal axial stress (S11) distribution and the

steps were suppressed (i.e. not conducted) during the through-thickness longitudinal axial stress and

simulations of the tensile testing of the unbent wire. equivalent plastic strain profiles in the deformed wire

2 c) FE Analysis with isotropic and combined hardening specimen at the various stages of the reverse bending

46 plasticity models and straightening test simulation are presented in this

The simulations of the tensile testing of the section. In the S11contour plot, positive axial stresses

III Version I

unbent and FERBS 5x12mm cross section steel wires represent tensile axial stresses and the negative axial

were conducted with the isotropic and with the stresses represent compressive axial stresses. The

combined hardening plasticity models.. Both the deepest red colour at the top of the contour plot

simulations with the isotropic and with the combined represents the highest tensile stress while the deepest

Global Journal of Researches in Engineering ( E )DVolume XIII Issue vv

hardening plasticity models were conducted in blue at the bottom of the contour plot represents the

combination with the phenomenological shears failure highest compressive stress. For both the through-

model inbuilt in Abaqus. The calibrated shear damage thickness longitudinal axial stress and the through-

and failure modelling parameters employed for the FE thickness equivalent plastic strain profiles, positive and

simulations are fracture strain of 0.3451, shear stress negative stresses and strains represent tensile and

ratio of 12.5, strain rate of 0.000125s-1 and a material compressive stresses and strains respectively. The

parameter Ks of 0.3 which were obtained through a stress and strain in the upper half thickness and the

phenomenological curve fitting process. Details of the lower half thickness of the 5mm thick wire are plotted

phenomenological curve fitting process employed to with 0 to 2.5mm and 0 to -2.5mm Y-axis coordinates

obtain the calibrated phenomenological shear failure respectively.

modelling parameters for the wire considered in this Throughout the bending, reverse bending,

work have been published by Adewole and Bull, (2013). straightening and tensile testing simulations, the

The material input parameters for the simulation deformed shapes predicted by the simulations

conducted with the isotropic hardening model are the conducted with the isotropic hardening and with the

true stress and true strain values obtained from combined hardening models are exactly the same.

Consequently, only the deformed shapes predicted by

experimental tensile testing of the wires. The true stress

the simulation conducted with the combined hardening

and strain values are not presented in this paper for

models after the bending simulation, during the reverse

confidentiality purposes (i.e. due to a non-disclosure

bending simulation, after the reverse bending

agreement on the tensile properties of the wires). Other

simulation, after the straightening simulation and after

parameters employed for the simulation conducted with

the tensile testing simulation are presented in Figures 4,

the isotropic elasticplastic model are the density of 7.6

5, 6, 7 and 8 respectively. The through-thickness

x 106 kg/mm3, Poissons ratio of 0.3 and Youngs longitudinal axial stress and equivalent plastic strain

modulus of 200 x 103. profiles in the bent, reverse bent, and reverse bent and

The material input parameters for the simulation straightened wire specimens predicted by the

conducted with the combined hardening model are the simulations with the two hardening models are also

initial stress Yi at zero plastic strain (not presented for presented in Figures 4, 6 and 7 respectively. The

confidentiality purposes) and the calibrated combined fractured experimental ERBS wire specimen is shown in

hardening plasticity modelling parameters: kinematic Figure 8(c). The experimental force-displacement curves

hardening parameter C of 15300, gamma ( J ) of 275, for the unbent and ERBS wire specimens with the force-

displacement curves obtained from the simulations of

Qf of 12000 and hardening parameter b of 0.04. The the tensile testing of the unbent and FERBS wire

calibrated combined hardening plasticity modelling specimens conducted with the isotropic and the

parameters were obtained through a phenomenological combined hardening plasticity models are shown in

curve fitting process and they represent the values of Figures 9 and 10 respectively.

Determination of the Appropriate Plasticity Hardening Model for the Simulation of the Reverse Bending

and Straightening of Wires for Civil Engineering Applications

Year 2013

(a) Deformed shape showing longitudinal axial stress distribution 47

Global Journal of Researches in Engineering ( ED) Volume XIII Issue vIII Version I

(b) Through-thickness longitudinal axial stress profile

Figure 4 : Longitudinal axial stress and equivalent plastic strain distributions and through-thickness profiles

in wire after bending process simulation

Determination of the Appropriate Plasticity Hardening Model for the Simulation of the Reverse Bending

and Straightening of Wires for Civil Engineering Applications

Year 2013

Figure 5 : Deformed shape showing longitudinal axial stress distribution in specimen during reverse

bending process simulation

48

E ) Volume XIII Issuev vIII Version I

Global Journal of Researches in Engineering ( D

Figure 6 : Longitudinal axial stress and equivalent plastic strain distributions and through-thickness profiles

in wire after reverse bending process simulation

Determination of the Appropriate Plasticity Hardening Model for the Simulation of the Reverse Bending

and Straightening of Wires for Civil Engineering Applications

Year 2013

(a) Deformed shape and stress distribution in whole wire length 49

Global Journal of Researches in Engineering ( ED) Volume XIII Issue vIII Version I

(b) Through thickness longitudinal axial stress profile

Figure 7 : Longitudinal axial stress and equivalent plastic strain distributions and through-thickness profiles

in wire after straightening process simulation

Determination of the Appropriate Plasticity Hardening Model for the Simulation of the Reverse Bending

and Straightening of Wires for Civil Engineering Applications

Year 2013

(a) Deformed shape of the whole wire length showing the Fractured FERBS specimen at the center

50 of the whole wire length

E ) Volume XIII Issuev vIII Version I

Global Journal of Researches in Engineering ( D

Figure 8 : Fractured numerically and experimentally RBS specimens after tensile testing

1

Relative force

0.8

0.6 Isotropic hardening

0.2

Experimental

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

Relative displacement

. Figure 9 : Experimental and FE force-displacement curves for unbent wire specimens with isotropic

and combined hardening models

Determination of the Appropriate Plasticity Hardening Model for the Simulation of the Reverse Bending

and Straightening of Wires for Civil Engineering Applications

1

0.8

Relative force

0.6

0.4 FE isotropic hardening

0.2 FE combined hardening

Experimental

0

Year 2013

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6

Relative displacement

Figure 10 : Experimental and FE force-displacement curves for RBS wire specimens with isotropic

and combined hardening models

51

The straightening of the wire caused a

XI. Discussion

Global Journal of Researches in Engineering ( ED) Volume XIII Issue vIII Version I

second stress and strain reversal and induced tensile

As shown in Figures 4(b) and (c), there is no and compressive stresses and strains in the initial upper

significant difference in the through-thickness and initial lower parts of the wire specimens respectively

longitudinal axial stresses and strains profiles predicted as shown in Figure 7(a). Consequently, the initial upper

by the bending simulations conducted with both the part of the wire specimen has undergone a double

isotropic and the combined hardening models. The stress/strain reversal resulting from the tensile

simulations conducted with both hardening models stress/strain in the upper part of the wire due to

predicted tensile and compressive stresses and strains bending, followed by compressive stress/strain in the

at the initial upper and the initial lower parts of the wire upper part of the wire due to the reverse bending and

as expected based on the deformed shape of the wire followed by the tensile stress in the upper part of the

specimen shown in Figure 4(a). Also the strain profiles wire due to straightening of the wire. Similarly the initial

predicted by the simulations conducted with the two lower part of the wire has undergone a double strain

hardening models are linear as expected of a bending reversal (compressive stress due to bending, tensile

induced straining. This result indicates that both the stress due to reverse bending and compressive stress

isotropic and the combined hardening models are able due to straightening). There is a significant difference in

to predict the stress and strain distributions/profiles in the through-thickness longitudinal axial stress profiles

wires subjected to bending round the roller accurately. predicted by the simulations conducted with the

Similarly, there is no significant difference in the isotropic model and with those conducted with the

through-thickness longitudinal axial stress profiles combined hardening model as shown in Figure 7(b),

predicted by the reverse bending simulations conducted with the simulation conducted with the isotropic

with both the isotropic and the combined hardening hardening model predicting higher tensile and

compressive stresses at the upper and the lower parts

models as shown in Figures 6(b). Also the simulations

of the wire respectively. The strain profiles predicted by

conducted with the two hardening models predicted the

the two hardening models shown in Figure 5(c) are no

expected strain reversal in the reverse bent wire

longer linear due to the plastic straining involved in the

specimen as the initial upper and initial lower parts of

straightening process.

the wire that were subjected to tensile and compressive The simulations of the tensile testing of the

stresses after the bending simulation are now subjected FERBS specimen conducted with the two hardening

to compressive and tensile stresses and strains models predicted the same fracture shape shown in

respectively after the reverse bending simulation. Figure 8(b), which agrees well with the fracture shape

However, the strain profile predicted by the simulation exhibited by the experimentally RBS specimen shown in

conducted with the combined hardening model is linear Figure 8(c). This result indicates that the fracture

as expected for a bending induced straining, whereas process and the predicted fracture shape are largely

the strain profile predicted by the simulation with the independent of the hardening model and solely

isotropic hardening model is not linear. Now, a dependent on the phenomenological shear fracture

difference between the capability/suitability of the model employed for the simulations with the two

isotropic hardening model and the combined hardening hardening models.

model in predicting the appropriate/expected linear Figure 9 indicates that the force-displacement

strain profile in the reverse bent wire specimen that has curve predicted by the simulations of the tensile testing

undergone strain reversal is observed. of the unbent wire with both isotropic and combined

Determination of the Appropriate Plasticity Hardening Model for the Simulation of the Reverse Bending

and Straightening of Wires for Civil Engineering Applications

hardening models agree well with the experimental is associated with the double strain reversal experienced

curve up to the fracture initiation point. The force- by the reverse bent and straightened wire. Conversely,

displacement curve predicted by the simulation of the the simulation conducted with the combined hardening

tensile testing of the FERBS wire with the combined model adequately captured both the work hardening

hardening model agrees very well with the experimental due to bending and the softening of the wire due to the

curve throughout the elastic region, and fairly well in the Bauschinger effect resulting from the double strain

plastic and fracture regions (Figure 10). However, the reversal experienced by the wire during reverse bending

force-displacement curve predicted by the simulation of and straightening operations. Consequently, it is

the tensile testing of the FERBS with isotropic hardening concluded that the combined hardening model serves

does not show a good agreement with the experimental as the most appropriate plasticity hardening model for

curve throughout the elastic region. the prediction of the behaviour of carbon steel wires

Year 2013

It is considered that the difference between subjected to bending, reverse bending, and

prediction and experiment is due to the fact that the straightening.

isotropic hardening model does not capture the This work thus identifies the combined

softening of the wire due to the Bauschinger effect and hardening model as the appropriate plasticity hardening

52 merely predicts that the wire has been continuously model for wires for civil engineering applications reverse

work hardened during the bending, reverse bending, bending and straightening test simulation. This work

and straightening operations, which is not evident in the thus provides the appropriate material constitutive

E ) Volume XIII Issuev vIII Version I

experimental curve. The inability of the isotropic model required for the numerical simulation of wires

hardening model to capture the softening of the wire reverse bending and straightening test which is required

due to the Bauschinger effect associated with the for the numerical investigation of the effects of the

double strain reversal involved during the reverse combination of reverse bending and laminations on the

bending and straightening simulation also explains why tensile properties of a typical wire used for civil

the simulation conducted with the isotropic hardening engineering applications which cannot be done

model predicted higher through-thickness stress values experimentally as it is impossible to machine the long

as shown in the stress profile of the FERBS wire in straight longitudinal laminations into the wires.

Figure 7(b). Conversely, the combined hardening model

adequately captured both the work hardening and References Rfrences Referencias

Bauschinger effect that are associated with the double

strain reversal involved in the reverse bending and 1. Adewole K. K, Bull S. J., 2013. Prediction of the

straightening processes. Figure 10 also indicates that fracture performance of defect-free steel bars for

Global Journal of Researches in Engineering ( D

the isotropic hardening model predicts a displacement civil engineering applications using finite element

at fracture far higher than the experimental results. simulation. Construction and Building Materials,

Consequently, it is concluded that the combined Volume 41, pages 914.

hardening model is the appropriate material constitutive 2. Carbonnie J Thuillier., S, Sabourin F., Brunet, M and

(plasticity hardening) model for the simulation of Manach P.Y., 2008. Comparison of the work

bending, reverse bending, and straightening of carbon hardening of metallic sheets in bendingunbending

steel wires used for civil engineering applications. and simple shear. International Journal of Mecha-

nical Sciences, Vol 51, pages 122130.

XII. Conclusion

3. Firat M., 2007. U-channel forming analysis with an

In this paper, it is demonstrated that both the

emphasis on springback deformation. Materials and

isotropic and the combined hardening models are able

Design, Volume 28, pages 147154.

to predict the bending behaviour of wires for civil

engineering applications as they both predicted the 4. Gau Jenn-Terng and Kinzel Gary L., 2001. A new

stress and strain distributions and profiles in bent wire model for springback prediction in which the

accurately. However, the isotropic hardening model Bauschinger effect is considered. International

does not give good predictions of the stress and strain Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 2001,Vol 43, Issue

distributions and profiles, and also does not give a good 8, Pages 1813-1832.

prediction of the tensile behaviour of the reverse bent 5. Hooputra, H., Gese, H., Dell, H., and Werner, H.,

and straightened wire which has undergone double 2004. A Comprehensive Failure Model for Crash

strain reversal due to the reverse bending and worthiness Simulation of Aluminium Extrusions.

straightening operations. This is due to the fact that the International Journal of Crashworthiness, Vol. 9,

simulation conducted with the isotropic hardening no.5, Pages 449464.

model predicted a continuous work hardening of the 6. Ken-ichiro, Mori., 2001. Simulation of materials

wire during the bending, reverse bending, and processing: theory, methods and applications:

straightening operations and did not capture the proceedings of the 7th International Conference on

softening of the wire due to the Bauschinger effect that Numerical Methods in Industrial Forming Processes

Determination of the Appropriate Plasticity Hardening Model for the Simulation of the Reverse Bending

and Straightening of Wires for Civil Engineering Applications

by Cedric Xia, Z.

7. Simulia, 2007. Abaqus documentation, Abaqus

Incorporated, Dassault Systemes.

8. Smith B.O., Jenning A.P.H and Grimshaw A.G.,

1957. A portable lamination detector for steel

sheet, The British Iron and Steel Research

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