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Edith Cowan University

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Theses : Honours Theses

2005

New Method Of Rhythmic Improvisation For The


Jazz Bassist : An Interdisciplinary Study of Dave
Holland's Rhythmic Approach To Bass
Improvisation And North Indian Rhythmic
Patterns
Linda M. Oh
Edith Cowan University

Recommended Citation
Oh, L. M. (2005). New Method Of Rhythmic Improvisation For The Jazz Bassist : An Interdisciplinary Study of Dave Holland's Rhythmic
Approach To Bass Improvisation And North Indian Rhythmic Patterns. Retrieved from http://ro.ecu.edu.au/theses_hons/235

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New Method of Rhythmic Improvisation for the Jazz Bassist: an
interdisciplinary study of Dave Holland's rhythmic approach to bass
improvisation and North Indian rhythmic patterns

Written by Linda May-Han Oh


of Music~ (Perfonnance) with Honours
\Vestern Australian Academy of Perfonning At'is
Submission date: 21st November, 2005.
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I certify that this thesis does not, to the best of my knowledge and belief
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Linda Oh, 21111/05.


Abstract

The focus of this honours dissertation is rhythm in jazz-bass improvisation. It is an

exploration of the rhythmic devices employed by cutting-edge bassist, Dave Holland (b.

1946). Through transcription and analysis of Holland's improvisation over a selection of

compositions recorded by the award-winning Dave Holland Quintet, this study isolates the

key rhythmic tools he uses to create engaging solos. Furthermore this study examines

rhythmic concepts from North Indian Classical music (a primary influence on Holland)

through transcription and analysis of rhythm in certain tabla compositions. Consequently, a

synthesis of the explored rhythmic devices is presented in the form of an instructional tutor

designed to teach jazz-bassists how to improvise using interesting and advanced rhythmic

ideas.
Acknowledgements

I owe a great deal of gratitude to my mentors who have aided me during the writing of this

dissertation.

First and foremost I wish to thank my supervisor, Stuart Smith for his expertise and amazing

way with words.

I am indebted to my bass tutor, Paul Pooley, as well as to my tabla teacher Vickswaram

Ramakrishan for teaching me so much about Hindustani music throughout this past year.

Thank you also to Graeme Lyall, Maggie Phillips, Dana Ogle, Brett Maybury, Mace Francis

and my fellow honours stud~nts.


Table of Contents

Introduction/Overview .............................................................................. 1

PART I

Chapter One Dave Holland .................................................................... .4

Literature Review ...................................................... 4

Biography ............................................................... 8

Influences ............................................................... 9

Rhythmic Proficiency .................................................. 11

Dave Holland Quintet ................................................. 12

Chapter Two Analysis ........................................................................... 15

Methodology ............................................................ 15

Global Citizen ........................................................... 20

ivir B ...................................................................... 30

Shifting Sands ........................................................... 38

The Balance .............................................................. 43

Not for Nothing ......................................................... 49

For All You Are ......................................................... 53

Results of Analysis and Collection of Key Rhythmic Devices ... 60

PART II

Chapter Three Hindustani Music .................................................................. 61

Literature Review ....................................................... 61

Orthography .............................................................. 66

Dave Holland and Indian Music ....................................... 66

Jazz and Indian Music ................................................... 67

Indian Classical Music .................................................. 68


Introduction to Hindustani Music ..................................... 69

Chapter Four Rhythm in Hindustani Classical music ........................................... 71

Tal Theory .................................................................. 71

Tabla Qua ida ............................................................... 73

Tabla Quaida One ......................................................... 75

Tabla Quaida Two ......................................................... 80

Summary .................................................................... 86

PART III

Chapter Five Integration of Rhythmic Concepts ................................. __

Methodology ................................................................ 87

Format of Tutor ............................................................ 89

Chapter Six Instn1ctional Tutor ................................................................... 90

Research Outcomes .................................................................................... 129

References ............................................................................................... 132

Appendix A ............................................................................................. 13 5

Appendix B ............................................................................................. 13 8

Appendix C ............................................................................................. 142

Appendix D ............................................................................................. 145

-Part 2 .............................................................................................. 146

Appendix E ............................................................................................. 149

Appendix F .............................................................................................. 150

Appendix G ............................................................................................. 15 3

'Appendix H ............................................................................................. 154


Introduction

From the earliest days of jazz, the roles and responsibilities of the jazz bassist has constantly

evolved. In the nascent jazz bands, bassists helped to maintain the rhythmic and harmonic

foundations of the ensemble, playing mainly roots and fifths on beats one and three in emulation

of the tuba. 1 Through the contributions of seminal jazz bassists throughout the 20th century, it is

now possible for a bassist to play creative solos, complex countermelodies and counter-rhythms2 .

One such bass-player who has thoroughly explored the latter is Dave Holland (b. 1946).

This dissertation is an inter-disciplinary study that aims to trace the rhythmic commonalities

between the classical music of North India and that of the present-day cutting edge bass

improvisation, in particular the bass-playing of Dave Holland. Furthermore, a practical and

tangible result of my work is presented in the form of an instructional method for the advanced

jazz-bassist. The focus of this sh1dy will be two fold: Holland's rhythmic approach to bass

improvisation and a study of North Indian rhythmic patterns. The dissertation divides into three

main parts: 1) Dave Holland and his rhythmic approach to bass improvisation 2) North Indian

music and tabla rhythmic patterns and 3) techniques and methods for the integration of the

rhythmic concepts found in the previous two sections.

Chapter one begins with an appraisal of the literary fi~dings pertaining to Holland and his music.

Following this, a brief overview of Dave Holland will be included to provide some background

information on Holland's abilities, projects and characteristics as a bassist. These attributes

include his rhythmic precision, interesting rhythmic ideas, as well as his ability to improvise

fluently over irregular meters. The first chapter will also explain the history and concepts behind

I
2
1. Gol~sby, Jazz Bass Book. (San Fransisco: Backbeat Books. 2002), 29.
A. Shtpton, "Double Bass." Grove Music Online. 2005. <http://www.grovemusic.com> (5 March 2005).
his main project- the Dave Holland Quintet, which performs original repertoire, often in time-

signatures other than 4/4 and 3/4. Holland holds that these types of tunes provide a rhythmic

vehicle that allows him to develop his rhythmic language. 1

Chapter two of the dissertation will be largely analytical. After discussing the methods of analysis

to be used, there will be a detailed analysis and discussion of Dave Holland's rhythmic concepts

within a selection of six tunes played by the Dave Holland Quintet. The outcomes of the analysis

will be discussed in Chapter Four.

This dissertation will then explore "Part II: North Indian Classical (Hindustani) Music"- a source

of inspiration for Dave Holland. Holland lived in London amongst a large Indian community and

listened to concerts perfmmed by North Indian classical musicians. He mentions that "The

incredible development of rhythm in Indian music, the discipline of learning these very involved

cycles, and how to subdivide them, was very influential 2 ." Chapter Five will provide a brief

introduction to the Hindustani Classical music tradition and its relationship with jazz. Chapter Six

will be a deeper exploration of the rhythmic concepts to which Holland is referring, using tabla

patterns to illustrate the rhythmic patterns.

Part III will suggest appropriate methods for adopting these rhythmic concepts into a bass-
.,
player's improvisational vocabulary, to consequently make one's bass solos more interesting

rhythmically. This research will also provide insight into how one may improvise over odd-time

::-='-"-'-''-!.!..l~~;2m'UY.J;Q!IWJiit!.!.!~t.i!.l.UL&!ln:L!l2::~!2> (February 25, 2005)


Panken, "The Holland Express." Jazziz. (April 2003): 34.

2
The primary questions that shall be explored will be:

What rhythmic concepts does Dave Holland use to create interest in is improvisation?

What interesting rhythmic concepts of Hindustani classical music can be adopted into bass

improvisation?

How does one approach integrating these rhythmic concepts into one's own playing?

3
Chapter One: Dave Holland

Literature Review

The bulk of literature written about Dave Holland originates from periodical articles and

interviews published in popular magazines such as Bass-Player, Down Beat and Jazziz. Most of

the published interviews pertain to his quintet or the extrapolated version - the Dave Holland Big-

Band.

Although Holland has not been the focus for a major monograph, there are biographical and

musical sketches of him in The New Grove Dictionary ofJazz and The Jazz Book by Joachim

Berende. These two sources are some of few existing in-depth jazz monographs, as jazz

scholarship is still in its infancy. Information about Holland in the New Grove Dictionary ofJazz

is mainly biographical and is very brief while Berendt's book mentions Holland briefly only at

certain points throughout the book. This suggests that Dave Holland would be a worthy subject

for original research. The paucity of the literature devoted to such a jazz leader suggests that Dave

Holland would be a worthy subject for original research.

Several journal articles attempt to communicate the originality of Holland's music and his unique

playing style. Ted Panken's article "The Holland Express" 1 contains in-depth information on

Holland and is particularly significant. His article discusses two main areas that are important to

this dissertation- Holland's individual performing style, and the innovative 'new' Dave Holland

Berendt, The Jazz Book. (Connecticut: Lawrence Hill and Co, 1982).
and B. Kemfeld. "Dave (David] Holland." 2005. Grove Music Online.
"'"'"""'"" (5 March, 2005).

4
Panken recounts Holland's musical endeavours up to and including the formation of his current

quintet in 1997, and using direct quotes from Holland, he paints a picture of Holland's musical

upbringing. Holland mentions his many musical influences including the seminal jazz bass-

players before him, Indian music, classical music as well as Miles Davis. Using direct quotes

from Holland's colleagues- pianist Herbie Hancock and drummer Jack DeJohnette- it is revealed

that Holland is not only a virtuosic soloist, but uses a strong, supportive, yet interactive approach

to bass-accompaniment that makes the other players feel comfortable.

The article describes Holland's 'decade of metric exploration' where he was searching to find a

context to 'frame his personal vision of music.' In the following passage, Panken attempts to

explain the moral fibre of the Dave Holland quintet and praise the group's innovative sound.

Never sublimating their voices, they play with an attitude of openness and ensemble community.
These albums are filled with episodic themes, memorable melodies, elegant harmonic
progressions, loads of polyphony, call-and-response, background riffs, and a global array of
interlocking rhythmic cycles. Propelled and knit together by the leader's relentless grooves, singing
sound, and harmonic acuity, they stand as meaningful signposts of what contemporary jazz can
be. 2

Panken's article is the most in-depth discussion to-date of Dave Holland's style and the Dave

Holland Quintet.

Several articles about Holland and his quintet focus"' on the history of the group and the

development of original repertoire. 3 The focus of this dissertation however, will be on practical

performance aspects of bass improvisation, consequently it is important to acknowledge the two

1
Panken, "The Holland Express."
2
lbid. 33.
3
See the following texts: N. Chinen, "The Gig: Uncommon Denominator." Jazztimes. (April2005): 18.
J. Newsom, "Individual Vision," Portfolio Weekly, April 27, 2004.<:http//www.jimnewson.com/PFW-
DaveHolland.html> (26 February 2005).
G. Giddins, "Point Counterpoint." The Village Voice. (Nov 2002): 66.

5
articles that explore how Dave Holland can improvise fluently over the complex quintet repertoire

and in particular over the odd meters. Two articles written in Bass Player Magazine- "Truth and

Time" by Alan Goldsher 1 and "Mr Holland's Odd-time Opus" by Richard Johnston 2 contain

interviews with Holland that explain his approach to handling odd-time signatures.

In an interview with Holland in "Truth and Time", Goldsher asks Holland, how did he become so

adept at handling odd time signatures? Holland answers,

The first thing is to have a compositional vehicle to allow you to develop those ideas. Some of the
things happening in Miles Davis' band in the sixties caught my ear- where they'd take the dotted
quarter note and use that as a new beat over the original 4/4. I started practicing those kinds of
things which led me to writing in five and seven. Then I went nuts on it- I wrote a book of cycles
and subdivisions I could practise. I'd practise them on a little hand drum, and then on the bass.
When you're playing in these time signatures you can't really count them, if you do you get lost.
You have to feel them. 3

Holland adds that he tries to provide a bass-line that is supportive yet conversational, as dialogue

within his music is a key focus. Furthetmore, Goldsher inquires about the type of gear that

Holland uses, and asks the question- 'What tenets do you pass on to your students?' to which

Holland replies,

I always tell them, "Play as much as you can, and listen as much as you can." That sounds simple but a lot
of young players are reluctant to get out and play for other people until they feel that they're "ready." My
philosophy is: Get ready by doing it. Get out there and interact with as many kinds of musicians as you can.
Learn to be a group player, learn to be a team player, leap1 to get along with people whom you might not
easily get along with. All these skills will help you function as a musician as you get older. The other side is
to listen- develop your ear and your sensitivity to music and to sounds. If you're going to be a professional
musician, you need to love the music a great deal. It almost needs to be something you have to do rather
than something you want to do because it's not an easy path. You have to be patient, you have to have
courage and you have to be prepared to work hard. 4

l
2
A. Goldsher, "Dave Holland: Truth and Time," Bass Player Magazine. (Dec 2001): 42.
3
Johnston, R. "Music Lesson: Mr Holland's Odd Time Opus," Bass Player Magazine. (Dec 2001): 48
4
Goldsher, "Dave Holland: Truth and Time," 43.
Ibid. 45.

6
Rather than analysing what Dave Holland plays on recordings and attempting to relate his style to

his predecessors, this article reveals how Holland plays what he plays.

Similarly, the article "Mr Holland's Odd-time Opus" by Johnston analyses Holland's tune What

Goes Around from the 2001 album Not for Nothing. Johnston analyses the form, meter, harmony

and Holland's bass-playing, commenting on the way Holland 'embellishes the vamp bass lines

with poise and precision.' This article includes a quote from Holland himself revealing his method

of playing over odd-time signatures.

Ultimately, the key is not how you break up the line or where the accents are--it's getting to the
point where the cycle of 11 is so embedded in your musical consciousness that it becomes second
nature, like playing in four. All ofthe devices we so commonly and fluidly use in four--like
crossing bar lines, playing three against four, overlapping phrases, playing in double-time, or
implying straight and swung feels--can be applied to an odd time signature. It's not anything I've
mastered; I'm still working on it. 1

II

Johnston, "Music Lesson: Mr Holland's Odd Time Opus," 48.

7
Biography

Born in Wolverhampton, England in 1946, Holland began playing double bass at seventeen years

of age In 1964, Holland attended the Guildhall School of Music (under the tutelage of James

Merritt) while playing with the likes of John Surman and the Spontaneous Music Ensemble. Two

years later, Holland moved to the US to work with Miles Davis until 1970, recording albums such

as Bitches Brew in 1969. In late 1970, Holland founded acoustic free-jazz group Circle together

with Chick Corea, Barry Altschul and Anthony Braxton, before recording his first album as a

leader- Conference of the Birds in 1972. Between 1973 and 1980, Holland performed with artists

such as Stan Getz, John Abercrombie, Jack Dejohnette and Sam Rivers. In 1977, Holland began

recording and performing as an unaccompanied soloist on double bass and cello. Holland formed

his own quintet consisting of trumpeter Kenny Wheeler, saxophonists- Joe Lovano and Steve

Coleman as well as drummer Marvin Smith. 1

Holland has received many awards throughout his lifetime. He was voted the Number One Bass-

player in the Down Beat Critics Poll for three consecutive years and received an honourary

doctorate from Berklee School of Music in 2000. The Jazz Journalists Association deemed him

Bass-player of the year (twice) and Musician of the Year. Holland won the International Jazz

Award at the International Association ofJazz Educators Conference, where he received a


II

20, 000 dollar honorarium for contributing to the evolution of jazz?

tH
aze~I and Kernfeld, "Dave [David] Holland."
Information is derived from the Dave Holland website: Unknown Author, "Biography," Dave
,.L1'ottcmd Website, (date when updated is unknown). <www.daveholland.com> 24 September 2004.

8
Influences

Holland has been influenced by a diverse array of musical styles - the primary influence being

jazz. He was undoubtedly inspired by the seminal jazz bass-players such as Charles Mingus, Ray

Brown, Scott Lafaro, Jimmy Garrison, Gary Peacock, and Oscar Pettiford.'

In addition he was influenced by the early New Orleans style of jazz. Throughout the New

Orleans revival in England in the 1960s, Holland played traditional arrangements by Louis

Armstrong's Hot Five and King Oliver in local bars. Holland explains,

Jazz connected with me emotionally but also intellectually for the incredible precision and level of
playing and for the dialogue that goes on. The idea of conversation has remained a key element for
me all the way through. No other music in the Western world is like it because it's an in-the-
moment narrative and it's different every time .. .I loved the layers of sound when the clarinet,
trumpet, and trombone were improvising together. That's one reason why I loved Ellington and
Mingus. My bands have never been about solo after solo, but about collective dialogue. 2

Miles Davis was also a source of inspiration, teaching Holland about narrative within

improvisation i.e. the art of pacing oneselr_3 Davis also influenced his rhythmic ideas and

'"'~'V"'"'" also listened to a lot of non-western music. He lived in multi-cultural London amongst a

Indian community and listened to concerts perfmmed by North Indian musicians Vilayat

and Pannalal Ghosh. More information on Holland's influences from Indian music will be

in Chapter Five. In the following passage Holland mentions his interest in world-music.

Evan Parker introduced me to the UNESCO series of world-music records, and I listened to music
from Tibet, Afghanistan, and Central Africa. The rhythmic complexity and polyphonic aspect of
Pygmy music was incredible. I'd never heard anything like the way two voices would integrate the

"Avant Courier". Jazz Journal International. (1984): 83.


"The Holland Express," 34.

9
rhythms and tones so they bounced off each other and created a third, completely different
element. 1

As a composer Holland was influenced by classical music, particularly the music of Stravinsky,

Messiaen and Bartok. Holland maintains that Stravinsky's use of rhythmic cells as motivic

material influenced the way that he composes2

With such a diverse and musically rich array of influences, it is easy to understand Holland's

preoccupation with interesting irregular rhythms.

"Dave Holland Overtime."

IO
Rhythmic Proficiency

It would appear that Holland has an impeccable sense of musical time and has the ability to play

fluently in odd time signatures. Cook et al suggests that he has "perfect time 1" while Kemfeld et
2
al acknowledges his "rhythmic precision." The aforementioned article, "Mr Holland's Odd-Time

Opus" is entirely devoted to Holland's ability to improvise support lines in odd-time meters.

As mentioned previously, Holland also has the ability to imply other meters over the existing

meter by imposing a dotted-quarter note pulse over the original time-signature- a technique he

learned while playing with Miles Davis in the 1960's.

Further explanation of Holland's rhythmic devices will be in Chapter Two by analysing

transcriptions of his playing. However, this dissertation will first provide some background

information on the Dave Holland Quintet and the concept behind it. As most of these rhythmic

devices and practices were worked out in conjunction with the Dave Holland Quintet it is

appropriate that the next section of this dissertation deals with this ensemble.

and B. Morton, The Penguin Guide to Jazz on CD- fifth edition. (London: Penguin Books, 1998),

and Kernfeld, "Dave [David] Holland."

11
The Dave Holland Quintet

According to the Dave Holland web-site, the current Dave Holland Quintet was conceived in

1997, consisting of Steve Wilson on saxophone, Robin Eubanks on trombone, Steve Nelson on

vibraphone and Billy Kilson on drums (Nate Smith is currently playing drums and Chris Potter is

currently playing saxophone in this group.) This quintet has also been expanded into an octet and

into a thirteen-piece big-band. 1

Holland initially conceived this quintet with the intention of creating something unique. Hence the

quintet was formed with the unconventional line-up of drums, bass, saxophone, trombone and

vibraphone. Holland observes,

I wanted a two-horn front-line for the band ... because compositionally that leads to more
possibilities and gives the ensemble a particular sound, especially when we're doing a kind of
ensemble improvisation where everybody's improvising at the same time, I guess in the style of
the New Orleans bands in a way.Z

Holland also comments on the variety of sounds one can achieve from the trombone and

saxophone due to the differing range and timbre of the instruments. Holland holds that the

vibraphone was a suitable addition to the quintet as it has the 'percussion family connection' with

the drums. 3 Holland explains,

'
The tonal density of keyboard often is not what I'm looking for when I structure music. I'm trying
to structure it with air. When I write a large chord with a big span, I want there to be space inside it
so that it resonates in an open, transparent way. In the early days I didn't want to use a chordal
instmment; I was writing for open form along the Omette Coleman model of having a very
distinctive melodic line, sometimes with accompanying harmonies, which would launch the piece
into a certain sound. But as the '80s progressed, I started to write increasingly in a way that I
needed that chordal presence. Guitar with Kevin Eubanks worked really well for me; the
instrument has sW. strings, and you have to play it with a certain sparseness. Vibraphone is the

This big-band has had tremendous success and has recorded two albums: What Goes Around (2003
award winner) and Overtime.
J'le,wsnn-. "Individual Vision."

12
same way; four mallets is the maximum you can expect to play with, so you're limited to four-note
chords. 1

Holland also maintains that each member has very individual sounds on their instruments 2 and

that these musicians have their own sense of rhythmic strength - something he looks for in

musicians 3 . This rhythmic strength can to be heard on recordings of the quintet which display the

ease with which the members improvise over odd time-signatures. These recordings also show the

rhythmic precision within the group especially when poly-rhythms or poly-meters are implied

over the given meter.

Many of the tunes played by the quintet are in irregular time signatures i.e. meters other than 4/4

or 3/4. Holland explains this further in the following passage:

The main thing is does it feel good? have propulsion and often a kind of dance
feel? The rhythmic language is something I've been developing. Working with other time-
signatures, other than the usual 4/4 or :Y.., gives us <1. rhythmic vehicle to improvise on. That is a key
point to all the music I write, the purpose is to create settings for improvisation .. .I am still always
thinking about the pieces as vehicles for improvisation that allows different individuals, different
personalities and different style of players to thrive in. 4

Holland Quintet has a distinct sound based on 'episodic themes, memorable melodies,

. harmonic progressions, loads of polypl1ony, call-and-response, background riffs, and a

ofinterlocking rhythmic cycles5 ." Holland goes on to say, 'My bands have never

solo after solo, but a];tout collective dialogue.'

13
Two of the quintet's albums- Points of View and Prime Directive were nominated for Grammy

awards. This group was voted Number One Acoustic Jazz Group of the year by the Down Beat

Critics Poll and Best Combo of the Year at the Bell-Atlantic Jazz Awards. The Jazz Journalists

Association gave them the Live Performance ofYear Award as well as the Best Small Ensemble

Award.

The next section of the dissertation deals with Dave Holland's improvisation within the context of

his quintet. The focus is on the explanation and codification of the rhythmic devices he uses to

make his playing within the quintet interesting.

14
Chapter 2: Analysis

Introduction

This section of the dissertation aims to identify the key rhythmic devices used by Holland in his

improvisation. To this end this chapter will analyse the rhythm within certain transcriptions of

Holland's improvisations within the following compositions.

Global Citizen
MrB
Shifting Sands
The Balance
Not for Nothing
For All You Are

Methodology

In the text, The Rhythmic Structure ofMusic by Grovesnor Cooper and Leonard Meyer the

authors write,

to study rhythm is to study all music. J4bythm both organizes and itself organized by, all the
elements which create and shape musical processes ... to experience rhythm is to group separate
sounds into structured patterns ... the adalysis of rhythm tends to be a complicated and at times
uncertain ... our first task must be one of definition. 1

These maxims, to some extent sum up the analysis strategy that will be applied in this

chapter. In order to discover why Holland's improvisations are so interesting

1
G. Cooper and L. Meyer, The Rhythmic Structure of Music, (USA: University of Chicago Press, 1960): I.

15
rhythmically, this dissertation will define and group the interesting1 and recurring

rhythmic passages into 'structured patterns' taking into account the rhythmic and non-

rhythmic 'elements which create and shape musical processes.' These elements will

include:

1) melodic contour

2) articulation

3) harmonic rhythm

4) phrase lengths (especially those that cross .the barline)

5) rhythmic density.

Furthermore, this dissertation makes use of a recent analytical method by French musicologist and

ethnomusicologist, Jean-Jacque Nattiez. His method;

... seeks to elucidate the structures of the score through the process of segmentation and
comparison. Recurrent events are identified as belonging to a paradigm, to be tabulated on a
vertical axis, while. contiguous events appear horizontally. 1

Below is an example of a Nattiez chart of Edgar Varese's, Density 21.5 from the New Grove

Dictionary ofMusic and Musicians. It presents l!he development of the motif A within the

composition by vertically aligning the motif and its respective variations. Evidently motif A is

developed resulting in the creation of motif B which is in tum developed.

1
Interesting meaning rhythms that create dissonance against the existing pulse.

16
This dissertation will use diagrams based on the one above to present the development of motifs

within Holland's solos and the various ways in which he uses particular rhythmic devices (i,e,

syncopation).

In addition, the 'dot-notation' used by Fred Lerdhal and Ray Jackendoffwill be used to show the

underlying pulse of the existing meters and implied meters. These two theorists suggested that

meter consists of two or more interacting coexisting levels of pulsations that effectively generate
(/1

beats that are relatively strong and weak2. The so called 'stronger' beats are in actuality no louder

than the weaker beats, but are just felt stronger or felt as more stressed.

1
N. Cumming, The New Grove Dictionmy of Music and Musicians: Vo/23, (London: Macmillan, 2001) 67.
2
M. Clayton, Time In Indian Music. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), 31,

17
The figure below is an example ofLerdahl and Jackendoff's dot-notation. It interprets the meter

of 4/4 as a row of beats each with different level strengths. The higher the number of dots per

beat, the stronger the beat is felt, hence beat one is the strongest beat with a number of four dots. 1

2 3 4 1 2 3 4
. . ..
. .
..
This excerpt shows that beat one is the strongest pulse of the bar, followed by beat three. Beats

two and four are theoretically the weakest beats of the bar and do not have the strength of beats

one and three.

The procedure used to analyse the six tunes will follow consist of four key steps. These will:

1) briefly outline the tune and its form

2) subdivide the meter into groups of two and three if the meter is extended ie larger

than 4/4.

3) identify the structured patterns and rhythmic devices (keeping into account the

aforementioned non-rhythmic elements)


;

4) summarise the findings with additional comments

The first step is useful in order to explain the context of Holland's improvisation, and to give an

overview of the style and form of the tune.

1
This method was used in Ibid. to illustrate an Indian 10-beat cycle.

18
The book Even in the Odds by Ralph Humphreys states the, "the rule for all extended meters is to

discover what smaller meters are used. There may be more than one possible division so choose
1
the one that seems the easiest to grasp and has a good feel." This statement explains the

significance of step two in discovering how the extended meter is felt. This in tum becomes

pivotal in the discussion of how Holland's rhythm is applied over the implied sub-meters.

The third step will examine the rhythmic devices used by Holland within transcribed solos and

bass-lines, while the fourth step will assemble key points and provide additional comments.

In summary, this chapter will seek to isolate and identify the key rhythmic devices and recurring

rhythmic patterns used by Holland in his improvisation.

1
R. Humphrey, Even in the Odds. (Iowa: CL Barnhouse Company, 1980), 19.

19
Global Citizen

Overview

This piece forms the opening track to the album Not for Nothing (200 1) and is in 1114 as well as

in 13/4 (the piece begins in 11/4 and the head is played in 1114 switching to a 13/4 section). Solos

are in sections of 1114 and 13/4 but more will be revealed later in this section.

The 11/4 section

Global Citizen begins with a riff in 11/4 that is played in unison by the saxophone, bass and

vibraphone (and is implied by the drummer). The rhythm of this riff permeates all the 11/4

sections of the tune.

Soprano Saxophone

String Bass

20
This basic riff is played in two keys throughout the whole tune~ D minor and Bb minor as shown

below within the example bass-lines.

Basic Riff 11/4

D minor riff

Bb minor riff

Sub-meters of 11/4

In these 11/4 sections, one may divide the meter int!1 a bar of 6/4 and a bar of 5/4.

J J ) J II

21
To break it down even further the bar of 6/4 may be divided into three bars of 2/4 while the bar of

514 may be divided into one bar of 3/4 and one bar of 2/4 or vice-versa. Hence the 1114 is felt as

2+2+2+3+2

IJ II I F J II J7) J

or

2+2+2+2+3

IJ I! J J~ J g

Using Lerdhal and Jackendoff's method of dot-notation, the suggested subdivision above would

appear as written below.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
.. .. .
"
. .
. .
..

22
13/4 section

When the tune shifts meter into 13/4, the G minor bass-riff shown is played. This riff permeates

all the 13/4 sections of Global Citizen.

q:' F
e
Basic riff 13/4

r J F ~w J. p
~

r 1 ~
t
,.---....
i>);
., r r J r ~d J. p r 1 f ~

This 13/4 section may be divided into one bar of7/4 and one bar of6/4,judging by the feel of the

riff and the placed accents.

41'
>-~
>-

:xI v J F ~a p f Jl
r >-
12 J.
>- >-~
J II

23
The 7/4 may be divided as a bar of 4/4 and a bar of%, while the 6/4 may be divided as 3 bars of

2/4. Hence the 13/4 may be felt as 2 + 2 + 3 + 2 + 2 + 2.

>-~

~ti v
>-

Ir 12 J r ~a I! J p I f !]]# II
>- >-

This can be interpreted using Lerdhal and Jackendoff's dot-notation:

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
.. ..

Note that the riff may also be felt as 2 + 2 + 3 + 3 + 3, but because there is no accent first note (A)
of the last bar of three, this subdivision may not feel as comfortableJ>revious example.

F I J. lfl J>--

f
no accent

24
Holland's variation of 13/4 riff

Shown below is variation of the originall3/4 bass riff that occurs throughout the whole recording.

In this case beat one ofthe second bar is anticipated by a quarter-note, a device that is used often

by Holland and shall be discussed later in this chapter.

Variation of 13/4 riff anticipation


~

q:
p
r r J r ~J J. v f :f]........ d J
>-~

.,
:')=
:J
'-'
F J?Q ........~ =t ~F f' p .,
I
pF
f tt oc

After the melody is played by the front-line, the solo section begins, starting with a vibraphone

solo followed by a bass solo.

Let us refer to the 13/4 riff as section A, the D minor 11/4 riff as section Band the Bb minor 11/4
11
riff as section C. One chorus of the solo section then consists of eight bars of A, four bars of B,

four bars of C and four bars of B. Hence the solo form is AABCB.

25
Rhythmic Patterns in Holland's Solo

This dissertation will now explore the rhythmic patterns used by Holland within his bass solo (see

Appendix A, Track 1: 4min;30secs.)

Syncopation

Within Holland's solo, syncopation can be found in the following bars: 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, and

18.

BPmll Eb9 Flsus Bbm Eb9 FOsus


b>- l syncop,ation A A

?: f r 7
v 'f rn 'f
A

p '7 '7
A

p_ '7 p '7 p A

j'
?,-1
p
cJ I
Below is a modified Nattiez chart presenting the various ways Holland has used syncopation in

his solo on Global Citizen.

2 bar2 ,....._,
. 111'-' A A

. >-
bar4 ,....._,
--
bar7
.........
. ~ ~
A
-f'L ~
*
bar9
.. ~ ~f:f:

~ t;
bar 11 A A

.. 111'- ~ ~

.... :
bt>.,.ar 16 ,. ~ JL ?,- IIIII

26
This modified Nattiez diagram shows that throughout Holland's solo, he uses several syncopated

passages that are very similar: each one begins with a dotted quarter-note and is followed by short

eighth-notes on the up-beats. Holland however, uses these syncopated passages in a variety of

ways, sometimes repeating the syncopated notes or sometimes creating an ascending or

descending melodic contour.

Two-beat Motifs

Holland also regularly uses a two-beat rhythmic motif, consisting of one quarter-note followed by

two eighth notes. This can be found in bars 1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 11, 13, and 17.

D7
Gm
1~otif . 1gmotif
Cm
I [ motif Ib 1" motif I f motif
>
I *r--m--:-i=-<-."'I I
2: f :fJ E tJ f t1~- tLr EL EJ =:j .

interesting that Holland uses two-beat motifs across the 11/4 and 13/4 bars. If one were to

two-beat motifs across these uneven meters, eventually the accents would fall on the weak

of the bar- that is, a two-beat motif starting on beat one of the 11/4 will end up falling on the

beats ofbar 2 (beats 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10) .

.cuvutta two-beat motif is used in bar I 0 and 15, consisting of four descending eighth notes

27
This motif creates levels of pulses that are super-imposed over the pulsations created by the

meter. Let us observe the different pulsations of the above phrase using Lerdhal and Jackendoff's

method of dot-notation.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

"
.. .. ..
.

pulsations are super-imposed over the existing pulsations displayed below (i.e. those

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
. . .. ..
. ..

with the two-beat motif above, Holland imposes a new set of pulsations over the original set

28
Finally, another two-beat motif consisting of four eighth notes can be found below in bar 7. Once

again, although the motif consists of purely eighth notes, the articulation and note-choice create

this two-beat motif.

Gm I motif II motif I
. Cm Am7D5 I mo tif I D71 var. mo tif I
r v
> A A A
~

~}! "J 7
-p-
"J vr r f f f f EFU U&uplf

Summary and Additional Information

Within the solo in Global Citizen Holland uses a variety of rhythmic devices. He regularly uses

two-beat motifs within irregular time-signatures that are indivisible by two (e.g. 11/4 and 13/4).

By utilising rhythmic techniques such as syncopation, two-beat motifs and anticipation, Holland

constmcts a dynamic and engaging solo, emphasising the relatively \Veak beats of the bar in order

to create rhythmic dissonance.

Holland achieves structural unity by constantly referring back to the original bass riffs (bars 1, 9,

17, 19 and 20). This not only gives the solo a sense of organic growth, it also grounds the solo;

balancing the tension caused by the rhythmic dissona~ce.

29
MrB

Overview

The composition Mr B is a piece that was written as a tribute to bassist Ray Brown (1926-2002)
1
and is played with a medium-tempo swing feel (see Appendix B, CD I, track 2: 7mins;20secs).

It follows an AAB form and is in 4/4, with the exception of one 6/4 bar (located in fourth bar of

the B section).

Patterns within Holland's Solo

This dissertation will now isolate the rhythmic patterns found in Holland's solo in Mr B (Track??

? min ?sees)

Anticipation.

One key device used often by Holland in this solo is the anticipation of the first beat of the bar

(the same device mentioned on page??) which also anticipates the harmonic rhythm. This can be

found in bars 6, 15, 16-17,24-26,33, 19, 41, and 52-56. Shown below are two examples, bar 5
"
and bars 52-55.

anticipated

5
Cmi6
Abubs L A7alt E7alt

;t: -fTJftj J 3 ,,;r-Y1 I J J c''rtdcu@


3

30
Sequen~es utilising anticipation

In bar 33, Holland uses a sequence that anticipates the strong beats of the 4/4 meter (i.e.

beats one and three) by an eighth-note. When Holland emphasises the weak beats and

anticipates beats one and three, he creates almost the same motion and tension that can be

created by syncopation (syncopation is also a form of anticipation).

31
Groups of Two Eighth-note Triplets

In bars 4, 19 and 52-56, Holland uses a significant rhythm. Bars 52-56 are shown below (eighths

are swung).

55 QbU

2'~[t

Because the eighth-notes are swtmg, the dotted eighth-note pulse can be literally translated as a

pulse felt on every second triplet, as displayed by the image below.

r-3-.,
J lf?l

It is evident in the above excerpt that Holland uses successive quarter-note triplets (that is groups

of two eight-note triplets) across the bar-lines. Instead of playing crotchet triplets as shown below,

32
3 3 3 3
:J=t f r I!
1
f
2
f
3
f
4
f f
5 6
'r f f f f

Holland begins the group of crotchet triplets one triplet earlier, thus implying the six over four

rhythm below that crosses the bar-line.

, - 3---, , - 3-, , - 3-, , - 3---, , - 3---, ,-3---, ,-3---, , - 3---, ,-3---,


7 7
vt t ti: rr r=r r? r1 rtr r1 r:r rr rr r1 r
1 2 3 4 5 6 1
1

Subsequently Holland is imposing another meter (6/4) over the original4/4.

Groups of four triplets

Similarly, Holland uses descending triplets in bars 15-16 and 21-24 where the emphasis is placed

on the first of every four triplets.

33
r rr b:;;--- 3-------,
P f F
Qilrr . BrJ

~ r r r r f3t r- "f fit #p'

Using a descending melodic contour and accenting the first of every four triplets, Holland implies

the following three over four rhythm:

1 2 3 1 2 3

In bars 63-65 Holland implies the same rhythm, this time using groups of four ascending triplets.

Ema7~n

E't
Bma7

62
!J=
3

34
One-and-a-half beat motif

Close examination of bars 59-60, reveals that Holland uses a one and a half beat motif, or in other

words a motif that emphasises every third eighth-note (straight eighths in this particular bar). This

motif consists of four sixteenth-notes and a quarter-note and is shown below.

This motif implies the following polyrhythm:

If- f
>- > >- ---

F f F E f F f F f F f f f

This rhythm is also reminiscent of the dotted pulse discussed earlier as the accents are spaced a

dotted crotchet apart, implying the following simplified rhythm:

35
Double Time

In this solo, Holland implies double-time at bars 29-30 and at bars 45-48. In both occasions

he uses repeated semiquaver sequences that ascend. While Holland increases the rhythmic

density, the ascending the contour of the phrase adds to the intensity.

r< 7F
E7alt '-m double time implied with repeated s. equence . L

r ~r qu "r r c r r r r rr ' r r r r !'r


28 lateA7alt
b> p~ q> g~ pg
y: r br 1
> >-

q>- >-
30 ~gvl>s b>- #p f A #A t #F f A
!J: f F rf f f f t
II

Semiquaver Motif

Holland uses a four-semiquaver melodic motif in bars 5, 17, 32, and 50. This motif is a recurring

omamental device that occurs at four times throughout the whole solo and will be discussed again

later in this chapter when Holland uses it again in other solos.

E7alt

J e: ~-c f dr
3
b

36
Summary and Additional Information

In Holland's solo in Mr B a variety of rhythmic devices were isolated: anticipation; implication of

a dotted-pulse; poly-rhythms; and double time. It has been shown that Holland's use of these

devices thwart the rhythmic hierarchy (emphasising the weaker beats of the bar), propel the

harmonic rhythm and increase the rhythmic density (thus creating the feeling of acceleration

without changing the tempo). Pacing structure and organic unity (as in Global Citizen) are evident

too in this solo. For example, Holland delays the introduction of double-time passages until half-

way through (in context this 'feels' the exact spot to introduce this device). The introduction of

the other rhythmic devices are similarly well-controlled.

37
Shifting Sands

Overview

This composition is the fourth track from the Not for Nothing album. It is in 9/4 in a medium

tempo and uses straight eighths. The form of the tune is AABACAA. The solos follow the same

form, however it is important to note that in every solo the twelfth bar is in 10/4 while every other

bar is in 9/4.

This 9/4 meter can be subditided into a bar of 4/4, and a bar of 5/4, and can be split further into

two bars of2/4, a bar of3/4 and a bar of2/4. When subdividing the 10/4 bar one may simply add

one beat, making the last bar a 3/4 bar.

2+2+3+2

~f
>- >-

p1lf [jF 12 F' v F ll'r J


Thus the underlying pulse of the 9/4 can be shown using Lerdhal and Jackendoff's dot-notation

method.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

. .. .
.
..
..

38
Rhythmic Patterns in Holland's Solo

This dissertation will now isolate the key rhythmic patterns found in Holland's solo (Appendix C,

CD 1, track 3: lmin;l8secs).

Syncopation

In this solo there are examples of syncopation in bars 12 and 13.

12

tJI!

Ifm syncopation CJi1il EPma7~11


~

vEiftfEJ
.......... ~ f1ll'
c:r~r rZJ

Anticipation

In bars 1, 3, 5 and 9 Holland anticipates beat one from the eighth note preceding or from the

quarter-note before. Bars 1 and 5 are shown below.

E~ma7~11 Dm ,.....--....Om E~ma7~11


~tion

~!: X'lr D
~r F c r 0 c:r t;f f F I

39
5 r ~ence to bass-line I I moti2 I an~on

:?= r DF
~

clr Ff Fr f I

Two-beat motifs

Once again Holland uses two-beat motifs, this time in the form of two sixteenth-notes and an

eighth-note (half the value of the previous two-beat motifs discussed earlier). These motifs can be

found scattered throughout the solo in bars 2, 7, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15, and 16.

I motifl I
f1 f ~u: EI F

Dotted Pulse

In an aforementioned quote from Alan Goldsher's article (see page?? )(2001: 42), Holland

mentions a technique that was introduce to him by Miles Davis. This involved implying a dotted

quarter-note pulse over the given 4/4 and taking that as the new tempo.

This is not unlike the presence of the dotted eighth-note pulse found in bar 3 as shown below.

40
. ~I dotted quaver pUlse over crotchet piilse r
Dm
pu: r
r---...
Cg r
~
Grn r---...
~?
Dma7~11
c~ ,---..,
~ w;~
.

EICf ;;;:0 ~ I

This implies the following rhythm below which creates a 12/4 feeling over the 9/4, or in other

words a feeling of four beats over the given three beats.

It may be interesting to note that at three points throughout the tune (bars 5, 11 and 12), Holland

uses a four sixteenth-note motif as shown below. This motif is similar to the motif found in

Holland's solo over Mr B.

11 Am7 Dm I mo tif
,...---.....
!)= 'i )
tzr r~<c -?
J r or r F r r EJ ~
j I!

lmtif lAm

F~EE FE

41
Finally, Holland implies double-time in bars 7-8 and bars 14-15.

Dm Gm
14 I
implication ~f dou~-1ime

aflt w r
implication of double-lime
15 E~ma1U11 Dm

?= 7 ''b! (f l1rJf t 1!

Summary and Additional Comments

Holland uses a variety of rhythmic devices in his solo over Shifting Sands. He uses syncopation,

anticipation, two~ beat motifs, double time and a semiquaver motif also found in Mr B. He also

introduces a new dotted-pulse over the existing 9/4 meter by playing successive dotted eighth-

notes.

42
The Balance

Overview

This ttme is from the album Points of View (1998) and is written in 6/4 and 4/4 (see Appendix D,

CD 1, track 4 ). The form of the head and the solos is the same, following an AAB structure.

This ttme is essentially in 10/4 as the 6/4 and 4/4 meters alternate every bar (i.e. 6 + 4 = 10).

However, as it is written in 6/4 and 4/4 Holland suggests that this is the appropriate method of
~

feeling the hme.

Furthermore, to simplify matters the 6/4 and 4/4 can be subdivided into bars of two, creating five

bars of2/4 (with an emphasis on the first and fourth bar).

2+2+2+2+2

Using Lerdhal and Jackendoff's dot-notation method this can be shown as:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

.. ..
.

The head is played twice and each time the Ami7b5 in bar 9 is anticipated by the drummer and

Holland by one quarter-note. This is the same technique used by Holland to anticipate beat one in

Global Citizen and Shifting Sands.

43
On the second time through the head, the quintet implies a dotted quarter-note pulse over the

given meter in bar 13 until the last bar. This is the same technique Holland used when he was in

Miles Davis' band and is similar to the technique used in Holland's Shifting Sands solo when he

introduces a dotted-eighth note pulse.

It is interesting to see that Holland's use of anticipation and dotted rhythms within his

improvisations are also used in his compositions.

Rhythmic Patterns in Holland's Solo

This dissertation will now examine the rhythmic patterns within Holland's solo (Appendix D: Part

2, CD 1, track 4, 6min:Osec).

Syncopation

Once again, Holland uses syncopation within his solo. This appears in bar 27-30.

27 F9sus

44
Holland also uses the two-beat motif consisting of two quavers and one crotchet (or vice versa) in

bars 4, 10, 13, 14, 25, 26, 33, 34, and 44.

?5 Am7b5

:rn~7 t r:kr f EJ 12

Once again, evidence of the anticipation ofbeat one can be found in bars 8 and 40.

Fm

11 f r r f lf J 12
-::>~

Fm

Groups of two eighth-notes: ascending aud descending pattern.

In bars 5 and 21, Holland plays the following patterns. Holland plays ascending and descending

notes, each separated by a D as shown below.

Gm ~

12 ' tEf Nr"f r[ E[ rII f r[ r[ r"f r 12

45
Note that this two eighth-note pattern ascends across the bar-line, continuing the phrase and

effectively ignoring the bar-line between the alternating meters.

Holland plays two-and-a-half beat motifs in bars 17-20, 35-36, generating a pulse on the first of

every five quavers. Bars 17-20 are shown below.

17 Gm
~ ~

Erc[FF[Jf II [ F f rEE r~
3 12
19 Em9 Fmi

II~[ rr f 7 v pf jf

This motif implies the following rhythm:

:tJ: i C F F F F ff f f E f F II F f F f F f f f 12

46
Repetition

In this solo, Holland uses repetition in various points. In bar 39, Holland repeats a three quarter-

note pattern.

39 Fm

Similarly in bar 4 Holland repeats a two quart~r-note motif.

4 Fm

:r ~~f Cf f tf4
In addition, some of the poly-rhythmic motifs still to be discussed are repeated several times.

One-and-a-half beat motif

7 Em9
~ 7 ? ?
Fm

:1=2[ f r f F r [ f r f F r It( F r f EJ J '......_../


12

This implies the following rhythm that resembles the dotted quarter-note pulse derived from Miles

Davis that Holland often plays.

47
IIi

Towards the end of the solo Holland implies a half-time swing feel at bar 41-43 by playing

quarter-note triplets.

42 Ghalt
,--3--, ,--3--,
:>=1r rv r
This decreases the rhythmic density and slows down the feeling of the solo without changing the

tempo. It seems fitting that the half-time technique is used at the end of the solo to wind down the

intensity and signify Holland's intent to finish his solo.

Summary and Additional Information

In this solo, there exists a myriad of interesting rhythmic devices. The appeal of Holland's

rhythmic approach in this solo is in his use of a diverse array of poly-rhythms. These poly-

rhythms are generated by the melodic contour and articulation of his eighth notes, creating groups

of five and three eighth notes within each 10/4 bar.

48
Not For Nothing

Overview

This tune is the title-track from the Dave Holland Quintet's 2001 album. It begins with a

vibraphone solo over a vamp and proceeds to a bluesy eight-bar head (which concludes with a

unison riff every chorus). It is written in 10/4 and similar to The Balance, can be divided into five

2/4 bars.

A >-

J "r r J 7 7

F J 7 li

or subdivided as:

2+2 +2+2 + 2.

v n]
>-~
>- >-

P
A

~Ji J J 'r I F J
>-
1
1f 7 v Ir I7 >-

P v nt?J
~

tJ= 7 J)
'r IF J 1
1 f
7 v IF I "! II

49
Rhythmic Patterns in Holland'-s Solo

This dissertation will now highlight the rhythmic devices used by Holland within his solo

(Appendix E, CD 1, track 5, 2mins;35secs).

Anticipation

Similar to the previous examples of Holland's improvisation, he anticipates beat one, this time by

one eighth-note. This can be found in the end ofbars 5 and 6.

antici])ation
5 r-----,

.,
~~= J 7 ''3EJ f ~ /~
~ rt r f

apt,i.Qipation
6

r r7 r c ~
r-. r--3 - A

tr r fi-,f f!:
1;; +=-;;;j - (lr I
3 3

50
Emphasis on weak beats

The emphasis of the weak beats of the 10/4 bar can be found in bars 2 and 3 where beats 2 and 4

are accented.

2 I emphasis on beat 2(weak) I ~

nJ J >-
j'
r r r rrrcr cY 1

3 Iemphasis on beat 4(weak)


A
...
:x E F f F : J J J]3 c..___/ +f F I E F F::J !I'

Sixteenth-note motif

Also present in bar two ofthis solo is the sixteenth-note motif that was revealed earlier lnlvfr B

and Shifting Sands. The presence of this sixteenth-note motif in these three solos suggests that this

motif may perhaps be a trade-mark of Holland's improvisation.

1~1
[fFE[F Fj

Poly-rhythms

Below is a repeated motif that is separated by a quarter-note rest Thus this motif is starts every

three quarter-note beats, implying a 3/4 meter over the originall0/4 meter.

motif
I
r r"' #
6 lr---3-,
~ A I ttif moctitia 1
:J= ~
rtif
J ~
~~ r s ff f ~~
:J ti I
3 3

51
Summary and Additional Information

Within this short solo lasting a total of eight bars, Holland uses a selection of rhythmic devices

not unlike the devices discovered within the other examples ofHolland's improvisation. Here he

uses anticipation, implications of 3/4 over the given meter, a trade-mark semiquaver motif and

emphasis of the weak beats of the bar. At this point in this dissertation it is clear that a pattern is

emerging within the rhythmic aspects of Holland's solos.

52
For All You Are

Overview

This tune is the second track on Not For Nothing (2001) and is a ballad-like waltz. It begins with

a lyrical bass solo with backing hom-lines and drum accompaniment. This bass-solo uses straight

eighths, though the drummer is playing a light swing feel. When the horns play the head, the bass

accompaniment is simple and incorporates swung eighths that complimenting the drummers

swing feel. However, during the sax solo the bass accompqpiment becomes more interactive as

Holland's bass-lines converse with saxophorte and drums.

A transcription of the bass solo, the bass accompaniment during the head and the bass

accompaniment during saxophone solo can be found in Appendix F- CD 1, track 6.

Rhythmic Patterns in Solo and Accompaniment

Bass solo

In this solo, Holland's eighth notes are straight against the swung eighths implied by the

drummer. Holland uses a variety of subdivisions of the beat including half-notes (bar 1), quarter-

notes (bar 13), eighth-notes (bars 2, 13, 14), sixteenth notes (bars 12, 13), eighth-note triplets

(bars 5, 26, 28) and sixteenth-note triplets (bar 24).

In this solo Holland seems to push and pull the phrases against the constant pulse of the drummer

and the hom players. Holland's somewhat free approach to rhythm in this solo is unlike the

previous solos tha;seem to be more rhythmically precise and less expressive.

53
There is evidence of anticipation of beat one in bars 21 and 22.

In bars 21-23 Holland takes three notes, E, A and B respectively, varying only the rhythm as

shown below.

rhythmic var of3-note motif

Using a Nattiez chart one can see how Holland develops this three-note motif.

bar 21
2
~-
"' ""
bar 21-22

-~ _.,

bar 22

:
~ ..
bar2~

~ J!: ,..

bar 23
~ .~
:
'

54
Similarly, Holland uses rhythm to develop the motif in bar 9. Below is a Nattiez chart of the bar 9

motif and how Holland has developed it in bars 10, 11, and 29-30.

bar9
- >- I

bar 10
....., ~

. _,_

-
bar 12

-
"" 1fl>- -jl!. ~

bar29~2 ;; -jl!. 1fl>- -jl!.' 1fl>-

"'

Besides the rhythmic development ofthe previously discussed motifs, it is evident that within this

bass-solo Holland does not use many rhythmic devices. With the exception of anticipation of beat

one in bars 22-23, this solo does not contain many of the previously discussed rhythmic devices

found in his previous solos (i.e syncopation, poly-rhythms and implied dotted pulse). Perhaps this

is because of the tempo and mood of For All You Are which is significantly slower than all the

other tunes examined and is the only ballad. It seems that with the lack of these rhythmic devices

the focus of this solo is on lyricism, melody and motific development.

Accompaniment during the head

The rhythm in Holland's bass-lines during the head, adhere more or less to the swung 3/4 pulse of

the tune. There seems to be only fragments of the rhythmic devices used in previous solos.

55
Fragments of syncopation can be found in bars 59, 64, 70 and 75, anticipation of beat one can be

found in bar 49 and implication of four over three can be found in bar 38.

37

[:; I J. f'rfr1r3

Evidently Holland refers little to the rhythmic devices.Jle used in the previous the solos, favouring

more simplistic rhythmic ideas that conform to the swung 3/4 meter and do not create rhythmic

dissonance. Adhering to the swung 3/4 feel, Holland uses this rhythm below constantly

throughout the head.

Accompaniment during the saxophone solo.

In the first six bars of the saxophone solo (bars 76 to 82) Holland and the saxophonist create a

form of musical dialogue through rhythmic imitation. The first two bars are almost an overlapping

question and answer section.

56
A A r

In bars 2-4 they both establish a similar rhythm whereby the first of three triplets is left silent

followed by two triplets and an accent on the next beat.

3
3

3 3

In bar 81 the saxophonist implies a double-time swing feel that is echoed by the bass and drums.

80 I double time sax echoed by bass and drums

straight

In bars 113-114, the saxophone implies a crotchet-triplet rhythm over the 3/4 by creating groups

of two-triplets. This is echoed by the Holland who implies this crotchet-triplet rhythm on beat two

of 113 and in bars 115 until 118.

57
3 3 3 3 3

I I&JDJJJJIJIPJJJJ J JJ I

Additionally, Holland uses anticipation in bar 92 and straight eighths in bar 85 .

..
Consequently Holland's playing is most complex during the sax solo when he echoes and

converses with the saxophonist. In echoing the saxophonist Holland implied double time and used

anticipation (in the first few bars of the saxophone solo) as well as poly-rhythmic ideas.

Summary and Additional Information

Overall, Holland's playing is melodic, lyrical and makes much use ofmotific development. In his

solo, Holland uses a combination of different subdivisions of the beat, and unlike his previous

solos, Holland's note pl,acement pushes and pulls against the established pulse.

His accompanying bass-lines during the saxophone solo use some of his previously discussed

techniques. In addition he implies a new quarter-note triplet pulse over the 3/4, uses anticipation

and implies double-time by playing straight-eighths. Here Holland uses rhythmic devices

tastefully and sparingly. During the saxophone solo for example, this re,sults in a personal form of

conversational accompaniment.

His accompaniment during the head is rhythmically 'inside'- he simply outlines the swing 3/4 set

by the rest of the band. Holland keeps the accompaniment to the head rhythmically simple and his

58
solo is melodic and expressive. Only during the saxophone solo, and within the context of the

'ensemble conversation,' does Holland begin to imply poly-rhythms. Perhaps because this tune is

ballad-like and considerably slower in tempo from the other tunes that have been analysed,

Holland strives for a more melodic and lyrical approach, generating poly-rhythms only when it is

appropriate.

59
Results ofAnalysis and Collection of Key Rhythmic Devices

A number of rhythmic devices were isolated and discussed above:

Syncopation

Anticipation of Beat One (and of the other strong beats in the bar)

Implied Dotted Pulse

Two-beat Motifs (particularly over odd-time-signatures.).

Various Poly-rhythms

More often than not Holland uses these devices to emphasize the weak beats of the bar. As a

consequence of this, metrical hierarchies are constantly in a state of flux. He uses devices such as

anticipation, syncopation and poly-rhythms to create tension. This is achieved by emphasizing the

relatively weak beats and implying other meters or pulses.

Holland's use of the above rhythmic devices is clever and tactful. In order to sustain organic unity

he balances the tension caused by rhythmic dissonance with references to familiar bass-lines.

Similarly in the context For All You Are, his use of the above rhythmic patterns is minimal in

comparison with the more energetic pieces. For Holland, the importance of musicality outweighs

the use of complex rhythmic devices.

The next section of this dissertation explores the rhythmic aspects of North Indian Classical

music. Through the examination of certain rhythmic patterns one discovers some of the tools used

by North Indian Classical musicians which enable them to create some of the most rhythmically

complex music in the world. Significantly, I will also reveal the similarities between Dave

Holland's rhythmic approach and the Hindustani rhythmic approach.

60
Chapter Three

Literature Review

Countless books and journal articles have been written on the subject ofNorth Indian music. The

oldest known English account of Hindustani music is Sir William Jones' book On the Musical

Modes of the Hindoos (1784). Long before this however, the music of India was recorded in

ancient Sanskrit texts, some of which have been translated and used by ethnomusicologists 1.

An interesting ariicle entitled "Bibliography of Asiatic Musics, Eighth Installment: III India"
2
examines the literature written on Indian and Pakistani music . Although the article was published

in 1949 and may seem slightly outdated as the study oflndian music has come a long way since

then, it has some information that may be of interest. Waterman et al suggest that those unfamiliar

Indian music should read RA Popley's, The Music ofIndia, which is described as 'the best

exposition. ' 3 Waterman et al also recommend The Music ofHindostan by A.H Fox Strangeways,

however they comment that 'its technical approach is needlessly complicated and sometimes

inaccurate. ' 4 This article includes an extensive bibliography of Indian music dating as far back as

the 1770's.

Also of interest is Harold Powers' "Indian Music and the English Language". 5 Powers menti,ons

that when English became the official language oflndia in 1835, it rapidly became the language

used by learned men and Indian scholars. At that time Indian music was already highly-developed

and had its own tradition of musical scholarship in the form of Sanskrit treatises. He states below:

1
R. Waterman eta!, "Bibliography of Asiatic Musics, Eighth Installment: III India," Notes, (Sept 1949):
570.
2
Ibid.
3
Ibid, 571.
4
Ibid.
5
H, Powers. "Indian Music and the English Language: A Review Essay," Ethnomusicology, (Jan 1965).

61
There existed and still exists in India on the one hand a living musical art of high complexity and
refinement which has nothing essentially to do with Western music, and on the other hand a
language of educated communication loved by music-lovers and scholars, which is also the
language of an alien culture which has its own highly developed art-music ... In all indological
fields the English language has made possible an exceptionally close cooperation with Indian and
European scholars. Music, however, as well as dance, is a non-verbal art in a primarily temporal
medium; it presents enormous difficulties of scholarly analysis and description even to those
intimately acquainted with it as a living art. Thus the development of literature on Indian music in
the English language is an especially valuable illustration of inter-cultural contact. For the
westerner, it is the application of familiar methods to alien materials; for the Indian, it is the
1
impingement of alien ideas on familiar materials.

Powers also mentions the importance of the works written by A.H Fox Strangways but comments

that 'due to the fact that the scope of these excellent works rl1akes it impractical to even attempt to

do summary justice to them in a short survey.' Powers then proceeds to identify and critically

appraise many key texts pertaining to the history and performance of Indian musit:.

In recent years, especially due to the study of ethnomusicology appearing in North American

university curricula, there has been a substantial growth in the volume of secondary literature on

the music of India. My exposition of rhythm in Hindustani music is largely based on four key

Time In Indian Music (2000) by Martin Clayton

"Indian Music: An Introduction for Musicians" (2004) by Vicki Richards

"Some Principles of Indian Classical Music" ( 1980) by Bonnie C. Wade

"Reflecting Surfaces: The use of elements from Indian Music in Popular Music and Jazz"

(1988) by Gerry Farrel

1
Ibid, 2.
2
Clayton, Time In Indian Music.
V. Richards, "Indian Music: An Introduction for Musicians," American String Teacher. (2004)
B. Wade, "Some Principles oflndian Classical Music," Musics ofMany Cultures, Los Angeles: University
of California Press. (1980): 83.
W. Pinckney, "India: Jazz" Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy. <http://www.grovemusic.com> (25/05/2005).

62
"India: Jazz" (2005) by Warren Pinckney

Time in Indian Music is an in-depth study that explains the intricacies of North Indian rhythm The

author, Martin Clayton, is pupil of esteemed sitar player Ustad Deepak Choudary 1 and Lecturer in

Ethnomusicology at the Open University. Though much of the first section of this text involves a

lengthy discussion of theoretical perspectives of time and meter in Indian music as opposed to

Western music, Clayton explores in thorough detail the definition and the function of tal theory2.

Using analysis of the rhythm in excerpts of Indian music, trns article not only describes tal theory,

but also explains its function within practical Hindustani performance. Using western

methodologies, Clayton educates the presumably western-trained reader of the details of North

Indian rhythm. This text also comes with a CD with audio examples.

"Indian Music: an Introduction for Musicians" by Vicki Richards explains the fundamentals of

North Indian music. This article was published in The American String Teacher. Richards

proposes the idea of incorporating aspects of Indian music in one's own playing. For example, she

suggests that the teacher could ask half the music class to play a drone while the other students

attempt to improvise over it - similar to the 'a lap' section 1 She goes on to explain the

fundamental aspects of North Indian music in a direct and simple manner.

Richards also provides some historical background about Hindustani music, as shown in the

following excerpt.

G. Farrel, "Reflecting Surfaces: The use of elements from Indian Music in Popular Music and Jazz"
Popular Music. (May 1988). 189-205.
1
Us tad meaning a distinguished member of society.
2
Tal is the rhythmic component of North Indian music hence tal-theory is the theory of rhythm in North
Indian music.

63
As English colonialism spread to India, the music continued to thrive. The English did not recognize the
living Hindustani music but were bent on finding and documenting historical roots based on Sanskrit texts.
Later, emphasis focused on lighter forms of music rather than the classical forms. Assimilation and
transliteration were prevented by the system of Raga--its resistance to being dismantled into Western
notation and the necessity for years of improvisatory training under a musical master to understand the
2
forms and nuances so foreign.

This excerpt, like Powers earlier, also mentions the difficulties of conveying North Indian music

into western notations.

Although Bonnie Wade's article is short in comparison to many other texts on North Indian
~

music, her article explores many facets of North Indian music in a clear concise manner and is

directed at those who are trained via the Western classical tradition. Wade touches briefly on the

history of Hindustani music and includes a discussion of the various instruments popular in North

Indian music. Included is an in-depth discussion into the melodic aspects of Hindustani music

revealing the various scales used and also including transcriptions of the melodies ofNorth Indian

raga compositions. Following this, Wade includes an exploration of the rhythmic aspects of

Hindustani music. Wade not only discusses the theory of the rhythm in Hindustani music but also

explains how to put this element into practice.

In summary, the secondary literature on Indian music is extensive. Research into Indian music by

western scholars dates back to the 1700s and since then the quantity of research into the area has

grown immensely. However, given the difficulties of recording and translating North Indian

music into western notation, 3 there will always be room for new int~rpretations.

1
The alap section is the introduction of a raga where the beat is free and a drone is played by the tanpura
while a melodic instrument or vocalist improvises over the appropriate scale.
2
Richards, "Indian Music: An Introduction for Musicians," 72.
3
One author Lewis Rowell has attempted to bridge these differences with his comparison of rhythmic
terminology used within Indian, Greek and Chinese music. L. Rowell, "The Subconscious Language of
Musical Time," Music Theory Spectrum Vol. I, (1979).

64
Literature Review ofIndian and Jazz Music.

From the 1950's attempts have been made to fuse Indian music and jazz. Occasionally scholars

have attempted to record and explain these attempts.

Farrel (1988) writes about the ways in which North Indian classical music have influenced jazz

and popular music since the 1950s. He examines the ways in which musicians from the jazz and

western popular music idioms have tried to incorporate Indian sensibilities into their own music.
#!
This dissertation in particular the section entitled, "Jazz and Indian Music" is indebted to Farrel's

study.

Pinckey's article "India Jazz" is informative and detailed in its examination ofindia and jazz

music. Not only does this article examine the effect of Indian music on jazz music, but it recounts

the history of jazz music in India.

In Musics of Many Cultures, Bruno Nettl comments on the importance of fieldwork, stating,

'Ethnomusicologists agree that in order to carry out research it is necessary to work in the field.' 1

I am sensitive to and aware of the importance of field-work in relation to studying and writing

about music of other cultures. The scope of this dissertation (honours) unfortunately precludes

such in-depth study, nevertheless it is my hope that I may one day visit India in order to study and

absorb their music.

1
B. Nettl, "Ethnomusicology: definitions, directions and problems," Musics ofMany Cultures, Los
Angeles: University of California Press. (1980): 3.

65
Orthography

The Indian terms used in Part II of this disseriation are italicized and are transliterations that use

the standard system proposed by R.S McGregor's book an Outline of Hindi Grammar1. This

system uses the most common English spellings of Hindi terms.

In this dissertation I have also used English-style plurals, hence the plural for one bol is two bois.

Alternative spellings of Indian terms are not notes in the discussion.

Dave Holland and North Indian Classical Music

With the exception of Dave Holland, few bass players have shown interest in Indian music, nor

have many sought to integrate Indian rhythms into their own playing. As mentioned in Chapter

One, the music of North-India was a major source of inspiration for Holland, in particular when

he was living in London amongst a large Indian community. "The incredible development of

rhythm in Indian music, the discipline of learning these very involved cycles, and how to

subdivide them, was very influential," he notes. 2 The latest evidence of Holland's interest in North

Indian music is a duo project he worked on with a tab/a-player, released in March 2005. 1

1
This system was also used in Clayton, Time In Indian Music, xviii.
2
Panken, "The Holland Express." 34.

66
Jazz and Indian Music

Attempts at fusing Jazz and Indian music date back to the late 1950s. Many jazz musicians have

shown interest in Indian music, including saxophonist John Coltrane, guitarist John Mclaughlin

and American composer Don Ellis. Indian-American alto saxophonist and composer, Rudresh

Mahanthappa, has fused elements oflndian music with jazz. He collaborates with Indian-

American jazz pianist Vijay Iyer who has said, "Im obsessed with rhythmic techniques of Indian

music," 2 Acclaimed alto saxophonist, Charles Mariano often played Indian instruments and

attempted to combine principles of non-western musrc with bop3 . He also traveled to India to

learn to play the niigasvaram (a large South-Indian oboe).

Turning the tables, Indian musicians too have shown an interest in jazz music. Jazz arrived in

India in the 1920s when touring dance-bands from England, Canada and the United States

performed in Bombay and Calcutta- primarily to provide entertainment for Europeans living in

India. By the late 1940s and 1950s, the centre of the local Indian jazz scene was the Bombay

swing club (this continued until the mid-1950s when many Indian jazz musicians left for

England). Braz Gonsalves, a saxophonist from Goa, became one of the first Indians to not only

play modern jazz but also to master raga-based jazz improvisation. In the 1970s, impresario

Niranjan Jhaveri was the catalyst for a new concept of 'indo-jazz.' He, along with Braz

Gonsalves, pianist/arranger Louis Banks and vocalist Rama Mani collaborated with the intention

of promoting a 'musical melange that fuses elements and instruments of modern jazz with those

of Hindustani and Carnatic music. ' 4

1
Williams, "Dave Holland Overtime."
2
M. Gallant, "Music Makers- Vijay Iyer" Keyboard. (Oct 2004): 16.
3
M. Gardner and B. Kemfeld, "Charlie Mariano," 2005. Grove Music Online.
<http://www.grovemusic.com> (May 25, 2005).
4
Pinckney, "India: Jazz."

67
Indian Classical Music

As in Westem music, Indian music is comprised of various folk and classical genres. Indian folk

music is enjoyed by most of the Indian population and includes songs for dancing, festive

occasions and religious ceremonies. Music in the classical tradition however, was originally

restricted to the upper-classes and is now considered Indian 'art music' and as such is taught in

academies and conservatories all over India.

By the sixteenth century, two distinct types of classical music had emerged- the North Indian

(Hindustani) and the South Indian (Camatic) styles 1. The basic features ofboth styles of music are

quite similar: they differ mainly in the terminologies used to define them. The standard line-up of

an Indian classical ensemble is the same for both styles and both have similar concepts of melody

and rhythm. It is, within the intricate features of both styles however, where one discovers the

dissimilarities. Aspects of singing-style, form and omamentation can be strikingly disparate in

both styles as are the various scales that are used. Unlike Hindustani music, Camatic music does

not emphasize the first ?eat of a rhythmic cycle, and does not allow acceleration2 While the basic

line-up of the classical ensemble may be the same, the two styles favour different instruments. For

example, the CamatiC ensemble may use the mridangam drum while the Hindustani ensemble

will incorporate a tabla. 3 North Indian music is most popular in areas such as Bangladesh where

Indo-European languages are spoken. It is mostly improvised and partly composed- as opposed to
1
South-Indian music that is mostly composed Qureshi suggests that the differences between

Northern and Southern styles of music can be explained by the divisions caused by the Muslim

and Hindu religions in India. He states that,

1
Wade, "Some Principles oflndian Classical Music," 83.
2
If the feeling of acceleration is needed then the rhythmic density is increased- not the speed- Ibid.
3
Conversations with mrdangam-player, Dana Ogle

68
From the 17th to the 19th century the stylistic distinction between Karnatak and Hindustani can be
closely correlated with the more general South Asian dichotomy between Hindu and Muslim, and
there is a corresponding contrast between Sanskrit and Persian words in much of the technical
terminology of practising musicians, particularly with reference to instruments. From this it has
been almost universally inferred that the differences in the two art music styles are a result of
Muslim influences and importations in the north that caused an originally unified tradition to
divide into a northern, foreign-influenced branch and a southern branch that was more conservative
and truer to its ancient heritage. 2

Qureshi also adds that most of the Hindustani classical musicians were in fact Muslim, while the

Southern classical musicians were virtually all Hindu.

Hindustani music is also more accessible to the we1tern world since it has been studied more

closely than Carnatic music. As Dave Holland was primarily influenced by Hindustani music, this

consequently forms the focus of this dissertation.

North Indian Classical Music: Overview

The most prominent musical forrn in Hindustani classical music is the raga. The terrn raga based

on concepts of melody and rhythm 3 . Each raga is based on certain notes of the Hindustani scale

(usually five to eight notes of the twenty-two microtones) and has a specific mood, some having
4
an ideal time of day when it is best performed The raga has only two main components- melody

and rhythm - while harmony as an important consideration is only a by-product. The melodic

component is also called the raga or rag and includes the various modes, ornaments and tunings

1
H. Powers and R. Widdess, "Raga in Karnatak Music," 2005. Grove Music Online
<http://www.grovemusic.com> (25 May, 2005).
2
Qureshi, Regula: 'India: Northern and Southern Styles," 2005. Grove Music Online.
http://www.grovemusic.com (5 January, 2005).
3
Richards, "Indian Music: An Introduction for Musicians," 73.
4
S. Mukhi, Sunil Mukhi's Indian Classical Music Page, June 2003.
<http://theory.tifr.res.in/~mukhi!Music/music.html> (May 1, 2005).

69
used for each specific raga composition. This dissertation, however, will primarily concerned

with the rhythmic component of the raga termed the tal.

In a typical Hindustani ensemble one needs instruments to supply the melody, rhythm, and a

drone, thus a melodic instrument or vocalist, a tabla drummer, with the addition of a tanpura,

complete the musical ensemble.

70
Chapter Four: Tal Theory and Tabla Quaida

Tiil Theory

The tal is a very broad term and refers to the Indian metric system as a whole, encompassing the

time cycle or rhythmic structure with emphasis on certain beats of the cycle. 1 These cycles are of

a fixed length and may theoretically consist of two, to one hundred and eight beats (matra). Some

of the most commonly heard tal-cycles are listed in the table below. Each tal has its own
II
characteristics and should be played at specific speeds with specific subdivisions of the cycle.

No. of beats p/cycle Tal

6 Dadra

7 Roopak

8 Kerherwa

10 Jhaptaal

12 Ektaal, Chautal

14 Dhamar, Deepchandi,

Jhumra,

16 Teentaal, tilwadar

One cycle is called an avart, and each avart contains beats (matras) that are grouped into sections

called vibhags. For example, one cycle ofthejhaptal contains ten beats that are grouped into four

sections: 2 + 3 + 2 + 3. This is similar to the concept used in Chapter 3 to subdivide Dave

1
Further in-depth discussion of tal-theory exists in Clayton, Time In Indian Music.

71
Holland's introduction to Global Citizen, whereby each 11-beat bar was divided into five

sections: 2 + 2 + 2 + 3 + 2.

The first beat of the tal-cycle is the most important, and is known as the sam. The beats that are

emphasized within the cycle and mark the vibhags are termed tal while the 'empty' beats are

called khali. During an Indian classical concert one may observe members of the audience either

clapping on the tali and waving to the right for the khali, or similarly using their fingers to count

out the beats.

To further define the tal-cycle and emphasise the strong and weak beats, the concept of the theka

is employed that is particularly important to the tabla-player. The theka contains spoken syllables

called bols that correspond to each matra and also refer to the appropriate tabla strokes (examples

of these syllables are dha, dhin, ta, and thin). Syllables such as dha and dhin involve more bass

resonance while syllables such as ta and thin involve more closed sounds produced mainly with

the right hand.

One of the most important concepts within Hindustani Classical music is that of the lay. This

refers to the speed of the music, and although historically the lay referred to the tempo, in practice

it is used to describe the rhythmic density. The related concept laykari refers to the rhythmic

variations or surface rhythm generated from the tal cycle by means of accurately subdividing

within each beat. When one creates the laykari, he or she will often arrange the rhythmic pulse

into groups or phrases that are then manipulated and permutated over the underlying beat (much

like a rhythmic Dave Holland solo over the underlying groove produced by the Quintet). In

Hindustani Classical music, the surface rhythm is created by means of accurate mathematical

subdivision of the beat (except when a melismatic approach is applied by a singer, in which case

the surface rhythm floats freely above the tal-cycle).

72
Teentiil is a tiil of sixteen beats and is divided into four vibhags of four beats ie- 4 + 4 + 4 + 4.

There are syllables termed bols that correspond with each beat, for example dha, dhin, ta, and

thin. The table below illustrates the bols that correspond with the beats of the teentiil and which

are the strong and weak beats.

Beat 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Bol da din din da da din din da da tin tin ta ta din din da
Strength tali tali khali tali

Tabla Quaida

The qua ida is a cyclical tabla composition that reflects the nature of the tal and explores the

fundamental rhythmic aspects ofNorth Indian Classical music 1 There are two main schools 2 that

offer their own interpretation of quaidas- the Punjab, and the Purab. 3 A study of both forms

would form a rather lengthy discussion, therefore this dissertation will focus only on the Purab

school, which is the popular of the two. The Purab school has been said to be the more

'convoluted and intricate' 4 ofthe two and is more modem.

1
Much of this information is derived from tabla teacher and performer, Vicky Ramakrishan who obtained a
Masters Degree of Performing A1is at the University ofPoona playing tabla. He explains that the quaida is
the first thing that he teaches new tabla students as it contains all the fundamental aspects of North Indian
rhythm and provides the student with the basic tools in order to perform and understand North Indian
music.
2
In fact there are countless schools of tabla-playing such as Farhukabad, Benares,andAjrada.
3
Other hybrid schools that contain characteristics of these main schools also exist.
4
A. Dick, "India III, 6 (i)(b): Theory and Practice of Classical Music: Instrumental Traditions: Tabla."
2005. Grove Music Online. <<http://www.grovemusic.com> (25 May, 2005).

73
According to tabla-instructor Vicky Ramakrishan, it is important for every North Indian Classical

musician to acquaint themselves with the basic rhythmic concepts used by tabla players in order

to have a sound understanding of rhythm in Hindustani Classical music.

The quaida is bound by the number of beats within the governing tiil, the tempo, as well as the

bhara (heavy) and khali (empty) portions of the time-cycle as mentioned in the previous chapter.

The quaida (literally meaning 'formula') consists of a theme-line that contains a set of syllables

that are used as a basis for rhythmic variation through permutations of the phrases. These

variations (palta) can only consist of the syllables found in the theme-line and have to adhere to

the rules of the quaida (ie, the syllables with bass-resonance such as dha and dhin should only be

played on the heavy portions of the time-cycle).

The quaidas examined in the next section work on sixteen-beat cycles (teentiil). It is important to

note, however, that for clear presentation of the rhythms in western notation, these beats will be

expressed as half-note (one cycle will consist of eight bears of 4/4).

74
Tabla Quaida One: Tirikite Quaida

(see Appendix G)

Theme Line

Below is the theme line notated with syllables underneath the notated rhythm.

!J= I' I' o o II I' I. r lr r 0 o 'r r I' ,.


dha dha ti n ki te dha dha thin na ta ta ti n ki te dha dha dhin na

:r ,.
dha dha
,. o 0' ,,.
ti n ki te
,. ,. ,.
dha dha thin na
lr r
ta ta
o o ,,.
ti n ki te
,. ,. ,.
dha dha dhin na

This theme line is used as a basis for variation to create the paltas below.

Palta one

dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha thin na


r
tJ: r~
I'
ta ta ti ri ki te ta ta ti ri ki te da da ti ri ki te dha dha dhin na

75
One of the guidelines of the qua ida, is that the fourth and the eighth bar of these paltas must end

in 'dha dha thin na' and 'dha dha dhin na' respectively. Another rule is that the last four bars
1
should rhythmically mirror the first four Therefore I will focus on the rhythm of the first four

bars as it is exactly the same in the last four.

Note that in this palta, the first bar of the theme-line is played three times. Similarly the fifth bar

of the theme-line is played three times in bars 5, 6 and 7 of this palta.

Palta Two

2= ,. 1$ o~ u I o o1$ ,~
I ,~ ,. o~ g~ I r,. f ,.
dha dha ti n ki te dha ti n ki te dha db a dha ti ri ki te dha dha thin na

ta ta ti ri ki te ta ti ri ki te ta dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha dhin na

In this palta the first bar of the theme-line is played exactly, then it is repeated omitting a dha

syllable, repeated adding a dha syllable. Hence the phrase 'dha dha tirikite' is displaced by

omitting a dha syllable, then adding a dha syllable. The same can be said of the last four bars of

this palta- this time replacing the dha with ta. The third phrase begins on beat four of the second

bar, emphasizing a relatively weak beat of the cycle.

1
There are other rules associated with the quaida but shall not be dealt with in this study.

76
Palta Three

g: ,.
dha
o o ,. ,,. u o ,. ,,.
ti n ki te dha dha ti n ki te dha
,. o u ,,. ,. ,. ,.
dha dha ti n ki te dha dha thin na

g: ,.
ta
o o ,. 'r o o ,. ,,.
ti n ki te ta ta ti n ki te dha
,.
dha dha
o o ,,. ,. ,.
ti n ki te dha dha dhin na
r

This variation begins with the phrase 'dha tirikite' (i.e the first phrase of the theme-line without

the initial dha.) This phrase is repeated, adding a dha at the beginning, and is then played again

adding two dhas at the beginning. Hence in the first four bars, each time the 'dha tirikite' is

repeated, an extra dha syllable is added at the beginning. This is mirrored once again in the last

four bars of this palta.In this variation the second and third phrases begin on the fourth beats of

the bar, emphasising relatively weak beats of the cycle.

Palta Four

!J= ,.
dha
o o ,. ,,.
ti ri ki te dha
,. ,. ,. ,. ,.
dha dha ti n ki te dha dha
,,. ,. o o ,,. r ,. ,.
ti n ki te dha dha thin na

tr ,. D$
ta
o ,. ,,.
ti ri ki te ta ta
,. ,. ,. ,. ,. lr ,.
ta ti n ki te dha dha
o o ,,. ,. r
ti n ki te dha dha dhin na
,.

77
Like Palta 3, this variation begins with the 'dha tirikite' phrase. It is then repeated with the

addition of two 'dha' syllables at the beginning, then is repeated with the addition of just one

'dha' syllable. Adhering to the rules of the quaida, this is followed by the phrase 'dha dha thin

na' and the first four bars is milTored rhythmically by the last four bars. Once again beat four is

emphasised within the second bar.

Palta Five

:r 1$
r r g lo r r u lg I. u o II I. f I.
dha dha dha ti n ki te dha dha ti n ki te dha ti n ki te dha dha thinna

:r I~ I~ I~ o I o~H~ I~ 0' ,_tr -(-- o~ o~lr r-=r r


ta ta ta ti n ki te ta ta ti n ki te da ti n ki te dha dha dhin na

The fifth variation begins with 'dha dha dha tirikite' and is played three times- each time omitting

one dha syllable from the beginning. The second and third phrases begin on the second beats of

the bar emphasising relatively weak beats of the cycle.

Palta Six

!l u o I. o lo I. o u II ,. o u 1,
ti n ki te da ti n ki te da ti ri ki te da da
,. I. I.
ti n ki te dha dha thin na

!J o u I. o I o I. o o 'r ,. o o II
ti n ki te ta ti n ki te ta ti ri ki te da da
,. I. I.
ti n ki te dha dha dhi..T1 na

78
Unlike the other variations, this palta begins with 'tirikite dha.' This phrase is repeated three

times, implying a 3/4 meter over the teentiil cycle. This is not unlike Holland's rhythmic device

used in his solo in The Balance.

Tihai

>-

t>= I. I.
da da
o o
ti n ki te
II r I. I. II
dha dha thin na dha
f
da da ti ri ki te

>-

~X I. 1$ I. I' II ~ I.
dha dha thin na dha da da ti ri ki te dha dha thin na

>-

dha!

Finally the quaida finishes with the tihai. Here the phrase begins every three bars, creating a

feeling of 12/4 over the sixteen half-note time-cycle.

79
Tabla Quaida Two: Tite Quaida

(see Appendix H)

Theme Line

> > > > > > > > > >

:>= u u u ol o o o ol o u u ol o o u u I
da ti te da ti te dada ti te da ge tin na gena ta ti te ta ti te ta ta ti te da gedinna gena

>- >- >- >- >- >- >- >- >- >-

72= o o o o Io o o tfi o~" ci o ti- Etr o o oll


da ti te da ti te da da ti te da ge tin na ge na ta ti te ta ti te ta ta ti te da gedinna ge na

In this theme line two bars are divided into four groups of three eighth-notes, followed by a group

of four eighth-notes (3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 4). This emphasises weak beats of the bar and implies a 3/8

meter of the 4/4. A similar technique is used by Holland in his solo in The Balance.

Palta One

> > > > > > > > > > >

:x o u o o Io o o o Io o u o Iu o u o I
da ti te da ti te da da da ti te da ti te da da da ti te da ti te da da ti te da ge tin na ge na

5' 0 0' UIU U UIUti U 0 IU0' 0 0' I


ta ti te ta ti te ta ta ta ti te ta ti te ta ta ta ti te ta ti te ta ta ti te da gedinna ge na

Here the first bar of the theme line is played three times. In the rules of this particular qua ida bars

four and eight must consist of' ti te da ge tin na gena' and 'ti te da ge din na gena' respectively.

80
Once again in this quaida, the second half of the paltas must rhythmically mirror the first half. It

is interesting to note that bars 1-3 are subdivided into a two groups of three quavers, then one

group of two quavers, divided the theoretic 4/4 bar into 3 + 3 + 2. This emphasises relatively

weak beats and super-imposes 3/8 over the 4/4.

Palta Two

>- >- >- >- >- >- >- >- >- >- >- >-

:x o o o o I o u=o o I o o o o~ I o o cr tfJ
da ti te da ti te dada ti te dada ti te dada da ti te da ti te dada ti te da ge tinna gena

>- >- >- >->- >->- >- >- >- >- >-

:x o o o o 'o o o o 'u o lJ o Io o u lJ '


ta ti te ta ti te ta ta ti te a ta ti te da da da ti te da ti te da da ti te da gedinna ge na

This variation is the same as Palta 1 except for the second bar, where the phrase 'ti te dada' is

played twice. While Palta 1 establishes a subdivision of 3 + 3 + 2 in bars 1-3, this palta breaks the

continuity inserting this new phrase into bar 2. Beat four is emphasised in bars 2 and 3 while beat

two is emphasised in bar 2. Relatively weak beats of this cycle are emphasised, though the first

beat of each four bars is accented so as not to feel constant rhythmic tension.

81
Palta Three

>- >- >- >- >- >- >- >-

da ti te da ti te da da ti te
7 ~ o o ' o o o~ o Io o u o I
da ti te da da da ti te da ti te da da ti te da ge tin na ge na

>- >- > > >->- >- > >- > >-

:w o o o olo po o I u o o o ' o o o oll


7
ta ti te ta ti te ta ta ti te ta ti te da da da ti te da ti te da da ti te da gedinna ge na

This variation is the same as the previous palta, however the second bar is 'ti te (rest) da ti te da

da. 'This bar ends with 'dati te dada' like bars 1 and 3 but begins with 'ti te.' Unlike the other

bars, bar 2 includes a quaver rest- breaking up the continuity of the successive quavers in this

quaida. Once again weak beats of this cycle are emphasised, particularly in bars 2 and 6.

Palta Four

>- >- > >- >- >- >- >- >- >- >

;r o o o o Io po o lg pgglooool
da ti te da ti te da da ti te
7

dati te dada ti te
7

da ti te da da ti te da ge tin na ge na

>- >- > >- >- >- >- >- >- > >

!I o o o o Io
ta ti te ta ti te ta ta ti te
7
p o o I o Do ol o u o oll
ta ti te dada ti te
7

ta ti te da da ti te da gedinna ge na

This palta expands on the previous variation by repeating the phrase in bar 2. This is the only

difference between this variation and Palta 3.

82
Palta Five

2' Er Uu U1U u Uu 1U Uu UI(J u 0 u 1


da ti te da ti te da ti te da ti te da da ti te da ti te da ti te da da ti te da ge tin na ge na

>- >- >- >- >->- >- > > >- >-

2: o o o o Io u o o Io o o o Io o o oll
ta ti te ta ti te ta ti te ta ti te ta ta ti te da ti te da ti te da da ti te da gedinna ge na

This vmiation is the same as the Palla 1 with the exception of the first two bars. In the first two

bars, the phrase 'dati te' is played four times followed by 'dada ti te.' Over these two bars, the

quavers a subdivided into four groups of three and one group of four: 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 4.

Palta Six

2' 0 ci ci 0' I0 ci ci U IUci U 0 Iis 0' U0' I


da ti te ti te da ti te da ti te ti te da ti te da ti te da ti te da da ti te da ge tin na ge na

2' 0 ci ci 0' I0 ci ci 0' IUci 0' 0 IU0' 0.fl3


ta ti te ti te ta ti te ta ti te ti te ta ti te da ti te da ti te da da ti te da gedinna ge na

This bar is the same as Palta 1 with the exception of the first two bars. In bars 1 and 2 the beat is

interestingly subdivided into three quavers, followed by two quavers, followed by three quavers.

Using the appropriate syllables and accents, this theoretic 4/4 bar is subdivided into a feeling of 3

83
+ 2 + 3. This odd grouping of eighth-notes emphasises the weak beats of the bar, giving a feeling

of 5/8 and 3/8 over the 4/4. These groups of five and three quavers are similarly evident in

Holland's solo in The Balance.

Palta Seven

> > > > > > > > > > >

tr o o o olo oo olo o o olo o o ol


da ti te ti te da ti te da ti te ti te da ti te da ti te ti te da ti te ti te da ge tin na ge na

>- >-- > >- >- >-- >- >- >- >- >-

:>= o o o o 'o o o o 'o o o o 'o o o$ u "


ta ti te ti te ta ti te ta ti te ti te ta ti te da ti te ti te da ti te ti te da gedinna ge na

This variation expands on the previous palta by repeating bar 1 in bar 2 and 3. This extends the 3

+ 2 + 3 subdivision acrpss bars 1-3 and bars 5-8.

84
Tihai

>- >- >- >- >- >- >- >- >- >- >-

!Iguuolouool, oouluor ol
da ti te da ti te da da ti te da ge tin na ge na da da da ti te da ge tin na ge na da da da

> > > > > > > > >>

:x o o o o 1,. t o o I o o o o I o o ,. o I
ti te da ge tin na ge na da da ti te da ti te da da ti te da ge tin na ge na da da da

> > >> >- > >

:xoooul, oooluo,
ti te da ge tin na ge na da da da ti te da ge tin na ge na da
t
da ti te da ti te da da

>- >- >->- >- > >->- >- >-

:>= o o~ o ol~~ o~ EJ o 'u o 1


ti te da ge tin na ge na da da da ti te da ge tin na ge na da da da
ol o o o tJ~
ti te da ge tin na ge na

da

Finally the quaida concludes with a tihai that consists of a five-and-a-halfbar phrase played three

times over the course of two cycles (unlike the first tihai that consisted of a six-bar phrase

repeated three times over the course of one cycle). Ultimately three bars of 22/4 are implied over

the sixteen half-note cycle.

85
Summwy

The quaidas above introduced the basic fundamentals of North Indian rhythm. Odd groups of

three and five eighth-notes were frequently revealed, along with constant emphasis of weak beats

throughout the cycle (i.e. beats two and four) and implications of different meters.

Dave Holland's rhythmic approach to improvisation utilises similar odd-groupings of eighth-notes

and also seeks to thwart the rhythmic hierarchy by emphasising the weak beats of the bar. Like

the above quaidas, many of his solos imply other meters against the existing meter. Exploration of

more complex quaidas in different time-cycles would most likely expose more commonalities,

though due the limitations of this honours project, I will proceed to Chapter Five.

86
Chapter Five: Integration Methodology

This third part of the dissertation will bring together some of the findings in the previous sections

in order to create the framework of an instructional tutor designed to teach a new method of

rhythmic improvisation for the jazz bassist. This tutor forms Chapter Six of this disseriation and

will present various exercises incorporating the rhythmic devices used by Dave Holland as well as

the rhythmic aspects of Hindustani music focussing on the rhythm found in tabla qua ida

compositions.

The form and structure of this tutor owes much to Peter Magadini's book, Polyrhythms: The

Musician's Guide and Ralph Humphrey's Even in the Odds 1.

First, the tutor will give a brief overview of practice methods the student may choose to adopt in

order to gain the most out of the text. This will include practising with a metronome at various

speeds etc. Some of the tips here are derived from page 2-3 ofMagadini's book, where the text

includes two sections entitled, "How to use this Book" and "How to Practice." 2

Magadani's text introduces each polyrhythm in separate sections throughout the book. Section

one is entitled '3 against 2' while section two explores '3 against 4' polyrhythms. Within each

section, Magadini reveals the polyrhythm in its most basic form against the basic pulse. He then

proceeds to introduce the polyrhythm in varied graduated exercise form, beginning with short

one-bar exercises that are repeated. Following this, short etudes are introduced, using

combinations of the previous exercises that feature the polyrhythm. Finally, the student would be

1
P. Magadini, Polyrhythms: The Musician's Guide. (Milwaukee: Hal Leonard Publishing, 1993)
Humphrey, Even in the Odds.

87
encouraged to practise the written solos that utilise all the material learned in that particular

section.

This tutor will introduce each of the key rhythmic devices used by Dave Holland (as mentioned in

Chapter Two) as a separate section. Hence, there will be five sections in the first part of this tutor.

After each rhythmic device is revealed in its simplest notated form, short exercises will be

presented the incorporate the rhythmic device. Following this will be short representative. Finally,

each section concludes with a written solo and/or bass-line utilising all the material learned in the

section.

In the text Even in the Odds, Ralph Humphrey features a introduction to Indian music and

methods of integrating some of its rhythmic concepts. While the bulk of the book includes drum-

kit patterns over odd-time signatures within a jazz context, Humphrey includes a section in the

latter half of the book entitled 'Supplement: Additional Examples based on the Indian Technique'.

Similarly, the draft of the instructional bass method in this dissertation will firstly discuss

exercises derived from Dave Holland's rhythmic vocabulary that feature rhythmic ideas relating

directly to jazz. This will be followed by an introduction to Hindustani music and methods of

integrating some North Indian rhythmic concepts.

88
Format of Tutor

Practise methods

Part 1: Dave Holland's rhythmic devices

1) Syncopation: a) basic syncopation, b) short exercises, c) etudes, d) solo and bass-line


over a blues

2) Anticipation: a) basic anticipation, b) short exercises, c) etudes, d) bass-line and solo


over a blues

3) Dotted Pulse: a) basic dotted crotchet pulse, b) short exercises, c) etudes, d) bass-line
over blues, solo and bass-line over Solar

4) Two~, beat motifs over Odd-time signatures: a) basic two-beat motifs, b) short exercises,
c) etudes, d) solo over 7/4 rhythm changes

5) Other Poly-rhythms: a) basic poly-rhythms, b) short exercises, c) etudes, d) solo over a


blues

Part 2: Introduction to Hindustani rhythm

Recitation

Tabla Quaida One: bois/recitation, application to So What bass-line.

Tabla Quaida Two: bois/recitation, application to Maiden Voyage bass-line.

89
Chapter Six

Framework of" A New Approach to Rhythmic Improvisation for the Jazz Bassist: an

exploration and application of rhythmic devices used by Dave Holland and North Indian

music"

Practise Methods

Metronome: it is advisable that the exercises in this text are practised slowly with a

metronome, then at various speeds until the bassist is comfortable with the rhythm.

Recording: the bassist may wish to record themselves playing the etudes or solos on a

mini-disc or to hear if the rhythm is accurate.

Play-a-long: this text comes with a CD that demonstrates the exercises and may be useful

to listen to and to play along with

Trying not to count odd-time signatures: it is advisable that the bassist try to feel the odd-

meter rather than count it. Holland mentions that:

"When you're playing in these time signatures you can't really count them, if you do you
get lost. You have to feel them"
-from Bass Player magazine (Dec 2001) p44 by Alan Goldsher.

Ultimately, the key is not how you break up the line or where the accents are--it's getting
to the point where the cycle of 11 is so embedded in your musical consciousness that it
becomes second nature, like playing in four. All of the devices we so commonly and
fluidly use in four--like crossing bar lines, playing three against four, overlapping phrases,
playing in double-time, or implying straight and swung feels--can be applied to an odd
time signature.
-from Bass Player Magazine (Dec 2001) p48 by Richard Johnston.

90
PART ONE

Section One: Syncopation.

Basic Syncopation:

I a: i) Long-notes

la: ii) short notes

+ 2 + 3 + 4 + + 2 + 3 + 4 +

la: iii) swung

I+ai+ai+ai+a
~3~~3~ ~3~ ~3~ ~3~~3~ ~3~ ~3~

:J=~ 11:1 2 2 ~ 2 2 ~ 2 2 ~ 2 2 ~ !2 1 ~ 2 2 ~ 2 2 ~ 2 2 ~ :IIi

91
Short Exercises in 4/4

1b: i) Basic syncopation on open strings:

r---,r---,~~r---,~~r----.~~~

:J= 7 D r r r r r r II: r r r r r r r r 1r r r r r r r r:II

?= 7
bf tf tJftJ EJ bf tJlbf bf bf tJ :II
?= ' J1 J J J J J J II: J J J J J J J J I J J J J n J J:II

lb: ii) Basic syncopation on other notes eg) C

9= 7 tfQ_[Q_#]fl]_;J]_[Q_#]j#]_l]_[Q_fJ :II

92
Ib: iii) Basic syncopation using short-notes on open strings:

lb: iv) Basic syncopation using short-notes on non-open eg) C

I b: v) Basic syncopation to practise scales (straight or swung)

~t)lr r r PTH r r (u r r mr r r
The exercise above can be transposed in all twelve keys and is good way to practise scales
and syncopation at the same time.

93
Short Etudes

1c: i) straight

II

lc: ii) swung

'1' 1 rR ~n ~cr r;o-u .u kr 12


3d iJ
(.\

11

94
Syncopation on Blues Walking Bass Line

Straight-ahead walking line (CD 2: Track 1)

?:~
f J f J I J f RJ f I J f ' F 'lr IF F f RJ

?:~ J F f f IJ J f ~J I J J J J I J J f ~f

2:~ F f F f IJ ~J J J I J J f f 1 f J F II

Syncopated walking line (delayed) (CD 2: Track 2)

95
Syncopated walking line (anticipated) (CD 2: Track 3)

Solo over a blues (CD 2: Track 4)

?=~t Er ~n 'f ? ~rttt r:r tr~r rr 1 rrr:;


1

p
11

96
Section 2: Anticipation of beat one

Basic examples of anticipation

2a: i)

2a: ii)

!J= i r I* I* ~I
=
I~ I 1$
~r:n I I* I
~

1$
r r I II I

Simple exercises

2b: i)

2b: ii)

'>11:0 r r fTl' r r rlr r r fit r r t 11

97
2b: iii)

211:1 c: E f J~E f F f IE E f J~ E Ej s II

2b: iv)

~!" ~ ~~~~ ~ p ~~~ ~


2: c r r ~r ttr r r 1 r r br t r r
1 1 r rrr 1

~q r r -f)! r r rTr r r ff c r f 11

2b: v)

~~

Ernrr'E1ttrJ 11

98
Short etudes

2c: i) straight eighths

II
mp

2c: ii) Swung

~>-~

* ~~urJ
=f

II
mp

99
2d) Anticipation in a blues walking line and solo (CD 2: Track 5)

F7 BD7 CmF F7

~Ypi f F f f IPJ f f ~J IJ f 'F qr I f r f 4 >


~
1
BD7 F7 D7

~r
~:p
~ ~ f f I~ ~ nr If F f ~ IF ~I Rf J I
>"----'

GmF C7 F7 D7 GmF C7
q:p
l
) J J ~J IJ J J F I f F f F I J PF J J II >'-------'

F7 BD7 CmF F7
__J +FJ 4
J J J qJ I J f F ..QI) F 'r
q;p
l

'-'

BD7 Bdim F7 D7 A

~yp; 3 w aaw lilA t11 r r r--ry pr &J -w I

GmF GmF C7

mf

mf >"'--"

GmF C7 F' GmF C7

yp) B J J] I JJPJ ~J t F~[]IF ''tft ~Igj pf 4 J II >"--"

100
Section 3: Dotted pulse

Basic Dotted Rhythm

3a: i) Basic dotted crotchet pulse- straight

IIi

3a: ii) Basic dotted eighth-note pulse- straight

3a: iii) Basic dotted eighth-note pulse (literal translation of swung eighths).

r-8~ r-8~

r r ptr r r P f II!

Note that it is important to feel the 4/4 pulse and not get persuaded into feeling it in%. To
do this it is advisable to practise with a metronome that can emphasis the 4/4.

101
Simple Exercises

3b: i)

r ,r r r :!It

3b: ii)

rnr J

J 'J r

3b: iii) C major scale

fir r- r
r ~

r Pr 1
r :II~

o The exercise above can be transposed in all twelve keys and is good way to practise scales
and the dotted technique at the same time.

102
Short Etudes

3c: i) straight

:>=~ a-"'r J fir


7
mf
W=rJ t I7 fP~~
p
[ c; I CJ~f 7 ![3 I
--==
...~ r f: t'~ !'- . 1r ~
~=, B Ef" ffl tpJ 1
Ir u:a:: ft ICr[r [ fc fI
:r~ y F
mf
r F [ f r r I; 1 r==~ r-==
~ ~

;LJ F iF r r EJ p c r If @

3c: ii)

x U1[ir FJTrTI~IfPJ1Trrt.f9
f m f

:>= Fa Ef -~ 1f' v r ?IT@ r J. nil


1 } J 4 t (JJ
-
I I

:>=
f
c v~t 'riP c r nt r~~ J. 1J. n f1

103
3d: i) Blues walking line

B~7 Bdim Cmi?

Bdim f7 Ami? D7
~ ~

p I f d'---'ffi J I J p f ''FIT~
'-....../
r ,,J. } I
\..../

Gmi?

:hJ ru r 1w. -v ~:lJJ J. j,a t!J ton 1


3d: ii) Bass-line over Solar (CD 2: Track 6)

B~7
~

F Iv~J f - #d
1

104
3d: iii) Solo over Solar incorporating dotted rhythms. (CD 2: Track 7)

Cmi? > ~ r----.. Gmi7 A C7

:>= 7 vr r v- 1
t r r 1 r~ r v 7 1 I ; u EF u 1

Fmi1 B~7
~

f Iv J lz =
~>r. br= v If
p~

~J

Fma7

105
Section 4: Two-beat motifs over odd-time signatures.

Basic examples of two-beat motifs

4a: i) crotchet and two quavers

c:r 'r LJ Ill

4a: ii) two-quavers and one crotchet

4a: iii) four quavers

>- >-

lo o o lo

Simple Exercises

4b: i) 3/4

106
4b: ii) 3/4

4b: iii) 3/4

Once again it is important to have a metronome that can emphasise these odd-meters, one
can often be fooled into feeling these motifs as 2/4 and losing the beat one.

4b: iv) 5/4

t _,e. A ~ ;;;;;;;;]~
911:1 f fJ f C1 f I c~
J j

:r f r A ~-?
:J
t I E;j f
~

EJ f f] :112

4b: v) 5/4

511:1 J r a r 0 :;: 1r: r i t r~ t


:J=ftf f7t E71f EJF Or=ll

107
4b: vi) 5/4

> >- > >- >

911:0 o u o u 1u o o u e'

4b: vii) 7/4

2=u p J ar cJ r 1 a r c;F cJE ~.1" 1


2' E tr ft fur r 0 r 10 r IJ J IJnJ w li

4b: viii)

211=1 f=3 J f3 F g f U 1f c:f ft ef f ti f 1

~= U ft [J f 0 f 0 IF 8 J !) J JiP HI

4b: ix)

:J=Ii:z n n n n n n n ' n n n n n n n,,


>- >- >- >- >- >- >-

108
Short Etudes

4c: i)

tNK r ~ r IE F~f If r1 f IEi f #@If 0f If f !" I


P nif mp -=
~,.. >- >- >- >- >-

:>=~1' =r E:; U IU (J Elf I U f Elf IF Q 1 1F


nif

9=~1 ' I U 'F I 0


m:p
1
f ~ I I J ! ] 1}.
p
I

4c: ii)

J II

109
4d) Solo over Rhythm Changes in 7/4 (CD 2: Track 8)

BPma7 G7 CmF F DmF G7 CmF F

:rn! !] ~c:r B ~ 0 n2 l'lfE!r f U Fug1


BP7 EP 7 Edim DmF G7 CmF F

9:~~~ t t
I
Err u tr 0 '1Cr 1 mm a J r ~ ea inf ~
1

Bbma7 T Q:pF F DmF G7 CmF F

9=~~) r
f
>

ci u r u r
-fl!-
E 1 a r a F u r u
>

BP7 Eb 7 ~im Cmi7 J!1 Bbma7

u cJ u
. A

9:~1, cJ ~ v r t 1F r r rt

:P

110
Section Five: Various polyrhythms

Five basic poly-rhythms

Sa: i) Groups of three quavers

>- >- >- >- >- >-

!J: I ,. F ,. r r ,. r r I r ,. ,. ,. ,. F r ,. Ill

Sa: ii) Groups of five quavers

> >- >-

!JI ,. ,.
>-

r ,. r r 1$ ,. I ,. ,. ,. I*
,. ,. r ,.

r ,. I ,.
>- >- >-
=,:
r ,.
,. ,. ,. ,~. ,. ,. Ill
c r 1$
r r

Sa: iii) Groups of two triplets

r-3~ r-3~ r-3~ r-3~ r-3~ r-3~ r-3~


>- >- >- >- >- >- >- > > >- > r-Jt~

!II ,. ,. ,. r I* ,. ,. ,. ,. r ,. ,. I ,. ,. ,. ,. r ,. ,. ,. r ,. r ,. Ill

Sa: iv) Groups offour triplets

!J= i EtJ 3
cis ELi ELJ IEfJ cis ai [fj. II
3 .> 3 3 3 3 3

111
5a: v) Groups of five triplets

> > > > >

2 t co~ co~
=
3 3
co$ co
3 3
'tiJ tiJ
3 3
co co<A
3 3

!r ciJ~3
co 3
Eo ui Ico ciJ co Eo 111
3 3 3 3 3 3

Short exercises

5b: i)

# >- >- >

:r C f f F E f E 1r 1( E c f 1F c f r Ill

5b: ii)
> > > >-

:r I [ F f d'' cI
Ill
F f 'r f F f Fr f r
>- >- >-

:r c f r :J ~ E F Fd iii!
I cFr f r f [ F Ill

112
5b: iii)

> > > >


,
~=! F F F F F f E F IE f f F F r f J
~

> > >


q:
2 F F r r F F f r IE F r Fr f F r IIi

5b: iv)

5b: v)

The exercise abOve may be transposed and is a good way to practise scales with poly-
rhythms

5b: vi)

> > > > > >

;: i j fJ Cf f f E f f
3 3 3
o It(; ( f f F r f f U li
3 3 3 3 3

113
5b: vii)

5b: viii)

>- >- >- ::;.-. >--

:J:! Er r t1J E U
3 3 3
tfJ IEU ELI t1J E U
3 3 3 3 3
I
> >- > > >

?: tfJ EfJ Err tiff- bEf-=Cf1 EU EUfl!


3 3
3
3 3 3 3
3

5b: ix)

r r r r r r r r r r r r r FJ r r r r r r r r r
b>- >- >- ~ >- >-

?: t 1 1
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

b>- >- >- b >- >-

9: r E f E f r CE E F E f IE E F E E F E FJ Cf f I!
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

114
Short Etudes

5c: i)

5c: ii)

!J= ~~\~ f ElEJ r f F f


1
I F:J J] J J J~ I f t 7 Ef f I
17"\

:;: ~~~,,~ FECEj f Ef I Fr f Ff Fr f I EE CJ Ef Ft I H F j ~1' II


>- >- >- >- >->- >-

5c: iii)

r--3 r--3 ""'


r-3-, >- 3"'1 >- r3 r-3 ,--3--;;2 r--3

!Ni,GrfFffFEFfFrl ~ c E f li>Pe~J~Erf([il r nifF ,J


m mp
I
, -3-, , - 3-, , - 3 - , , -3----, ;:-- 3---;;:: ,-!-, >- >- ,._________

71=~1~! J ~ J ~ J r r [ r Fr r r r r c r r f r t
p
1

f
1

~3---------.
.--~----, r---3----, r--3

:x ~~~ r r r r r r F r F r .r J ~ J J ~ ilw 11~ 1


>-

1
mf

115
5c: iv)

116
5c: iv)

116
5d) Solo over a blues incorporating the five poly-rhythms. (CD 2: Track 9)

F [I
Ami?
~3----;--,
:r~ rr ~r

II

117
Part II North Indian music

Tabla Quaida One: Tirikite Quaida

Memory and Recitation of Rhythmic Patterns

Theme Line

:r I*
dha dha
,. o o ,,.
ti ri ki te
,. ,. f
dha dha thin na
'r
,.
ta ta
o o 1, r
ti ri ki te
,. ,.
dha dha dhin na

tr ,. ,. o 0
,,. ,. ,. 1$
'rta
,. o o Ff ,. ,. ,.
dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha thin na ta ti ri ki te dha dha dhin na

Palta 1

dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha thin na

ta ta ti ri ki te ta ta ti ri ki te da da ti ri ki te dha dha dhin na

118
Palta 2

dha dha ti ri ki te dha ti ri ki te dha dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha thin na

ta ta ti ri ki te ta ti ri ki te ta dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha dhin na

Palta 3

dha ti ri ki te dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha thin na

ta ti ri ki te ta ta ti ri ki te dha dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha dhin na

Palta 4

!X ,.
dha
o o ,.
ti ri ki te dha
I r r r r r ,. 1, ,.
dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha
u o lr ,. ,. ,.
ti ri ki te dha dha thin na

:r ,. o tr ,. 1, ,. ,. r j ,. 1, r o o lr ,. ,. ,.
ta ti ri ki te ta ta ta ti ri ki te dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha dhin na

119
Palta 5

dha dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha ti ri ki te dha ti ri ki te dha dha thin na

ta ta ta ti ri ki te ta ta ti ri ki te da ti ri ki te dha dha dhin na

Palta 6

ti ri ki te da ti ri ki te da ti ri ki te da da ti ri ki te dha dha thin na

~= 0~ 0 I~ o++tf ,~ U 0 If ,~ g~ g~ lr* r 1~ r-]


ti ri ki te ta ti ri ki te ta ti ri ki te da da li ri ki te dha dha dhin na

Concluding phrase: Tihai

tJ:
r ,. o o 1, ,. ,. ,. ,,.
>

~
da da ti ri ki te dha dha thin na dha da da ti ri ki te

:r ,. ,. ,. ,. ,,. >

~
dha dha thin na dha da da ti ri ki te dha dha thin na

dha!

120
Audio Excerpt CD 2 Track 10

Dmi7
Tirikite Quaida on So What

~r r U tr r r 1 r J 1 r r U cr r r r r 1
dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha thin na ta ta ti ri ki te dha dha dhin na

:>= r r U [F r r r 1 J 1 r r U Er r r r r 1
dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha thin na ta ta ti ri ki te dha dha dhin na

:>=r r UEJir r UEJir r UEJir r r r


dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha thin na

tJ= r r U Er r r u cr r r U
ta ta ti ri ki te
1
ta ta ti ri ki te
1
da da
u
ti ri ki te
1 r r rr
dha dha dhin na
1

Ebmi7

!J: 'F F ~rtr


1
Er 1'F ~fkr tr F 1'F F ~Er tr 1r
1 1 1
F 'F ~f I
1

dha dha ti ri ki te dha ti ri ki te dha dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha thin na

ta ta ti ri ki te ta ti ri ki te ta dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha dhin na

Dmi1

tJ=r UO'r lr UEfr lr r UEJir r r r


dha ti ri ki te dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha thin na

:J= r
ta
u cr r r u u
ti ri ki te ta
1
ta
r rr B
ti ri ki te dha
1
dha dha
u
ti ri ki te
1 r r J
dha dha dhin na
r 11

121
2

:J= f tr EJ f If f t FEr I f f U U If f f F I
dha ti ri ki te dha dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha thin na

2=r Uur lr r trcrlr r tru'r r r J 1


ta ti ri ki te ta ta ta ti ri ki te dha dha ti ri ki te dha dha dhin na

:>=r r r tr1ur r u,ur tru'r r r r 1


dha dha dha ti 1i ki te dha dha ti ri ki te dha ti ri ki te dha dha thin na

v=r r r tr1ur r u,ur tru1r r r ~a 1


ta ta ta ti ri ki te ta ta ti ri ki te da ti ri ki te dha dha dhin na

El>mi7

2' 'Ek'E:T 1r U 1tk'F Tit Ei 11-r r 'fitt 11r r ~~ ~ 1


ti ri ki te da ti ri ki te da ti ri ki te da da ti ri ki te dha dha thin na

2 'Eit:tPr
ti ri ki te ta
u 1'Ek1r 'e'r EJ l1r r 'ern 11r r 'r J 1
ti ri ki te ta ti ri ki te da da ti ri ki te dha dha dhin na

Dmi7
>

72= f f
da da
U EJ If
ti ri ki te
f f F If
dha dha thin na dha
t lr F EiOI
da da ti ri ki te

:J=r r r r lr
>
Er
lr rUir r r r lr *
>
t
dha dha thin na dha da da ti ri ki te dha dha thin na dha

122
Tabla Quaida Two: Tite Quaida

Memory and Recitation of Rhythmic Patterns

Theme Line

:;: o o o o Io o o o Io o o o Io o o o I
>- >- > :;::- >- >- >- >- >- >-

da ti te da ti te dada ti te da ge tin na ge na ta ti te ta ti te ta ta ti te da gedinna gena

!J: EJ ri o o Io u o o Io ci u o Io o EJ oll
da ti te da ti te da da ti te da ge tin na ge na ta ti te ta ti te ta ta ti te da gedinna ge na

Variations

Palta 1

2: o rJ o o Io cJ o o Io cJ o o Io o o o I
da ti te da ti te da da da ti te da ti te da da da ti te da ti te da da ti te da ge tin na ge na

sr cJ rio olo ci o cr 'o Ei u olo o tJ oll


ta ti te ta ti te ta ta ta ti te ta ti te ta ta ta ti te ta ti te ta ta ti te da gedinna ge na

123
Palta 2

:xu ti u cr lo Ei o EJicJ Ei o g-Ig o g-o~ 1


da ti te da ti te dada ti te da da ti te da da da ti te da ti te da da ti te da ge tin na ge na

!J: g g o g Io Ei o Ei I
ta ti te ta ti te ta ta
ugo g Ig o EI oll
ti te a ta ti te da da da ti te da ti te da da ti te da gedinna ge na

Palta 3

!J= g ti o [r lg p0* EJig ti o tr lg o o gl


da ti te da ti te da da ti te
o/
da ti te da da da ti te da ti te da da ti te da ge tin na ge na

*ifti [f cr I0$ 7 p0$ Ei Ig$ ti o o Io o EJ 3


ta ti te ta ti te ta ta ti te ta ti te da da da ti te da ti te da da ti te da gedinna ge na

Palta 4

!)= EJ g o o Io
da ti te da ti te da da ti te
I po g I o po Ei I
da ti te da da ti te
I
da ti te da da
o o o u I
ti te da ge tin na ge na

!)= cr ti o o Io
ta ti te ta ti te ta ta ti te
I po Ei Io 7 po Ei Io o EI oll
ta ti te da da ti te ta ti te da da ti te da gedinna ge na

124
Palta 5

:r Er ci o EJ Ici o Ei o Io ci o o Io o [r o I
da ti te da ti te da ti te da ti te da da ti te da ti te da ti te dada ti te da ge tin na ge na

!J: @~ ci o o Ici g~ Ei o Io ci o o Io o EJ oll


ta ti te ta ti te ta ti te ta ti te ta ta ti te da ti te da ti te da da ti te da gedinna ge na

Palta 6

!l o ci ci u Icr ci ci o I0* ci o o Io o EJ o I
da ti te ti te da ti te da ti te ti te da ti te da ti te da ti te da da ti te da ge tin na ge na

:r 8r ci g: u=t21ti ~Ei!=EJ Iu0: o o ICJ o o<o3


ta ti te ti te ta ti te ta ti te ti te ta ti te da ti te da ti te da da ti te da gedinna ge na

Palta 7

:>=o cJ cJ o Io cJ cJ o Io cJ cJ o Io o o o I
da ti te ti te da ti te da ti te ti te da ti te da ti te ti te da ti te ti te da ge tin na ge na

:r o ci ci o Io ci ci o Io ci ci o IEI o o oll
ta ti te ti te ta ti te ta ti te ti te ta ti te da ti te ti te da ti te ti te da gedinna ge na

125
Tihai

> >- >- >-- >- >-->-- > >- >>

:J= o o~ u o~ Io o$ o~ o~ Ir o o o Iu o 1
da ti te da ti te da da ti te da ge tin na ge na da da da ti te da ge tin na ge na da da da
o~ I
>- >-- >-- >- >- >- >- >- >- >-

:J: o$ o o u 1,. * o o 'u o o$ O* ' u o r o "


ti te da ge tin na ge na da da ti te da ti te da da ti te da ge tin na ge na da da da

>- >-- >-- >-- >- >-- >- >- >-- >-

71 o u o o Ir O* o- o I o u 1
ti te da ge tin na ge na da da da ti te da ge tin na ge na da
* I o o u o I
da ti te da ti te da da

>-- >-- >- >- >- >-- >- >- >- >-

:r o o o u Ir o o u ' o o 1
ti te da ge tin na ge na da da da ti te da ge tin na ge na da da da
o 'lJ o o tJ3
ti te da ge tin na ge na

>-

da

126
4
Ti Te Quaida over Maiden Voyage
> > > > 9> g > > > > 9>

:x tJ Ef EJ U IEf ~J 6 j Icf Ef EJ U I CF d Ef EJ I
da ti te da ti te dada ti te da getinna gena ta ti te ta ti te ta ta ti te da gedinna gena

~ E I~ ~ t::J
!J= [ I
>-
(J >-
E C f
>
f : E; E MJ 'U-
1
> -

EJ
da ti te da ti te da da ti te da ge tin na ge na
b>
1 F]
> >- >-
2: E ( 3fll' cr f f ILF
ta ti te ta ti te ta ta ti te da ge din na ge na

Palta 1
>- >- >- >-' >- > > >- >- ~>

:x cfEJCJulcfuEfu'dEIEfuiEJ 6EJ'
da ti te da ti te dada da ti te da ti te dada da ti te da ti te dada ti te da getinna gena

g g
:>= ? Ei Dr UI; cJ [f UI?J cJ Gr UIEi A''(f [ I
7
>-

ta ti te ta ti te ta ta ta ti te ta ti te ta ta ta ti te ta ti te ta ta ti te da gedinna gena

Palta2
~ I ~~ ~ I
!XI' 7'0 0 U 1 'U U U
> >
1
> > > >
1
1' 7'0 U U > >
I

da ti te da ti te da da ti te da da ti te da da da ti te da ti te da da

ti te da ge tin na ge na ta ti
GJEJ
te ta ti te
EJta
ta

2 =
I
'O ~u
>- >-

ti te a ta ti te da da
u- u ~~6: u 'O u I'U "'ill ' E1f !,u
>- >- ~ >-1

da ti te da ti te da da
>- I> ~

ti te da ge din na ge na
> ~
1

Palta 3
> >- >- > >> >- >- > >- ~>

:x ciuEJuiEJ~ rEfu'cicrEfuiEJ~J&trl
da ti te da ti te dada ti te da ti te dada da ti te da ti te dada ti te da ge tinna gena

:x ctr
ta ti
(j
~ ta
E
ti
r f
~ ta
f
ta
I~E r
ti ~
I i
ta
EF
ti te
f
da
r
da
>- b>
LJ F F
da
IE: fJII
da ti te da ti te da ti te da ge din na ge na

127
128
5
Palta 4
>- >- >- >- >->- >- >->- >- ~>-

!)= d Ef El U I[J r EJ U I[J r [J U I[J ~a tJ [J I


da ti te da ti te da da ti te
7
da ti te da da ti te
7
da ti te da da ti te da ge tin na ge na

ht- ~ b~ ~ b~ ~
Ci U G U I w r d' U rG
>- >- >- >- >- >- >- >- >-

!)= 7 IG 7 U I
ta ti ~ ta ti ~ ta ta ti ~ ta ti ~ ~ ~ ti ~ ta ti ~ ~ ~

b
>-
~>- H Palta
>- 5 >- >- >- >->- >- >- >-

!)= [f 1J''CJ aa Id U EJ tf IU Ef U Ef Id U Ef U I
ti te da gedinna ge na da ti te da ti te da ti te da ti te da da ti te da ti te da ti te dada

e
!J=
~ >- ~
[J ka tf [JibZU GZU IEf Lf U EJ I E1 []a I
>-

ti te da ge tin na ge na ta ti te Ia ti te ta ti
>- ~ >- I! >he= >- >-

te ta ti te ta ta ti te da ti te da ti
u
~ >-

~
>-

da da
>- Palta 6
b ~~ ~I>-> ;;:lqi
!J:tr ~iJ ' CJ E!f I''[]'U CJ U
>- >-

l'tf'U 0 0 I
ti te da ge din na ge na da ti te ti te da ti te da ti te ti te da li te

da ti te da ti te da da ti te da ge tin na ge na ta ti te ti te ta ti te

!>= ~Ei
~
ao e >

ta ti te ti te ta ti te
>-
~~o=
~
u e u I'O ~+tJ ?? , . u
>-

da ti te da ti te da da
>- I> E3
ti te da ge din na ge na
~ ~
1

Palta 7
>- >- >- >- >- >- >- > >- >- ~>-

2: d U U Ell d U U U Itf Cf U Ef IE1 ~a Ef EJ I


da ti te ti te da ti te da ti te ti te da ti te da ti te ti te da ti te ti te da ge tin na ge na

:x t=~ c1 Ei lr IC~= r:1 Ei U It=~ E1


>- >- >-
Ej lr I
ta ti ~ ti ~ ta ti ~ ta ti ~ ti ~ ta ti ~ ~ ti ~ ti ~ ~ ti ~

b>- ~ >- H ~hakradi:!r Tihai >- >- ~ >- g >- >- >- ~
~1 DrhicJ&alcJuEruiEfkaaulr uEJkal
ti te da gedinna gena da ti te da ti te dada ti te da ge tinna gena da dada ti te da ge

>- g>- >- >- E::J>- g >- > >- >- > ~
2 :6 . Jr ulU#Jtf ..Jir
tin na ge na da da da ti te da ge tin na ge na da
a tftriEJuEJ~JI
da ti te da ti te da da ti te da ge

129
Research Outcomes

In the completion of this dissertation I have achieved what I had set out to accomplish.

In the first chapter of this dissertation I included a review of the important literature pertaining to

Dave Holland and a brief history on Holland and his quintet. In my analysis of Holland's

improvisation I discovered some of the rhythmic devices that have earned him accolades from

critics and the public throughout his musical career. These rhythmic devices form the basis of

Holland's engaging solos. In isolating these patterns, I have gained insight on some of the ways

one can approach odd-time signatures.

The second part of this dissertation provided a concise literature review of Indian music, a

synopsis of North Indian Music and an examination of the rapport between jazz and Indian music.

Despite the complexity ofNorth Indian rhythm I included a general overview of the key rhythmic

terms and concepts in order give the reader (who may be unfamiliar with North Indian music) a

basic understanding of it.

In learning the rhythmic patterns within the tabla quaidas I could see new possibilities for

rhythmic improvisation on the bass and could the similarities between Hindustani rhythmic

patterns and Dave Holland's rhythmic devices. These include the emphasis of weak beats of the

bar, odd groups of five and three eighth-notes and implication of different meters over the

established time-signature.

130
In the final section of this dissertation, my aim was to compile the important findings of this

research into a practical tutor in order to teach jazz bassists how to create rhythmic interest in their

improvisation styles and attempt a new approach to rhythmic improvisation.

This dissertation begun as an analytical paper attempting to define the rhythmic complexity of

Dave Holland's improvising, and evolved into an ethnomusicological study in Part II. My aim of

this study however, was to educate myself and others of how to improvise with interesting and

advanced rhythmic ideas. I hope to keep improving the framework of the instructional method and

publish it in the future, perhaps as a more in-depth post-graduate study.

As a coda, I wish to include the answers to the three questions included in the introduction:

What rhythmic concepts does Dave Holland use to create interest in is improvisation?

Syncopation

Anticipation of beat one (and of the other strong beats in the bar)

Implied Dotted Pulse

Two-beat motifs (particularly over odd-time-signatures.)

Various Poly-rhythms

What interesting rhythmic concepts of Hindustani classical music can be adopted into bass

improvisation?

One can learn the structured quaida patterns and transfer it onto the bass, designating pitches to

each syllable as I have done in Part II of Chapter Six. One can also take the same concept of the

quaida by creating a theme-line with limited pitches, and using those pitches to create variations.

131
How does one approach integrating these rhythmic concepts into one's own playing?

My instructional method encourages students to practise the exercises included in Chapter 6 with

a metronome and the included play-a-long. In addition, extensive transcribing and listening to

North Indian music and Dave Holland recordings would also be beneficial.

132
Role ofthe Jazz Bassist

Berendt J. The Jazz Book. Connecticut: Lawrence Hill and Co. (1982).

Goldsby J. Jazz Bass Book. San Fransisco: Backbeat Books. (2002).

Shipton, A. "Double Bass." In Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy. <http://www.grovemusic>(Accessed


[5/3/2005]).

Dave Holland

Chinen, N. "The Gig: Uncommon Denominator." Jazztimes. (April2005): 18.

Cook R, and Morton, B. The Penguin Guide to Jazz on CD- fifth edition. London: Penguin Books. (1998).

Giddins, G. "Point Counterpoint." The Village Voice. (Nov 2002): 66.

Goldsher, A. "Dave Holland: Truth and Time." Bass Player Magazine. (Dec 2001): 42, 44, 46.

Hazell, E. and Kemfeld, B. "Dave [David] Holland." In Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy
<http://www.grovemusic.com> (Accessed [5/3/2005]).

Johnston, R. "Music Lesson: Mr Holland's Odd Time Opus." Bass Player Magazine. (Dec 2001): 48.

Mcrae B. "Avant courier." Jazz Journal International. (1984): 83.

Newsom, J. "Individual Vision:" Portfolio Weekly. April27, 2004. <:http//www.jimnewson.com/PFW-


DaveHolland.html> (Accessed [26/2/2005]).

Panken, T. "The Holland Express." Jazziz. (April2003): 32-36, 81.

Prasad, A. Fundamental Truths. 2000. <http://www.innerviews.org/inner/holland2.html> (Accessed


[25/2/2005]).

Unknown author."Biography." Dave Holland Website. (date when updated is unknown).


<www.daveholland.com> (Accessed [24/9/2004]).

Williams, H. "Dave Holland Overtime." In Jazz Review. 2004


http://www.jazzreview.com/articledetails.cfm?ID=3903> (Accessed [25/2/2005]).

Wright, C and Gilbert, M. "Dave Holland." Jazz Journal International. (Jan 1986): 16-17.

133
Jazz with Indian music

Adler, D. "Do You Speak Indian?" Jazz Times. (Dec 2004): 70.

Bouchard, F. "Reviews: Prasanna- Be the Change." Down Beat. (Oct 2004): 86.

Farrel, G. "Reflecting Surfaces: The use of elements from Indian Music in Popular Music and Jazz."
Popular Music. (May 1988). 189-205.

Gallant, M. "Music Makers- Vijay Iyer." Keyboard. (Oct 2004): 16.

Gardner, M and Kernfeld, B. "Charlie Mariano." In Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy.
<http://www.grovemusic.com> (Accessed [25/5/2005]).

Hindustani Music

Clayton, M. Time in Indian Music. New York: Oxford University Press (2000).

Courtney, D. Fundamentals ofTabla. Houston: Sur Sangeet Services. (1995): pvii, 8-13,27-37.

Dick, A. "India III, 6 (i)(b): Theory and Practice of Classical Music: Instrumental Traditions: Tabla." In
Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy. <http://www.grovemusic.com> (Accessed [25/5/2005]).

Mukhi, S. Sunil Mukhi's Indian Classical Music Page. June 2003.


<http://theory.tifr.res.inl~mukhi/Music/music.html> (Accessed [115/2005]).

Pinckney, W. "India: Jazz." In Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy. <http://www.grovemusic.com>


(Accessed [25/5/2005]).

Powers, H. "Indian Music and the English Language: A Review Essay." Ethnomusicology. (Jan 1965): 1-
3.

Powers, H. and Widdess, R. "Raga in Kamatak Music." In Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy.
<http://www.grovemusic.com> (Accessed [25/5/2005]).

Richards, V. "Indian Music: An Introduction for Musicians." American String Teacher. (2004): 72-74, 76-
77.

Wade, B. "Some Principles oflndian Classical Music." Musics of Many Cultures. Los Angeles:
University of California Press. (1980): 83-110.

Instructional Texts

Humphrey, R. Even in the Odds. Iowa: CL Barnhouse Company. (1980).

Magadini, P. Polyrhythms: The Musician's Guide. Milwaukee: Hal Leonard Publishing. (1993).

134
Ethnomusicology

Nettl B. "Ethnomusicology: Definitions, Directions and Problems." Musics of Many Cultures. Los
Angeles: University of California Press. (1980): 3.

Analysis

Cooper, G and Meyer, L. The Rhythmic Structure ofMusic. USA: University of Chicago Press. (1960).

Cumming, N. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians: Vol 23. London: MacMillan
Publishers. (2001): 67.

Bent, I. and Pople, A. "Analysis, II: History, Since 1970." Grove Music Online. (2005)
<http://www.grovemusic> (Accessed (5/3/2005]).

135
Appendix: A

I reference to bass riff I


Gm
Cm

Gm
,-., A
P :- ,11>
rEd 1

Gm Cm I motif I ~
I~otif I Lmotif I [ Ib 16
f I ttr--m-c:o;c-7--,
;J= r P r u r a tt r motif Ali'
O: E
motif

c:r =E ~

D7

f1JuR!
Gm
I motif 1 I Cm Atn71>5 D7

")! f ti 7 P%9 g ty j' \,~ t p E:r cJ ~f f1r PF I

136
Gm c ' " Am7Ps D7

'J'f E!ft)AJ d,'PF tP'r f J II!


Ireference to bass riffJl I I
~ @ r~~~ Jr . @ ~
')', r r p, v , v _F F E , v u , v 1
Bm J; sequence AmJ Lsequence I Dm @ Am7

g:f Jurr 0 c:tt tJEJ_iv\


>

Dm Gr--7------,-----, I I ~copation
/ motif II motif Am7/ motif :Q,!n

:J: F 0 f E1 f E:r f 7 7j

antic~tion

E:; I

Eb9 Flsus
>

ur c~" t

137
BPmll El><i Flsus BPm EP9 FOsus
l syncop,alion A

v 1
A
~>-
q:
,
F F I v 1 pI v A

I I
A

p 7 pI v A

I
t1 I

Dm G7 Am7
~eference to bass riff
>-.,.
l
?= r r cJ 1 vI
syncopation
Dm AmF Dm G7 Am7

Dm G7 Ami? 07
I reference to bass riff Dm G7 Aril
1
Dm Alri 1 Dm (J1 Airi1 1
>- A

, r w. Jlj' tJ. ~ f w. 4} I r

138
AppendixB

~fNalt
bE f ;;J,L
E ,ZJ f ~
~

3
r E j
~

3 Qi>13 BB I dott~ pulse > I E9P5


:x 1ci ~E "r [ F f F I .z 1 '~
A 9 ~

E

Zg[J( r d.
5 ICmi6
motif I Ai>Bbs

antrcrpat10n

E7alt

'r 67f?J;r F J ,,JJ 'lt_iJt J c ''EJ clr 'Ed 3

A J2i>Bb5
7 Cm 7jF >- ~-

!Jf f rr A f f lr 'v 't..; 'E r E!f 1

9 1Cm6question Ai>j3D5 answer


A7alt

2;,zF r r r /EJ J I7 'tf! f


11 Qbl3 3 B13
>-
Ab9 pbs

j ,,J d c ' F I~G ''f ' F .. ~B


~>- >~
~_,..
!>= j'
n.P :::J
::J r
Cmi 6
13 Ai>Bbs
,--3-r
A7alt E7alt

~r ,i~
anticipation

!J=''EQ J J r ~il!
IUr r r f
I

F,j F
groups of 4 triplets
J>gfoups of 4 trip~ts Di>Bb 3
>

3 3

139
20 Bi>~ 3 ------,----, EPmi GPI3

2= 2 1 ~c ~ 1 ''C\ r 'E ~f II( J t It

3---._,
f E
I .. groups of two triplets
oi>B BB

riTe ~r ~[ 'r'1 #r
APUPS E9i>s Cm 6 Ai>BI>5
26 I
!J=ff ~[
'F 'F iiJ J J #] Ij J J J &t F
> >

Cm7jF double time implied with repeated ascending sequence

'r r l f F t ~g I
late A7alt E7alt
~~ r
28

!J= F ~f E ~F ~CJ ~F 1 r c F f ~>Fr Cf


>
1
>

I motif I
~It 1~1 ~pation

l(jj} F rrrrrrf1

140
double time implied
35 Cm6 AP13P5 A7alt E7alt
>- >-~ ~~,tP >- >- ~ s
sr Etf F F br g;r r:i I bi:r E")" EF U 43 J] I
QPBPS
37 Cm1jF

:x (
ill!!

I
ffJ
1
c E r::t 1bf r bE 1r bf r
anticipation
Ema7~n

liP /ll-~d:rfllp r J 12
39 01n9 Galt Bma7 Fait

:r ~, 1r
~
E f F f 11Eff f f /91
8~--- ~;;;;;;:_ -L...,LJo..J

42 BP7~5 EPm7 QPB Bma7 BBP5

:r 2~22Jt!f''Ckf~[ r rr11 'F '!Jj ~u I 1'E~Ft r#r r r rI 1 1

double time implied using repeated sequence


AP13P5 Aalt
45 Gm
6
"' >- "' p>- '1' >- "' p p >- "'
tJ= Cf(rtffr Ef Crfffr IE e~r"rffr Cbf r Fr [ fl'[gl

141
3 3

142
AppendixC

EPma7~u Dm ~m EPma7#n a~ion

t>= 2'r p ~E r1 r EJ 41!


I
jf!>

J F f f F I
two-beat motif
2 Dm oln Dm Gm

r ''& r r Eftifo FJ~ro 9g


I dotted eighth-note pulse
Dm Gm ~~ ~ EPma7Uu r---, anticipation

cJ r rt:f
~

f t ~:r c- tt45J
4 Dm Gm EPma7nn Dm Gm
r,
...
FJ cF FJ j -J
~

+; EJT E::::J~ CJ c~
;j

reference to bass-line sixteenth-note motif


5 Gm A7P9 II anticipation A71>9

t>= r
>- r--. ...kt-
PF 0 f~J f cr [FfEf IQE U (TEF
,-3--;r-._ ~um ,...12 "fll'- :E:..?-~f ,r--.
Ci U f PI
.

two-beat motif
implication of double-time r-:::1 EPma7#n
gr r1 pr r tr v 1 ~ tl F t:r r E[ r1

8 Om Gm Om Gm 1

t>= rr r' f ; dJJFfl 1) 3] atf[jJU I

143
two-beat motif
I I anticipation
f f f fer~,

two-beat motifs

10 r- I ~ I III I
!l f ~t f f C:t E j f 6
tT F

sixteenth-note motif
11 Am7 Dm

I syncopation ~ ~ l b Am

J~J F=F f t Ft FU F f FEF cJ 12

Ifm syncopation Gm I Ebma7~11


~ ~ ~fiT' 6
~ EJ EJ Ci EJ F F F F
two-beat motif

Dm
II
Grn
Iimplicati~n ~f d~b,-time
gf u r:t
14

:J= r

144
implication of double-time two-beat motifs
15 EDma7~11 Dm ~G I I
~ m
y: 7 ''61 EFb(fU blr cJr 7
a~n 1

two-beat motif
I
E~:r
16 Dm GJ Dm Gm

tJ= ' F F Df f ~-I"'


::J tJffi f 9 :J ~-,Ill
;::J II

145
Appendix D: Part 1

146
Part 2

AppendixD
dotted pulse
Gm

ascending two eighth-note motif


~'hwtif~ IJ!Wtif I C _ b~ - - ~ - - b-
U F (f 12 tff [ r [ Ff r f FII r f f f r f F12
4

!J= I 7

b three eighth-note motifs


7 Em> >- >- >- F;J.Jl >- anticipation

!f &f Er [ f r ffrffr II [ F r f0 J 12
>-~

I I >- I >- I
18 J >-
~
1Em9
>- ~ E Fml
b
A
~
~J: i f Fr f [ FU 12 F U tf fJ [J II f Fr [ 7 ~ F 12

I I
two-note motif ascending
~
>-

tE
>- >- >-

~ E
f f f ~r f f f f f
21 Gm >- >-

y: 2 r f F II F F L f f 12

147
23 r m9
~>
:x 2 f Ct cELt I2r It LfCr r f 12
~ >- Am7~5
1
I>
two-beat motifs

r dr f EJ f Er II
II I

29 Dm syncopation D~ma7 # 11
>- ~ >-~ ~ J"' ~

:x 2r l3C F f j f Ff ~Flit Ff :r=F r=F r 12


two-beat motifs
I D~ma 1 ~1Jl10tif variatijm I>- I
f1TI UtF cfr 11 EEEr f r 12
31 Dmi !motif Gm 3-----o

tt 2 7 tEJ Rr rt PEt 11
two-beat motifs group of five eighth-notes
34 I>- \2 1 >-~ I~ L,. I'l----.:-;:Fm;;-----.-1->------,1
:x I f U 7
E[; li Ef [f Ef [j J.U lfTF-fFF FF12

anticipation .
39 jEm9 motif !!repetition I Fm n Am7 P5 half-tJwe r-- 3
7~>-l
>- >->-

:x2 Ef (J f U' [J f II (pi'~


::::t
2"p >-~
>-

J 12 J. Jir
>- A

>
r . It
1

148
IDm reference to bass riff I DDma7~n
45
t ~ f E~ tJr~r ~r&~
~ >- >-
>-

!J=& r pf :J lifJr :J li

47 Dm >- DDma7~u

:xa r
>- ~

p f f f p
ltfJr
>-

~EJ?=r II

149
Appendix E

'~

r-1
A >

!J= T l f f' 7
El E
f E F J I,J } s; ...I

2 I emphasis on beat 2(weak) I 1~1


!?HJ 7
p J 1 ft[ c ar ; F r rrrcr r]t

3
A
Iemphasis on beat 4(weak)
~:
rr f r l ~
~
~ ~ F f F f Ef F r3

4 ~

!J= f E rd ..
3
Ei f [ r r {iP
......J
j J ll"'I JJ
"-._../
ftj

anticipation
5

!J= ~
reference to the unison riff in bar 8
-1
7 l'p3Ef f f /f
= t r~r r r ;----..

motif
~ f
6
:xr
!otif
~t:r-
3
(dP

r I t 'ft7 t
A

f
3

150
AppendixF

u
push

' vefffl I" f ul w lffffl Efftu HI


17

--====
rhythmic var of 3-note motif

25
3

:>= rrfr[J F lt1U E1flljQ A II )DJUJI


3 ===-
I moti_p I
29
. .,. :f a:f .,.
~ ,3, ,.--3--.
2=Uf FCblmLUkp ~F 7 &1Cifr ;II
3 ==-

151
33 HEAD, S~ recurring rhyth.m 13

fl= J. v [j Iv f' Ef I J. p~tJ If' p!JS I


37 I rhythm 1 I I 4/3. I' d
imp !e
I rhythm 1

5H ~trJif b IJ nprlr E91


3

41 rhythm 1 rhythm 1
b~

tPr ~ fplr F 1f IF ~JfliJ [CpJ I


3

54 rhythm 1 rhythm 1

:r l lr f f IF J J I~J p~F F f I tg J ~J I
3 3 "-"

cu ,
72

,, r fifJ 1
1 efta i.J. 3
~n ~~p 1
'('

152
SAX SOLO

dialogue with sax


~ r3~

?' 1i f fr 1, r ffcfm-~rfrf I, cfrfrcft1f f~1


3 3 3 3
3

81 I straight echoeing the sax I ~ r-3---, b

:r f rl tlf I J. Efr Ift r F 1r


11 7 1

C' I btf r~)r I

153
G

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
dada tirikite dada tin na ta ta tirikite dada dinna dada tirikite dada tin na ta ta tirikite dada dinna
dada tirikite dada tirikite dada tirikite dada dinna ta ta tirikite ta ta tirikite dada tirikite dada din na
dada tirikite da tiri kite da dada tirikite dada dinna ta ta tirikite ta tiri kite da dada tirikite dada dinna
da tiri kite da da tiri kite da dada tirikite dada dinna ta kite ta ta tiri kite da dada tirikite dada dinna
da tiri kite da dada tirikite dada tirikite dada dinna ta kite ta ta ta tirikite dada tirikite dada dinna
dada da tiri kite da tirikite dada tirikite dada dinna ta ta ta tiri kite ta tirikite dada tirikite dada dinna
tirikite da tiri kite da tirikite dada tirikite dada dinna tirikite ta tiri kite ta tirikite dada tirikite dada dinna
dada tirikite dada tinna da s dada tirikite dada tinna da s dada tirikite dada tin na da
L___ _ _ _ _ _
'------- -------- L _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ----------
L___ _ _ _ L _ ___ --- I

154
Appendix

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
dati te ti te da ti te da tin na ta ti ti te da ti te da dinna dati te ti te da ti te da tin na ta ti te ti te da tite da dinna
da da ge kena te ta da ge gena da ge kena ta da ge gena
dati te ti te da dati te ti te da dati ti te da ti te da tin na ke ta ti te ti te ta ta ti te ti te da dati te ti te da ti te da dinna
da da da da teda da ge na ta ta ta da da da ge gena
dati te ti te da ti te da ti te da dati ti te da ti te da tinna ke ta ti te ti te ta ti te ta ti te da dati te ti te da ti te da dinna
da da da da teda da ge na ta ta ta da da da ge gena
dati te ti te da ti te s ti te da dati ti te da ti te da tin na ke ta ti te ti te ta ti te s ti te da dati te ti te da ti te da din na
da da da da teda da ge na ta ta ta da da da ge gena
dati te ti te da ti te s ti te da ti te ti te da ti te da tin na ke ta ti te ti te ta ti te s ti te da ti te s ti te da ti te da din na
da da da da s da da I ge na ta ta ta da ta da ge gena
dati te ti te da te da dada dati ti te da ti te da tin na ke ta ti te ti te ta te ta ti ta ta ti dati ti te da ti te da dinna
da ti ti te ti te teda da ge na ta ti te te teda da ge gena
dati te te dati dati te te dati dati ti te da ti te da tin na ke ta ti te te ta ti ta ti te te ta ti dati ti te da ti te da dinna
ti te ti te teda da ge na ti te ti te teda da ge gena
dati te te dati dati te te dati dati te dati ti te da tin na ke ta ti te te ta ti ta ti te te ta ti dati te te dati ti te da dinna
ti te ti te te ti te ge na ti te ti te ti te ge gena

155
I mal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
dati ti te ti te tin na da tite tin na da tite tin na da dati ti te ti te tin na da
te da dada da ge ke na dada dage gena dada ge gena te da dada da ge kena dada
tite tin na da ti te tin na da dati ti te da ti te tinna da tite tin na da ti te tin na Da!
dage gena dada da ge gena te da da da ge ke na dada dage gena dada da ge gena

156