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# SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DEISGN

## FIELD WORK REPORT 2

TRAVERSING
SITE SURVEYING ( QSB 60103 )

## LECTURER : MR. CHAI VOON CHIET

DATE OF SUBMISSION :
GROUP MEMBERS : GOH XINGXIN 0325587
CHEAH MAN YEE 0324743
DAPHNE TAN LI WEN 0329055
FARAH AIDA 0322962
CONTENT

OBJECTIVES PG 1

## 1.0 INTRODUCTION TO TRAVERSING PG 2 PG 8

1.1 OPEN TRAVERSE
1.2 CLOSED TRAVERSE
1.3 NORTHING
1.4 AZIMUTHS
1.5 BEARINGS
1.6 STATION SELECTION
1.7 TRAVERSE CALCULATION

## 2.0 OUTLINE OF APPARATUS PG 9 PG 20

2.1 THEODOLITE
2.2 TRIPOD STAND
2.3 OPTICAL PLUMMET
2.4 BAR-CODED LEVEL ROD
2.5 TUBULAR SPIRIT BUBBLE
2.6 PLUMB BOB

## 3.0 TRAVERSING FIELDWORK PG 21 PG 29

3.1 AVERAGE FIELDWORK DATA
3.3 COMPUTE COURSE BEARINGS
3.4 COMPUTE COURSE LATITUDE AND DEPARTURE
3.5 ACCURACY CHECK
3.6 ADJUST COURSE LATITUED AND DEPARTURE
3.7 COMPUTE STATIONS COORDINATES
3.8 AREA OF TRAVERSE

## 4.0 DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS PG 30

5.0 CONCLUSION PG 31
OBJECTIVES

## To learn the principles of running a closed field traverses.

To enhance students knowledge in traversing procedure.
To establish ground control for photographic mapping.
To be familiar with the setting up and use of theodolites, leveling rod, adjustable-leg
tripod as well as other instrument and collect the data of the relevant fieldwork.
To learn how to compute a traverse and properly adjust the measured values of a closed
traverse to achieve mathematical closure.
To determine the error of closure and compute the accuracy of the work.
To enable students to identify the error and make adjustment to the date by using the
correct formula.
To allow students to apply the right theories to a hands-on situation.
To determine the adjusted independent coordinates of the traverse stations so that theu
can be plotted on the drawing sheet.
1.0 INTRODUCTION TO TRAVERSING

Traversing is the process of measuring the length and direction (bearing) of the sides of a traverse. A
traverse is a series of successive straight lines that are connected. The angles are measured by using a
surveying instrument with a rotating telescope for measuring horizontal and vertical angles called the
theodolite. Stations are set out to define a series of traverse lines or legs, the plan lights of which can be
measured as can the angles between pairs of lines at each station. There are three types of traverse
(Figure 1.0.1):

(1) Closed loop traverse, where the legs form a closed polygon.
(2) Closed tied ( or connecting or link) traverse, where the traverse runs between two stations
of known position
(3) Open traverse, where the lines, although starting from a known position, do not finish at
one.

Figure
1.0.1
Types of
traverse

Source:
John
Muskett
(1995).
Site

## Surveying (Second Edition). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

1.1 OPEN TRAVERSE

## Figure 1.1.1 Open Traverse

SOURCE: http://surveying.structural-analyser.com/chapter07/

An open traverse (Figure 1.1.1) consist of known points plotted in any corresponding linear direction, but
do not return to the starting point or close upon a point of equal or greater order accuracy. (For example:
the line center survey of a highway, railroad, etc). This lack of geometric closure means that there is no
geometric verification possible with respect to the actual positioning of the traverse stations. In route
surveys, open traverse station positioning can be verified by computation from available tied-in field
markers as shown on property plans, or through the use of global positioning system (GPS) receivers.
1.2 CLOSED TRAVERSE

Figure
1.2.1

## Closed Loop Traverse

SOURCE: http://surveying.structural-analyser.com/chapter07/

The location where the traverse begins is known as a closed traverse (Figure 1.2.1). For the traverse to
end, the initial traverse point has to be observed. The surveyed reading that was taken backwards to the
formerly observed location is horizontal and angular with the closed traverse or is an observed existing
point. When depicted graphically, the closed traverse looks like what is called a shape in geometry, with
the shape having no opening.

## CLOSE CONNECTING TRAVERSE

Figure
1.2.2
Closed
Connecting
traverse

SOURCE:

http://surveying.structural-analyser.com/chapter07/
Connecting traverse looks like an open traverse, except that it begins and ends are points (or lines) of
known position (and direction) at each end of the traverse (Figure 1.2.2).

1.3 NORTHING

There are three reference directions or datum meridians that are used as traverse references:

## (1) Magnetic North

(2) Grid North
(3) True North

Magnetic North

Magnetic North is the direction indicated by a magnetic compass. Magnetic North moves slowly
with a variable rate. It fluctuate over time, this meridian is time dependent. A compass needle
points to the magnetic north pole.

Grid North

Grid North is the direction of a grid line which is parallel to the central meridian on the National
Grid.

True North

The earth rotates on the geographic north and south poles. True North is the direction of a
meridian of longitude which converges on the North Pole. The south and North Pole are directly
opposite to one another.
Figure 1.3.1 Grid North, True North and Magnetic North

Sources: http://www.drillingformulas.com/magnetic-declination-and-grid-convergent-and-their-applications-in-directional-
drilling/

1.4 AZIMUTHS

## Figure 1.4.1 Azimuths

SOURCE: http://www.pobonline.com/articles/84502-web-exclusive-calculating-the-direction-of-a-line-using-
azimuths

The azimuth of a line is the clockwise horizontal angle between the line and a given direction or meridian.
Azimuths are reference from North. South is sometimes used as a reference for geodetic surveys that cover
vast areas. An azimuth angle would have a positive value between 0 and 360o.
1.5 BEARINGS

## Figure 1.5.1 Bearings

SOURCE: http://www.pobonline.com/articles/84502-web-exclusive-calculating-the-direction-of-a-line-using-
azimuths

Bearings are based on a directional compass. The four main directions of a compass are known
as cardinal points. They are North (N), East (E), South (S) and West (W). Sometimes, the half-
cardinal points of North-East (NE), North-West (NW), South-East (SE) and South-West (SW) are
shown on the compass. The bearing of a point is the number of degrees in the angle measured in
a clockwise direction from the north line to the line joining the centre of the compass with the point.
A bearing is used to represent the direction of one point relative to another point.

## 1.6 STATION SELECTION

The station should be marked out firmly and clearly as well as strongly referenced. The
following are the requirements for the selection of traversing stations (John Muskett (1995). Site
Surveying (Second Edition). Oxford, UK: Blackwell) :

## (1) The stations should form a traverse of suitable shape.

(2) Only neighbouring stations along traverse lines need be intervisible.
(3) Where traverse legs are to be taped, the ground should be accessible.
(4) Traverse legs should be approximately equal in length.
(5) Existing stations and reference objects should be incorporated.
(6) Stations should permit the convenient surveying of detail.
(7) Stations should be free from the risk of disturbance.
(8) Stations should be easily referenced.

## Procedure for traverse calculations:

(2) Determine bearings or azimuths
(3) Calculate and adjust latitudes and departures
(4) Determine the error of closure and accuracy
(5) Calculate rectangular coordinates

## o Adjustments applied to angles are independent of the size of the angle

-Make larger corrections where mistakes were most likely
-Apply an average correction to each angle
-Or a combination
o Never make an adjustment that is smaller than the measured accuracy

## 1.7.2 DETERMINE BEARINGS OR AZIMUTHS

o Requires the direction of at least one line within the traverse to be known or assumed
o For many purposes, an assumed direction is sufficient
o A magnetic bearing of one of the lines may be measured and used as the reference for
determining the other directions
o For boundary surveys, true directions are needed

## 1.7.3 LATITUDES AND DEPARTURES

o The latitude of a line is its projection on the north-south meridian and is equal to the length
of the line times the cosine of its bearing.
o The departure of a line is its projection on the east-west meridian and is equal to the
length of the lie times the sine of its bearing.
o The latitude is the y component of the line and the departure is the x component of the
line.

## Generally for land surveying, an accuracy of 1:3000

is typical. The range of acceptable misclosure can be
calculated with the following formula:

Accuracy= 1: (P/Ec)

## Ec= The total Error

Classification First Order Class l (Second Class II ( Second Class l (Third Class ii (Third
Order) Order) Order) Order)

Recommended Network Principal stations Principal stations Seldom less Seldom less
spacing of principal stations 10 to seldom less than seldom less than than 0.1km in than 0.1km in
stations. 15km other 4km, except in km, except in tertiary surveys tertiary surveys
surveys seldom metropolitan area metropolitan area in metropolitan in metropolitan
less than 3km. surveys, where the surveys where the area surveys; as area surveys; as
limitation is limitation is required for required for
0.3km. 0.2km. other surveys. other surveys.

## Position closure 0.04km k or 0.08km k or 0.08km k or 0.2km k or 0.8km k or

After azimuth 1:100,000 1:50,000 1:20,000 1:10,000 1:5000
Figure 1.7.4 Traverse Specification in United States of America

Source: https://engineering.purdue.edu/~asm215/topics/travcalc.html

## 1.7.5 RECTANGULAR COORDIANTES

o Rectangular X and Y coordinates of any point give its position with respect to a reference
coordinate system
o Useful for determining length and direction of lines, calculating areas, and locating points
o You need one starting point on a traverse (which may be arbitrarily defined) to calculate
the coordinates of all other points
o A large initial coordinate is often chosen to avoid negative values, making calculations
easier.

Given that X and Y coordinates of any starting point A, the X and Y coordinates of the next point B are
determined by:

## Figure 1.7.5 Calculating X and Y coordinates

2.0 OUTLINE OF APPARATUS

## A theodolite is a telescope mounted to very sensitive horizontal and vertical protractors. It is

capable of measuring angles and, when used in conjunction with graduated reference objects,
distances with a high degree of accuracy. The theodolite also can be defined as Universal
Instrument. There are two different kinds of theodolites: digital and non digital. Non digital
theodolites are rarely used anymore. Digital theodolites consist of a telescope that is mounted on
a base, as well as an electronic readout screen that is used to display horizontal and vertical
angles. Digital theodolites are convenient because the digital readouts take the place of
using the digital theodolite to complete our surveying. The basic components of theodolite are
shown below (Figure 2.0.1):

## Figure 2.0.1 Basic Components of Theodolites

2.1 THEODOLITE

A theodolite is a precision instrument for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes.
Theodolites are used mainly for surveying applications, and have been adapted for specialized
purposes in fields like metrology and rocket launch technology. A modern theodolite consists of a
movable telescope mounted within two perpendicular axes the horizontal or trunnion axis, and the
vertical axis. When the telescope is pointed at a target object, the angle of each of these axes
can be measured with great precision. Like other leveling instruments, a theodolite consists of a
telescope mounted on a base. The telescope has a sight on the top of it that is used to align the
target. The instrument has a focusing knob that is used to make the object clear. The telescope
contains an eyepiece that the user looks through to find the target being sighted. An objective lens
is also located on the telescope, but is on the opposite end as the eyepiece. The objective lens is
used to sight the object, and with the help of the mirrors inside the telescope, allows the object to
be magnified. The theodolite's base is threaded for easy mounting on a tripod.
GLOSSARY OF TERMS

## -Gradient: An alternative to measuring vertical angles in degrees, the gradient is defending as

the tangent of the vertical angle with respect to the horizontal times 100%.

-Face left: The theodolite position in which the vertical circle is on the viewers left while he looks
into the telescope.

-Face right: The theodolite position in which the vertical circle is on the viewers right while he
looks into the telescope.

-Horizontal circle: The graduated circle in the horizontal plane that the theodolite reads out to
measure horizontal angles.

-Horizontal clamp: Thumbscrew that can be used to _x the angle of the theodolite with respect to
the vertical axis.

-Vertical axis: When the horizontal clamp is tight, the instrument can be translated horizontally
with the slow-motion screw.

-Line of collimation: The line of sight through the centre of the telescope crosshairs.
-Optical plummet: Small telescope whose eyepiece is near the bottom of the theodolite that looks
at the directly beneath the theodolite and is used for centring.

-Round of angles: A complete set of angle measurements performed _rst in the face-left, then in
the face-right position.

-Slow-motion screw: The adjustment screw used to translate the theodolite in the horizontal or
vertical plane when the horizontal or vertical clamp is tightened.

## -Trunnion axis: The axis about which the telescope pivots.

-Vertical axis: The axis about which the horizontal circle pivots.

-Vertical circle: The graduated circle in the vertical plane that the theodolite reads out to measure
vertical angles.
FUNCTION OF THEODOLITE COMPONENTS

Components of theodolite and its function shown below (Figure 2.1.1 & Figure 2.1.2):

## Figure 2.1.1 Components of Theodolite

Source: https://www.slideshare.net/shantynurul/describing-object-theodolite

## Components and functions:

1) Targeting Sight is used to take aim hard object. Position targeting sight at the top binoculars
of theodolite and this part made of plastic.
2) Objective lens is used for viewing the object. Position of this part in front of binoculars of
theodolite.
3) Place battery.
4) Vertical angle adjustment buttons are used to reset the vertical angle.
5) Adjustment buttons angle 0 horizontal is used to reset the horizontal angle.
6) Smooth horizontal screw driver used to drive a subtle tool to horizontal.
7) Horizontal angle locking screw is used to lock the horizontal movement of equipment.
8) Nivo setter screw use to adjust device balance position.
9) Power switch ON/OFF is used to turn on or turn off the appliance.
10) Display window is used to show vertical and horizontal corner perusal digitally.
Figure 2.1.2 Components of Theodolite
Source: https://www.slideshare.net/shantynurul/describing-object-theodolite

## Components and functions:

11) Sight adjusting screw is used to adjust the point of sight that shot right direction.
12) Point adjusting screw lens view finder is used to adjust the clarity of the lens.
13) Tuners lens view finder is used to adjust the clarity of the lens.
14) Vertical angle locking screw used to lock the vertical movement apparatus.
15) Smooth vertical screw driver used to drive tools subtly in the vertical direction.
16) Nivo tube used to determine the erectness of tool.
DIGITAL LCD MONITOR (Figure 2.1.3)

## Figure 2.1.3 Digital LCD Monitor

Source: https://www.slideshare.net/Ehabtariq/surveying-by-using-digital-theodolite

## Figure 2.1.4 the Keys of Theodolite

2.2 TRIPOD STAND
A tripod stand is a device used to support any one of a number of surveying instruments, such as
theodolites, total stations, levels or transits. There are two different kinds of tripods such as
adjustable-leg tripods and fixed tripods. For conducting this fieldwork, we are using adjustable-
leg tripods. Adjustable-leg tripods are the more common of the two in the construction world,
especially outdoors because of generally uneven terrain. The adjustable-leg tripod is easier to set
up on uneven ground because each leg can be adjusted to exactly the height needed to find
level, even on a very steep slope. The adjustable-leg tripod is also easy to transport due to
having retractable legs.
TRIPOD COMPONENTS (Figure 2.2.1)

A tripod is made up of three legs, each with metal points called shoes; and a head which the
theodolite or other leveling device attached.

## Figure 2.2.1 Tripod Components

Source: http://www.johnsonlevel.com/News/WhatisaTripodHowdoTripods

The head of the tripod is attached to the legs and allows a steady surface to connect leveling
devices. The tool you are using will dictate the type of tripod head needed. For most theodolite
applications, a dome head (Figure 2.2.1) is used. There are three different kinds of heads which

POINTS

Each tripod, whether fixed or adjustable, has metal points (Figure 2.2.1) on the end of the legs
for added stability and can help provide a stable environment for the leveling tools on top of the
tripod. When working outdoors, points on the bottom of the tripod are essential, but when
working indoors, metal points can slide or scratch floors. Some tripods can be purchased with
rubber attachments which prevents either of these from happening.

LEGS

The most common materials for tripod legs are steel, aluminium, fibreglass and wood. Among all
the materials the most durable and yet heaviest is steel; however, the lightweight and sturdy is
aluminium. Wood and fibreglass legs are the most accurate materials used in making tripod legs
because of their lack of sensitivity to changes in temperature.
2.3 OPTICAL PLUMMET
An optimal plummet is an attachment plate used to attach a surveying instrument, for example a
theodolite, total station, GNSS antenna or target to a tripod. Optical plummet also can know as
tribrach (Figure 2.3.1). Optical instrument are used for surveying purposes and are supported on,
and attached to, the upper end of a tripod by means of a tribrach device. The tribrach used a
simple screw fixing to the tripod plate; its relatively easy to replace and the plate can be
modified to fit other mountings such as scaffold tube, railway lines and more. Its small and light
and makes cheap tripods work harder. A good tribrach will get precise results from a poor tripod
but not the other way around. Tribrachs are equipped with a bulls eye bubble for leveling and
optical plummets for setting up precisely on a survey mark.

The ability to leapfrog back sight, instrument point and foresight by using interchangeable
tribraches increases the speed, efficiency and accuracy of the traverse survey. Whenever
possible, the tribrach should be detached from the instruments and placed on the tripods for
either theodolite or EDM setups.

This procedure speeds up the setting up process and protects the instrument from accidents. In
some cases, the same tribrach can be used to perform angular or distance measurement, as well
as GPS observations from the same survey point.

## Figure 2.3.1 Optical plummet or Tribrach

Source: https://billboyheritagesurvey.wordpress.com/2010/06/29/tribrach/
2.4 BAR-CODED LEVEL ROD
It is aluminium rod that has a rectangular cross section. An instrument used to determine the
relative heights of the different points. The lower part of the rod with metal is used to protect
from spoil while using. The instrument is sectional and it can be shortened for storage and
lengthened for use. Leveling rods can be used with surveyor, optical and laser levels. Leveling
rods can be made up of several different materials; however, the most common are made out of
wood, plastic and fiberglass. Besides, leveling rods also use different graduations. They can be
graduated many different ways including feet with inches, fractions, tenths with hundredths and
meters with centimeters. The most common engineer's rod is called the Philadelphia Rod (Figure
2.4.1). The Philly rod has a front side as well as a back side. Along with all other Grade Rods, it
is important to ensure that the Philly rod is fully extended; if it is only extended partially, the
graduations will not be accurate. Each foot on the Philly rod is divided into hundredths of a foot.
The distance between the hundredths is painted black on a white background. The bottom of the
black mark is odd values, and the top of the black mark is even values. The rod must be placed
on the correct point exactly and held plumb throughout. If the rod is in the wrong place or not
held plumb, the readings will be incorrect and useless. In keeping the rod plumb, a bulls-eye level
may be used. If there is not a bulls-eye level attached to the rod, you can make sure its plumb by
lining it up with the vertical crosshair of the telescope on the instrument being used.

## 2.5 TUBULAR SPIRIT BUBBLE

A spirit level, bubble level or simply a level is an instrument designed to indicate whether a surface
is horizontal (level) or vertical (plumb).(Figure 2.5.1) Different types of spirit levels may be used
by carpenters, stonemasons, bricklayers, other building trades workers, surveyors, millwrights and other
metalworkers, and in some photographic or video graphic work.

To centre the bubble in a tubular vial with a three-screw levelling head. This is usually necessary only in a jig transit
or a theodolite. If desired, turn the instrument so that the vial is parallel to the line joining two levelling screws. (Figure
2.5.2) Turn these screws simultaneously in opposite directions by equal amounts until the bubble is centered.

Turn the instrument until the vial is at right angles to its original position, i.e., at right angles to the line of the two
levelling screws just used. Centre the bubble, using the third screw only. Turn the instrument back to its original position
and check the position of the bubble. If it does not centre, repeat the procedure. Never touch the levelling screws
after the first sight has been taken.

## 2.6 PLUMB BOB

The plumb bob or plumb line employs the law of gravity to establish what is plumb.(Figure
2.6.1) Dont have to be a physics to understand that a string suspended with a weight at the
bottom will be both vertical and perpendicular to any level plane through which it passes. In a
sense, the plumb bob is the vertical equivalent of the line level.

Plumb-bobs come in many different shapes and can be highly decorative items. Some collectors
of these fundamental tools estimate there to be over 10,000 different shapes of plumb-bob.

There are many different shapes of plumb-bob and most of them work just as well as others,
though some may be suited better to certain tasks depending on their individual shape.
However, the material they are made from, their symmetry and how balanced they are perhaps
more important than their shape.

For precision marking, it is advised to choose a plumb-bob with a fine tip such as the "carrot",
"cone" or "pencil".(Figure 2.6.2) These would be ideal for jobs where you need to accurately
transfer points from one place to another.

## Figure 2.6.1 Plumb Bob

Source: https://dir.indiamart.com/impcat/plumb-bobs.html?biz=20
Figure 2.6.2 Plumb Bob Fine Tip
Source: https://www.wonkeedonkeetools.co.uk/plumb-bobs/what-are-the-different-shapes-of-plumb-bob/
4.0 DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
There are a few factors that we have learned that could have affected the leveling work and
there are also steps that could have been avoid and taken to get a more accurate reading. The
recommendations are:

1. The theodolite will be placed on a particular point as a starting point. The angles that we
get from the theodolite should be read from left to right in order to obtain a more
2. For theodolite to provide acceptable results, the axes must bear the correct relationships
to each other, the bubbles must be correctly set, the optical plummet must give reliable
centering, vertical indexing must be satisfactory and there should be no eccentricity of the
circles.
3. The vertical axis should be truly vertical when the plate bubble is central.
4. Angles should be observed more than once so that inconsistent values can be identified
and rejected.
5. A mean of several consistent values can be taken, giving more reliable measure than a
single one.
6. The total angles must be 360.
7. Using the correct formula such as trigonometry traversing calculation technique to solve the
misclosure error; however using the compass rule to calculate the latitude and departure.
3.0 FIELD DATA
HEIGHT
THEODOLITE STATION TOP BOTTOM VERTICAL HORI-ZONTAL
OF
THEODOLITE
A B 218.9 181.1 884340
1ST 703240
A D 210.7 189.3 875820
126.00
A B 218.9 181.0 2725640
2ND 703540
A D 210.7 189.4 2720220
B C 211.0 189.0 883340
1ST 1025540
B A 218.9 181.3 884250
120.50
B C 211.0 189.0 2712700
2ND 1025540
B A 218.9 181.1 2711750'
C B 211.0 188.9 873300
1ST 744040
C D 217.8 182.2 883740
131.30
C B 211.1 188.9 2722900
2ND 743920
C D 217.6 182.0 2712300
D C 217.8 182.2 890100
1ST 1114630
D A 210.6 189.4 875320
121.20
D C 217.9 182.1 2705920
2ND 1114410
D A 210.5 189.3 2720720

## 3.1 AVERAGE FIELD DATA

HEIGHT
THEODOLITE STATION TOP BOTTOM VERTICAL HORIZONTAL
OF
THEODOLITE
A B 218.90 181.05 875330
703410 126.00
A D 210.70 189.35 875800
B C 211.00 189.00 883320
1025540 120.50
B A 218.90 181.20 884230
C B 211.05 188.90 873200
744000 131.30
C D 217.70 182.10 883720
D C 217.85 182.15 890050
1114520 121.20
D A 210.55 189.35 875300'

A 703410
B 1025540
C 744000
D 1114520
SUM 3595510

## TOTAL ANGULAR ERROR = 360 - 3595510

TOTAL ANGULAR ERROR = 450

## THEREFORE, ERROR PER ANGLE = 450 4

THEREFORE, ERROR PER ANGLE = 112.5 PER ANGLE

## A 703410 + 112.5 703522.5

B 1025540 + 112.5 1025652.5
C 744000 + 112.5 744112.5
D 1114520 + 112.5 1114632.5
SUM 3595510 + 450 360
3.3 COMPUTE COURSE BEARINGS

744112.5- 6737.5
C N 6737.5 W
180 - 10 - 1025652.5
= 6737.5
= 7385 744112.5
S 7385 W
B
1025652.5

1114632.5
D N 10 E
S 603522.5 E 703522.5

## 180 - 7385 - 1114632.5

= 603522.5 A
3.4 COMPUTE COURSE LATITUDE AND DEPARTURE

3.4.1 LENGTH

## A-B =100 x (218.90-181.05) x cos (90-875330)

= 100 x0.378 x cos 2630
= 37.749 m
B - A =100 x (218.90-181.20) x cos (90-884230)
= 100 x 0.377 x cos 11730
= 37.681 m
AVERAGE LENGTH = 37.715 m

## B - C =100 x (211.00-189.00) x cos (90-883320)

=100 x 0.220 x cos 12640
= 21.986 m
C - B =100 x (211.05-188.90) x cos (90-873200)
= 100 x 0.2215 x cos 22800
= 22.109 m
AVERAGE LENGTH = 22.048 m

## C - D =100 x (217.70-182.10) x cos (90-883720)

=100 x 0.356 x cos 12240
= 35.579 m
D - C =100 x (217.85-182.15) x cos (90-890050)
= 100 x 0.357 x cos 05910
= 35.689 m
AVERAGE LENGTH = 35.634 m

## D - A =100 x (210.55-189.35) x cos (90-875300)

=100 x 0.212 x cos 2700
= 21.171 m
A - D =100 x (210.70-189.35) x cos (90-875800)
= 100 x0.2135 x cos 2200
= 21.323 m
AVERAGE LENGTH = 21.247 m

## cos sin L cos L sin

STATION BEARING, LENGTH
COSINE SINE LATITUDE DEPARTURE
A
N 10 E 37.715 0.9848 0.1736 +37.142 +6.547
B
N 6737.5 W 22.048 0.3899 0.9209 +8.597 -20.304
C
S 7385 W 35.634 09911 0.1329 -35.317 -4.736
D
S 603522.5 E 21.247 0.4911 0.8711 -10.434 +18.508
A
SUM 116.644 -0.012 +0.015

A

## TOTAL ERROR: 0.019

A
ACCURACY =1 : ( P / Ec )
= 1 : 116.644 / 0.019
= 1 : 6139
For average land surveying an accuracy of about 1 : 3000 is typical hence the
accuracy of 1 : 6139 is acceptable.
3.6 ADJUST COURSE LATITUDE AND DEPARTURE

STATION
LATITUDE DEPARTURE LATITUDE DEPARTURE LATITUDE DEPARTURE
A
+37.142 +6.547 0.004 -0.005 37.146 6.542
B
+8.597 -20.304 0.002 -0.003 8.599 -20.307
C
-35.317 -4.736 0.004 -0.004 -35.313 -4.740
D
-10.434 +18.508 0.002 -0.003 -10.432 18.505
A
+0.012 -0.015 0.00 0.00
SUM -0.012 +0.015
Check Check

## CORRECTIONS = -[y] / P x L or -[x] / P x L

Where
y and x = error in latitude or in departure
= -0.012 and +0.015

= 116.644 m

## L = the length of a particular course

A-B = 37.715 m
B-C = 22.048 m
C-D = 35.634 m
D-A = 21.247 m
3.7 COMPUTE STATION COORDINATES

N coordinate E coordinate
STATION REMARKS
Latitude Departure
A 100.000 118.505 lat. check
37.146 6.542 (Course lat. And dep.)
B 137.146 125.047
8.599 -20.307
C 145.745 104.740
-35.313 -4.740
D 110.432 100.000 dep. check
-10.432 18.505
A 100.000 118.505

N2 = N1 + Lat1-2
E2 = E1 + Dep1-2

Where
N2and E2 = the Y and X coordinates of station 2
N1 and E1 = the Y and X coordinates of station 1
Lat1-2 = the latitude of course 1-2
Dep1-2 = the departure of course 1-2
THE ADJUSTED LOOP TRAVERSE PLOTTED BY COORDINATES

200

150
N 145.745
E 104.740 C
N 137.146
B E 125.047
Y axis (north, N)

D
N 110.432
E 100.000 A
100
N 100.000
E 118.505

50
50 100 150
X axis (east, E)
3.8 AREA OF TRAVERSE

## Area = x { [ (EA x NB)+(EB x NC)+(EC x ND)+(ED x NA) ] [ (NA x EB)+ (NB

x EC)+(NC x ED)+(ND x EA) ] }

## = x { [ (118.505 x 137.146)+(125.047 x 145.745)+ (104.740

x 110.432)+(100 x 100) ] [ (100 x 125.047)+ (137.146 x
104.740)+(145.745 x 100)+(110.432 x 118.505) ] }

= x (56044.12 54530.61)
= x 1513.51
= 756.755 m
4.0 DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
There are a few factors that we have learned that could have affected the leveling work and
there are also steps that could have been avoid and taken to get a more accurate reading. The
recommendations are:

1. The theodolite will be placed on a particular point as a starting point. The angles that we
get from the theodolite should be read from left to right in order to obtain a more
2. For theodolite to provide acceptable results, the axes must bear the correct relationships
to each other, the bubbles must be correctly set, the optical plummet must give reliable
centering, vertical indexing must be satisfactory and there should be no eccentricity of the
circles.
3. The vertical axis should be truly vertical when the plate bubble is central.
4. Angles should be observed more than once so that inconsistent values can be identified
and rejected.
5. A mean of several consistent values can be taken, giving more reliable measure than a
single one.
6. The total angles must be 360.
7. Using the correct formula such as trigonometry traversing calculation technique to solve the
misclosure error; however using the compass rule to calculate the latitude and departure.
5.0 CONCLUSION
Surveying is the practice of taking measurement of features on and occasionally above or below,
the earths surface to determine their relative positions. The practice may be more precisely
described as land surveying to distinguish it from quantity surveying, building surveying and other
forms of surveying. In this fieldwork, we are able to practice and carry out the closed loop
traverse survey that is located at the Taylors University Block E car park. Closed loop traverse is
a loop traverse starts and ends at the same point, forming a closed geometric figure called a
polygon which is the boundary lines of a tract land. Before start to conduct this fieldwork, we
roughly marked four points of stations which are stations A, B, C and D in a piece of paper so we
can easy to understand. All stations must be stated on the site to form a loop traverse.

For our first attempt, we failed to get an accuracy of at least 1:3000. This is due to the reason of
we forgot to adjust the theodolite plate bubble in a correct position which will affect our collected
readings. Other than that, we also didnt able to take the height of instrument. Therefore, we
actually did a lot of mistake at the first attempt fieldwork. So we decided to redo the survey for
getting more accurate readings to complete our fieldwork report.

For our second attempt, we are able to obtain the most accurate readings. During the survey, we
will take turns to do different tasks such as collect readings or takes leveling rod at particular
point. The horizontal reading we taken in twice so that we able to obtain the average reading
which is more accurate. Besides, we also did recorded the top stadia, middle stadia and bottom
stadia readings to calculate the length of the perimeter of the traverse since we are not using the
measuring tape or other instruments. This method is called stadia method. Other than that, we are
using the correct formula to solve all the error or mistake for our readings.

Overall, this fieldwork has taught us a lot of hand-on knowledge about the surveying. The
principle to be adopted in surveying is that of working form the whole to the part. Work should
commence with a control survey to establish the positions of plan control stations and the levels of
temporary benchmarks throughout the site. Measurements taken should be of adequate precision;
the whole to part method will reduce the likelihood of errors accumulating.

Lastly, our thanks also go to our lecturer, Mr. Chai Voon Chiet for giving us an opportunity to
learn and carry out the survey. Besides, he also provides sufficient guidelines to ensure us able to
conduct and obtain the accurate readings throughout the whole fieldwork.