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2008 12 Journal of University of Science and Technology Beijing Dec.

2008
24 4 Social Sciences Edition Vol. 24 No. 4

Martin

100871

Martin 1992 Martin


Martin



H0 A 1008-2689 2008 04-0095-10


Gleason
meta- theoretician,
Martin
teacher and discourse pioneer2003 David
Rose
[2]
James Robert Martin 1968
Glendon College Martin
Michael Gregory Gregory
Halliday Henry Allen Glea-
son, Jr. Waldemar Gutwinski




Gleason 1975
Halliday Halliday 1992
Gleason
Halliday
1985
shuntGleason

meta- Theme
Halliday Hasan [3](xiv)

meta- New[1](xiii)

Martin [3](xx)1992



1979
1992
[4](210)

[1] Martin

2008-07-22
1949-

96 2008 12


Halliday

[1](1)

Martin
Martin Halliday Hasan

Halliday Hasan


Martin


Martin

[1](1)

Martin


Martin 1 [1](20)

triple articulation

Andr Martinet

Halliday Hasan

Martin
Martin Louis Hjelmslev

content form There was a robot


expression form



It looked bored.
[1](16)
The android looked bored.
This model looked bored. [1](23)

Halliday[3] a robot


it the android this model

Halliday Hasan
Ford is smiling because Trillian arrived. inter- depen-
It pleased Ford that Trillian has arrived. dencyconstituency
Ford is happy that Trillian has arrived. [1](16)

robot android model
24 4 Martin 97

Martin


covariate
android robot model robot mutlivariate

univariate



Im a little tired of this robot, but Id love to try that
android. phoric
Im not pleased with this robot, but that model looks expectant
fine. [1](24)

Halliday[5](215- 216)

2 [1](26)

Halliday[6][1]
Martin


Finite





Martin negotiation Halliday[3]
identification conjunction
ideation Martin Halliday

Ford thought Marvin wanted Zaphod to tell Trillian that ...


Ford bored Marvin

There was a robot The an-
droid looked bored And it stopped working the android robot it the an-
droid
98 2008 12

Martin 4Offer [negotiating: exchanging: giving/goods & ser-


vices//initiating]
Acknowledge Offer [negotiating: exchanging: giv-
Get me the new one, please. Alright, I will. ing/goods & services//responding to]
d like the new one, please. Alright.
I 5Command [negotiating: exchanging: demanding/ goods
Can I have the new one, please? Alright. [1](33)
& services//initiating]
Response Offer to Command [negotiating: exchanging:
demanding/goods & services// responding to]
7 adjacency pairs
6Statement [negotiating: exchanging: giving/ informa-
1Call [attending: calling/initiating] tion//initiating]
Response to Call [attending: calling/responding to] Acknowledge Statement [negotiating: exchanging: giv-
2Greeting [attending: greeting/initiating] ing/information//responding to]
Response to Greeting [attending: greeting/responding 7Question [negotiating: exchanging: demanding/ infor-
to] mation//initiating]
3Exclamation [negotiating: reacting/initiating] Response Statement to Question [negotiating: exchang-
Response to Exclamation [negotiating: reacting/ re- ing: demanding/information// responding to]
sponding to]

3
[1](44)
phoricity exophora en-
dophora reference
Martin[1](98- 127) Halliday Hasan phoricity
re-
trieval network
5
Halliday Hasan
[6]

exophora exophoric reference


4 1

Halliday[3]

24 4 Martin 99

4 Halliday Hasan [6](33)

5 [1](126)
Martin
reference

2 it chains Hasan
identity chains
1John hadn
t seen a beagle
- - Who?
- - My husband, John.
Anyway, so he went and looked at one Hartford
2The boy put his hat and coat on; it was black.
participant lines

There was a frog in a jar a frog


and it escaped;
it
the boy saw it was missing
and went to find it. it
In the end he found the frog in a pond. it
[1](141)
the frog

homophora
Halliday[5](314, 393) self- specifying, self- defining
Halliday Hasan[6](4)Martin
presumption[1](101)

100 2008 12

Halliday[3][1](182)Halliday
Hasan[6]
[1](171) Halliday[3] /
Halliday Hasan [6] [1](182) Halliday
additiveadversa-
tivecausaltemporal [1]
externalinternal Martin

Halliday semio-
sis
elaborationextensionenhancement
appositionclarificationad- [1](178- 180)

ditionadversativevariationspa-
tio- temporal manner -
causal- conditionalmatter
expository [1](234)

Martin Halliday 1985 Rhetorical Structure Theory
[1] Halliday Hasan[6]
additive comparative temporal nucleus
consequential satellite a- c
Martin / 6 Martin
/
[1](178)
7
[1](252)
a. Peter Moskowitz has been with KUGB longer than any other staff member.
b. He volunteered to work at the station as a classical music announcer.
c. That was in 1970.
[a- c]

6 7

Halliday Hasan
Martin

Halliday


i.
ii.

William Mann, Sandra Thompson, Christian Matthiessen 80


24 4 Martin 101

iii. [1](292) [1](293)


taxonomies
subclassification
superordination /

i.
-- / composition

ii.
+ + -
classification

contrast

- similarity

iii.
- - collective constitution

8 [1](294,307)
consistency Martin [1](317) Halliday[3]elaboration
configurations
nuclear extensionenhancement
configurations

+
+

= + +
take shot shoot deer shoot field
(take a shot) (shoot the deer) (shoot in the field)

= +
parking lot new car car park
(a parking lot) (a new car) (the car in the park)

= +
shoot up try shoot shoot carefully
(shoot up) (try to shoot) (shoot carefully)


Martin + + relational clauses

superordination
Martin sense

Martin consistency [It] has to do with the meaningcomposed/consists in/be made up ofand relates material to the object it constitutes[1](306)

102 2008 12

9 [1](320)
expectancy




+ ab
+
+ aWater may soak into the ground after rains and
+ dissolve mineral salts in the usual way, but as the
+ surface dries out, this water is drawn upwards
+ like moisture rising through blotting paper. The
+ salts then accumulate in the surface soil as this
+ [1](321)
moisture evaporates; thus desert soils are often
Martin rich in mineral salts, particularly calcium,

implication sodium and potassium. [1](323)


24 4 Martin 103


bi. If water soaks into the ground
ii. then it will dissolve mineral salts.
iii. If it does, then if the surface dries out
iv. then the water is drawn upwards. Halliday
v. If it isthen if the water evaporates
vi. then salts accumulate in the surface soil. [1](324)
Martin

Martin
gun

Uptightpolice kill man in raid


Superintendent Harding: A struggle took place and
the officer was reacting to keep the peace and stop himself
Martin or other being hurt. The gun then discharged.
[1](488)

transitivity roles
ThemeNewSubject
Martin


cohesive
harmonymethod of development Martin register
pointmodal responsibility genre
ideology
Hasan Halliday
Martin
field of
discourse tenor of discourse mode of

discourse

Hasan

Danes
hyper- Theme
Martin
contextual configuration parent praising child in

[1](437)
speech employer blaming employee in writing[7](55- 56)
Martin Halliday Hasan
macro- Theme




Martin

[8]the tenor of something is the general meaning or


mood that it expresses tenor

Halliday tenor the role relationships among the participants mood

tenor mood

key

tenor

104 2008 12



[1](502- 506)
2003 Rose
Martin


1 Martin, J. R. English Text: System and Structure. Amster-

dam: Benjamins, 1992.


2 Martin, J. R. & Rose, D. Working with Discourse: Meaning

Beyond the Clause. London: Continuum, 2003.


3 Halliday, M. A. K. An Introduction to Functional Grammar
(1st edn.) . London: Arnold, 1985.
4 Halliday, M. A. K. Systemic grammar and the concept of a
science of language. Reprinted in On Language and Lin
guistics. London: Continuum, 20031992.
5 Halliday, M.A.K. An Introduction to Functional Grammar
(2nd edn.) . London: Arnold, 1994.
6 Halliday, M. A. K. & Hasan, R. Cohesion in English. Lon-
don: Longman, 1976.
7 Halliday, M.A.K. & Hasan, R. Language, Context and Text
. Victoria: Deakin University Press, 1985/1989.
8 . [J]. , 1997,
(1).

10 [1](496)

Martin 1992

Martins Discourse Semantics

JIANG Wang-qi
School of Foreign Languages Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
Abstract: This paper discusses Martins (1992) discourse semantics. The author begins with a briefing of Martins education, the
meaning of the term discourse semanticsas used by Martin, and the reasons why he proposes this theory, i.e. the triple
articulation of language. Then there are discussions on the similarities and differences between grammatical structures and
discourse structures, and the four discourse systems of negotiation, identification, conjunction and ideation in detail in particular.
Lastlythe author talks about the interplay between lexicogrammar and discourse semantics, and notions like context, genre and
ideology.
Key words: discourse semantics; discourse structure; discourse system