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Abatayo, Ariane Lizette B.

Bautista, Kharolina Mae A.


Creus, Blesse Mae B.
Duallo, Via G.

1. Introduction

1.1 Objectives
To design a cascading circuit.
To be able to evaluate and compare the voltage and current measurements
through manual calculation, simulation and experimentation.

1.2 Equipments & Materials


1.2.1 Simulation: Computer with a Multisim Software
1.2.2 Experiment:
a.) Equipments: Breadboard, Multitester
b.) Components: Two (2) IC 741, 10k and 1k resistors, battery

2. Methodology
2.1 Calculation
As shown in Figure 1 below, the circuit in the smaller box can be denoted as the voltage
follower, while the other as a non-inverting circuit. Since a voltage followers output will be the
same as the value from its input, therefore output will be 9V. This 9V then is connected to the
non-inverting input of the other circuit, therefore, the voltage on the inverting input will also
have 9V. To get the current io, we simply used ohms law. Finally, to obtain the value of the
output voltage, we equated current on R1 and R2 (connected in series), since there is no
current passing through the inverting input of the non-inverting circuit.

Io = 9-0 / 10000
Io = 0.9mA

IR1=IR2
Vo-9 / 1000 = 0.9mA
Vo = 0.9mA (1000) + 9
Vo = 9.9V

Figure 1
2.2 SIMULATION

The figure at the right confirms the


calculated values in 2.1. The acquired
values for Vo and io were 9.902V and
0.9mV, respectively.

Figure 2

2.3 EXPERIMENT
In the experiment we
conducted, there is however a
large gap between the
experiment and calculated
output voltage values. We got
approximately 7.9V, which is
88% accurate to the exact
amount. The amount we
expected to gather should be
9.9V. Human errors may
perhaps occur, or the Multi-
tester is not accurate to use.
RESULTS: Table 1

VO VO VO VO/Vi VO/Vi VO/Vi


VI
(Calculated) (Simulated) (Experiment) (Calculated) (Simulated) (Experiment)

9 9.9 9.902 7.9 1.1 1.1002 0.9


8 8.8 8.802 1.1 1.1003
7 7.7 7.702 1.1 1.1003
6 6.6 6.602 1.1 1.1003
5 5.5 5.502 1.1 1.1004
4 4.4 4.402 1.1 1.1005
3 3.3 3.302 1.1 1.1007
2 2.2 2.202 1.1 1.101
1 1.1 1.102 1.1 1.102
-1 -1.1 -1.098 1.1 1.098
-2 -2.2 -2.197 1.1 1.099
-3 -3.3 -3.297 1.1 1.099
-4 -4.4 -4.397 1.1 1.099
-5 -5.5 -5.497 1.1 1.099
-6 -6.6 -6.597 1.1 1.0995
-7 -7.7 -7.697 1.1 1.0996
-8 -8.8 -8.797 1.1 1.0996
-9 -9.9 -9.897 1.1 1.0997
Table 2

I2(U2)
IO (mA) IO IO I1(U1) I2(U1) I1(U2)
VI
(Calculated) (Simulated) (Experiment) (Calculated) (Simulated) (Calculated) (Simulated)

9 0.9 0.9 0.7 0 0 0 0


8 0.8 0.8 0 0 0 0
7 0.7 0.7 0 0 0 0
6 0.6 0.6 0 0 0 0
5 0.5 0.5 0 0 0 0
4 0.4 0.4 0 0 0 0
3 0.3 0.3 0 0 0 0
2 0.2 0.2 0 0 0 0
1 0.1 0.1 0 0 0 0
-1 -0.1 -0.1 0 0 0 0
-2 -0.2 -0.2 0 0 0 0
-3 -0.3 -0.3 0 0 0 0
-4 -0.4 -0.4 0 0 0 0
-5 -0.5 -0.5 0 0 0 0
-6 -0.6 -0.6 0 0 0 0
-7 -0.7 -0.7 0 0 0 0
-8 -0.8 -0.8 0 0 0 0
-9 -0.9 -0.9 0 0 0 0
With the ammeters connected on the
inverting and non-inverting inputs of the two
741 op amps, this simulation shows that
there is zero or no current passing through
the inputs; this verifies one of the op amps
features. This is due to the infinite input
resistance.

3. Discussions
From the Table 1 and 2 above, the calculation and simulation of Vo and io nearly have the
same values compared to the experimental value. This is because we cannot assure that the
breadboard connects properly all the components. And another factor of inaccuracy is caused by the
multitester being used or simple human errors.

4. Conclusion
It can be concluded that the simulation and calculation are both reliable than that of the
experimental values. As we work along on cascaded op amp, we learned that it is possible to connect
two or more operational amplifier circuits to provide greater gain. Lastly, we had confirmed the idea
from the book that op amp circuits can be cascaded without changing the input-output relationships.