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5 = 2+3

= equals sign equality

5 is equal to 2+3

54

not equal sign inequality

5 is not equal to 4

sin(0.01) 0.01,

approximately

approximation x y means x is approximately

equal

equal to y

5>4

> strict inequality greater than

5 is greater than 4

4<5

< strict inequality less than

4 is less than 5

5 4,

inequality greater than or equal to x y means x is greater than or

equal to y

4 5,

inequality less than or equal to x y means x is less than or equal

to y

calculate expression inside

() parentheses 2 (3+5) = 16

first

calculate expression inside

[] brackets [(1+2)(1+5)] = 18

first

+ plus sign addition 1+1=2

minus sign subtraction 21=1

both plus and minus

plus - minus 3 5 = 8 and -2

operations

both minus and plus

minus - plus 3 5 = -2 and 8

operations

* asterisk multiplication 2*3=6

times sign multiplication 23=6

multiplication dot multiplication 23=6

division sign /

division 62=3

obelus

/ division slash division 6/2=3

horizontal line division / fraction

mod modulo remainder calculation 7 mod 2 = 1

decimal point, decimal

. period 2.56 = 2+56/100

separator

ab power exponent 23 = 8

a^b caret exponent 2 ^ 3= 8

a square root a a = a 9 = 3

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example

3

a cube root 3

a 3a 3a = a 3

8 = 2

4

a fourth root 4

a 4a 4a 4a = a 4

16 = 2

n

a n-th root (radical) for n=3, n8 = 2

% percent 1% = 1/100 10% 30 = 3

per-mille 1 = 1/1000 = 0.1% 10 30 = 0.3

ppm per-million 1ppm = 1/1000000 10ppm 30 = 0.0003

ppb per-billion 1ppb = 1/1000000000 10ppb 30 = 310-7

ppt per-trillion 1ppt = 10-12 10ppt 30 = 310-10

Geometry symbols

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example

angle formed by two rays ABC = 30

measured angle ABC = 30

spherical angle AOB = 30

right angle = 90 = 90

degree 1 turn = 360 = 60

deg degree 1 turn = 360deg = 60deg

prime arcminute, 1 = 60 = 6059

double prime arcsecond, 1 = 60 = 605959

ray line that start from point A

perpendicular perpendicular lines (90 angle) AC BC

|| parallel parallel lines AB | | CD

congruent to equivalence of geometric shapes and size ABC XYZ

~ similarity same shapes, not same size ABC~ XYZ

triangle triangle shape ABC BCD

|x-y| distance distance between points x and y | x-y | = 5

= 3.141592654...

pi constant c = d = 2r

is the ratio between the circumference and diameter of a circle

rad radians radians angle unit 360 = 2 rad

c

radians radians angle unit 360 = 2 c

grad gradians / gons grads angle unit 360 = 400 grad

g

gradians / gons grads angle unit 360 = 400 g

Algebra symbols

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example

x x variable unknown value to find when 2x = 4, then x = 2

equivalence identical to

equal by definition equal by definition

:= equal by definition equal by definition

~ approximately equal weak approximation 11 ~ 10

approximately equal approximation sin(0.01) 0.01

proportional to proportional to y x when y = kx, k constant

lemniscate infinity symbol

much less than much less than 1 1000000

much greater than much greater than 1000000 1

calculate expression

() parentheses 2 * (3+5) = 16

inside first

calculate expression

[] brackets [(1+2)*(1+5)] = 18

inside first

{} braces set

rounds number to lower

x floor brackets 4.3 = 4

integer

rounds number to upper

x ceiling brackets 4.3 = 5

integer

x! exclamation mark factorial 4! = 1*2*3*4 = 24

|x| single vertical bar absolute value | -5 | = 5

f (x) function of x maps values of x to f(x) f (x) = 3x+5

f (x)=3x,g(x)=x-1 (f

(f g) function composition (f g) (x) = f (g(x))

g)(x)=3(x-1)

(a,b) open interval (a,b) = {x | a < x < b} x (2,6)

[a,b] closed interval [a,b] = {x | a x b} x [2,6]

delta change / difference t = t1 - t0

discriminant = b2 - 4ac

summation - sum of all

sigma xi= x1+x2+...+xn

values in range of series

capital pi xi=x1x2...xn

values in range of series

e constant / Euler's

e e = 2.718281828... e = lim (1+1/x)x , x

number

Euler-

= 0.527721566...

Mascheroni constant

golden ratio golden ratio constant

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example

= 3.141592654...

pi constant is the ratio between the c = d = 2r

circumference and diameter of a

circle

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example

dot scalar product ab

cross vector product ab

AB tensor product tensor product of A and B A B

inner product

[] brackets matrix of numbers

() parentheses matrix of numbers

|A| determinant determinant of matrix A

det(A) determinant determinant of matrix A

|| x || double vertical bars norm

A T

transpose matrix transpose (AT)ij = (A)ji

A Hermitian matrix matrix conjugate transpose (A)ij = (A)ji

A* Hermitian matrix matrix conjugate transpose (A*)ij = (A)ji

A -1 inverse matrix A A-1 = I

rank(A) matrix rank rank of matrix A rank(A) = 3

dim(U) dimension dimension of matrix A rank(U) = 3

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example

P(A) probability function probability of event A P(A) = 0.5

probability of probability that of events A

P(A B) P(AB) = 0.5

events intersection and B

probability of probability that of events A

P(A B) P(AB) = 0.5

events union or B

conditional probability of event A

P(A | B) P(A | B) = 0.3

probability function given event B occured

probability density

f (x) P(a x b) = f (x) dx

function (pdf)

cumulative

F(x) distribution F(x) = P(X x)

function (cdf)

population mean mean of population values = 10

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example

expected value of random

E(X) expectation value E(X) = 10

variable X

conditional expected value of random

E(X | Y) E(X | Y=2) = 5

expectation variable X given Y

variance of random

var(X) variance var(X) = 4

variable X

variance of population

2 variance 2 = 4

values

standard deviation of

std(X) standard deviation std(X) = 2

random variable X

standard deviation value of

X standard deviation X = 2

random variable X

middle value of random

median

variable x

covariance of random

cov(X,Y) covariance cov(X,Y) = 4

variables X and Y

correlation of random

corr(X,Y) correlation corr(X,Y) = 0.6

variables X and Y

correlation of random

X,Y correlation X,Y = 0.6

variables X and Y

summation - sum of all

summation

values in range of series

Mo mode

frequently in population

MR mid-range MR = (xmax+xmin)/2

half the population is below

Md sample median

this value

25% of population are

Q1 lower / first quartile

below this value

50% of population are

median / second

Q2 below this value = median

quartile

of samples

upper / third 75% of population are

Q3

quartile below this value

x sample mean average / arithmetic mean x = (2+5+9) / 3 = 5.333

population samples

s2 sample variance s2 = 4

variance estimator

population samples

sample standard

s standard deviation s=2

deviation

estimator

zx standard score zx = (x-x) / sx

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example

distribution of random

X~ distribution of X X ~ N(0,3)

variable X

N(,2) normal distribution gaussian distribution X ~ N(0,3)

uniform equal probability in range

U(a,b) X ~ U(0,3)

distribution a,b

exponential

exp() f (x) = e-x , x0

distribution

gamma(c,

gamma distribution f (x) = c xc-1e-x / (c), x0

)

chi-square f (x) = xk/2-1e-x/2 / ( 2k/2

2(k)

distribution (k/2) )

F (k1, k2) F distribution

binomial

Bin(n,p) f (k) = nCk pk(1-p)n-k

distribution

Poisson() Poisson distribution f (k) = ke- / k!

geometric

Geom(p) f (k) = p(1-p) k

distribution

hyper-geometric

HG(N,K,n)

distribution

Bernoulli

Bern(p)

distribution

Combinatorics Symbols

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example

n! factorial n! = 123...n 5! = 12345 = 120

n Ck

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example

A = {3,7,9,14},

{} set a collection of elements

B = {9,14,28}

objects that belong to set A and

A B intersection A B = {9,14}

set B

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example

objects that belong to set A or set AB=

AB union

B {3,7,9,14,28}

A is a subset of B. set A is {9,14,28}

AB subset

included in set B. {9,14,28}

A is a subset of B, but A is not {9,14}

AB proper subset / strict subset

equal to B. {9,14,28}

{9,66}

AB not subset set A is not a subset of set B

{9,14,28}

A is a superset of B. set A {9,14,28}

AB superset

includes set B {9,14,28}

A is a superset of B, but B is not {9,14,28}

AB proper superset / strict superset

equal to A. {9,14}

{9,14,28}

AB not superset set A is not a superset of set B

{9,66}

2A power set all subsets of A

power set all subsets of A

A={3,9,14},

A=B equality both sets have the same members B={3,9,14},

A=B

all the objects that do not belong

Ac complement

to set A

A = {3,9,14},

objects that belong to A and not

A\B relative complement B = {1,2,3},

to B

A-B = {9,14}

A = {3,9,14},

objects that belong to A and not

A-B relative complement B = {1,2,3},

to B

A-B = {9,14}

A = {3,9,14},

objects that belong to A or B but B = {1,2,3},

A B symmetric difference

not to their intersection AB=

{1,2,9,14}

A = {3,9,14},

objects that belong to A or B but B = {1,2,3},

A B symmetric difference

not to their intersection AB=

{1,2,9,14}

A={3,9,14}, 3

aA element of set membership

A

A={3,9,14}, 1

xA not element of no set membership

A

(a,b) ordered pair collection of 2 elements

set of all ordered pairs from A

AB cartesian product

and B

A={3,9,14},

|A| cardinality the number of elements of set A

|A|=3

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example

A={3,9,14},

#A cardinality the number of elements of set A

#A=3

infinite cardinality of natural

aleph-null

numbers set

cardinality of countable ordinal

aleph-one

numbers set

empty set ={} C = {}

universal set set of all possible values

natural numbers / whole

0 0 = {0,1,2,3,4,...} 0 0

numbers set (with zero)

natural numbers / whole

1 1 = {1,2,3,4,5,...} 6 1

numbers set (without zero)

integer numbers set = {...-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,...} -6

rational numbers set = {x | x=a/b, a,b } 2/6

real numbers set = {x | - < x <} 6.343434

6+2i

<b<}

Logic symbols

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example

and and xy

^ caret / circumflex and x^y

& ampersand and x&y

+ plus or x+y

reversed caret or xy

| vertical line or x|y

x' single quote not - negation x'

x bar not - negation x

not not - negation x

! exclamation mark not - negation !x

circled plus / oplus exclusive or - xor xy

~ tilde negation ~x

implies

equivalent if and only if (iff)

equivalent if and only if (iff)

for all

there exists

there does not exists

therefore

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example

because / since

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example

limit limit value of a function

represents a very small number,

epsilon 0

near zero

e constant / Euler's e = lim (1+1/x)x ,

e e = 2.718281828...

number x

y' derivative derivative - Lagrange's notation (3x3)' = 9x2

y '' second derivative derivative of derivative (3x3)'' = 18x

y(n) nth derivative n times derivation (3x3)(3) = 18

time derivative

notation

time second derivative derivative of derivative

Dx y derivative derivative - Euler's notation

Dx2y second derivative derivative of derivative

integration of function of 2

double integral f(x,y)dxdy

variables

integration of function of 3

triple integral f(x,y,z)dxdydz

variables

closed contour / line

integral

closed surface integral

closed volume integral

[a,b] closed interval [a,b] = {x | a x b}

(a,b) open interval (a,b) = {x | a < x < b}

i imaginary unit i -1 z = 3 + 2i

z* complex conjugate z = a+bi z*=a-bi z* = 3 - 2i

z complex conjugate z = a+bi z = a-bi z = 3 - 2i

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example

nabla / del gradient / divergence operator f (x,y,z)

vector

unit vector

x*y convolution y(t) = x(t) * h(t)

Laplace transform F(s) = {f (t)}

Fourier transform X() = {f (t)}

delta function

lemniscate infinity symbol

Numeral symbols

Name European Roman Hindu Arabic Hebrew

zero 0

one 1 I

two 2 II

three 3 III

four 4 IV

five 5 V

six 6 VI

seven 7 VII

eight 8 VIII

nine 9 IX

ten 10 X

eleven 11 XI

twelve 12 XII

thirteen 13 XIII

fourteen 14 XIV

fifteen 15 XV

sixteen 16 XVI

seventeen 17 XVII

eighteen 18 XVIII

nineteen 19 XIX

twenty 20 XX

thirty 30 XXX

forty 40 XL

fifty 50 L

sixty 60 LX

seventy 70 LXX

eighty 80 LXXX

Name European Roman Hindu Arabic Hebrew

ninety 90 XC

one hundred 100 C

Upper Case Lower Case Greek Letter English Letter Name

Letter Letter Name Equivalent Pronounce

Alpha a al-fa

Beta b be-ta

Gamma g ga-ma

Delta d del-ta

Epsilon e ep-si-lon

Zeta z ze-ta

Eta h eh-ta

Theta th te-ta

Iota i io-ta

Kappa k ka-pa

Lambda l lam-da

Mu m m-yoo

Nu n noo

Xi x x-ee

Omicron o o-mee-c-ron

Pi p pa-yee

Rho r row

Sigma s sig-ma

Tau t ta-oo

Upsilon u oo-psi-lon

Phi ph f-ee

Chi ch kh-ee

Psi ps p-see

Omega o o-me-ga

Roman numerals

Number Roman numeral

0 not defined

1 I

2 II

3 III

4 IV

Number Roman numeral

5 V

6 VI

7 VII

8 VIII

9 IX

10 X

11 XI

12 XII

13 XIII

14 XIV

15 XV

16 XVI

17 XVII

18 XVIII

19 XIX

20 XX

30 XXX

40 XL

50 L

60 LX

70 LXX

80 LXXX

90 XC

100 C

200 CC

300 CCC

400 CD

500 D

600 DC

700 DCC

800 DCCC

900 CM

1000 M

5000 V

10000 X

50000 L

100000 C

500000 D

1000000 M

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