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2013 5 No.

52013
182 Journal of Fujian Normal University Philosophy and Social Sciences Edition GeneralNo. 182




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44 2013





1 faculty 2 3
Croft Cruse2004 1

figure ground

1 The bike is in front of the building



2 The bottle is half full empty

1 the bike the building
2 the bottle the bottle
half full full empty half full
half empty

( )
1
2 3 4 5


Lakoff

Our relationship is at a dead end

3 Love is a journey


Lakoff Johnson 1980 Life is a jour-


ney Argument is war Lakoff Johnson 1980

1
2

Ning Yu 2011

Ning Yu 2011
5 45


Ning Yu
Beijing Olympic Games are a stage




A Performing Event A Sporting Event

An International Stage An International Event of Competition

The Theater The Sports Venues and Supporting Facilities

Performing a Show Hosting the Event

Performers People of the Host City and Nation

Action in Performance Activity in Organization

Audience People of the World excluding the host nation

Complex meta-
phorCM Primary metaphorPM
Ning Yu Hosting Beijing Olympics is performing Bei-
jing opera on an international stage CM
a. Beijing Olympics is an international event in life P

b. Beijing opera is a show on a stage P

c. Hosting an international event in life is performing a show on an international stage CM

d. Actions are self propelled movements PM

e. An event in life is a show on a stage CM

f. An event is a show CM

g. An event is a series of changes of states P

h. A show is a series of movements P

i. Changes of states are movements PM

j. Life is a stage CM
46 2013


k. Life is a state P

l. A stage is a location P

m. A state is a location PM



1 conventional
2 3
4


messy
Gibbs
2010
Gibbs 2010 1
2 3 4









hetoric 1410
hetoric 1412



Poetics 1459




hetoric 1410

LowG. Z ToddA Deignan and L Cameron ( eds. ) 2010 esearching and applying metaphor in the real world: Introduction
Gibbs: 2010in LowG. Z ToddA Deignan and L Cameron ( eds. )
5 47

Comparison Theory
Substitution Theory

30 I A ichards Philosophy of hetoric





intercourse transaction











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1932


: : 2007 726
48 2013

2012 11
2012
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Searle 1979

Searle word or sentence meaning speaker's


utterance meaning Searle

Searle


Searle 1
2 3
Searle

Sperber Wilson 1995





Sperber Wilson

: : 2001 2
: 2012 2013 1
LevinsonS 1983 Pragmatics Cambridge University Press
5 49

1 Aristotle l954 hetoric and Poetics The Modern LibraryNew York


2 BlackM 1962 Models and Metaphors Cornell University Press
3 BrownG YuleG 1983 Discourse Analysis Cambridge University Press
4 CroftW D A Cruse 2004 Cognitive Linguistics Cambridge University Press
5 Gibbs 2010 The wonderfulchaoticcreativeheroicchallenging world of researching and applying metaphor
A celebration of the past and some peeks into the future In L Cameron Ed esearching and Applying Metaphor in
the eal World Amsterdam John Benjamins
6 LowG Z ToddA Deignan and L Cameron 2010 esearching and Applying Metaphor in the eal World John
Benjamins
7 LakoffG M Johnson 1980 Metaphors we live by University of Chicago Press
8 LevinsonS 1983 Pragmatics Cambridge University Press
9 YuN 2011 Beijing Olympics and Beijing Opera a multi modal metaphor of CCTV Olympic Commercial Cognitive
50 2013

Linguistics 22 3 2011 595 628


10 OrtonyA ed 1979 Metaphor and thought Cambridge University Press
11 ichardsA 1965 The Philosophy of hetoric New York Oxford University Press
12 icoeurP 1977 The ule of Metaphor outledge Kegan Paul
13 SearleJ 1979 Metaphor In Ortony A ed
14 SperberD D Wilson 1995 elevance Communication and cognition 2nd ed Blackwell
15 2012
2013 1
16 1974
17
18 2001
19 2008
20 1996 1
21 1996 2
22 2007

Cognitive Linguisticshetoric and Pragmatics and The Study of Metaphor

SHU Ding-fang
Shanghai International Studies UniversityShanghai 200083China

Abstract Metaphor has been a very important topic in cognitive linguisticsrhetoric and pragmatics
Howevermetaphor has been approached in different ways and credited with different theoretical values in
these disciplines Cognitive linguists are interested in trying to reveal the interrelationship between language
and other cognitive faculties through metaphorparticularly the effect of cognition on linguistic structures and
usage hetoric studies metaphor in order to find out how it can be used to enhance the effectiveness of lin-
guistics communicationwhile pragmatics aims to explain how non literal or actual meaning can be derived
from literal meaning in context The author points out that in these three different disciplinesmetaphor is
studied for the purpose of achieving the overall theoretical objectives of the respective disciplineshence the
different focus and methodology used The author believes that each of the three disciplines could learn from
the other two and make its own contribution to a more comprehensive theory of language
Key words Metaphorcognitive linguisticsrhetoricpragmatics