You are on page 1of 6

2008 5 M ay 2008

31 3 Journal of Fore ign Languages V o.l31 N o. 3


: 1004- 5139( 2008) 03- 0078- 06 : H059 : A


,
( , 100089)

: ,
, ,
, ,
/0 / 0
, ,
: ; ; ;

Translation Stud ies from the Perspective


of Com putationa l L inguistics
WANG J in-quan, WANG K e-fei
( Nationa l Research Cen te r for Fo re ign Language Educa tion,
Be ijing Fore ign S tud ies Un iversity, Be ijing 100089, Ch ina)

Abstrac tB This article, focusing on language form and language meaning, introduces the theor ies and methodo log ies o f computa-
tional linguistics into translation studies. In term s o f language form, w ith the help of the statistics extracted from the tex ts, resear-
ches can be done on both superfic ial formal features and deep syntactic features of the para llel texts. In terms of language mean ing,
semantic sm
i ilar ities can be computed w ith the he lp of LSA, the result ofwhich bears a very great significance for the judgm ent of
formal and semantic sm
i ilarities betw een multiple target texts or between source texts and target texts.
K ey word sB translation stud ies; com puta tiona l linguistics; m eaning; form

1. ( ALPAC )
( com pu tational lingu ist ics) ,
/ 0 ( sem ant ic barrier)
[ 1: 2] ,
: / ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
0 , ,
, 20 ,
50

* , ,

78
2
,


,

72 37 24 24 18 15 13 12 10 9
2.
,
the and be of I a to in w ith my
/

59 41 41 40 34 33 29 20 20 17
, 0 [ 2:
181 ]
[ 3: 12] : 1 2
/ , , W ordSm ith 4. 0 5 6
0 [ 4: 5] ,
, ,
( ICTCLAS ) ,
, 1 ,
, ,
,
ICTCLA S 5 6
2. 1 , 5 6
2. 1. 1 65, 7805 ,
114, 0020, 73% ,
, ( tok en ) 85, 7338,
( typ e) ( stand- 30% [ 6 ]
ard ized type-tok en rat io)
5 6 ,
( [ 5 ] 5
6 )
, ,
1
, ,
/ ,
,
832 1056
,
393 439 ,
,
47. 236 41. 572
,
41 51
2
20. 29 20. 71
10

79
, ger) Brill
, , T agger, CLAW S ( Con stituen t L ikelihood Au toma-
t
, ic W ord-tagging System ) CLAW S
, 20 80
, CLAW S
, 97% , ( Brit ish
: 1 ) N ation al Corpus) CLAW S
,
, ( ICTCLAS )
/ 0 ( / NEUCSP
0/ 0 ) ,
( m y I 5 6
), NEU CSP ,
of( roof of th e hou se) CLAW S
; 2 ) / 0
/ 0/ 0 , ,
; 3 )
( d eterm in er)
( th e, a, m y ) :
; 4 ) 1 a. : ,
, ,
/ 0 ( / , , 0/ , , 0/ , , 1b. : / r / d
0/ , , 0 ) , /v , /wp / d /n t /d / d /v
; / r / u , /wp / c / v /d / v / r
5 ) ( referen ce) /p /n / v / a /n /wp
, 2 a. : It occu rred to me that I d id n ot
, / 0 seem to have seen h m
i for days, but rem embered
, / it0 hav ing once m et h m
i in the back yard collecting
1 4 d ry bamboo stick s and tw igs.
2 b. : It _PPH 1 oc-
cu rred_VVD to _ II m e_PP IO 1 that_CST I_PPIS1
2. 1. 2 d id_VDD not_XX seem _VV I to _TO h ave _VH I
, seen _VVN h m
i _PPHO 1 for_ IF days_NNT2 , _,
, bu t_CCB rem embered _VVD having_VHG once _
RR m et_VVN h m
i _PPHO 1 in _ II the_AT back _
, , NN 1 yard _NN1 collecting _VVG dry _ JJ bamboo _
NN 1 sticks_NN2 and_CC tw igs_NN 2 . _.

W ord-
( POS T ag- Sm ith 4. 0 , 3:

80
3

V ( U ( N ( D ( R ( A ( C ( P( NT ( M (

) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

191 129 114 99 87 53 25 22 20 14

A PPGE D
N ( I ( V ( P ( AT ( C ( J ( R (
( (
) ) ) ) ) ) ) )
) )

186 141 136 101 94 67 62 38 26 21

, , of), 50 18 , 3
, ,
: , (
3. )
an en tang lem ent of dark- gray bare b ranches 2. 2
aga inst a sunny sk y
, :
4. ,
h is t iny mouth open in a gape, watch ing upward : IBM BLEU ( B ilingual Eva-
l
, 25, uation U nderstudy) , N IST
67 CLAW S , 7 ( N ation al Institu te of S tandard s and Techno logy)
, 5, : CC N ( N -
( ) 45CST ( that) 9CS ( gram ) , N
) 6CCB( ) 5CSA (
,
as) 2 BLEU 4 ( 4 - gram )

, 4

BLEU
[ 7: 71] [ 8: 307 ] /
[ 9: 311- 318 ]:
- ., N
Bleu = BP * exp ( E w n logP n )
- . 0 n= 1

( U n igram ) , BP ( Brevity Pena lty) ; W n


( B igram ) Pn N
( T rigram )
, N IST BLEU
: D ( ) + V ( ) ,
D( ) + D ( ) + V ( ), 41 N -
12; gram ,
: AT ( ) + NN 1 ( ( overlap ),
) AT ( ) + NN 1( ) + IO ( ,

81
, , ,
, , ,
( synonym y) LSA
( po lysemy ) , , LSA
, 0 1 ,

,
0 1
, 1, ,
0, 150
( In forma- , 30 ,
t ion Retriva l) / 0 ( Laten t Se- 5
m an t ic A nalysis, LSA ) 7. :

, The national interest lies in all the nation. s
resources being pu t to themost advantageous
, use possib le.
T he excess land wasm ost ly so ld to ex isting
, , tenan ts.
, U s ing all th e nation. s resou rces as advan-
( matrix), tageous as poss ib le represen ts the nation al
, M ann ing [ 10: in terest.
344 ] : / Ou r national in terest was b est served by
, remov ing th e S add am regm
i e, given th at
, we were prep ared to ded icate th e t m
i e and
, resou rces to post-war Iraq.
, T he national interest con sists in pu tting all
0 the nation. s resources to the m ost advan-
( weight ing) ( singu lar value d e- tageou s u se.
composit ion ) ,
, , Laham ( SVD ),
[ 11 ], Landauer, Fo ltz, Laham [ 12 ], Turney [ 13 ] 0 + 1 , + 1
LSA , , 0
, LSA :
4 SVD

1 1. 598007 0. 288002 1. 438137 0. 036659

1 - 0. 02721 0. 958813 0. 132271 0. 999328

82
4, , [ 5] . [ M ]. :
, , , 2002.
, [ 6] . / [ J].

, , , 2003, ( 6) : 410- 416.


[ 7] Chesterm an, A ndrew. T he M em es of T ranslation [M ].
,
Am sterdam and Philade lphia: Benjam ins, 1997.
,
[ 8] . [ J]. ,
,
2005, ( 4): 307.
30
[ 9] P ap inen,i K. , R ouko s, S. B leu: A m ethod for
,
autom atic eva luation of m ach ine trans lation [ A ].
. 983* * ,
P roceed ing s of the 40t h A nnual M eeting of the
, A ssociation for Comp uta tional L inguistics ( ACL ).
/ 0 / 0 P hilade lphia. Ju ly 2002. 311- 318.
[ 10] M anning, C. D. , Schtze, H.
[M ]. . :, 2005.
3. [ 11] Laham, D. Latent Sem antic A nalysis A pproaches to
Ca tegor ization [ A ]. M. G. Sha fto & P. Lang ley.
, P roceedings of the 19t h A nnual Conference of the

C ogn itive Science Scociety [ C ]. H illsda le, N J:

L aw rence Er lbaum A ssoc iates, Inc, 1997.


[ 12] Landauer, T. K. , Fo ltz, P. W. , & L aham, D.
,
Introduc tion to La tent Sem antic A na lysis [ J ].

D iscourse P rocesses, 1998, 25: 259- 284.


[ 14: 37]
[ 13] T urney, P. D. M easur ing sem antic sim ila rity by
, / ( )
laten t relationa l ana lysis [ A ]. Proceed ings of the
,
N ineteen th International J oint C onf erence on
0 A r tif icia l Intelligence ( IJCA I - 05) . Edinburgh,
, , Sco tland. 2005. 1136- 1141.
[ 14] , . [ J].
, , 2006, ( 5): 37.
,
: /
: 0
[ 1] , , . ( 05BYY 013)
[M ]. : , 2003.
[ 2] . [ Z ]. : : 2007- 03- 27
, 2005. : , , ,
[ 3] . [ J] . ,
1997, ( 1): 12. :
[ 4] Be l,l R oger T. T ranslation and T ranslating: Theory , ,
and Practice [M ]. London and N ew Y ork: L ongm an, , :
1991.

83