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Dilatmetro Plano (DMT)

Fundamentos bsicos y parmetros geotcnicos

Bogot 8 de Mayo 2015 Eng. Diego Marchetti


Colombia www.marchetti-dmt.it
Lab Testing In Situ Testing: SCPT & SDMT

In situ testing: simple, fast, economical,


repeatable, provides continuous soil profile,
results real time, ..

In Sand:
recovering undisturbed samples very difficult
and in situ testing is the state-of-practice.

Caution: laboratory is the basis for research


2
Lab Testing Direct Push (CPT and DMT)
fast and convenient tools for everyday investigations

2009 Alexandria Egypt


17th Int. Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering
State-of-the-Art Lecture

Mayne et al (2009)
SCPT & SDMT for every day field testing
TOO SLOW !

2012 ISC4 Brazil


September 18-21, 4th International Conference on Geotechnical and Geophysical Site Characterization

Total 226 papers:


40 papers on SDMT, 57 references to SDMT
SDMT Equipment

DMT
(static)

Seismic
(dynamic)
DMT equipment
DMT Flat Dilatometer equipment

FLEXIBLE
MEMBRANE
(D = 60mm)

BLADE
DMT Flat Dilatometer equipment

All mechanical
NO ELECTRONICS, no zero drift, no temperature effects
Blade is like an electrical switch. Can be only OFF or ON
DMT Test Layout
pneumatic-electric cable control box
gas tank
(air, nitrogen,etc)
penetration
machine

Test Procedure
rods stop every 20 cm
P0: Lift-off pressure
blade P1: Pressure for
1.1 mm expansion

Measurements performed after penetration independent from insertion method


DMT Equipment (mechanical)
Automatic Acquisition of DMT readings
Machines for advancing the DMT and
SDMT equipment
Truck Penetrometer (most efficient)

cable exits
from rods
Light Penetrometer (most common)
Many other ways of advancing the blade

Driven by Spt tripod Pushed by drill rig Driven or pushed by


light penetrometer

Pushed by a fixed platform Driven from a barge


Driven by drill rig
SPT tripod (most economical)
SPT tripod (most economical)
SPT tripod (most economical)
Drill Rig downhole Torpedo method

TORPEDO pre-assembled before test and joined to drill rods


Cable exits from slot of adaptor and is taped to drill rods
Drill rods + torpedo inserted at bottom of borehole (then advance 20 cm)
usually 3 m long
Test starts from
bottom of the hole
Drill Rig used as a penetrometer

Drill rod

Adaptor drill
rod to push rod

Slotted Adaptor

Push rod
Field data and Interpretation of the Results
Field Data

Z P0 P1
(m) (kPa) (kPa)
0.20 220 300
0.40 210 310
0.60 305 420
0.80 310 450
1.00 285 380
1.20 290 390

Membrane Calibration
Membrane has non-zero rigidity
The natural membrane position is somewhere between A and B

A
free

Definitions:
A = external pressure which must be applied to the
membrane in free air to collapse it against its seating (i.e. A-
position)
B = internal pressure which in free air lifts the membrane
center 1.1 mm from its seating (i.e. B-position)
Membrane Calibration

Use syringe and short calibration cable for performing calibration


Dilatometer Test Sequence

Audio signal: ON OFF ON (OFF) ON


Readings: A (P0) B (P1) C (P2)
DMT Intermediate parameters

DMT Field Readings Corrected DMT readings

A P0: Corrected first reading

B P1: Corrected second reading

C P2: Corrected C-reading


DMT Intermediate parameters

DMT Corrected Readings Intermediate Parameters

P0 Id: Material Index

Kd: Horizontal Stress Index


P1
Ed: Dilatometer Modulus

P2 Ud: Pore Pressure Index


DMT Formulae Interpreted parameters

Intermediate
Interpreted Geotechnical Parameters
Parameters

M: Constrained Modulus
Id
Cu: Undrained Shear Strength

Ed Ko: Earth Pressure Coeff (clay)

OCR: Overconsolidation ratio (clay)


Kd
: Safe floor friction angle (sand)

Ud : Unit weight and description

U : Pore water pressure (sand)


ID contains information on soil type

Performing DMT, immediately notice that:

CLAY SAND
p p
p0 p1 p0 p1

SILT falls in between

(p1 - p0)
ID =
(p0 - u0)
ID contains information on soil type

SAND

CLAY
KD contains information on stress history

Definition of KD similar to K0:


D
M (p0 - u0)
T KD =
v

p0 KD is an amplified K0, because (p0 - u0)


is an amplified h, due to penetration

Very roughly Kd 4 Ko
E.g. in NC : Ko 0.5 and Kd 2

KD reflects stress history (OCR)


KD contains information on stress history

NC Kd
KD = 2 in NC clay (OCR = 1)
Depth Z

OC
KD > 2 in OC clay (OCR > 1)

2
KD contains information on stress history

NC Kd 2

OC Kd > 2

Taranto 1987
KD correlated to OCR (clay)
1.56
OCR = 0.5 Kd Marchetti 1980 (experimental)

Experimental
Kamei & Iwasaki 1995
Theoretical
Finno 1993

Theoretical
Yu 2004
KD correlated to K0 (clay)
Kd 0.47
K0 = 0.6 Marchetti 1980 (experimental)
1.5

Experimental Theoretical
Marchetti (1980) 2004 Yu
ED contains information on deformation

Theory of elasticity:
D ED = elastic modulus of the horizontal load test performed
M by the DMT membrane (D = 60mm, 1.1 mm expansion)
T

1.1 mm
ED = 34.7 (P1 - P0)
Gravesen S. "Elastic Semi-Infinite Medium bounded by a Rigid Wall with a Circular
Hole", Danmarks Tekniske Hjskole, No. 11, Copenhagen, 1960, p. 110.

ED not directly usable corrections


(penetration,etc)
M obtained from Ed using information on
stress history (Kd) and soil type (Id)

ID (soil type)

M
ED (DMT modulus) Constrained
Modulus

KD (stress history)
Definition of M (no ambiguity)

M = Eoed = 1/mv = 'v / v (at 'vo)

Vertical drained confined


tangent modulus (at 'vo)
Same as Eoed, traditionally
measured by oedometer
M Comparison from DMT and from Oedometer

Virginia - U.S.A. ONSOY Clay NORWAY Tokyo Bay Clay - JAPAN

Constrained Modulus M (Mpa)


Constrained Modulus M (Mpa)

Failmezger, 1999 Iwasaki K, Tsuchiya H., Sakai Y.,


Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (1986).
"In Situ Site Investigation Techniques and Yamamoto Y. (1991) "Applicability of the
interpretation for offshore practice". Marchetti Dilatometer Test to Soft
Report 40019-28 by S. Lacasse, Fig. 16a, Ground in Japan", GEOCOAST '91,
8 Sept 86 Sept. 1991, Yokohama 1/6
Cu from OCR
Ladd SHANSEP 77 (SOA TOKYO)
Ladd: best Cu measurement not from TRX UU !!
best Cu from oed OCR Shansep

Cu Cu 1.56
= OCR m OCR = 0.5 Kd
v v
OC NC

Using m 0.8 (Ladd 1977) and (Cu/v)NC 0.22 (Mesri 1975)

1.25
Cu = 0.22 v 0.5 Kd
Cu comparisons from DMT and from other tests

Recife - Brazil Skeena Ontario Canada Tokyo Bay Clay - JAPAN

Coutinho et al., Atlanta ISC'98 Mekechuk J. (1983). "DMT Use on C.N. Iwasaki K, Tsuchiya H., Sakai Y.,
Rail Line British Columbia", Yamamoto Y. (1991) "Applicability of the
First Int.Conf. on the Flat Dilatometer, Marchetti Dilatometer Test to Soft
Edmonton, Canada, Feb 83, 50 Ground in Japan", GEOCOAST '91,
Sept. 1991, Yokohama 1/6
Interpretation of Soil Description & Unit weight
SOIL DESCRIPTION
and ESTIMATED w
Modulus ED (bar)

2000
EQUATION OF THE LINES: SAND
(n+m log ID ) 5
ED =10
1000
m n
SILT SILTY
2.1 Chart for evaluating:
Dilatometer Modulus ED (bar)

SANDY
A 0.585 1.737

CLAYEY
unit weight ( 'vo profile)
B 0.621 2.013
C 0.657 2.289 2
2.1
500
D 0.694 2.564

CLAY

200
2.0
5
SILTY
1.9
5 1.9
Soil description
1.8 1.8
100
1.9 as f (ID, ED)
Dilatometer

D
1.8 1.7 1.7
50 C
1.7 1.6
B
20
1.6
A
0.33 0.8 1.2 3.3
12
MUD 10 MUD
0.6 1.8
and/or ( ) If PI>50, reduce by 0.1
1.5
PEAT
5
0.1 0.2 0.5 1 2 5

Material
MaterialIndex
Index IIDD Marchetti & Crapps 1981
C readings (in sand): pore water pressure

SAND: C Uo
u0 drainage ( piezometer)

CLAY: C > Uo
u>0
no drainage ( highlights u)

u0

Schmertmann 1988 (DMT Digest No. 10, May 1988, Fig. 3)


Example of C readings

Catania Harbour - 2012


Example of C readings

Catania Harbour - 2012


Example of C readings and UD
Dissipation test in cohesive soils
estimate coefficient consolidation & permeability
wedge vs cone (dissipation)

cone
From u(t) in
a singular
highly
disturbed
point
h (kPa)

wedge
From a mini
embankment
Larger volume
in a less
Time (min) disturbed zone
Totani et al. (1998)
Acquisition DMT Dissipation (T, A)
DMT Dissipation Interpretation (Ch, Kh)
Validation of consolidation coefficient
DMT vs. other dissipation tests

Totani et al. ISC '98 - Atlanta, Georgia (USA)


Soils testable by DMT

ALL SANDS, SILTS, CLAYS


Very soft soils (Cu = 2-4 kPa, M=0.5 MPa)
Hard soils/Soft Rock (Cu = 1 MPa, M=400 MPa)
Blade robust (safe push 25 ton)

water
semi-liquid soils
hard soils
STANDARDS
EUROCODE 7 (2007). Standard Test Method, European Committee for
Standardization, Part 3: Design Assisted by Field Testing, Section 9: Flat
Dilatometer Test (DMT), 9 pp.

ASTM (2007). Standard Test Method D6635-01, American Society for Testing
and Materials. The standard test method for performing the Flat Dilatometer
Test (DMT), 14 pp.

TC16 (1997). The DMT in soil Investigations, a report by the ISSMGE


Technical Committee tc16 on Ground Property, Characterization from in-situ
testing, 41 pp.

NATIONAL STANDARDS:
Italy: Consiglio Superiore Lavori Pubblici (2009), Protezione Civile (2008)
Sweden: Swedish Geotechnical Society SGF report (1994)
France: ISO/TS 22476-11:2005(F)
China: TB10018 (2003), GB50021 (2003), DGJ08-37 (2012)
..