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Seminar Nov 2010

Engineering Simulation
Software for the Offshore,
Marine and Wave/Tidal
Renewable Energy Industries

Structural Mechanics

Steve Varnam
Richard Mitchell
ANSYS UK
2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Agenda

ANSYS Heritage in Offshore Structural Analysis


ANSYS ASAS
Analysis of Offshore Structures in our
mainstream software
ANSYS Mechanical
Addressing the next generation of structural
analysis requirement
ANSYS Workbench
Fatigue
Composites
Optimisation
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ANSYS Offshore Solutions
- proven for Oil & Gas applications
Since 1971, AQWA & ASAS have been developed for analyzing a large
variety of oil & gas offshore structures
WS Atkins Century Dynamics ANSYS

ANSYS AQWATM
Fully Integrated Multi-body Hydrodynamic and Motion Analysis
Mooring, stability, vessel motions in regular and irregular waves
within time and frequency domain
with coupled cable dynamics
with forward speed

ANSYS ASASTM shielding cargo lowered onto vessel

Offshore Structural FE Analysis


Coupled wave/current/wind-structure interaction with
nonlinear structural response
Fatigue assessment with irregular waves and using
deterministic and spectral methods
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AQWA & ASAS Overview
- Main Application Areas
Images courtesy of Arup, Moss Maritime AS, Technip Offshore Finland and REpower Systems AG

Offshore Structures
Fixed
Steel Jackets
Concrete
Compliant
Jack-ups
Floating
FPSOs
SPARS
Semi-Submersibles
Tension Leg Platforms
Risers
Offshore Wind Turbines
Harbours
Ships
Design
Offloading
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ASAS
- Typical Applications
Offshore Wind Turbines
Some example applications

Courtesy of Fraunhofer CWMT

Jacket Structures

Tidal Turbine Structure Transportation of Spar Truss on Heavy Lift Vessel


Courtesy of Technip Offshore Finland
Courtesy of REpower Systems AG

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ANSYS ASAS
- Relevance for Offshore Renewables

For more than 30 years, (ANSYS) ASAS has been successfully used
for analyzing a large variety of offshore structures subjected to
wave, current and wind loading
More than half of all North Sea jacket structures have been designed with the
aid of ASAS

CAE requirements for Offshore Renewables are very similar:


Variety of foundations ranging from concrete gravity-based to steel jackets
Combined wave, current and wind loading incl. spectral fatigue
Variety of local joint flexibility for tubular joints
Seismic loading
Soil-pile-structure and soil-pile interaction
Range from shallow to deep water conditions
Member and Joint Code Checking (e.g., API RP2a-WSD 21st Ed.)

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ANSYS ASAS
- in a nutshell

Offshore/Marine Structural Finite Element Analysis


Coupled wave/current/wind-structure interaction with nonlinear
structural response
Linear and non-linear analysis
Comprehensive modeling capabilities for frame structures
Extensive library of Finite Elements
Multi-level superelement capability
Frequency domain or time history dynamic analysis
Fatigue assessment with irregular waves and using deterministic
and spectral methods
Seismic loading using response spectrum technique
Comprehensive Code Checking for Framed structures - AISC and
API (working stress and LRFD), NORSOK, BS5950 and DS449.

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ANSYS ASAS
- Coupled Wave-Structures

Coupled hydro-elastic analysis for tubular framed structures


Fully coupled hydrodynamic loading with non-linear analysis capability
Automatic computation of hydrodynamic damping
Regular and irregular waves
Ability to take RAO results as time history loading
Tube-in-tube contact

Wave loading for application of Morison


forces (coupled for non-linear analyses)
Calculation of added mass due to
marine growth
Hydrodynamic mass calculations
Buoyancy calculations, including
free flooding

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ANSYS ASAS
- Wind, Wave & Current Loading

Coupled wave/current/wind-structure interaction with nonlinear


structural response
Capability to handle compliant structures with regular & irregular waves
Wave theories include:
Conventional waves such as linear wave (Airy), solitary wave (Cnoidal 1st), Stokes
5th order, Stream function but also Shell New Wave (dispersive wave)
Irregular waves such as JONSWAP, Pierson-Moskovitz, user-defined
API Wave recipe
Current theories include:
API WSD 20th Ed. and LRFD 1st Ed. codes of practice!

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ANSYS ASAS
- Soil-Pile-Structure Interactions

Capabilities
Single pile or pile group analysis
Soil-pile-structure interaction with single piles or pile groups
No limit to number of piles or soil layers
Piles may have non-constant cross sections
Automatic sub-division of piles taking into account changes
in cross section, soil layers, etc.
Automatic calculation of Mindlin coefficients for group pile
analysis
Automatic generation of lateral forces (P-Y) and skin friction
(T-Z) curves
Efficient nonlinear solution for soil-pile-structure interactions
via superelement (sub-structuring) approach
Non-tubular cross sections

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ANSYS ASAS
- Code Checks

Joint Code & Member Code checks including:


AISC 10th edition working stress and 2nd edition LRFD
API RP2a-WSD 21st edition working stress
RP2A-LRFD 1st edition
BS5950 part 1 1992
NORSOK 2000
NORSOK NS3472 1984
NPD 1992
DS449 1984 (with 1994 amendments)
DS412 1984 (with 1994 amendments)
ISO 19902 implementation started

Easy-to-use code check facilities including:


Code checks on time histories
Code checks on combined load cases
Visualization of code checks
Ability to use them in combination with ANSYS calculations
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ANSYS ASAS
- Fatigue Assessments

FATJACK module offers both deterministic and spectral fatigue


capabilities
for tubular frame structures subjected to waves and current or wind including
wind gusts
can be used in frequency and time domain
sea states: JONSWAP, Pierson-Moskovitz, Occhi-Hubble, Scot-Weigel and
Shell New Wave, or user-defined wave spectra

FATJACK includes explicit SCF definitions


SCFJ if crown & saddle SCF is known e.g. from empirical formulae
SCFA if SCF is known at specific locations e.g. from FE
SCFB if SCF is constant across a section
SCFP if SCF values vary with location

Automatic (empirically derived) SCF definitions based on


Efthymiou, Wordsworth, Kuang or DS449
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ANSYS ASAS
- Fatigue Assessments

Rainflow counting fatigue


Reduces spectrum of varying stress into simple stress reversals
Allows the application of Miners rule to assess fatigue life of structure
subject to complex loading
Based on ASTM E1049-85 (2005) Standard Practices for Cycle
Counting in Fatigue Analysis

It is possible to use results from up to 1000


different transient dynamic analyses and loading
(i.e., multi-directional wave spectra)
Uses Rainflow counting method to produce stress
range histogram

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ANSYS ASAS
- Fatigue Assessments

Rainflow counting fatigue


Within the fatigue (FATJACK) module these results can be
combined using a probabilistic based Rainflow Counting
approach
Output includes:
fatigue life (based on Miners rule)
usage factors
damage per wave (history)
stress histograms
Results are stored for further processing (e.g. ASAS
Visualizer)

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ANSYS ASAS
- Wind/Wave/Current & Rotor Blade Loading

Interface to FLEX5
FLEX5 is one of a number of highly specialized
wind loading programs
thoroughly validated for wind turbines
however, limited to simple substructures
This limitation can be overcome by combining
FLEX 5 with ANSYS ASAS
Simplified substructure (in FLEX 5) can be replaced by a
realistic structural model (in ANSYS ASAS) that can
accurately model the structural behavior and wave loading

This capability was initiated, sponsored and verified by REpower


Systems AG
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ANSYS ASAS
- Wind/Wave/Current & Rotor Blade Loading
Interface to FLEX5
Allows complex substructure
modelling for offshore wind turbines
Fatigue and extreme condition design
Analysis process:
ASAS(NL) generates FLEX 5
substructure input model data.
FLEX 5 performs WT analysis
ASAS(NL) reads the FLEX 5 results and
adds wave load to extract member
forces.
ASAS performs fatigue analysis via
rain-flow counting.
It has been successfully applied for
the certification of the Beatrice wind
farm demonstrator project, and others Photo courtesy of REpower Systems AG

(e.g., 150MW Ormonde wind farm).


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ANSYS ASAS
- Wind/Wave/Current & Rotor Blade Loading
Why is this (integrated) Loading Combination Important?
Influence of Substructure on Tower Bottom Fatigue Load

Without Wave Loading


Courtesy of REpower Systems AG

Impact of substructure on tower bottom fatigue loads


140% With Waves
135% OJQ
With Wave Loading
130% CCT
125% FFT
Increase of Fatigue Loads up to 35%!
120%
115%
Global OWEC Centre
Flat Face 110%
Natural Jacket Colum
Tripod
Frequencies Quattropod Tripod 105%
f0 [Hz] 0.33 0.26 0.3 100%
95%
f1 [Hz] 1.64 1.35 0.86
90%
Shear long. Shear lat. Vertical Bending Bending Torsion
force lat. long.
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ANSYS ASAS
- Wind/Wave/Current & Rotor Blade Loading
Why is this (integrated) Loading Combination Important?

For local problems it is even more


important.
Local eigenfrequency is blade mode (flap
Courtesy of REpower Systems AG

wise direction)
Bracings in one of the lower bays are also
part of this local mode shape

The highest loading on bracings is the


out-of-plane bending moment due to
waves.

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ANSYS Mechanical FEA Suite

Founded in 1970, ANSYS have been


developing generic Mechanical FEA software
for 40 years
Originally developed for the nuclear industry,
quality was paramount in its design, now
in accordance with ISO quality controls
ANSYS FEA has the broadest range of
capabilities in the market-place, with
technologies for:
Linear & Nonlinear (geometric/material)
analyses
Static, frequency-domain & time-domain
0-D to 3-D elements
Isotropic, anistropic, layered materials
....
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ANSYS Mechanical Applications

Offshore Structures
Pipelines and Risers
Tubulars, connectors
BOPs
Pressure vessels
Seals
Hulls
Etc.

Courtesy of Delta Marine Engineering Company

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ANSYS Mechanical Solutions

ANSYS Mechanical solutions articulates the best in class CAE


products and technology for structural, thermal, acoustics
and coupled physics analysis that offers a unique class of
integrated simulation solution for the entire product
development process

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Product Offering/Target Users

Built upon robust technology offers a range of


products with a clear upgrade path from designers to
analyst.
ANSYS
Functionality/Price

Multiphysics
ANSYS
Mechanical
ANSYS
Structural
ANSYS
Professional
ANSYS
DesignSpace

Front End Mid-Range High-End

Drafting Concept Advanced Virtual


Plan Evaluate Production
CAD Simulation Analysis Prototyping

ANSYS ANSYS ANSYS ANSYS


DesignSpace Professional Structural Mechanical
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Product/Technology Description

Solver Technology

ANSYS ANSYS ANSYS ANSYS


DesignSpace Professional NLT Structural Mechanical

Linear Structural Linear Structural Linear Structural Linear Structural


Steady State Thermal Steady State Thermal Non-Linear Structural Non-Linear Structural
Transient Thermal Linear Dynamics Linear Dynamics
Linear Dynamics Nonlinear Dynamics Nonlinear Dynamics
Steady State Thermal
ANSYS Transient Thermal
Professional NLS Acoustics
Direct Coupled
Linear Structural
Steady State Thermal
Nonlinear Structural
Linear Dynamics

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Analysis Methods & Solvers
Technology Components

Elements & Materials


Contact Analysis
Nonlinear Analysis
Solver Technology

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Analysis Methods & Solvers
Elements Technology

Solid Elements Shell Elements


2D Quad/Tri Lower/Higher Order
3D Hexa/Tetra/Wedge/Pyramid Layered Shells
Layered Solids
Solid Shell

Special Elements
Rebars/Reinforcements Beam Elements
Links/Pipes/Springs Multi material beam analysis
Cohesive Zone Beam Cross Section Definition
User Elements
Gaskets
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Analysis Methods & Solvers
Materials Modeling

Material Models
Isotropic/Orthotropic Elasticity
Hyperelasticity
Plasticity
Viscoelasticity
Viscoplasticity
Creep
Hyperelastic Material
Other Models
Cast Iron Plasticity
Drucker-Prager
Shape Memory Alloy
USERMAT
Gasket Material
Concrete
Gurson Damage
Gasket Material
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Analysis Methods & Solvers
Contact Analysis

Node-Node; Node-Surface; Surface-Surface; Line-Line; Line-Surface


Small and Large Sliding
Lower and Higher order elements
Pure Penalty; Augmented Lagrange; Pure Lagrange; MPC contact
Semi-Automatic Contact Stiffness Update
Multiphysics Contact; Rigid Contact
Friction Sliding (Small/Large Deformation)
Shell/Beam Thickness Effects
Contact Manager Wizard
Automatic Assembly Contact

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Umbillical Analysis

Geometry built in
DesignModeler:
Core tubing
6 helical tubes wrapped
around core
External insulation
Loads:
Bent to 36 radius
Hydrostatic loads
End tension
Gravity

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Threaded Connector

2D Axisymmetric
model created from
parasolid model
9.3e-3 interference
Loads:
10 ksi internal
pressure
10,000 lb axial load

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Barge Analysis

Partial deck
model
Maximum
load-
spreading
reaction
applied to
patches
Deflections
are less than
0.192 in (5
mm) at any
point

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Explicit - Impact

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Explicit Explosion

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Explicit - Explosion

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Model all aspects of the design

From the topsides.....

Courtesy of Pluere

Courtesy of AKERE Energy, CA

.. ....to the drill bit


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ANSYS Workbench

Being part of the ANSYS Workbench


infrastructure opens up several
enhancements in overall process for the
structural mechanics users
Geometry
Meshing
Post-processing
Reporting
Process scripting & chaining
Automatic Project updates
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ANSYS Workbench

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ANSYS Structural Mechanics

Geometry
Direct CAD Links
Connect to real CAD models
and create true parametric
analysis
Create analysis geometry
Geometry clean-up
Simplification
Create Shell & Beam
geometry
Work with imported files
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ANSYS Structural Mechanics

Preprocessing
Materials
Linear-Elastic
Plastic
Hyper-elastic
Creep
Soils, Concrete
Damage models
Meshing
From fully automatic to highly controlled
Loads
Imported data fields
Time dependant
Complex systems
Contact
Model real assemblies
Bonded, Frictionless & Frictional contact

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ANSYS Structural Mechanics

Solving
ANSYS solver technology
evolving to keep pace
with PC developments
Multi-core
32 & 64 bit
Clusters
GPU

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ANSYS Structural Mechanics

Postprocessing
Stress, Strain, Creep,
Contact, Reactions
Linearisation
Images
Tabular data Excel
Movie files
Automated report
generation

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ANSYS Structural Mechanics

ANSYS Structural analysis

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DesignXplorer

Start with a workbench defined process


Use parameters in:
CAD
DesignModeler
SpaceClaim
Engineering data
Preprocessor
Postprocessor
Derived parameters
Define design envelope
Parameter limits
Descrete/continuous
Define goal
Near target
Min/Max
Trade offs

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DesignXplorer

DOE
Select DOE type
Custom + Sampling (OSF)
Candidate designs
Response surface
Six Sigma analysis
Manufacturing best/worst case

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ANSYS Composite Prep/Post

Composite materials
Light
Strong
Good corrosion resistance Composite examples

Complex manufacturing
Multiple materials
Multiple directions

Simple geometry's easy to handle


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ANSYS Composite Prep/Post

Take loaded FE model from


ANSYS Mechanical
Build model as manufactured
Ply by ply manufacture
Draping
Section cuts
Use proven ANSYS FEA solver
Post process using composite
criteria

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ANSYS Composite Prep/Post

Composite specific
post processing
Layer by layer
User selected failure
mechanisms
User defined failure
criteria

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ANSYS nCode DesignLife

Premier fatigue analysis tool


Analyze implications of repeated,
fluctuating, and rapidly applied loads,
which can result in failure or damage
Stress-Life (single, multi-curve, Haigh diagrams)
Strain-Life (automated multi-axial corrections)
Multi-axial safety factor (Dang Van)
Seam welds and spot welds
High temperature fatigue
Vibration fatigue (shaker simulation)
Multiple runs in a single analysis
Complete duty cycles
Multi-processor enabled for fast results
Use Python for proprietary or custom methods

2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 47 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary


Offshore Structures ANSYS
Product Roadmap
Transfer of ASAS unique solver technology to ANSYS
Structural Mechanics products
Single FE product suite
Recognition of ASAS key features
Creation of a Design Assessment system to handle
post-processing of analysis results
Delivered as part of Structural Mechanics products
For offshore related use, this covers load case
combinations and code checking
Additional Products
Separate Code Checking and Fatigue Products

2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 50 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary


ANSYS Workbench

The vehicle for integration of ASAS


capabilities into our mainstream FEA product
is the ANSYS framework called Workbench
Workbench acts as a common environment
for all of our mainstream products
structures, fluids, thermal, electronics
electromagnetics .....
It enables us to interface software modules
directly without going through intermediate
files and manual processes

2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 51 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary


ASAS to Mechanical
- Beams and Wave Theories

Beam Post-Processing
enhancements
Shear Force and Bending
Moment diagrams
Beam End-Releases
Wave Theories Added
(Mechanical already has 4
wave theories implemented)
Irregular waves
Shell New Wave
Constrained Wave

2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 52 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary


ASAS to Mechanical
- Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction

Soil/Pile Interaction Solver (SPLINTER) enhanced to


work with Mechanical (via command snippets &
Matrix27 elements)
PILEGEN and PILECALC macros included with the
ASAS installation (capability only available via ASAS
Offshore license)

2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 53 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary


Design Assessment
- New System in Workbench

Design Assessment System


Available with Professional NLS and above
Post-analysis assessments of FEA results
Load Case Combinations
Static Structural
Flexible Dynamics (at a specific time)

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Design Assessment
- Customization

Design Assessment System


Advanced post-processing of FEA results
Targeted at user wanting to do design code
assessment based on FEA models and results
Predefined scripts supplied for ANSYS
supplied code checking tools
Enables the customer to define additional data
that is associated with their model and then
perform custom post processing
Custom definition of input data
Custom result definitions
Custom Solve & Post scripts (Python based)
2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 55 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Design Assessment
- Assessment Types

ANSYS or User Defined


ANSYS Supplied Tools
FATJACK
Beam joint fatigue of
framed structures
BEAMCHECK
Member checks on
frame structures
Solution Combination only
User Defined
User can build/integrate own
load case combination and
code checking tool
2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 56 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Design Assessment
- Additional Code Checking Products

ANSYS FATJACK
Beam joint fatigue assessment
New separate product
(also remains part of ASAS FATJACK
Fatigue Result

Offshore)
Python scripts provided Joint Unitary
Check for
ANSYS BEAMCHECK BEAMCHECK

Was available initially at 12.0


Python scripts provided

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Mechanical
- Example Jacket Structural Analysis
Project Page showing various
Mechanical Systems

Detailed jacket model in


DesignModeler

Jacket model in Mechanical

Bending moment plot

SF/BM plots
along member

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Mechanical
- Example with Design Assessment (1)
Project Page showing various
Mechanical Systems

Simple riser in DesignModeler each of 5


members with different diameter/thickness

Mechanical model APDL macros for


wave loading and pile-substructure

Stress plot result using


Beam Tool

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Mechanical
- Example with Design Assessment (2)
Simple load combination (load factor) with first
Design Assessment system

Factored deformation

Second Design Assessment system


applies API code check

Code check parameters


entered in details panes

Unity check result


showing Yield
utilization

2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 60 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary


Summary

ANSYS continues to offer and invest in significant


capabilities for offshore applications
Significant progress in implementing key features of
ASAS in ANSYS Structural Mechanics products
New Design Assessment tool enabling advanced
customized post-processing, including application of
ANSYS developed code checking tools and user
custom capabilities (not limited to Offshore)
Separate code checking products

2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 61 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary