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Welding Inspection
Defects/Repairs
Course Reference WIS 5
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Weld Defects
Defects which may be detected by visual
inspection can be grouped under five headings
Cracks

Surface irregularities

Contour defects

Root defects

Miscellaneous
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Weld Defects
Other associated defects

Cavities

Solid inclusions

Set up irregularities

Parent material defects

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Cracks
The four essential crack mechanisms

Hydrogen (HICC)

Solidification (Hot tears)

Reheat cracks

Lamellar tearing

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Cracks

Longitudinal parent metal crack Transverse weld metal crack

Longitudinal weld metal crack Lamellar tearing


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19 Sep 02 Transverse crack Center line crack
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Surface Irregularities

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Undercut
An irregular groove at the toe of a weld run in
the parent metal
Excessive amps/volts

Excessive travel speed

Incorrect electrode angle

Excessive weaving

Incorrect welding technique

Electrode too large

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Cap Undercut

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19 Sep 02 Root undercut Cap undercutM.S.Trn Ngc Dn
Overlap
An imperfection at the toe or root of a weld caused by
metal flowing on to the surface of the parent metal
without fusing to it
Contamination

Slow travel speed

Incorrect welding
technique

Current too low

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Overlap

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Crater Pipe
Crater pipe is a shrinkage defect and not a gas defect, it
has the appearance of a gas pore in the weld crater

Too fast a cooling rate

Deoxidization
reactions and liquid to
solid volume change
Crater crack
(Star crack)
Contamination

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Crater Pipe

Weld crater

Crater pipe

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Contour Defects

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Contour Defects

Incomplete filled groove Poor cap profile

Incomplete filled groove Excessive cap height


+ Lack of sidewall fusion
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Excess cap reinforcement Incomplete filled groove
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Root Defects

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Root Defects
Low Amps/volts
Large Root face

Incomplete root fusion Small Root Gap


Fast Travel Speed
Incorrect Electrode
Angle
Incomplete root penetration Contamination

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Root Defects

Lack of root fusion Lack of root Penetration

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Lack of root penetration
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Lack of root fusion
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Root Defects
A shallow groove, which may occur in the root of a butt weld

Root faces too large


Root gap too large
Excessive back purge
pressure during TIG welding
Concave root
Excessive root bead grinding
before the application of the
second pass
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Concave Root

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Root Defects
Root penetration bead in excess in accordance with the
relevant specification being used

Root faces too small


Root gap too large
Excessive amps/volts

Excessive root penetration Slow travel speed

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Excessive Root Penetration

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Concave root Excessive root penetration
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Root Defects
A shallow groove caused by contraction in the weld
metal along each side of the penetration bead

Insufficient weld metal


deposited in the root
pass
Too fast a cooling rate
during the application of
Shrinkage groove the root bead pass
Poor welding technique

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Root Defects
A localized collapse of the weld pool due to excessive
penetration resulting in a hole in the root run

High Amps/volts

Small Root face

Large Root Gap

Slow Travel Speed


Burn through

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Burn
Through

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Root Coking/Oxidized Root
Loss or insufficient
back purging gas

Most commonly
occurs when welding
stainless steels

Purging gases
include argon, helium
and occasionally
nitrogen
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Miscellaneous Defects

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Miscellaneous Defects
Accidental striking of
the arc onto the parent
material

Faulty electrode holder

Poor cable insulation

Poor return lead


clamping
Arc strike
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Miscellaneous Defects
Excessive current

Damp electrodes

Contamination

Incorrect wire feed


speed when welding
with the MAG welding
Spatter process

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Inclusions

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Gas Cavities
Gas pore Cluster porosity Loss of gas shield
Damp electrodes
Contamination
Blow hole Arc length too large
Herringbone porosity
Damaged electrode flux
Moisture on parent
material
Welding current to low
Root piping
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Gas Cavities

Porosity

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19 Sep 02 Cluster porosity Single gas pore
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Solid Inclusions
Slag inclusions are defined as a non-metallic inclusion
caused by some welding process
Slag originates from welding
flux
MAG and TIG welding
process produce silica
Slag inclusions Lack of sidewall inclusions
fusion with
associated slag Slag is caused by
inadequate cleaning
Other inclusions include
tungsten and copper
inclusions from the TIG and
Parallel slag lines MAG welding process
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Interpass slag inclusions Elongated slag lines
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Set-up Irregularities

Plate/pipe Linear Misalignment


(Hi-Lo)

Poor fit-up

Angular Misalignment
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Linear Misalignment

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Parent Material Defects
A welding inspector should also inspect the parent
material for any visible defects

Mechanical damage Lap

Lamination

Segregation line

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Plate Lamination

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Weld Repairs

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Weld Repairs
A weld repair may be used to improve weld profiles
or extensive metal removal
Repairs to fabrication defects are generally easier
than repairs to service failures because the repair
procedure may be followed
The main problem with repairing a weld is the
maintenance of mechanical properties
During the inspection of the removed area prior to
welding the inspector must ensure that the defects
have been totally removed and the original joint
profile has been maintained as close as possible
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Weld Repairs
The specification or procedure will govern how
the defective areas are to be removed. The
method of removal may be
Grinding

Chipping

Machining

Filling

Arc air gouging

Oxy-gas gouging
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