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Michael E. Auer

Basic Concepts

## Michael E.Auer 02.05.2012 AEE01

Chapter Content

Introduction
Complex Numbers and Phasors
Circuit Theory Review
Methods of Network Analysis
Locus Diagrams
Circuit Element Variations

## Michael E.Auer 02.05.2012 AEE01

Chapter Content

Introduction
Complex Numbers and Phasors
Circuit Theory Review
Methods of Network Analysis
Locus Diagrams
Circuit Element Variations

## Michael E.Auer 02.05.2012 AEE01

This course:
Fundamentals of
Electro-Magnetism !!!

## Example Lighting Scientific progress,

but same fundamental laws

## Incandescence is Fluoresce means to When a voltage is applied in a forward-biased

the emission of light emit radiation in direction across an LED diode, current flows
from a hot object consequence to through the junction and some of the streaming
due to its incident radiation of a electrons are captured by positive charges
temperature. shorter wavelength (holes). Associated with each electron-hole
recombining act is the release of energy in the
form of a photon.

Chapter Content

Introduction

## Complex Numbers and Phasors

Circuit Theory Review
Methods of Network Analysis
Locus Diagrams
Circuit Element Variations

## Michael E.Auer 02.05.2012 AEE01

Complex Numbers
Is useful to represent sinusoids as complex numbers. j = 1

## z = x + jy Rectangular coordinates Re(z ) = x

z = z = z e j Polar coordinates Im( z ) = y

Relations based
on Eulers Identity
e j = cos j sin

Relations for
Complex
Numbers

Phasor Domain

## 1. The phasor-analysis technique transforms equations from the time domain

to the phasor domain.

## 2. Integro-differential equations get converted into linear equations with no

sinusoidal functions.

3. After solving for the desired variable -such as a particular voltage or current
- in the phasor domain, conversion back to the time domain provides the same
solution that would have been obtained had the original integro-differential
equations been solved entirely in the time domain.

## Time Domain vs. Phasor Domain (1)

Rotating phasor
Stationary phasor
Phasor counterpart of

V0

V0 2

## It is much easier to deal with

exponentials in the phasor
domain than sinusoidal
relations in the time domain.

## Just need to track

magnitude/phase, knowing that
everything is at frequency .

## Current through resistor

Time domain
Time Domain Frequency Domain
i = I m cos ( t + )
= iR = RI m cos ( t + )

Phasor Domain

V = RI m

Time domain
Phasor Domain

Time Domain

Time domain

Phasor Domain

## Circuit Analysis in the Phasor Domain

Time Domain Phasor Domain

Differential Algebraic
complex !
Equations Equations
Transformation

## Solution of the Solution of the

Differential Algebraic
Equations Equations

Solution Solution
Retransformation

Basic Approach

## 1. Transform the circuit to the phasor or frequency domain.

2. Solve the problem using circuit techniques (nodal analysis, mesh
analysis, superposition, etc.).
3. Transform the resulting phasor to the time domain.

Solve
Time to Freq Equations in Freq to Time
Freq Domain

## Michael E.Auer 02.05.2012 AEE01

Transformation Table

## Michael E.Auer 02.05.2012 AEE01

Chapter Content

Introduction
Complex Numbers and Phasors

## Circuit Theory Review

Methods of Network Analysis
Locus Diagrams
Circuit Element Variations

## Michael E.Auer 02.05.2012 AEE01

Voltage Division

v1 = ii R1 and v 2 = ii R2
Applying KVL to the loop,

v i = v1 + v 2 = ii (R1 + R2 )
vi
and ii =
R1 + R2
Combining these yields the basic voltage division formula:
R1 R2
v1 = v i v2 = vi
R1 + R2 R1 + R2

## Michael E.Auer 02.05.2012 AEE01

Current Division

vi vi
ii = i1 + i2 where i1 = and i2 =
R1 R2
Combining and solving for vi,

= ii (R1 || R2 )
1 R1 R2
v i = ii = ii
1 1 R1 + R2
+
R1 R2
Combining these yields the basic current division formula:
R2 R1
i1 = ii and i2 = ii
R1 + R2 R1 + R2

Thvenin

Norton

## Applying KCL at the output node,

vo vi vo
i1 = + = G1 (v o vi )+ GS v o
R1 RS
Current i1 can be written as: i1 = G1 (v o v i )
open circuit
Combining the previous equations

## G1 ( +1) R1RS ( +1)RS

vo = vi = vi
G1 ( +1) + GS R1RS ( +1)RS + R1

## ( +1)RS (50 +1)1 k

vo = vi = v i = 0.718v i
( +1)RS + R1 (50 +1)1 k +1 k
and

v th = 0.718v i

## Thevenin Equivalent Resistance

Applying KCL,

i x = i1 i1 + G S v x
= G1v x + G1v x + G S v x
= [G1 ( + 1) + G S ]v x
vx 1 R1
Rth = = = RS
ix G1 ( + 1) + G S +1
R1 20 k
Rth = RS = 1 k = 1 k 392 = 282
+1 50 + 1

## Norton Equivalent Circuit

Applying KCL,

in = i1 + i1
= G1v i + G1vi
= G1 ( +1)v i short circuit

v i ( +1)
Short circuit at the output causes
zero current to flow through RS.
= Rth is equal to Rth found earlier.
R1
50 +1 vi
in = vi = = (2.55 mS)v i
20 k 392

## Final Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits

Check of Results: Note that vth = inRth and this can be used to check
the calculations: inRth=(2.55 mS)vi(282 ) = 0.719vi, accurate within
round-off error.

While the two circuits are identical in terms of voltages and currents at the
output terminals, there is one difference between the two circuits. With no load
connected, the Norton circuit still dissipates power!

Rth , vth , in

## Source Transformation (1)

An equivalent circuit is one whose v-i characteristics are identical with the
original circuit.

## It is the process of replacing a voltage source vS in series with a resistor R

by a current source iS in parallel with a resistor R, or vice versa.

## Source Transformation (2)

+ +
The arrow of the
current source is
directed toward the
-
(a) Independent source transform
- positive terminal of
the voltage source.

The source
+ + transformation is not
possible when R = 0
for voltage source
and R = for current
- - source.
(b) Dependent source transform

## It states that the voltage across (or current through) an element in a

linear circuit is the algebraic sum of the voltage across (or currents
through) that element due to EACH independent source acting alone.

## The principle of superposition helps us to analyze a linear circuit

with more than one independent source by calculating the
contribution of each independent source separately.

## Superposition Theorem (2)

We consider the effects of 8A and 20V one by one, then add the
two effects together for final vo.

## 1. Turn off all independent sources except one source. Find

the output (voltage or current) due to that active source
using nodal or mesh analysis.

## 3. Find the total contribution by adding algebraically all the

contributions due to the independent sources.

## 1. When we say turn off all other independent sources:

Independent voltage sources are replaced by 0 V (short circuit)
and
Independent current sources are replaced by 0 A (open circuit).

## 2. Dependent sources are left intact because they are controlled by

circuit variables.

Example 2

## Use the superposition theorem to find v in the

circuit shown below.

by open-circuit

by short-circuit

## Use superposition to find vx in the circuit..

open-circuit Dependant source
keep unchanged !!!
20 v1 20 v2

+ 4 0.1v1
10 V 2A
4 0.1v2

(a) (b)

## Michael E.Auer 02.05.2012 AEE01

Chapter Content

Introduction
Complex Numbers and Phasors
Circuit Theory Review

## Methods of Network Analysis

Locus Diagrams
Circuit Element Variations

## Michael E.Auer 02.05.2012 AEE01

Introduction
Things we need to know in solving any resistive circuit
with current and voltage sources only:
Number of equations

Ohms Law b
Kirchhoffs Current Laws (KCL) n-1
Kirchhoffs Voltage Laws (KVL) b (n-1)
mesh = independend loop
Number of branch currents and
branch voltages = 2b (variables)
Problem: Number of equations!

## 1. Mesh analysis provides a general procedure for analyzing

circuits using mesh currents as the circuit variables.

## 3. A mesh is a loop which does not contain any other loops

within it (independent loop).

## Mesh Analysis (3)

Example circuit with independent voltage sources

Equations:

## R1i1 + (i1 i2) R3 = V1

R2 i2 + R3 (i2 i1) = -V2
reordered:

(R1+ R3) i1 - i2 R3 = V1
- R3 i1 + (R2 + R3)i2 = -V2

Note:
i1 and i2 are mesh current (imaginative, not measurable directly)
I1, I2 and I3 are branch current (real, measurable directly)
I1 = i1; I2 = i2; I3 = i1 - i2

## Mesh Analysis (4)

Formalization: Network equations by inspection.

( R1 + R3 ) R3 i1 V1
=
R3 ( R2 + R3 ) i2 V2
Impedance matrix Excitation
Mesh currents
General rules:
1. Main diagonal: ring resistance of mesh n
2. Other elements: connection resistance between meshes n and m
Sign depends on direction of mesh currents!

## Mesh Analysis (5)

Example: By inspection, write the mesh-current equations in matrix
form for the circuit below.

dependent source

Mesh Analysis

## Nodal Analysis (1)

It provides a general procedure for analyzing circuits using node
voltages as the circuit variables.

Example

## Nodal Analysis (3)

Example
Apply KCL at G1v1 + (v1 v2) G3 = 1A
node 1 and 2 G2 v2 + G3 (v2 v1) = - 4A

v1 v2 reordered:
G3
(G1+ G3) v1 - v2 G3 = 1A
- G3 v1 + (G2 + G3)v2 = - 4A

G1 G2

## Nodal Analysis (4)

Formalization: Network equations by inspection.

(G1 + G3 ) G3 v1 1A
=
G3 (G2 + G3 ) v2 2A
Node voltages
General rules:

## 1. Main diagonal: sum of connected admittances at node n

2. Other elements: connection admittances between nodes n and m
Sign: negative!

## Nodal Analysis (5)

Example: By inspection, write the node-voltage equations in matrix
form for the circuit below.

dependent source

## Michael E.Auer 02.05.2012 AEE01

Chapter Content

Introduction
Complex Numbers and Phasors
Circuit Theory Review
Methods of Network Analysis

Locus Diagrams
Circuit Element Variations

## Michael E.Auer 02.05.2012 AEE01

R-C-Circuit Locus

## 1. The inversion of a straight line through the origin is

again a line through the origin.

## 2. The inversion of a straight line not through the origin is

a circle through the origin and vice versa.

## 3. The inversion of a circle that does not pass through the

origin is again a circle that does not pass through the
zero point

## Locus of a Low-Pass Transfer Function

Ua 1
T ( j ) = = mit =
U e 1 + j g

Equivalent
Networks

## Dual Networks (1)

In other words, both circuits are described by the same pair of equations:

## Dual Networks (3)

Rules for obtaining the dual of a planar
circuit, regardless of wether or not it is a
series-parallel network:

Rule1:
Insight of each mesh, including the infinite
region surrounding the circuit, place a
node.

Rule2:
Suppose two of this nodes, for example a and b,
are in adjacent meshes. Then there is at least
one element in the boundary common to these
two meshes. Place the dual of each common
element between nodes a and b.

## I-V-Relations in Dual Nezworks

di dv
i = 0

v = 0

v = R i v=L
dt
i=C
dt Given Network
v = vq i = iq

v
v' = Z 0 i und i =
Dual Network i-v-Duality Z0

du di
u = 0 i = 0 i = G u i = C
dt
u = L
dt
For example Z0 = 1
i = iq u = uq

## Duality relations for the basic network elements:

R L vq
G = C = L = C Z 02 iq = vq' = Z 0 iq
Z 02 Z 02 Z0

## Michael E.Auer 02.05.2012 AEE01

Chapter Content

Introduction
Complex Numbers and Phasors
Circuit Theory Review
Methods of Network Analysis
Locus Diagrams

## All electronic components have manufacturing tolerances.

o Resistors can be purchased with 10%, 5%, and
1% tolerance. (IC resistors are often 10% and more.)
o Capacitors can have asymmetrical tolerances such as +20%/-50%.
o Power supply voltages typically vary from 1% to 10%.
Device parameters will also vary with temperature and age.
Circuits must be designed to accommodate these variations.
Mainly Worst-case Analysis and Monte Carlo Analysis
(statistical) are used to examine the effects of component
parameter variations.

## Michael E.Auer 02.05.2012 AEE01

Tolerance Modeling

## For symmetrical parameter variations

Pnom(1 - ) P Pnom(1 + )

## For example, a 10 k resistor with 5% percent tolerance could take on

the following range of values:

9500 R 10500

## Michael E.Auer 02.05.2012 AEE01

Numeric Precision

## Most circuit parameters vary from less than 1 % to

greater than 50%.

meaningless.

## Results should be represented with three significant digits:

2.03 mA, 5.72 V, 0.0436 A, and so on.

## Circuit Analysis with Tolerances

Worst-case analysis
Parameters are manipulated to produce the worst-case min and max
values of desired quantities.
This can lead to over design since the worst-case combination of
parameters is rare.
It may be less expensive to discard a rare failure than to design for 100%
yield.
Monte-Carlo analysis
Parameters are randomly varied to generate a set of statistics for desired
outputs.
The design can be optimized so that failures due to parameter variation
are less frequent than failures due to other mechanisms.
In this way, the design difficulty is better managed than a worst-case
approach.

## Problem: Find the nominal and worst-

case values for output voltage and
source current.

Solution:
Known Information and Given
Data: Circuit topology and values
in figure.

## Unknowns: Nominal voltage solution:

R1nom
=V
nom min max nom min max nom nom
V O , V
O , V
O , I I , I I , I I V O I
R1nom + R2nom
18k
= 15V = 5V
18k + 36k

## Monte Carlo Analysis

Parameters are varied randomly and output statistics are gathered.
complete a statistically significant set of calculations.
For example, with Excel, a resistor with a nominal value Rnom and
tolerance can be expressed as:

## The RAND() function returns

random numbers uniformly
distributed between 0 and 1.

## Monte Carlo Analysis Results

VO (V)
Average 4.96
Nominal 5.00
Standard Deviation 0.30
Maximum 5.70
W/C Maximum 5.87
Minimum 4.37
W/C Minimum 4.20