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Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Michael E. Auer

Basic Concepts

Michael E.Auer 02.05.2012 AEE01


Advanced Electrical Engineering

Chapter Content

Introduction
Complex Numbers and Phasors
Circuit Theory Review
Methods of Network Analysis
Locus Diagrams
Circuit Element Variations

Michael E.Auer 02.05.2012 AEE01


Advanced Electrical Engineering

Chapter Content

Introduction
Complex Numbers and Phasors
Circuit Theory Review
Methods of Network Analysis
Locus Diagrams
Circuit Element Variations

Michael E.Auer 02.05.2012 AEE01


Advanced Electrical Engineering

This course:
Fundamentals of
Electro-Magnetism !!!

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Fundamental Forces of Nature

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The Electro-magnetic Spectrum

microprocessor ac power network

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Example Lighting Scientific progress,


but same fundamental laws

Light bulb Fluorescent lamp LED diode lamp

Incandescence is Fluoresce means to When a voltage is applied in a forward-biased


the emission of light emit radiation in direction across an LED diode, current flows
from a hot object consequence to through the junction and some of the streaming
due to its incident radiation of a electrons are captured by positive charges
temperature. shorter wavelength (holes). Associated with each electron-hole
recombining act is the release of energy in the
form of a photon.

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Advanced Electrical Engineering

Chapter Content

Introduction

Complex Numbers and Phasors


Circuit Theory Review
Methods of Network Analysis
Locus Diagrams
Circuit Element Variations

Michael E.Auer 02.05.2012 AEE01


Advanced Electrical Engineering

Complex Numbers
Is useful to represent sinusoids as complex numbers. j = 1

z = x + jy Rectangular coordinates Re(z ) = x


z = z = z e j Polar coordinates Im( z ) = y

Relations based
on Eulers Identity
e j = cos j sin

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Relations for
Complex
Numbers

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Phasor Domain

1. The phasor-analysis technique transforms equations from the time domain


to the phasor domain.

2. Integro-differential equations get converted into linear equations with no


sinusoidal functions.

3. After solving for the desired variable -such as a particular voltage or current
- in the phasor domain, conversion back to the time domain provides the same
solution that would have been obtained had the original integro-differential
equations been solved entirely in the time domain.

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Time Domain vs. Phasor Domain (1)

Rotating phasor
Stationary phasor
Phasor counterpart of

V0


V0 2

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Time Domain vs. Phasor Domain (2)

It is much easier to deal with


exponentials in the phasor
domain than sinusoidal
relations in the time domain.

Just need to track


magnitude/phase, knowing that
everything is at frequency .

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Advanced Electrical Engineering

Phasor Relation for Resistors

Current through resistor


Time domain
Time Domain Frequency Domain
i = I m cos ( t + )
= iR = RI m cos ( t + )

Phasor Domain

V = RI m

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Phasor Relation for Inductors


Time domain
Phasor Domain

Time Domain

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Phasor Relation for Capacitors

Time domain

Phasor Domain

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Circuit Analysis in the Phasor Domain


Time Domain Phasor Domain

Differential Algebraic
complex !
Equations Equations
Transformation

Solution of the Solution of the


Differential Algebraic
Equations Equations

Solution Solution
Retransformation

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Advanced Electrical Engineering

Basic Approach

1. Transform the circuit to the phasor or frequency domain.


2. Solve the problem using circuit techniques (nodal analysis, mesh
analysis, superposition, etc.).
3. Transform the resulting phasor to the time domain.

Solve
Time to Freq Equations in Freq to Time
Freq Domain

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Phasor Analysis: General Procedure

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Example: RL Circuit (1)

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Example: RL Circuit (2)

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Transformation Table

x means a travelling wave!

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Traveling Waves in the Phasor Domain

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Advanced Electrical Engineering

Chapter Content

Introduction
Complex Numbers and Phasors

Circuit Theory Review


Methods of Network Analysis
Locus Diagrams
Circuit Element Variations

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Advanced Electrical Engineering

Voltage Division

v1 = ii R1 and v 2 = ii R2
Applying KVL to the loop,

v i = v1 + v 2 = ii (R1 + R2 )
vi
and ii =
R1 + R2
Combining these yields the basic voltage division formula:
R1 R2
v1 = v i v2 = vi
R1 + R2 R1 + R2

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Current Division

vi vi
ii = i1 + i2 where i1 = and i2 =
R1 R2
Combining and solving for vi,

= ii (R1 || R2 )
1 R1 R2
v i = ii = ii
1 1 R1 + R2
+
R1 R2
Combining these yields the basic current division formula:
R2 R1
i1 = ii and i2 = ii
R1 + R2 R1 + R2

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Advanced Electrical Engineering

Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits

Thvenin

Norton

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Thevenin Equivalent Voltage (1)

Applying KCL at the output node,


vo vi vo
i1 = + = G1 (v o vi )+ GS v o
R1 RS
Current i1 can be written as: i1 = G1 (v o v i )
open circuit
Combining the previous equations

G1 ( +1)v i = [G1 ( +1) + GS ]v o

G1 ( +1) R1RS ( +1)RS


vo = vi = vi
G1 ( +1) + GS R1RS ( +1)RS + R1

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Thevenin Equivalent Voltage (2)

Using the given component values:

( +1)RS (50 +1)1 k


vo = vi = v i = 0.718v i
( +1)RS + R1 (50 +1)1 k +1 k
and

v th = 0.718v i

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Thevenin Equivalent Resistance

Applying KCL,

i x = i1 i1 + G S v x
= G1v x + G1v x + G S v x
= [G1 ( + 1) + G S ]v x
vx 1 R1
Rth = = = RS
ix G1 ( + 1) + G S +1
R1 20 k
Rth = RS = 1 k = 1 k 392 = 282
+1 50 + 1

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Norton Equivalent Circuit

Applying KCL,

in = i1 + i1
= G1v i + G1vi
= G1 ( +1)v i short circuit

v i ( +1)
Short circuit at the output causes
zero current to flow through RS.
= Rth is equal to Rth found earlier.
R1
50 +1 vi
in = vi = = (2.55 mS)v i
20 k 392

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Advanced Electrical Engineering

Final Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits

Check of Results: Note that vth = inRth and this can be used to check
the calculations: inRth=(2.55 mS)vi(282 ) = 0.719vi, accurate within
round-off error.

While the two circuits are identical in terms of voltages and currents at the
output terminals, there is one difference between the two circuits. With no load
connected, the Norton circuit still dissipates power!

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Find Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits!

Rth , vth , in

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Source Transformation (1)

An equivalent circuit is one whose v-i characteristics are identical with the
original circuit.

It is the process of replacing a voltage source vS in series with a resistor R


by a current source iS in parallel with a resistor R, or vice versa.

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Source Transformation (2)

+ +
The arrow of the
current source is
directed toward the
-
(a) Independent source transform
- positive terminal of
the voltage source.

The source
+ + transformation is not
possible when R = 0
for voltage source
and R = for current
- - source.
(b) Dependent source transform

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Source Transformation Example

Find io in the circuit shown below using source transformation.

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Superposition Theorem (1)

It states that the voltage across (or current through) an element in a


linear circuit is the algebraic sum of the voltage across (or currents
through) that element due to EACH independent source acting alone.

The principle of superposition helps us to analyze a linear circuit


with more than one independent source by calculating the
contribution of each independent source separately.

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Advanced Electrical Engineering

Superposition Theorem (2)

We consider the effects of 8A and 20V one by one, then add the
two effects together for final vo.

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Superposition Theorem (3)

Steps to apply superposition principle

1. Turn off all independent sources except one source. Find


the output (voltage or current) due to that active source
using nodal or mesh analysis.

2. Repeat step 1 for each of the other independent sources.

3. Find the total contribution by adding algebraically all the


contributions due to the independent sources.

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Advanced Electrical Engineering

Superposition Theorem (4)

Two things have to be keep in mind:

1. When we say turn off all other independent sources:


Independent voltage sources are replaced by 0 V (short circuit)
and
Independent current sources are replaced by 0 A (open circuit).

2. Dependent sources are left intact because they are controlled by


circuit variables.

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Advanced Electrical Engineering

Superposition Theorem Example 1

Example 2

Use the superposition theorem to find v in the


circuit shown below.

3A is discarded
by open-circuit

6V is discarded
by short-circuit

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Superposition Theorem Example 2

Use superposition to find vx in the circuit..

2A is discarded by
open-circuit 10V is discarded by
open-circuit Dependant source
keep unchanged !!!
20 v1 20 v2

+ 4 0.1v1
10 V 2A
4 0.1v2

(a) (b)

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Advanced Electrical Engineering

Chapter Content

Introduction
Complex Numbers and Phasors
Circuit Theory Review

Methods of Network Analysis


Locus Diagrams
Circuit Element Variations

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Advanced Electrical Engineering

Introduction
Things we need to know in solving any resistive circuit
with current and voltage sources only:
Number of equations

Ohms Law b
Kirchhoffs Current Laws (KCL) n-1
Kirchhoffs Voltage Laws (KVL) b (n-1)
mesh = independend loop
Number of branch currents and
branch voltages = 2b (variables)
Problem: Number of equations!

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Advanced Electrical Engineering

Mesh Analysis (1)

1. Mesh analysis provides a general procedure for analyzing


circuits using mesh currents as the circuit variables.

2. Mesh analysis applies KVL to find unknown currents.

3. A mesh is a loop which does not contain any other loops


within it (independent loop).

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Mesh Analysis (2)

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Mesh Analysis (3)


Example circuit with independent voltage sources

Equations:

R1i1 + (i1 i2) R3 = V1


R2 i2 + R3 (i2 i1) = -V2
reordered:

(R1+ R3) i1 - i2 R3 = V1
- R3 i1 + (R2 + R3)i2 = -V2

Note:
i1 and i2 are mesh current (imaginative, not measurable directly)
I1, I2 and I3 are branch current (real, measurable directly)
I1 = i1; I2 = i2; I3 = i1 - i2

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Mesh Analysis (4)


Formalization: Network equations by inspection.

( R1 + R3 ) R3 i1 V1
=
R3 ( R2 + R3 ) i2 V2
Impedance matrix Excitation
Mesh currents
General rules:
1. Main diagonal: ring resistance of mesh n
2. Other elements: connection resistance between meshes n and m
Sign depends on direction of mesh currents!

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Mesh Analysis (5)


Example: By inspection, write the mesh-current equations in matrix
form for the circuit below.

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Mesh Analysis Special Cases

dependent source

ideal voltage source

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Mesh Analysis

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Nodal Analysis (1)


It provides a general procedure for analyzing circuits using node
voltages as the circuit variables.

Example

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Nodal Analysis (2)

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Nodal Analysis (3)


Example
Apply KCL at G1v1 + (v1 v2) G3 = 1A
node 1 and 2 G2 v2 + G3 (v2 v1) = - 4A

v1 v2 reordered:
G3
(G1+ G3) v1 - v2 G3 = 1A
- G3 v1 + (G2 + G3)v2 = - 4A

G1 G2

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Advanced Electrical Engineering

Nodal Analysis (4)


Formalization: Network equations by inspection.

(G1 + G3 ) G3 v1 1A
=
G3 (G2 + G3 ) v2 2A
Admittance matrix Excitation
Node voltages
General rules:

1. Main diagonal: sum of connected admittances at node n


2. Other elements: connection admittances between nodes n and m
Sign: negative!

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Advanced Electrical Engineering

Nodal Analysis (5)


Example: By inspection, write the node-voltage equations in matrix
form for the circuit below.

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Nodal Analysis Special Case

dependent source

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AC Network Nodal Analysis

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Advanced Electrical Engineering

Chapter Content

Introduction
Complex Numbers and Phasors
Circuit Theory Review
Methods of Network Analysis

Locus Diagrams
Circuit Element Variations

Michael E.Auer 02.05.2012 AEE01


Advanced Electrical Engineering

Phasor Inversion Example

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R-C-Circuit Locus

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Locus Inversion Theorems

1. The inversion of a straight line through the origin is


again a line through the origin.

2. The inversion of a straight line not through the origin is


a circle through the origin and vice versa.

3. The inversion of a circle that does not pass through the


origin is again a circle that does not pass through the
zero point

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Inversion of a Straight Line

through the origin not through the origin

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Inversion of a Circle not Through the Origin

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Locus of a Low-Pass Transfer Function

Ua 1
T ( j ) = = mit =
U e 1 + j g

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Locus of a Parallel-Series Circuit (1)

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Locus of a Parallel-Series Circuit (2)

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Equivalent
Networks

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Dual Networks (1)

In other words, both circuits are described by the same pair of equations:

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Dual Networks (2)

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Dual Networks (3)


Rules for obtaining the dual of a planar
circuit, regardless of wether or not it is a
series-parallel network:

Rule1:
Insight of each mesh, including the infinite
region surrounding the circuit, place a
node.

Rule2:
Suppose two of this nodes, for example a and b,
are in adjacent meshes. Then there is at least
one element in the boundary common to these
two meshes. Place the dual of each common
element between nodes a and b.

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Advanced Electrical Engineering

I-V-Relations in Dual Nezworks


di dv
i = 0

v = 0

v = R i v=L
dt
i=C
dt Given Network
v = vq i = iq

v
v' = Z 0 i und i =
Dual Network i-v-Duality Z0

du di
u = 0 i = 0 i = G u i = C
dt
u = L
dt
For example Z0 = 1
i = iq u = uq

Duality relations for the basic network elements:

R L vq
G = C = L = C Z 02 iq = vq' = Z 0 iq
Z 02 Z 02 Z0

Michael E.Auer 02.05.2012 AEE01


Advanced Electrical Engineering

Chapter Content

Introduction
Complex Numbers and Phasors
Circuit Theory Review
Methods of Network Analysis
Locus Diagrams

Circuit Element Variations

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Advanced Electrical Engineering

Circuit Element Variations

All electronic components have manufacturing tolerances.


o Resistors can be purchased with 10%, 5%, and
1% tolerance. (IC resistors are often 10% and more.)
o Capacitors can have asymmetrical tolerances such as +20%/-50%.
o Power supply voltages typically vary from 1% to 10%.
Device parameters will also vary with temperature and age.
Circuits must be designed to accommodate these variations.
Mainly Worst-case Analysis and Monte Carlo Analysis
(statistical) are used to examine the effects of component
parameter variations.

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Tolerance Modeling

For symmetrical parameter variations

Pnom(1 - ) P Pnom(1 + )

For example, a 10 k resistor with 5% percent tolerance could take on


the following range of values:

10k(1 - 0.05) R 10k(1 + 0.05)


9500 R 10500

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Numeric Precision

Most circuit parameters vary from less than 1 % to


greater than 50%.

As a consequence, more than three significant digits is


meaningless.

Results should be represented with three significant digits:


2.03 mA, 5.72 V, 0.0436 A, and so on.

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Advanced Electrical Engineering

Circuit Analysis with Tolerances


Worst-case analysis
Parameters are manipulated to produce the worst-case min and max
values of desired quantities.
This can lead to over design since the worst-case combination of
parameters is rare.
It may be less expensive to discard a rare failure than to design for 100%
yield.
Monte-Carlo analysis
Parameters are randomly varied to generate a set of statistics for desired
outputs.
The design can be optimized so that failures due to parameter variation
are less frequent than failures due to other mechanisms.
In this way, the design difficulty is better managed than a worst-case
approach.

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Advanced Electrical Engineering

Worst Case Analysis Example

Problem: Find the nominal and worst-


case values for output voltage and
source current.

Solution:
Known Information and Given
Data: Circuit topology and values
in figure.

Unknowns: Nominal voltage solution:


R1nom
=V
nom min max nom min max nom nom
V O , V
O , V
O , I I , I I , I I V O I
R1nom + R2nom
18k
= 15V = 5V
18k + 36k

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Advanced Electrical Engineering

Monte Carlo Analysis


Parameters are varied randomly and output statistics are gathered.
We use programs like MATLAB, Mathcad, SPICE, or a spreadsheet to
complete a statistically significant set of calculations.
For example, with Excel, a resistor with a nominal value Rnom and
tolerance can be expressed as:

R = Rnom (1+ 2 ( RAND() 0.5))

The RAND() function returns


random numbers uniformly
distributed between 0 and 1.

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Monte Carlo Analysis Results

VO (V)
Average 4.96
Nominal 5.00
Standard Deviation 0.30
Maximum 5.70
W/C Maximum 5.87
Minimum 4.37
W/C Minimum 4.20

Histogram of output voltage from 1000 case Monte Carlo simulation.

Michael E.Auer 02.05.2012 AEE01