Michael E. Auer
Basic Concepts
Chapter Content
Introduction
Complex Numbers and Phasors
Circuit Theory Review
Methods of Network Analysis
Locus Diagrams
Circuit Element Variations
Chapter Content
Introduction
Complex Numbers and Phasors
Circuit Theory Review
Methods of Network Analysis
Locus Diagrams
Circuit Element Variations
This course:
Fundamentals of
ElectroMagnetism !!!
Chapter Content
Introduction
Complex Numbers
Is useful to represent sinusoids as complex numbers. j = 1
Relations based
on Eulers Identity
e j = cos j sin
Relations for
Complex
Numbers
Phasor Domain
3. After solving for the desired variable such as a particular voltage or current
 in the phasor domain, conversion back to the time domain provides the same
solution that would have been obtained had the original integrodifferential
equations been solved entirely in the time domain.
Rotating phasor
Stationary phasor
Phasor counterpart of
V0
V0 2
Phasor Domain
V = RI m
Time Domain
Time domain
Phasor Domain
Differential Algebraic
complex !
Equations Equations
Transformation
Solution Solution
Retransformation
Basic Approach
Solve
Time to Freq Equations in Freq to Time
Freq Domain
Transformation Table
Chapter Content
Introduction
Complex Numbers and Phasors
Voltage Division
v1 = ii R1 and v 2 = ii R2
Applying KVL to the loop,
v i = v1 + v 2 = ii (R1 + R2 )
vi
and ii =
R1 + R2
Combining these yields the basic voltage division formula:
R1 R2
v1 = v i v2 = vi
R1 + R2 R1 + R2
Current Division
vi vi
ii = i1 + i2 where i1 = and i2 =
R1 R2
Combining and solving for vi,
= ii (R1  R2 )
1 R1 R2
v i = ii = ii
1 1 R1 + R2
+
R1 R2
Combining these yields the basic current division formula:
R2 R1
i1 = ii and i2 = ii
R1 + R2 R1 + R2
Thvenin
Norton
v th = 0.718v i
Applying KCL,
i x = i1 i1 + G S v x
= G1v x + G1v x + G S v x
= [G1 ( + 1) + G S ]v x
vx 1 R1
Rth = = = RS
ix G1 ( + 1) + G S +1
R1 20 k
Rth = RS = 1 k = 1 k 392 = 282
+1 50 + 1
Applying KCL,
in = i1 + i1
= G1v i + G1vi
= G1 ( +1)v i short circuit
v i ( +1)
Short circuit at the output causes
zero current to flow through RS.
= Rth is equal to Rth found earlier.
R1
50 +1 vi
in = vi = = (2.55 mS)v i
20 k 392
Check of Results: Note that vth = inRth and this can be used to check
the calculations: inRth=(2.55 mS)vi(282 ) = 0.719vi, accurate within
roundoff error.
While the two circuits are identical in terms of voltages and currents at the
output terminals, there is one difference between the two circuits. With no load
connected, the Norton circuit still dissipates power!
Rth , vth , in
An equivalent circuit is one whose vi characteristics are identical with the
original circuit.
+ +
The arrow of the
current source is
directed toward the

(a) Independent source transform
 positive terminal of
the voltage source.
The source
+ + transformation is not
possible when R = 0
for voltage source
and R = for current
  source.
(b) Dependent source transform
We consider the effects of 8A and 20V one by one, then add the
two effects together for final vo.
Example 2
3A is discarded
by opencircuit
6V is discarded
by shortcircuit
2A is discarded by
opencircuit 10V is discarded by
opencircuit Dependant source
keep unchanged !!!
20 v1 20 v2
+ 4 0.1v1
10 V 2A
4 0.1v2
(a) (b)
Chapter Content
Introduction
Complex Numbers and Phasors
Circuit Theory Review
Introduction
Things we need to know in solving any resistive circuit
with current and voltage sources only:
Number of equations
Ohms Law b
Kirchhoffs Current Laws (KCL) n1
Kirchhoffs Voltage Laws (KVL) b (n1)
mesh = independend loop
Number of branch currents and
branch voltages = 2b (variables)
Problem: Number of equations!
Equations:
(R1+ R3) i1  i2 R3 = V1
 R3 i1 + (R2 + R3)i2 = V2
Note:
i1 and i2 are mesh current (imaginative, not measurable directly)
I1, I2 and I3 are branch current (real, measurable directly)
I1 = i1; I2 = i2; I3 = i1  i2
( R1 + R3 ) R3 i1 V1
=
R3 ( R2 + R3 ) i2 V2
Impedance matrix Excitation
Mesh currents
General rules:
1. Main diagonal: ring resistance of mesh n
2. Other elements: connection resistance between meshes n and m
Sign depends on direction of mesh currents!
dependent source
Mesh Analysis
Example
v1 v2 reordered:
G3
(G1+ G3) v1  v2 G3 = 1A
 G3 v1 + (G2 + G3)v2 =  4A
G1 G2
(G1 + G3 ) G3 v1 1A
=
G3 (G2 + G3 ) v2 2A
Admittance matrix Excitation
Node voltages
General rules:
dependent source
Chapter Content
Introduction
Complex Numbers and Phasors
Circuit Theory Review
Methods of Network Analysis
Locus Diagrams
Circuit Element Variations
RCCircuit Locus
Ua 1
T ( j ) = = mit =
U e 1 + j g
Equivalent
Networks
In other words, both circuits are described by the same pair of equations:
Rule1:
Insight of each mesh, including the infinite
region surrounding the circuit, place a
node.
Rule2:
Suppose two of this nodes, for example a and b,
are in adjacent meshes. Then there is at least
one element in the boundary common to these
two meshes. Place the dual of each common
element between nodes a and b.
v
v' = Z 0 i und i =
Dual Network ivDuality Z0
du di
u = 0 i = 0 i = G u i = C
dt
u = L
dt
For example Z0 = 1
i = iq u = uq
R L vq
G = C = L = C Z 02 iq = vq' = Z 0 iq
Z 02 Z 02 Z0
Chapter Content
Introduction
Complex Numbers and Phasors
Circuit Theory Review
Methods of Network Analysis
Locus Diagrams
Tolerance Modeling
Pnom(1  ) P Pnom(1 + )
Numeric Precision
Solution:
Known Information and Given
Data: Circuit topology and values
in figure.
VO (V)
Average 4.96
Nominal 5.00
Standard Deviation 0.30
Maximum 5.70
W/C Maximum 5.87
Minimum 4.37
W/C Minimum 4.20