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COMPUTERIZED LEGAL RESEARCH SERVICES the text of iv.

National Labor relation


the Constitutions and statutes above mentioned may be commission
sourced from two computerized legal research services. v. Insurance commission
vi. Housing and land Use regulatory
1. Lex Libris produced by CD Asia, Inc., with the
following databases: board
vii. Department of Agrarian
a. Laws (Philippine Edition), Vol. I; Adjudication board
b. Taxation (Phil. Edition), Vol. II;
c. Jurisprudence (The Phil. Supreme Court THE PHILIPPINE JUDICIAL SYSTEM
Reports), Vol. III
d. Department of Justice (Opinions of the
A. PRE-SPANISH PERIOD trials were held publicly
Secretary), Vol. IV
e. Local Autonomy and Local Government, and decisions were rendered promptly. The
Vol. V accuser and the accused faced each other with
f. Environment and Natural Resources, Vol. their respective witnesses. The latter, to show their
VI honesty and sincerity, took an oath to this effect.
g. Labor and Social Legislation, Vol. VII The disputants then began presenting their
h. Elections, Vol. VIII
arguments, buttressed by the testimonies of their
i. Trade, Commerce and Industry, Vol. IX
j. Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, Vol. X respective witnesses. The chieftain listened
k. Securities and Exchange Commission, Vol. attentively and the elders took mental notes of the
XI arguments. The disputant with more witnesses to
his side was adjudged as winner. In this case, the
2. Philjuris produced by Gigabytes Research chieftain, acting as Judge and executive, enforced
Systems, Inc. also has a database on all laws of the his judgment by siding openly with the winner and
Philippines.
compelling the defeated party to respect the
CASE LAW judgment of the honorable court. . Under such
circumstances, the defeated party had no other
While statute law is derived from the lawmaking agencies recourse than to bow to the inevitable.
of the government, case law comes from the judicial
authorities of the State. B. SPANISH PERIOD Magellans arrival in the
Philippines in 1521 became the basis for Spain to
Case law may be divided into:
claim and colonize the islands. Three Spanish
1. Decision Proper expeditions were sent to the islands which all
ended in failure. Finally on November 21, 1564,
a. Decisions of the Supreme Court Miguel Lopez de Legaspi sailed from Navidad,
b. Decision of the Court of Appeals Mexico to the islands of the West towards the
c. Decisions of the Sandiganbayan Moluccas and subsequently landed in the Visayan
d. Decisions of the Court of Tax appeal islands and founded the City of Cebu in 1565.
e. Decisions of the Regional Traila courts Manila was later founded as a capital city in 1571.
f. Decisions of the Municipal, Municipal The foundation of Spanish sovereignty over the
Circuit and Metropolittan trial courts Philippines had been laid.

2. Subordinate Decisions a. In General

a. Decisions of the Senate electoral tribunal Five components:


and house of representative electoral a. The law to govern the conduct of the
tribunal people and regulate the relations among
individuals and between the individual
b. Decisions of administrative agencies and the sovereign.
exercising qausi judicial powers, such as:
i. Commission on Elections b. The judiciary which provided the
ii. Civil Service Commission mechanism for the adjudication of
iii. Commission on Audit disputes among individuals and between
the individual and the government of assumed by a newly created Tribunal
state. Suprema de Espana de Indias
- Creation of the King the
c. The law enforcement agencies to unquestioned head of Spanish
uphold the law and enforce the decisions government
rendered by judiciary. The Real Audiencia
- Cuerpo de Cuadrilleros the - Supreme tribunal in the Philippines
municipal police under the local - Both had civil and criminal jurisdiction
government officials in cases of appeal from the alcalde
- Guardia Civil the national mayor or Corregidor
constabulary, the forces of which - Performed other functions aside from
were assigned to particular its judicial duties
provinces under the provincial - The Governor had supreme judicial
commanders who reported directly powers in the Philippines. Even after
to the governor and captain general the establishment of the Audencia,
the Governor continued participating
d. The prison system for public in the judicial affairs as President of
punishment of those who violated the the Audencia
law. The Alcaldes-Mayores (CFI)
- Municipal jails - Alcalde mayor in pacified areas
- Provincial jails - Corregidor in unpacified areas
- Major penitentiaries such as the - Acted as appellate judge for suits
Bilibid Prison and those in Cavite, originating from the gobernadorcillo
Zamboanga and Marianas The Gobernadorcillos (Justice of the Peace
- Penal farms or colonies in Palawan, Courts)
Davao, Cotabato and Zamboanga - base of the judicial structure;
- who governed the town or pueblo;
e. Legal profession group of persons with - had jurisdiction over all civil cases
legal training manned the judicial posts arising among Indios, Chinese
and acted as advocates of individuals in mestizos and Chinese that involve
protecting their rights. small sums and petty criminal cases
- Lawyers who were either
appointed to the judiciary and Special Courts:
public prosecution or were the
a. Ecclesiastical Courts for the religious
practicing lawyers
b. Army and Navy Courts for military
- Those who had some legal training
personnel
who were either notaries or clerks
c. Commercial Court for merchants
appointed to assist the courts
d. Contentious Court complaints against
the administration of the government
Hierarchical structure of the judicial system:
e. Treasury Court for cases involving the
The Crown
royal treasury, including cases of
- King is the unquestioned head of
smuggling, etc.
Spanish government
f. Probate Court adjudication of probate
- As an absolute ruler, had the power
cases
to reverse the rulings of the Council
of the Indies The judicial system included the Department of
The Council of the Indies Public Prosecution which represented the
- Decisions of the Real Audencia in government and its institutions in the enforcement
certain cases were appealable to the of the law and in all civil and criminal actions to
Council of the Indies in Serville, Spain which the state was a party.
- When the Council was abolished in
1834, its judicial functions were Publication during the Spanish Period:
Jurisprudencia Civil II. TRIAL COURTS OF GENERAL JURISDICTION
Jurisprudencia Criminal involves an amount of money or a potential
criminal sentence, beyond the jurisdictions of
C. THE AMERICAN PERIOD with the establishment the MTC, MCTC, MTC.
of the American military government following the a. Regional Trail Courts (Court of First
surrender of Manila to the American army, provost Instance)
courts and military commissions were created. At b. Sharia courts under the Muslim code.
the same time, civil courts were recognized for
certain civil purposes. Subsequently, by Act No. III. THE INTERMEDIATE APPELLATE COURT is the
136 of the Philippine Commission, the existing body that generally has exclusive appellate
courts were abolished and in their place were jurisdiction over the decisions of the Regional
substituted the courts provided in said act.. Trial Courts and other quasi-judicial agencies.
Thereafter, Congress of the United States, through
the Philippine Bill and. Later, the Jones Law, a. Court of Appeals
approved and confirmed the organization of the i. Presiding Justice
courts thus established. As ultimately evolved, the ii. 50 Associate Justice
judiciary system instituted was substantially b. Special appellate courts:
modeled upon English and American prototypes. The Sandiganbayan appellate
However, no division was made of the tribunals jurisdiction over ceratin criminal
into courts of law and courts of equity as they were cases decided by the Regional
known and distinguished in England and most Courts, and also original
jurisdictions of the United States. The same jurisdiction over certain types of
tribunal dispenses both legal and equitable relief. criminal cases
Court of Tax appeals act only
The Audiencia Territorial de Manila on protests of private persons
(Supreme Court) adversely affected by the tax and
o Chief Justice customs laws.
o Eight Associate Justices
Court of First Instance IV. THE COURT OF LAST RESORT (Supreme Court)
The Municipal and the Justice of the at the top of the hierarchy which determines
Peace Courts with finality what the law is and should be. It
has the power to review on appeal or
Note: The uncivilized part of the Archipelago were certiorari final judgments and order of lower
wholly unfitted to exercise the right of trial by courts in certain cases such as when errors or
jury. questions of law are invoked and where the
Constitution or validity of statues are involved.
D. THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM AT PRESENT
It has original jurisdiction over petitions for
certiorari, prohibition, mandamus, quo
I. TRIAL COURTS OF LIMITED JURISDICTION
warranto and habeas corpus.
limited to civil suits involving relatively smaller
amounts of money and to minor violations of
i. Chief Justice
criminal laws. These are the tribunals in which
ii. 14 Associate Justice
most of the controversies that occur in the
community are heard and at least provisionally
DOCTRINE OF PRECEDENT
decided. They are the courts closest to the
people. In this level, justice be administered
a. STARE DECISIS, ET NO QUITA MOVERE what has
fairly and with dignity.
been settled must not be disturbed.
a. Metropolitan trial courts
RES JUDICATA a matter finally decided on its
b. Municipal trial courts
merits by a court having competent jurisdiction
c. Municipal circuit trial courts
and not subject to litigation again between the
same
b. REVERSAL has reference to the action of the the decisions of the Supreme
Supreme Court on a lower court judgments in the Court are published under the
same particular controversy. When the Supreme section Decisions of the
court reviews the judgment of the lower court in a Supreme Court
case and concludes the lower court reached an iii. Philippine Reports from August
erroneous result in the case, it will reverse, set 8, 1901, printed by the Bureau of
aside the lower courts judgment. Printing, now the Government
OVERRULES one of the past decisions of the Printing Office; arranged
Supreme court, the conclusiveness of that earlier according to dates of their
decision as a settlement of its particular promulgation
controversy is not affected, but the overruled iv. Philippine Reports (Reprints)
decision is no longer an authoritative precedent for the destruction of libraries and
other cases that may arise in the future. reserve copies of Philippine
Reports in the Bureau of Printing
c. RATIO DECIDENDI - is the holding of the during the war necessitated the
principle of law on which a case was decided. It reprinting of these reports and
sets the precedent and is binding on courts in the the undertaking was entrusted by
future. the Supreme Court to the
OBITER DICTUM is the language in a decision Lawyers Cooperative Publishing
that is not necessary to the decision. Co.
v. Jurisprudence Filipina Spanish
d. BINDING also called mandatory; when it comes edition of the Philippine Reports,
from the decisions of Supreme Court and it is the also printed by the Bureau of
ratio decidendi of the case. Printing; arranged in the same
PERSUASIVE if the dicta comes from a respected order as that of the Philippine
justice, it may be persuasive to the Court. Reports
Persuasive authority can come from decisions of
appellate courts in other jurisdictions. Unofficial:

a. Philippine Decisions
FORMS OF DECISIONS
b. Philippine Reports Annotated
MAJORITY OPINION / UNANIMOUS c. Philippine Reports Annotated
CONCURRING (Central)
SEPARATE CONCURRING OPINION d. Supreme Courts Reports
SEPARATE OPINION Annotated (SCRA)
DISSENTING e. Supreme Court Decisions (SCD)
f. Philippine Law and
CASE LAW MATERIALS Jurisprudence (PHILJUR)
g. Supreme Court Unpublished
1. Decision proper Decisions (SCUD)
h. Supreme Court Advance
a. Decisions of the Supreme Court Decisions (SCAD)
Official: i. Supreme Court Excerpts (SCEX)
i. Advance Sheet after the finality j. Summary of Supreme courts
of the decision, they are Rulings
published in mimeographed k. Citations: excerpts of Supreme
form; made available to the Court Decisions
bench and the bar at the earliest l. Title Index to Supreme Court
date possible, much earlier than Decisions 1945 1978
their publication m. Supreme Court Decisions Title
ii. Official Gazette official Index 1982-1985
publication of the government n. The Sandiganbayan Reporter
printed by the Bureau of Printing;
o. The PCGG Reporter Agencies with express quasi-judicial
powers agencies given judicial
b. Decision of the Court of Appeals functions over cases which would
i. Appellate Court Reports otherwise go the regular courts of
ii. Advance Sheets justice were it not for the grant of such
iii. Official Gazette powers to these agencies.
iv. Courts of Appeals Reports
v. Court of Appeals Reports i. Insurance Commission
Annotated ii. National Labor Relations
c. Decisions of the Sandiganbayan Commission
i. Sandiganbayan Reports iii. Commission on Elections
ii. Sandiganbayan Reporter iv. Government Service Insurance
d. Decisions of the Court of Tax appeal System
i. Official Gazette v. Social Security System
ii. Court of Tax appeals Digest of vi. National Seamen Board
Cutoms and Real Property Tax vii. Commission on Audit
cases 1. COA Regulations and
iii. Court of Tax appeals Digest of Jurisprudence by Central
internal Revenue Cases by Colon book Supply
Publication viii. Employees Compensation
e. Decisions of the Regional Trail courts Commission
f. Decisions of the Municipal, Municipal ix. Civil Aeronautics Board
Circuit and Metropolitan Trial Courts
Administrative Bodies and Agencies
2. Subordinate Decisions
exercising quasi-judicial functions prepared
a. Decisions of the Senate electoral tribunal by UP Law Center
and house of representative electoral
1. Department of Finance
tribunal
a. Bureau of Internal Revenue
1. HRET Reports: Final Orders, b. Bureau of Customs
Resolutions and Decisions 7 c. Insurance Commission
vols. d. Central Board of Assessment
Appeals
b. Decisions of administrative agencies e. Fiscal Incentives Review
exercising quasi-judicial powers Board
f. Phil. Export and Foreign Loan
Agencies with implied quasi-judicial Guarantees Corp.
powers agencies mostly with g. Phil. Crop Insurance Corp.
investigative functions:
i. Department of Foreign Affairs
ii. Commission on Immigration and 2. Department of Justice
Deportation a. Land Registration Authority
iii. Office of the President b. Commission on Immigration
iv. Secretary of Justice and Deportation (now
v. National Wages Council Bureau of Immigration)
vi. Philippine Patens Office
vii. Bureau of Land Transportation 3. Department of Agriculture
viii. Civil Service Commission a. Sugar Regulatory Authority
ix. Professional Regulatory b. National Irrigation
Commission Administration
x. Tanodbayan (Ombudsman) c. National Meat Inspection
Commission
d. National Food Authority e. Export Processing Zone
e. Quedans Guarantee Fund Authority
Board f. Garments and Textile Export
f. Phil. Coconut Authority Board
g. Bureau of Plant Industry g. Bureau of Product Standards
8. Department of Environment and
4. Department of Public Works and Natural Resources
Highways a. Land Management Bureau
a. Bureau of Research and b. Environment Management
Standards Bureau
b. Metropolitan Waterworks c. Forest Management Bureau
and Sewerage System d. Mines and Geo-Sciences
c. Local Water Utilities Bureau
Administration e. National Electrification
Administration
5. Department of Labor and f. National Quarantine Office
Employment
a. National Labor Relations 9. Department of Transportation and
Commission Communication
b. Phil. Overseas and a. Land Transportation
Employment Administration Franchising and Regulatory
c. National Manpower and Board
Youth Council b. Maritime Industry Authority
d. National Maritime c. Philippine Ports Authority
Polytechnic d. Toll Regulatory Board
e. Employees Compensation e. Civil Aeronautics Board
Commission f. National
f. National Wages Council Telecommunications Bureau
g. Bureau of Labor Relations g. Bureau of Air Transportation
h. Bureau of Working (Air Transportation Office)
Conditions
i. National Conciliation and 10. Others
Mediation Board a. Professional Regulatory
Commission
6. Department of Health b. Security and Exchange
a. Bureau of Food and Drugs Commission
b. Phil. Medical Care c. Social Security Commission
Commission d. Central Bank
c. Dangerous Drugs Board e. Housing and Land Use
d. Bureau of Research and Regulatory Board
Laboratories f. National Bureau of
e. Bureau of Licensing and Investigation
Regulation g. National Land Titles and
Deeds Authority
7. Department of Trade and Industry h. Register of Deeds
a. Bureau of Trade Regulation
and Consumer Protection c. Publications of Administrative Agencies
b. Videogram Regulatory Board Exercising Quasi-Judicial Functions
c. Board of Investments
d. Bureau of Patents, 2. Commission on Elections
Trademark and Technology - The COMELEC has not
published its decisions
3. Civil Service Commission 1. Lex Libris produced by CD Asia,
- Civil Service Board of Appeals Inc., with the following databases:
have been published by author
a. Laws (Philippine Edition),
Rivera
Vol. I;
- annually b. Taxation (Phil. Edition), Vol.
4. Commission on Audit II;
- COA Regulations and c. Jurisprudence (The Phil.
Jurisprudence 1998 by JV Go Supreme Court Reports), Vol.
published by Central Book III
Supply d. Department of Justice
(Opinions of the Secretary),
- COA Decisions Digest (1994-
Vol. IV
2000) by Reynaldo Montalbo e. Local Autonomy and Local
5. National Labor Relations Government, Vol. V
Commission f. Environment and Natural
- Has not published its decisions Resources, Vol. VI
6. Insurance Commission g. Labor and Social Legislation,
- Has not published its decision Vol. VII
h. Elections, Vol. VIII
7. Housing and Land Use Regulatory
i. Trade, Commerce and
Board Industry, Vol. IX
- Human Settlements Regulatory j. Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas,
Commission Legal Digest, 1981, Vol. X
3 vols. k. Securities and Exchange
8. Department of Agrarian Reform Commission, Vol. XI
Adjudication Board
2. Philjuris contains a digitized
- Book entitled Jurisprudence on
compilation of the decisions and
Agrarian Relations by Ibay,
resolutions of the Supreme Court. It
1973
is produced by Gigabytes Research
9. Securities and Exchange
Systems, Inc.
Commission
- SEC Decisions, 1977-1981, LAW BOOKS OF SECONDARY AUTHORITY
published by Legal Database
Systems
- The decision making powers of Works which are not primary authority but which digest,
the SEC were transferred to discuss or analyze legal provisions, judicial decisions or
the regular courts by virtue of define and explain legal doctrines and terms are considered
secondary materials.
the Securities Regulation Code,
RA 8799 These secondary sources can help analyze a problem and
provide research references to both primary sources and
10. Bureau of Internal Revenue other secondary materials.
- Complete Numbered BIR
Rulings by the Career
Development Center A. CASE DIGESTS are compilations of paragraphs
containing concise summaries of points in cases,
- Digest of BIR Rulings by E.O.
grouped under appropriate headings, the chief of
Ordono, 1986 to 1998 which are alphabetically arranged. Each paragraph in
case digests is complete in itself when it has concisely
11. Intellectual Property Office and accurately stated the point decided with reference
- The IPO has not published its to precise facts.
decision
1. Philippine Digest this publication of Lawyers
Coop. was designed as a companion set to the
d. Computerized Legal Research Services Philippine Reports. It has a general scheme of
digesting cases and a system of numerous
references of such American counterparts as those
of the Lawyer Reports Annotated, the American Florenz Regalados Remedial Law
Law Reports, and the United States Court Reports compendium
with modifications to suit Philippine law. Albano Civil Law reviewer
2. Republic of the Philippines Digest this
Bernas The 1987 Philippine constitution
publication also by the Lawyers Coop., dubbed
Republic Digest for short, starts from where the reviewer primer
Philippine Digest leaves off, cover all decisions of Francisco Pre-week Memory Aidfd in all
the Supreme Court from July 4, 1946 through Bar subjects 1997 edition
September 1958, published and unpublished. The
set comprises Volumes 1 to 7 of digest paragraphs, D. LEGAL PERIODICALS the most serious and highly
classified under pertinent topics, and Volume 8 reputed legal periodical are the academic law reviews
devoted to an alphabetically arranged table of are published by virtually all accredited law schools as
cases. Vols. 9-17 cover decisions from 1958 to training grounds for student editors. They contain both
1966. articles by established scholars and student-written
3. Velayos Digest covers not only decisions of comments and case notes. Both lead articles and
Supreme Court but also those of the Court of comments are marked by extensive footnotes, making
Appeals. The main set of 25 vols. Covers the them useful research tools.
leading cases of the Supreme Court and the Court
of Appeals from 1942 to 1960 In addition to general law reviews, there is an ever
4. SCRA Quick-Index Digest this publication by
growing number of specialized academic journals,
Central Lawbook Supply, Inc. has three volumes.
The first two volumes condenses Volumes 1 to 36 focusing on topics from ecology to industrial relations.
of SCRA, while the third volume covers Volumes 37 Most of these are student-edited, but a few specialized
to 61 also of SCRA up to 1974. Every year scholarly journals, such as the American Journal of
thereafter, yearly digests have been coming out Legal History and the Journal of Legal History and the
5. Compendium of Philippine Jurisprudence Journal of Legal Studies, are edited by faculty.
authored by Celso L. Magsino and published by Rex
Book Store, it has 12 volumes containing digests of
Legal Periodicals - Ateneo Law Journal
decisions of the Supreme Court from 1945 to 1980
6. Other Digests the other digests are: Court of Agrarian Relations
a. Armando C. Castillo, Digest of Supreme Journal
Court Decisions, 9 vols. (1951-1964) Far Eastern Law Review
b. Napoleon Garcia, Complete Monthly Francisco College of Law Journal
Digest of Supreme Court Decisions Integrated Bar of the Philippines
c. Navarrete, Digest-Index (of Supreme Court
Journal
Decisions), for 1957 and 1959
d. Jurado, Leading Cases in Civil Law Lawyers Journal
(Supreme Court), for 1958-1960 The Lawyers Review
e. Daniel T. Martinez, Summary of Supreme Lyceum Law Review
Court Rulings, starting from 1986 MLQ Law Quarterly
following the topic classification in the bar Philippine International Law
examination Journal
f. Jesus M. Elbinias, Philippine Judicial
Philippine Labor Law Journal
Weekly
g. Supreme Committee, Supreme Court Philippine Law Journal (of UP)
Digest Philippine Lawyers Association
B. TREATISES AND TEXTBOOKS expositions by legal Journal
writers on statutory law and case law pertaining to a Philippine Tax Journal
particular subject and published in book form. San Beda Law Journal
Tax Quarterly of the Philippines
C. BAR REVIEWERS bar review materials are very helpful
The Law Review (UST)
to fourth year law students and those reviewing for the
bar. They are also very important to legal researchers University of the East Law Journal
because they present a concise presentation of the law, University of Manila Law Gazette
legal doctrines and leading Supreme Court decisions in Journal
capsulized form. They are usually very current and University of San Carlos Law
include the latest SC decisions. Review
Leading Law Journal in the Philippines Philippine Law decisions and treatises. After three volumes, it
Journal of the UP College of Law which has been in stopped.
existence since 1910. It is distinguished by its
scholarly articles, reviews and commentaries. It is The Philippine Legal Encyclopedia Jose Agaton R.
Sibal; published by Central Law Book Publishing Co.
exchanged with leading universities in the United
States and Europe and its articles by leading F. LAW DICTIONARIES are useful for identifying the
Filipino academicians and students of the College definitions of words in their legal sense or use. For each
of Law are recorded in bibliographic listings around word or phrase, a short definition is given. Some also
the world. provide a citation to a court case or other reference
having the source of the word or phrase.
Newspapers daily case digests started by Justice
Federico B. Moreno Diccionario de Administracion de las Islas Filipinas
published in 1887
Manila Times
Daily Mirror Diccionario Juridico Recopilador Martinez de San
Agustin, 1922; a study which included
Bulletin Today chronological and alphabetical indexes of
Times Journal Philippine legislation and jurisprudence.
Daily Express
Philippine Daily Inquirer Philippine Law Dictionary Federico B. Moreno,
Philippine Star 1972; it defined legal terms and phrases that, as
part of our law and jurisprudence, was necessary
Business Day
to a law practitioner. Those definitions are related
to Philippine codes or statues and/or the
E. LEGAL ENCYCLOPEDIA while a textbook deals authoritative court decisions where they may be
with one subject or phrase of a subject of the law, found by citation to specific provisions of law or to
encyclopedia treats of all subjects. It is a reported cases.
comprehensive treatise of the entire field of the
law. This whole field of the law is divided into Dictionary of International Law and Diplomacy
topics arranged in alphabetical order. It presents in Gamboa
concise form, brief but comprehensive statements
of the current law upon said topics. Philippine Labor Dictionary Isidro (1966)
Dictionary of Insurance Terms and Phrases
A legal encyclopedia as distinguished from law Tiopanco (1976)
dictionaries is a subject-book which presents to the
user the means of making his own definitions. It
SEARCH MATERIALS AND FINDING TOOLS
deals with a whole field of law as distinguished
from treatise which treats of a portion of the
subject. It gives a literary statement of the law as
There have been a large volume of statutory law and case
distinguished from digests which presents isolated
law that have been churned out by our legislative mill and
summaries of points of law.
judicial branch of government since 1900 and the legal
researcher needs some means of subject access into this
Cyclopedia of Philippine Law first attempt to
large body of law. The effective operation of the doctrine of
publish a legal encyclopedia in the Philippines, to
precedent requires that prior decisions be easily available.
be authored by Alvir & Associates. However, only
Without a topical approach to legal sources, researchers
the first volume containing a textual treatment of
could not find existing decisions or statues on point.
the law from A to C was publish.
We therefore need search materials and finding tools for
Encyclopedia of Philippine Law and Jurisprudence legal research. The purpose of these materials and tools is
(Pedro Venida) only its first volume had been not to persuade, nor do they themselves have any primary
published or persuasive authority. They are only means for locating
primary sources. It is then necessary to read those primary
Philippine Tax Reporters specialized sources to determine their applicability to a particular
encyclopedia on taxation; advertised as a 25- situation. In legal research, as in other sense of relevance
volume cyclopedia, with annual supplements; deals a keen appreciation of which sources are legally and
extensively with the National Internal Revenue factually relevant to the specific inquiry.
Code, special tax laws, tax rulings, circulars,
A. CITATORS supply references to decisions in which
other cases have been cited, reviewed, affirmed, 1. Indexes to the Public Laws of the Philippine
reversed, overruled, criticized or commented upon, and Islands
to cases in which statutes have been construed, and to 2. Indexes to the Public Laws of the
statutes in which prior acts have been amended, Commonwealth
renewed or repealed. 3. Laws and Resolutions Index
4. Philippine Annotated Laws (P.A.L.) Index
Philippine Citations first citator published in the 5. Index to Republic Acts Moran
Philippines; Dizon (1937); 2 volumes which contain 6. Subject Index to Presidential Decrees and
complete citations found in Vols. 2 to 64 of the other Presidential Issuances (until 1978)
Philippine Reports and in the Official Gazette to 7. Index Guide of Vital Legal Documents
April 1947 (including occupation issues) of the 8. Index Isabelo Moran (Presidential Decrees)
decisions of the Supreme Court and the Court of 9. Index in the Philippine Permanent and General
Appeals as well as of Philippine laws, including Statutes
Royal Decrees and Orders, Ordinances of the City 10. Commonwealth Acts Annotated Guevarra
of Manila, and other matters. 11. Public Laws of the Commonwealth Jacobo
12. Guevarras Annotated Laws
This citatory provides the researcher with 13. Philippine Treaties Index
knowledge at a glance whether a given reported
Philippine decision has been overruled, criticized, Philippine Digest Vols. 18-19
limited in its application, distinguished or followed Republic of the Philippines Digest Vols. 6, 9 11
in subsequent reported decisions. Likewise, by and 13
consulting the citations to codes and statutes, the Ateneo de Manila Libraries Index covering 1911
researcher will have before him all reported to 1975 of Supreme Court Decisions
Philippine decisions wherein a particular Philippine Title Index to Supreme Court Decisions Milagros
statute has been cited, invoked, applied, construed Santos Ong; 1945-1978 with 1978-1982
or discussed. supplement
SCRA Quick-Index
Philippine Citations next citatory publish in the UP Law Library with card indexes to legal
Philippines in 1964 by Paras; 2 vols., Volume 1 periodicals
deals with citations covering Vols. 1 to 82 of the
Philippine Reports and issues of the Official
Gazette from 1942 to 1962. Volume 2 contains C. BIBLIOGRAPHIES a list of descriptions of published
code citations, statute citations, and citations of materials either relating to a given subject, or by a
administrative rules as well as Spanish laws applied given author. A bibliography of law books may refer to
to the Philippines. a list of an authors legal works, or of the literature
bearing on a particular subject or field of law.
Philippine Citator contained in Volume 11 of the
Philippine Digest. It lists all the citations in the 1. Philippine Legal Bibliography Justice Federico
Philippine Reports, the Supreme Court of Spain, B. Moreno (1973)
the United States Supreme Court, the other 2. Handbook on Legal Bibliography Andres
Federal Courts, and the courts of various states Soriano (11984)
and territories of the United States. 3. A Guide to Philippine Legal Materials
Citations in the decisions of the Supreme Court, Fortunato Gupit and Daniel Martinez (1993)
Court of Appeals, and Court of Tax Appeals,
reported in Vol. 52 of the Official Gazette are
contained in the Citator which forms part of the
1956 Official Gazette Desk Book. For 1959 Supreme
Court Decisions, a citatory is offered in Navarretes
Digest-Index. Citations are also included in each
volume of the Philippine Reports.

B. INDEXES usually means a subject-index which is like


the index found in textbooks, statutes, etc. A subject
index is an alphabetically arranged topical words in
which, by means of references under each topic,
materials relating to these topics expressed in
appropriate words is digested.