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Japanese Pavilion Expo 2000

Introduction

Architect: Shigeru Ban, Frei Otto

Function: Exhibition Hall

The Japanese pavilion for Expo 2000 in Hanover was designed by Shigeru Ban in collaboration with Frei Otto and Buro Hapold. The main theme of the
Hanover Expo was the environment and the basic concept behind the Japan Pavilion was to create a structure that would produce as little industrial
waste as possible when it was dismantled.The goal was either recycle or reuse almost all materials that were used in the building. The first idea to the
structure tunnel arch was performed using paper tubes. Shigeru Ban proposed a grid shell using long paper tubes .

Materials
Cardboard Paper Tubes Glulam (Glued Polyester Fabric Tape PVC coated Paper
laminated timbers) Connection of the cardboard Membrane Roof
The main structure of the
pavilion is made of recycled For additional structural tubes as they were suitable Paper roof membrane is
pressed paper tubes that support, glulam timbers were and strong enough to bind covered with an additional
were easy to dismantle and used to act as the beams and harnesses which allow for easy layer of PVC fabric to
to be recycled after demolition. ladder-girders for the structure. manual construction and provide adequate fire
To prevent water infiltration, Because glulam is made up of dismantling. The characteristic protection.
waterproof layers are rolled into many laminates, the end of the tape also provided
the tubes and then coated with product is stronger than solid tension to strengthen the
paraffin wax and strengthened timber. structure.
with glue.

Structural Analysis
Gridshell Shell Strengthening
steel cable ties

The lattice shell of main hall consisted of a grid of cardboard tubes, can resist axial forces The paper tube between the parallel laths increase the shells stiffness;
in the direction of the lath. steel cable ties increase tension which provide diagonal stiffness to
The structure is reinforced with curved timber ladder girders with the steel stays, which the grid structures which was provided by the lashed tying method.
perform the main load bearing function.

Load Distribution
Structural Load High Tension & Compression Tension
I Compression
N
Load Density

Compressive Strength The nature of the gridshell arc uses tension to push
The highest point of the grid shell carries the the grid outwards at the apex of the building.
T least amount of load, as the loads are Whereas compression flow down along the valley
E transfered to the lower part of the curve. The and groove of the building towards the foundation.
bottom part of the grid shell carries the
R Low
maximum load of the whole structure.
The load is transferred from the paper tubes structure
to the base where it has the highest pressure. The
N compressive strengths create a balanced system to
A support the whole structure of the building.
L

Wind Load Lifting Snow Load


E
X Uplifting Force When the snow is collected on the roof, the load
Uplifting Force
T Wind loads were supported by the strength compresses in the valleys of the building. The
E of the strained timber truss ladder. This compression forces then transferred down to the
support is were placed in order to resist the foundation. Compressive strength act in the
R wind load, ensuring the pavilions structural opposite way that balanced out the forces caused
N safety. by the snow. These forces work in unison in the
gridshell structure through the laths to carry the
A
Structural Force load evenly to the ground.
L Structural Force
Snow Load
Compression
Compressive Strength

Construction Process
3. Gradually pushed up by the use 5. Finally, the structure was covered
1. In-plane webbing restraints of a precise proprietary jacking with a recyclable paper membrane
were used to allow for the system called the MULTI-PROP system which provided fire and water-proofing.
sliding of the paper tubes and into the final shape of the building
to control the change in over a 3 week period.
direction from a flat lattice mat (Start at the middle of the building
into a 3D form. and then expanded simultaneously
2. Laying out the cardboard towards each end.)
tubes flat in their grid on a
temporary modular scaffold 4. This structure was lifted
system PERI-UP at low level. up by a crane formed over
a mould to shape the
gridshell form.

Model Making Process

2. The strips are placed into 3. The strips are tied with fishing 4. All the knots are tighten 5. Carboard ladders 6. Ladders are placed 7. Lastly, butter paper is used as
1. Cut strips from the wire mesh to form the are made for onto the lattice grid the paper membrane to present
wire into place. by using the pliers.
brown board. shape of the pavilion. structural support. structure. the covering layer of the building.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 2 | BLD 60703 | PROJECT 2: UNDERSTANDING FORCES IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION | MR EDWIN | DANA KAN JIA TORNG 0323648 | WEE SUE WEN 0322633 | YANG JING LOO 0323066
Drawings
Roof Plan Floor Plan Section a-a
Scale 1:750 Scale 1:750 1:500

a
12500 12500 12500 12500 12500 12500
4800

2400 16150 12650 4800

b b
28800

Cable
Construction Gridshell
Ramp Support

Mass of Support
Compacted Gravel Layer for Load Distribution

E1 a

Elevation 1 Section b -b
Scale 1:500 1:500

Model Section

Construction Details
7
6m Gl
m ula
cy m
lin tim
de be
ric rm
al em
tim
be be
Sc r in rs
rew se
s rt

1
20
m
m
Ca
rd
boa
rd
Tu
b es

Tube Joint
Scale 1:8

Polyester fabric
tape

Lashing Method
Scale 1:10
Timber Girder Ladder Trusses and
Lattice Grid Shell Connection Lattice Grid Shell Connection
Scale 1:40
Scale 1:40

PVC coated polyester fabric

PVC coated Bolts and Nuts


polyester fabric

120mm Cardboard paper tubes


Timber ladder girder with
metal joints
Steel cable
ties

Foundation:
Steel Construction
filled with sand

U-shaped
Cardboard tube grid shell metal brackets

Steel brackets

Steel foundations

Foundation and Gridshell Connection


Scale 1:10
Foundation section Foundation Elevation
Scale 1:40 Scale 1:40

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 2 | BLD 60703 | PROJECT 2: UNDERSTANDING FORCES IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION | MR EDWIN | DANA KAN JIA TORNG 0323648 | WEE SUE WEN 0322633 | YANG JING LOO 0323066