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A.H.E.A.

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MDS / ADC / NBDE Coaching

AHEAD QUICK REVIEW NOTES

Concepts To Remember

DENTAL ANATOMY &


HISTOLOGY

Academy of Higher Education and Advancements in Dentistry (A.H.E.A.D)


57/11, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi 110060
Ph: 011- 25716297, 9810187297
Email- ahead_academy@yahoo.com

www.aheadacademy.com
AHEAD Test and Discussions DENTAL ANATOMY & HISTOLOGY
1. The premolar which is most often double rooted is the:
A. maxillary first B. maxillary second C. mandibular first D. mandibular second

The correct answer is A. Maxillary first premolars are almost always double rooted. When single rooted, they always have two
separate root canals. The level of division of the two roots varies, from complete division up to the crown, to only a small
separation apically. The mandibular first premolar is most often singlerooted, and the mandibular second premolar is almost
always single rooted (double roots are rarer than in the mandibular first). The maxillary second premolar is most often single
rooted. The extreme likelihood that the maxillary first premolar will have two roots has implications for both endodontics and
exodontia of this tooth. It is also reported that some small percentage (5% in one study) are actually triple rooted.

2. In centric occlusion, the mesiolingual cusp of the maxillary first molar will contact:
A. the mesial marginal ridge of the mandibular first premolar and distal marginal ridge of the second premolar
B. the distal marginal ridge of the mandibular first molar and distal marginal ridge of the second molar
C. the distal marginal ridge of the mandibular second premolar and mesial marginal ridge of the first molar
D. the central fossa of the mandibular first molar

The correct answer is D. The mesiolingual cusp of a maxillary molar is a holding cusp. The general rule for maxillary holding
cusps is as follows: a maxillary holding cusp contacts the distal marginal ridge of its mandibular counterpart and the mesial
marginal ridge of the mandibular tooth distal to its counterpart, EXCEPT FOR THE MESIOLINGUAL CUSPS OF THE
MOLARS, WHICH CONTACT THE CENTRAL FOSSAE OF THEIR COUNTERPARTS. This should be the central fossa of
the counterpart, the mandibular first molar.

3. A rule regarding congenitally missing teeth is:


A. A mandibular tooth is more likely to be missing than its maxillary counterpart
B. A distal tooth of a type is more likely to be missing than the mesial tooth of the same type
C. A mesial tooth of a type is more likely to be missing than a distal tooth of the same type D. None of the above is true

The correct answer is B. In any set of teeth (incisor, premolar, molar), the distal tooth is more likely to be congenitally missing
than the mesial. So lateral incisors are missing more than centrals, second premolars are missing more than first premolars, and
third molars are more commonly missing than first or second. Of all of these, the MOST commonly missing is the maxillary
lateral incisor.

4. The crowns of the incisors when viewed from the incisal


A. are wider mesiodistally than buccolingually in both arches
B. are wider buccolingually than mesiodistally in both arches
C. are wider mesiodistally in the maxilla, and wider buccolingually in the mandible
D. are wider mesiodistally in the mandible and wider mesiodistally in the maxilla

The correct answer is C. This is known as an arch trait, as it is true for both incisors of each arch. Both incisors of the maxilla are
wider mesiodistally. Both incisors of the mandible are wider buccolingually. The maxillary central, in particular, is known for the
greatest assymetry in this regard. It is much wider mesiodistally than buccolingually, and that difference, expressed as a ratio, is
greatest for that incisor. It is also the largest incisor, in both dimensions, in absolute size.

5. Which of the following will cause reduction of the size of the pulp chamber in mid-life?
A. Formation of primary dentin B. Formation of secondary dentin
C. Internal resorption D. External resorption

The correct answer is B. Primary dentin surrounds the pulp chamber when the tooth is first formed and erupts. It is the initial
dentin that makes up the base of both the crown and root. If the young tooth has a given size pulp chamber, further dentin
formation, secondary dentin, later in life, will begin to fill the chamber with dentin, making it smaller. Internal resorption is loss of
dentin, resulting in a larger pulp chamber. External resorption involves the exterior of the root and does not change the pulp
chamber size.

6. The largest root of the maxillary first molar is the:


A. mesiobuccal B. distobuccal C. palatal D. varies depending on the individual tooth

The correct answer is C. The palatal or lingual root of the maxillary first molar is the most massive by far. It is normally straight
but palatally inclined, giving the three roots a tripod-like appearance. The mesiobuccal root is second in size, and the distobuccal
is smallest. The mesiobuccal is often curved distally and the distobuccal curved mesially. This pliers-like appearance is not found
in the maxillary second and third molars.

Academy of Higher Education and Advancements in Dentistry (A.H.E.A.D)


57 / 11, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi 110060.
Ph: 011 - 25716297, 9810187297. Email- ahead_academy@yahoo.com www.aheadacademy.com
AHEAD Test and Discussions DENTAL ANATOMY & HISTOLOGY
7. Which is the first primary tooth to erupt?
A. Mandibular central B. Mandibular lateral C. Maxillary central D. Maxillary lateral
The correct answer is A. If you see enough small children in your practice, you'll often notice that a 6-month-old child will have
only two teeth: the two mandibular centrals. These are commonly the first teeth to erupt, and most commonly do so at 6 months.
Mandibular laterals are often seen at about 9 months. Maxillary centrals and maxillary laterals average about 8 months. First
molars then precede canines in both arches, and second molars are last in both arches. The last primary is usually the maxillary
second molar at about 24 months. These times may vary considerably. Know the most common order: central, lateral, first molar,
canine, second molar.

8. In performing a left working movement:


A. Only the left lateral pterygoid contracts B. Only the right lateral pteyrgoid contracts
C. Both lateral pterygoids contract D. Neither lateral pterygoid contracts
The correct answer is B. In a left working movement, the mandible moves toward the left. The left side is then known as the
working side and the right side as the nonworking (balancing) side. The lateral pterygoids pull the mandibular condyles forward,
so the pull of both together results in protrusion. For only a left-sided movement, the left lateral pterygoid does not contract and
the left condyle stays in a relatively unchanging position (it does rotate slightly). The right lateral pterygoid contracts and pulls the
right side of the mandible outward, and then it turns left, as the left side of the mandible is stationary. Remember that the right
lateral pterygoid moves the mandible left, and the left lateral pterygoid moves the mandible right.
9. On which premolar can you see more of the occlusal table from the mesial than from the distal?
A. Maxillary first B. Maxillary second C. Mandibular first D. Mandibular second
The correct answer is C. The mandibular first premolar is the exception to premolar form in many ways. It is canine-like with a
reduced lingual cusp, resembling a cingulum. Its occlusal table tilts downward from buccal to lingual in a slanted fashion. It is
also slightly higher on the distal side than the mesial, and its mesial marginal ridge is less prominent than its distal marginal ridge.
This means that in a mesial view you can see some of the occlusal table because it slants toward you. From the distal view, this is
not true. The higher distal end blocks any occlusal view from that direction.

10. At the cervical line, a cross section of the mandibular canine would show:
A. a round shape B. an oval shape wider on the lingual than the labial
C. a triangular shape with a distinctly wider labial surface D. an oval shape with a slightly wider labial surface
The correct answer is D. The mandibular and maxillary canines exhibit similar cross sectional shapes at the cervical line. The
mandibular canine cross section is oval and flattened mesiodistally. It is generally slightly wider at the labial end than at the
lingual. The pulp cavity at this point is lens-shaped, double convex.

11. In a mandibular first molar, which pulp horn is likely to be smallest?


A. Mesiobuccal B. Mesiolingual C. Distobuccal D. Distal
The correct answer is D. The first is that the mandibular first molar is a five-cusped tooth. The second is that the pulpal anatomy
reflects the cuspal anatomy (or vice versa). Tall, large cusps are likely to have tall, large pulp horns. Small cusps generally have
small associated pulp horns. In this case, the distal cusp is generally the smallest of the cusps of the mandibular first molar.

12. The premolar most likely to have a three-cusped appearance when viewed from the occlusal is the:
A. maxillary first B. maxillary second
C. mandibular first D. mandibular second
The correct answer is D. The premolars are usually considered to be two-cusped teeth (bicuspids). The exception to the rule, to a
small extent, is the mandibular second premolar. Often, the lingual cusp area is divided into a mesiolingual cusp and a distolingual
cusp. This gives the tooth a three-cusped appearance. A two-cusped variety also exists, with a large lingual cusp instead of the two
smaller ones. In the three-cusped variety, a lingual groove separates the two lingual cusps. Note that the two-cusped and three-
cusped varieties are not grossly different in size, as the single lingual cusp is about the same size as a mesioloingual and
distolingual combined. The other premolars exist primarily in double-cusped varieties only.

13.The distolingual cusp of the mandibular first molar contacts:


A. the lingual embrasure between the maxillary first molar and second premolar
B. the lingual groove of the maxillary second molar
C. the central fossa of the maxillary first molar
D. the lingual groove of the maxillary first molar

Academy of Higher Education and Advancements in Dentistry (A.H.E.A.D)


57 / 11, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi 110060.
Ph: 011 - 25716297, 9810187297. Email- ahead_academy@yahoo.com www.aheadacademy.com
AHEAD Test and Discussions DENTAL ANATOMY & HISTOLOGY
The correct answer is D. Lingual cusps of mandibular teeth are guiding cusps, not holding cusps. Therefore, they do not occlude
on marginal ridges or central fossae. The general rule for mandibular lingual cusps is that they occlude in the lingual embrasures
between their maxillary counterparts and the teeth mesial to their counterparts, EXCEPT for the distolingual cusps of the
mandibular molars, which occlude in the lingual grooves of their maxillary counterparts. In this question we are dealing with the
exception of the distolingual cusps of mandibular molars, so in this case, the mandibular first molar distolingual cusp contacts the
lingual groove of its counterpart (the maxillary first molar).

14. Which of the premolars is most likely to have a pronounced mesial marginal groove extending into a pronounced
mesial root concavity?
A. Maxillary first B. Maxillary second C. Mandibular first D. Mandibular second
The correct answer is A. The mesial marginal groove, extending from the marginal ridge, along the mesial side of the crown into
the proximal area (mesial concavity) and down into the mesial root concavity, is a characteristic of many maxillary first
premolars. This has implications for both calculus removal (scaling and root planing) and restoration (placement of well adapted
matrix bands). It is not found in the other premolars, although they may sometimes have some less pronounced root concavities.
Root concavities are less common and less pronounced in the mandibular premolars.

15. At age 6 1/2, an average child is MOST likely to have how many erupted permanent teeth? (Assume that you average
the
teeth present in a sample of 100 children).
A. 4-8 B. 9-12 C. 13-16 D. 17-20
The correct answer is A. This can vary considerably, but using average eruptions, all permanent first molars usually erupt at
around age 6 to 7, so four first molars are likely. Rule out all premolars, which generally erupt between age 9 and 12. Likewise,
canines usually erupt between age 9 and 12. For the incisors, usually the mandibular centrals are in at about age 6, so that makes
eight so far. Mandibular laterals and maxillary centrals and laterals usually erupt between 7 and 9 years. So the average 6-year-old
has all first molars and mandibular centrals as erupted permanent teeth.

16. The major function of contact points in the dentition is to:


A. protect the incisal surface B. protect the periodontium
C. protect the alveolar mucosa D. protect restorations from poor retention
The correct answer is B. Contacts ensure that food does not get lodged between teeth and into the sulcus. Food, debris, and plaque
in that area will lead to inflammation, tissue destruction, and bone loss. Contacts do not protect the incisal surface, as they are
below (cervical to) that area. They do protect the gingiva, but not especially the alveolar mucosa, which is more cervical and
basically below the tooth region. The alveolar mucosa begins at the mucogingival junction. Contact is not involved in restoration
retention. All restorations must be retained by retention within the individual tooth itself.

17. The maxillary canine has:


A. a mesial marginal ridge only B. a distal marginal ridge only
C. neither a mesial nor distal marginal ridge D. both a mesial and distal marginal ridge
The correct answer is D. as they are less distinct than on the posterior teeth; and in the posterior teeth, they are often points of
occlusal contact. However, the maxillary canine, as well as other anterior teeth, does have both a mesial and distal marginal ridge.
The lingual anatomy of the maxillary canine has a cusp tip, with mesial and distal marginal ridges sloping down from it. Centrally,
a lingual ridge splits the lingual surface in two. In between the marginal ridge and the lingual ridge, we find two depressions, the
mesiolingual fossa and the distolingual fossa.

18. As the tooth bud develops into a tooth, the ameloblasts and odontoblasts:
A. become farther apart B. become closer together
C. stay approximately the same distance apart D. are always immediately next to each other
The correct answer is A. Early in tooth bud formation, the tissues of the enamel organ-outer enamel epithelium, stellate reticulum,
stratum intermedium, and inner enamel epithelium-form adjacent to the dentin-forming tissues of the dental papilla. In fact, at this
stage, the ameloblasts and future odontoblasts are in contact along the length of the tooth bud. The dentin production begins first,
and predentin is laid down by odontoblasts. This predentin production induces the ameloblasts to begin enamel production by
cells of the inner enamel epithelium. Thus, dentin is produced above the odontoblasts while enamel is formed below the inner
enamel epithelium. Both dentin and enamel are deposited between these two layers, and the former site of the junction of the two
layers becomes the DEJ, or dento-enamel junction. By tooth completion, the enamel organ is at the surface of the gingiva while
the odontoblasts are producing dentin for the tooth root. Thus, these cell layers are very far apart at this point.

Academy of Higher Education and Advancements in Dentistry (A.H.E.A.D)


57 / 11, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi 110060.
Ph: 011 - 25716297, 9810187297. Email- ahead_academy@yahoo.com www.aheadacademy.com
AHEAD Test and Discussions DENTAL ANATOMY & HISTOLOGY
19. In extraction of maxillary central incisors, the root anatomy guides the dentist to use a motion that is primarily:
A. buccal-lingual luxation B. mesio-distal luxation
C. rotation D. all of the above

The correct answer is C. One of the best reasons to know standard and unusual root shapes for the various maxillary and
mandibular teeth is to use the correct motion on the forceps when performing extractions. In general, rounded roots are primarily
rotated, including the maxillary central incisors and maxillary canines. All double and triple rooted teeth cannot be rotated and
must be luxated in the buccal and lingual directions. Mesial-distal motion is normally ruled out because of the existence of
adjacent teeth. It is used in rare cases where there is no mesial and distal adjacent tooth. The maxillary central is invariably single
rooted with a rounded root, and can almost always be rotated without breaking the crown off of the root.

20. The most common number of mammelons on an incisor is:


A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4

The correct answer is C. Mammelons are bumps on the incisal edge of incisors. They are most commonly found on central
incisors of both arches, and if found on the laterals, they are less prominent than those found on the centrals. There are normally
three, but this is variable. The three are termed mesial, central, and distal. They are often worn off on adult teeth through years of
occlusion.

21. As you go from mandibular first to second to third molars, overall root length:
A. increases, then decreases B. increases
C. decreases D. decreases, then increases

The correct answer is C. While the mandibular third molar is often so variable that it is hard to make useful predictions about it,
these generalities apply to mandibular first, second, and third molars as you move distally in the arch: 1) they decrease in
mesiodistal length, and 2) their roots decrease in length. Third-molar roots may resemble normal molars or may be missing roots
or have additional roots. Roots are often partially or totally fused. In some cases they form a cone-like, fused mass, making
exodontia much simpler in these cases. In all cases, however, their roots are shorter than those of their second-molar counterparts,
which are always smaller than those of the first molars.

22. Incisal contact between the maxillary and mandibular incisors is seen normally:
A. in centric occlusion B. in working movements
C. in protrusive movements D. in retrusive movements

The correct answer is C. Posterior contact is normal during centric occlusion and maintains the vertical dimension of occlusion. In
a normal dentition, however, the incisors are slightly out of contact during centric occlusion. When the mandible moves forward
(protrusion), the incisal edges of the mandibular anteriors meet the lingual surfaces of their maxillary counterparts as the teeth
separate during opening. (Try it in your mouth!). Note that during retrusion (moving the mandible from centric occlusion to a
more distal position), no such contact occurs. During working (lateral) movements, only posterior teeth and canines contact (group
function), or canines contact alone (canine/cuspid protected guidance).

23. Severing the left lateral pterygoid will cause the mandible to move in what direction if the patient attempts to
protrude?
A. Posteriorly B. Closure (elevation) C. Right D. Left

The correct answer is D. If you like rules, the rule is that if a lateral pterygoid is injured, the mandible moves toward the injured
side. If you wish to understand this rule better, imagine two intact lateral pterygoids protruding the mandible normally. Now cut
the left lateral pterygoid, and imagine that the left side stays in place but the right side continues to protrude. In effect, the
mandible will rotate around the axis of the left side. The left side stays in place while the right side rotates left. Lateral pterygoids
have little effect on closing.

24. Which characteristic is NOT typical of lining mucosa?


A. Nonkeratinized B. Lines the surface of the hard palate
C. Freely moveable D. Contains a well developed submucosa

The correct answer is B. Lining mucosa covers most of the oral cavity except for the hard palate and gingival areas. It is usually
loose, freely movable, and has a well-developed submucosa. The lamina propria is often highly glandular. The epithelium is thin
and nonkeratinized. Epithelial ridges and rete pegs are uncommon and short.

Academy of Higher Education and Advancements in Dentistry (A.H.E.A.D)


57 / 11, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi 110060.
Ph: 011 - 25716297, 9810187297. Email- ahead_academy@yahoo.com www.aheadacademy.com
AHEAD Test and Discussions DENTAL ANATOMY & HISTOLOGY
25. Which ligament of the temporomandibular joint merges with the fibers of the articular capsule?
A. Lateral B. Stylomandibular C. Sphenomandibular D. None of the above

The correct answer is A. The lateral ligament, also known as the temporomandibular ligament, is found extending downward from
the lateral surface of the zygoma. The zygoma is formed from the contact of the zygomatic section of the temporal bone and the
temporal portion of the zygomatic bone. The ligament is roughly triangular in shape, and on its medial side is found the articular
capsule and joint. Fibrous connective tissue composes both the ligament and capsule, and there is a fibrous connection between
them.

26. The central portion of the articular disc of the TMJ is best described as:
A. convex and avascular B. convex and vascular
C. concave and avascular D. concave and vascular

The correct answer is C. The articular disc of the TMJ is composed of fibrous connective tissue. Some sources state that
chondrocytes are found within it, so it is sometimes referred to as fibrous connective tissue with an underlying base of
fibrocartilage. Its shape is biconcave, somewhat like that of an erythrocyte, with a raised outer portion and depressed middle. The
central portion is avascular, and only the periphery, especially the posterior periphery is vascularized.

27. The tissue located between the inner and outer enamel epithelium is known as:
A. stellate reticulum B. dental sac C. dental papilla D. enamel organ

The correct answer is A. The stellate reticulum is an ectodermal tissue located between the inner and outer enamel epithelium. The
stellate, or star-like, appearance of the tissue is caused by the arrangement of few cells within a network, separated by intracellular
fluid. The inner enamel epithelium will differentiate into ameloblasts and form enamel. The outer enamel epithelium eventually
merges with the gingiva as the tooth erupts. A small cell layer between the inner enamel epithelium and stellate reticulum is
referred to as the stratum intermedium. Its presence is necessary for proper ameloblast function. The dental sac is mesodermal and
forms cementum and the periodontal ligament. The dental papilla is mesodermal and forms pulp and dentin. The enamel organ
consists of inner and outer enamel epithelium, stellate reticulum and stratum intermedium and forms enamel. It is ectodermal in
origin.

28.Which ligament of the temporomandibular joint inserts into the ramus and angle of the mandible?
A. Temporomandibular B. Stylomandibular C. Sphenomandibular D. Lateral

The correct answer is B. The origins and insertions of the TMJ ligaments are as follows: The stylomandibular ligament arises
from the spine of the temporal bone known as the styloid process and inserts on the lower ramus and angle of the mandible. The
sphenomandibular ligament arises from a spine on the sphenoid bone and runs forward and downward to insert on the lingula and
deep ramus of the mandible. The lateral ligament is also known as the temporomandibular ligament. It descends from the lower
border and tubercle of the zygoma to the posterior lateral condyle. Its fibers merge with those of the articular capsule.

29. The premolar with a root cross section and pulp chamber shape at the cervical line which is most similar to that of a
canine is the:
A. mandibular first B. mandibular second C. maxillary first D. maxillary second

The correct answer is A. the mandibular first premolar is the most canine-like premolar tooth in almost every way. However, in
detail, the mandibular first premolar has a round root cross section and a roundish pulp chamber at the cervix. The second
premolar has a generally more flattened shape in the mesiodistal direction and a correspondingly oval pulp chamber. It may be
constricted at the center with a corresponding hourglass shape. The maxillary first premolar root is flatttened mesiodistally, as is
the pulp chamber. It is usually constricted at the center, indicating the two roots and two canals found in the tooth. The second
maxilllary premolar, with one root, is less likely to be constricted into an hourglass shape.

30. The mucosa found on the surface of the dorsum of the tongue is known as:
A. lining mucosa B. masticatory mucosa C. specialized mucosa D. none of the above

The correct answer is C. Specialized mucosa is found on the dorsum of the tongue and contains taste buds and various papillae,
including circumvallate, foliate, fungiform, and filiform. Masticatory mucosa consists of the gingiva and covering of the hard
palate. Most of the other areas of the oral cavity are lined by lining mucosa. The characteristics of masticatory mucosa are
keratinization, thin or absent submucosa, and tight binding of the lamina propria to underlying periosteum. Lining mucosa is
generally nonkeratinized, with a thin lamina propria. Near the teeth, the gingiva and lining mucosa (alveolar mucosa) meet at the
mucogingival junction.

Academy of Higher Education and Advancements in Dentistry (A.H.E.A.D)


57 / 11, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi 110060.
Ph: 011 - 25716297, 9810187297. Email- ahead_academy@yahoo.com www.aheadacademy.com
AHEAD Test and Discussions DENTAL ANATOMY & HISTOLOGY
31. Extreme bruxism over time may cause masseteric hypertrophy. It can be noted on the face as:
A. Swelling in the area of the temporal fossa B. Swelling in the lateral mandibular ramus area
C. Swelling on the medial surface of the jaw D. Loss of muscle substance near the ramus

The correct answer is B. Masseteric hypertrophy means gain in muscle substance of the masseter muscle. The masseter is located
on the lateral part of the ramus and angle, and its growth in thickness can be seen as a squareness of the lower face on frontal
view. People who brux (express tension by clenching their teeth) often develop this larger-than-normal size masseter. It can
sometimes be confused with parotid swelling, although the parotids are slightly higher in location. Remember that the medial
pterygoid is medial, not lateral, to the ramus. Loss of muscle substance would be atrophy rather than hypertrophy.

32. The mesiobuccal cusp of the mandibular first molar occludes with which maxillary tooth surfaces?
A. The mesial marginal ridge of the first molar and distal marginal ridge of the second premolar
B. The distal marginal ridge of the first molar and mesial marginal ridge of the second molar
C. The embrasure between the first and second molars D. The distal triangular fossa of the first molar

The correct answer is A. The mesiobuccal cusp of a mandibular molar is a holding (supporting) cusp. The general rule of
occlusion of mandibular holding cusps is as follows: the holding cusps of the mandibular teeth occlude on the mesial marginal
ridge of their maxillary counterpart, and the distal marginal ridge of the maxillary tooth mesial to their counterpart, EXCEPT
DISTOBUCCAL CUSPS OF MANDIBULAR MOLARS OCCLUDE WITH CENTRAL FOSSAE OF THEIR
COUNTERPARTS, THE DISTAL CUSP OF THE MANDIBULAR FIRST MOLAR OCCLUDES WITH THE DISTAL
TRIANGULAR FOSSA OF ITS COUNTERPART, AND THE FIRST PREMOLAR OCCLUDES ONLY WITH THE MESIAL
MARGINAL RIDGE OF ITS COUNTERPART (BUT NOT THE CANINE). In this case, the maxillary counterpart is the
maxillary first molar, and the tooth mesial to it is the second premolar.

33. Which is the most common supernumerary tooth?


A. Mesiodens B. Second lateral incisor C. Third mandibular D. Fourth maxillary molar

The correct answer is A. A mesiodens is a supernumerary located midline in the maxilla. It has a wide variety in morphology and
is usually extracted. It is the most common and frequently causes a diastema between the central incisors. The other relatively
common supernumeraries are the second maxillary lateral incisor, third mandibular premolar, and fourth maxillary molar.

34. Which cusp of the maxillary molar is NOT part of the trigon (primitive cusp triangle)?
A. Mesiolingual B. Mesiobuccal C. Distolingual D. Distobuccal

The correct answer is C. In evolution, three cusps of the maxillary molar are considered to be the primary cusp triangle, and the
original three cusps of the evolving molar. They form the trigon, and are the MB, ML, and DB cusps. The fourth cusp, the DL, is
the smallest, is considered to be a minor cusp, and is known evolutionarily as the talon, or talon cusp. This cusp is less
conspicuous as you go from first to second to third maxillary molar.

35. Which factor does NOT affect pulp cavity size in a tooth?
A. Caries B. Age of tooth C. Action of dentin-forming ameloblasts D. Abrasion

The correct answer is C. odontoblasts, as dentin formers, influence pulp size because the pulp is surrounded by dentin. Caries may
cause deposition of reparative or secondary dentin. The same is true for other factors, such as abrasion, heavy occlusal wear,
erosion, etc. Pulp tends to become smaller and more calcified with age, so age is also a factor.

36. A rule regarding congenitally missing teeth is:


A . A mandibular tooth is more likely to be missing than its maxillary counterpart
B. A distal tooth of a type is more likely to be missing than the mesial tooth of the same type
C. A mesial tooth of a type is more likely to be missing than a distal tooth of the same type
D. None of the above is true

The correct answer is B. In any set of teeth (incisor, premolar, molar), the distal tooth is more likely to be congenitally missing
than the mesial. So lateral incisors are missing more than centrals, second premolars are missing more than first premolars, and
third molars are more commonly missing than first or second.

Academy of Higher Education and Advancements in Dentistry (A.H.E.A.D)


57 / 11, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi 110060.
Ph: 011 - 25716297, 9810187297. Email- ahead_academy@yahoo.com www.aheadacademy.com
AHEAD Test and Discussions DENTAL ANATOMY & HISTOLOGY

1. The postnatal period of development of the primary dentition spans about .year.

2. The dental formula for primary dentition in humans is.

3. The dental formula for permanent dentition in humans is.

4. Universal system for primary dentition is ..

5. Universal system for permanent dentition is

6. The system which is acceptable to computer and computer languages is the universal system. (True/ False).

7. The two digit system for primary dentition is..

8. The two digit system for permanent dentition is..

9. The two digit system was proposed by

10. The main bulk of tooth is composed of

11. ..is a linear elevation on the surface of a tooth.

12. ..descends from the tips of the cusps of molars and premolars towards the central part of the occlusal surface.

13. is formed by the union of the triangular ridge of the distobuccal cusp and the distal cusp ridge of the

mesiolingual cusp of maxillary molar.

14. ..is one of the primary sections of formation in the development of the crown.

15. .angle is formed by the junction of two surfaces.

16. .angle is formed by the junction of three surfaces.

17. The specifications used for carving individual teeth for the permanent dentition is given by ..

18. Dental age assessment based on the basis of the number of teeth at each chronological age was given by

19. Dental age assessment based on the stages of formation of crowns and roots of teeth was given by

20. Dental age assessment in the mixed dentition based on the amount of resorption of roots of primary teeth and amount of

development of permanent teeth was given by ..

21. Tooth formation that may be divided approximately into a number of stages that covers continuously the development of teeth

was given by..

22. In the radiological studies of tooth formation there are at least three stages . Nolla

expanded it to stages and Gleisen & Hunt into . Stages.

23. Calcification of the primary dentition begins by ..and takes years to be completed.

Academy of Higher Education and Advancements in Dentistry (A.H.E.A.D)


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AHEAD Test and Discussions DENTAL ANATOMY & HISTOLOGY

24. Each permanent tooth takes approximately .years or complete formation.

25. Sequence for primary teeth eruption is ..

26. Transition from primary to permanent dentition begins at about..years.

27. Formation of permanent teeth as occurring in cluster was described by

28. The first teeth of the permanent dentition to emerge through the gingiva isand it begins to calcify at

29. The primary function of pulp is .

30. The highest peak of caries attack occurs at.years of age.

31. The primary teeth are also called ../.../............................

32. The deciduous tooth which is unique in that it has a crown form unlike that of any permanent tooth is

33. Root resorption of deciduous teeth begins after ..year, after it is completely formed. (Rest period)

34. Crowns of the anterior teeth are wider mesiodistally in comparison with their crown lengths.

35. Cervical ridges present buccaly on primary teeth are more pronounced in ..teeth.

36. The enamel rods at the cervix slope .instead of in permanent dentitions.

37. Mesial slope of the cusp is smaller than distal slope in.teeth.

38. The cusp of the primary canine is &.. than permanent canine.

39. From the incisal tip, the crown of primary..tooth is diamond shaped.

40. Bifurcation of the roots of the primary first molar begins almost immediately at .

41. cusp of the maxillary first molar is most prominent , longest and sharpest.

42. Crown of deciduous molar resembles a permanent maxillary premolar.

43. The primary tooth which resembles the permanent maxillary first molar is .

44. The cusp of carebelli of deciduous dentition is found on.

45. A sharp and prominent mesiolingual cusp which is almost entered lingually but in line with the mesial root is an outstanding

characteristic feature of ..

46. .is the largest cusp of the primary mandibular first molar

47. When the maxillary and mandibular primary teeth occlude, all the teeth occlude with two teeth in the opposite jaw

except..and .

48. The separation of primary anterior teeth due to growth of the jaws is usually seen during ..years of age.

49. The arrangement of natural teeth was described originally by ..

50. The simplest form of tooth with single cones in the reptilian stage is called ..

Academy of Higher Education and Advancements in Dentistry (A.H.E.A.D)


57 / 11, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi 110060.
Ph: 011 - 25716297, 9810187297. Email- ahead_academy@yahoo.com www.aheadacademy.com
AHEAD Test and Discussions DENTAL ANATOMY & HISTOLOGY

51. The stage which exhibits three cusps in line in development of post teeth with largest original cusp centered with smaller

cusps located ant. And post. Is..

52. Triangular stage or tritubercular molars are seen in

53. Quadritubercular molars are seen in

54. means tooth bearing conical cusp and are seen in .

55. Each tooth in the dental arch has two antagonists in the opposing arch except ..

56. The only tooth which is wider lingually than buccally is .......

57. .......................is the most prominent teeth in the mouth.

58. ..............................is the widest teeth mesiodistally among the anteriors.

59. First evidence of calcification of maxillary central incisor is at.

60. Enamel completion of the maxillary central incisor is about ..................................

61. Root completion of maxillary central incisor is.

62. The tooth that varies in form more than any other tooth in the mouth with the exception of third molars is

63. First evidence of calcification of maxillary lateral incisor is at.

64. is the smallest teeth in the dental arch.

65. First evidence of calcification of mandibular central incisor is

66. .is the longest teeth in the mouth.

67. First evidence of calcification of maxillary canines is.

68. Root completion of maxillary canines is

69. The ant. tooth most likely to have a bifurcated root is..

70. In the maxillary premolar the tooth in which the mesial cusp slope is longer than the distal cusp slope is

71. Final evidence of calcification of maxillary first premolar is ...........

72. Enamel completion of maxillary first premolar is.

73. The distinguishing features between the 1st and 2nd maxillary premolar from the mesial aspect is..present on

first premolar.

74. First evidence of calcification of maxillary 2nd premolar is

75. The largest tooth in the maxillary arch is.

76. ..are considered to be the cornerstone of the dental arches.

77. root is the longest in the maxillary first molar.

78. ..cusp is the smallest in the maxillary first molar.

Academy of Higher Education and Advancements in Dentistry (A.H.E.A.D)


57 / 11, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi 110060.
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AHEAD Test and Discussions DENTAL ANATOMY & HISTOLOGY

79. The cusp of carabelli is usually found lingual to cusp of the maxillary first molar.

80. Enamel completion of maxillary first molar is.

81. Root completion of maxillary first molar is..

82. The tooth in the maxillary arch in which the crown is wider mesially than distally and wider lingually than buccally is

83. The two major and two minor fossa present on the occlusal aspect of the first molar is.

84. The maxillary molar primary cusp triangle supposition follows the ..hypothesis of tooth origin.

85. Root completion of the maxillary 2nd molar is completed by ..

86. First evidence of calcification of maxillary third molar is

87. The mandibular first molar has ..form when seen from the occlusal aspect.

88. Buccal aspect of the mandibular first molar is .

89. The mesiolingual and distolingual cusp incline at the cusp tips to form an angle of , when seen from the
lingual aspect of the mandibular first molar.

90. Morphological categories used to describe the occlusal surfaces of mandibular molar are based upon a topology developed
by.

91. The maxillary sinus is also known as

92. Major portion of the canine fossa is directly above the roots of teeth.

93. The maxillary tuberosity is the origin for some fibres of the masticatory muscle

94. There are two canals which open laterally into the incisive foramen , they are..

95. Foramen of stenson carries .

96. .is the heaviest and strongest bone of the head.

97. is present between the condyle and coronoid process.

98. The mandibular canal is directed ..

99. Posterior to the third molar a triangular shallow fossa is outlined called .

100. The portion of the articular disc which is avascular, hyalinized and devoid of nerves is..

101. The otomandibular ligaments which connect the middle ear and TMJ are. and

102. Pantograph and kinesiograph are equipments used to record .

103. Max. opening movement of TMJ is.

104. Max lateral opening in the absence of TMJ muscle dysfunction is ..

105. Max protrusive movementapproximately is....

106. The lateral pterygoid muscle has two heads i.e. superior and inferior heads; head which is active during various jaw closing
movements and head active during jaw opening movements is..and..

107. The masseter muscle is partly covered by 2 muscles, they are..and..

108. The muscle which is principle positioner of the mandible during elevation is..

109. The duration of chewing cycle varies from.

Academy of Higher Education and Advancements in Dentistry (A.H.E.A.D)


57 / 11, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi 110060.
Ph: 011 - 25716297, 9810187297. Email- ahead_academy@yahoo.com www.aheadacademy.com
AHEAD Test and Discussions DENTAL ANATOMY & HISTOLOGY

1. The calcification and eruption of both deciduous and


permanent teeth was given by 12. Largest embrasure lies between
A) Nolla A) Maxillary central incisors
B) Anderson B) Maxillary central and lateral
C) Logem and Kronfeld C) Maxillary canine and first premolar
D) Mc Call and Schour D) Maxillary lateral incisor and canine

2. The number of centers for formation of each tooth are 13. The largest embrasure in post. Teeth is
A) One A) Buccal B) Distal C) Lingual D)
B) Two Occlusal
C) Three
D) Four or more 14. The tooth that is commonly seen in an abnormal
relation and contact with its adjacent teeth of the
3.There is a greater chance for furcation involvement in same arch
deciduous teeth as A) Mandibular first premolar
a) Pulp chamber is bigger relatively and more B) Mandibular lateral incisor
superficial C) Maxillary central incisor
B) They are more prone to infection D) Maxillary lateral incisor
C) Bone of children is soft
D) None of the above 15. Divergence from contact area in proximal surfaces
causes embrasures
4. The tubercle carabelli is present on the A) Facially B) Lingually
A) Lingual aspect of the mandibular molar C) Cervically
B) Lingual aspect of mandibular premolar D) Facially, lingually, cervically&occlusaly
C) Palatal aspect of maxillary molar
D) Palatal aspect of maxillary premolar 16. The last primary tooth to be replaced by a
permanent tooth is usually the
5. The arrangement of natural teeth was described by A) Maxillary second molar
A) G V Black B) Bolton B) Mandibular second molar
C) Wilson D) Graf Von Spee C) Maxillary canine
D) Mandibular canine
6. The basis to describe the lingual inclination of the
mandibular molars is 17. Calcification of permanent first molar usually begins
A) Curve of spee B) Curve of Wilson in the
C) Curve of Monson D) None of the above A) Third month of IU life
B) 6th month of IU life
7. Tritubercular class of teeth are present in C) At birth
A) Humans B) Dog D) In 3rd month of extra uterine life
C) Lizard D) All of the above
18. A radiograph of 4-year old child reveals no evidence
8. The primary center of formation of each lobe is of calcification of mandibular second premolar. This
present in shows
A) Apex of the root B) Tip of the cusp A) It is too early to make final prediction
C) Center of the crown D) Center of the tooth B) The teeth may develop later
C) Primary second molar extracted to allow mesial
9. Anisognathus refers to drifting of permanent first molar
A) Unequal teeth B) Non-uniform teeth D) The child may never develop premolars
C) Unequal jaw D) Unequal cusp
19. First evidence of initiation of primary dentition is
10. The facial aspect of all teeth is represented by usually around
A) Trapezoidal form B) Triangular form A) 4 months in utero B) Birth
C) Rhomboid form D) None of the above C) 4 months after birth D) One year after birth

11. The mesial contact area of the permanent canine is 20. Ram, a 4 year old boy was on tetracycline therapy.
at the Discoloured teeth will be
A) Middle third A) Premolars, incisors and 1st molars
B) Junction of incisal and middle third B) Canines and 2nd molars
C) Junction of middle and cervical third C) Canines, premolars and 2nd molars
D) None of the above D) Incisors and 1st molars

Academy of Higher Education and Advancements in Dentistry (A.H.E.A.D)


57 / 11, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi 110060.
Ph: 011 - 25716297, 9810187297. Email- ahead_academy@yahoo.com www.aheadacademy.com