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Chapter I

Introduction

A. Background of the study

Agriculture plays an important role in human survival. It is an old practice and has

been a partner of humans ever since. Farming, one aspect of agriculture, is one of the most

important economic activities on earth, with it being a basic necessity for human survival.

Farming is a practice which involves growing of crops, where the seeds are planted and

nurtured until it develops into a tree or a crop. From there, farmers can harvest the crops.

There are different factors in farming that can affect the production of crops. From bad

weather to pests, each of these factors or problems has been greatly reducing the output of a

certain farm. Due to these problems, technological innovations about farming have been

pursued by humans in order to maintain an ecological balance and a stable economy.

Time, which is an important factor in farming, needs to be properly maintained when

handling a farm. Large farms need to compensate with technologies in order for a schedule to

be followed. There are certain seeds that farmers can just dig a soil through, put the seed, and

refill it back with soil. Now, instead of doing the same process over and over again, a machine

with certain accuracy can be developed in order to plant in a more efficient manner with

reduced human work.


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B. Review of Related Literature and Studies

Convenience of operations is a part of the most essential factors which must be

accomplished if proper utilization of farming machines is upheld. Manual planting of seeds,

brings about low seeding accuracy, spacing efficiencies and causing spinal pain for the

farmers which restricts the extent of field that can be planted. To get the best efficiency in

planting seeds, improvements of design and appropriate components of machine can be

needed to meet its requirements in planting seeds.

Adisa and Braide (2012) explained the row seeder ordinarily needs a very much

arranged seed-bed which might be narrowed or plain bed. Previously, different sorts of

configuration have been produced with various approaches. They composed and built a

flute planter distributor which was observed to be effective at 94% in seed separation, but it

could not be functional on the furrowed seed bed. It needs some time and manual changing

of seed penetration size and seed dispersion.

Abubakar (1987) applied the principle of jab planter for the application of fertilizers.

Braide and Njidda (1989) made a consolidated jab planter which was tested its efficiency at

73.4% and performed better than using hoes and cutlass in traditional planting.

Adekoya and Buchele (1987) built up a punch planter which was equipped for

planting an untilled soil can be actuated by its cam precisely.


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Braide and Ahmadu (1990) built up a transplanter for some specific crops in Guinea

Savannah of Nigeria which exceeds the field limit of 0.19ha/h and its productivity of 20%.

The greater part of the above plans was accounted for to have very encouraging outcomes.

Kyada A et al. (2014) proposed a design of manual seed planter machine which can

put the seed and fertilizer in a row at any depth and its space between the seeds. This

machine can be adjusted based on the different climate conditions and the crop variety.

The mechanisms of machine can be acted by pushing with its wheels and can transmit its

power through the chain and sprocket to control the plunger mechanism. The cam is

mounted on sprocket shaft which push plunger towards descending bearing. When plunger

is entering in soil and amid in reverse stroke flapper is opened so seed get isolated from

plunger and embedded in burrow.

C. Statement of the problem

The old way of planting where the farmers will dig a soil, put the seed, and return the

soil can increase the time which can have a problem in the production. With the seed-planting

machine, the time of planting can be reduced in a significant amount and increase the rate of

planted seeds.

Specifically, the design aims to answer the following questions:

1.) What are the materials and dimensions to be used?

2.) What is/are the mechanisms involved in the design?


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3.) Who will benefit from this design?

4.) What are the problems that can arise in this design?

D. Objectives of the study

The objective of this machine is to put the seed in rows at desired depth and seed to

seed spacing, cover the seeds with soil and provide proper compaction over the seed.

Specifically, it aims to:

1.) Identify if the materials used can withstand the forces surrounding it.

2.) Specify the required diameters for the shafts.

3.) Know if the product is feasible in real-world applications

E. Significance of the study

Planting seeds manually can be time consuming and can waste a lot of energy and

money. Different concepts of machines that improve the efficiency of farming have been

continuously developed up until now. Most of these machines require many parts and are too

expensive for the users to buy. Other affordable planting machines waste a lot of seeds and

are not that efficient for farming.

Through this design, farmers can efficiently plant seeds in a certain rate which can save a

lot of resources. This design can also be made with simple materials, making it affordable to

the users or farmers.


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F. Scope and limitations

The design will limit its widespread acceptance of seeds to .375 inches and up but not

higher than .50 inches in diameter. The design was based on a specific bean called the long

bean, but can also be applied to other seeds with a diameter not higher than .50 inches and

not lower than .30 inches. This design will only focus on the aspects of small scale farming

and will not be utilized in large-scale farms.

G. Definition of terms

Bearing is a machine element that allows free rotational or linear motion in a certain part or

object and reduces friction. The design uses the bearing to allow the rotational motion of the

shafts in the Geneva Wheel, front wheel, and the rear wheel.

Geneva Wheels are mechanisms that translate continuous rotation into a rotary motion. In

this design, the Geneva Wheel is used as the control for the drop of the seeds that will fall.

Machines consist of one or more moving parts that correspond with one another in order to

do a specific task for the reduction of human effort. The whole design can be classified as a

machine because it is a system of moving parts.

Shafts are rotating element used to transmit power from one part to another. In the design,

shafts are used in order to transmit the motion of the Geneva Wheel to the seed dropper.
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CHAPTER II

METHODOLOGY

A. Methods of research

The seed-planting machine is designed to plant seeds in an efficient way. This

machine has considerable potential to greatly increase productivity. This research is a

developmental research which is focuses on designing and developing a certain product that

must meet the standards of the consumer. The main task now is to promote this technology

and have available and at the same time affordable prices to both small scale and big scale

farmers. The seed-planting machine can be readily made from local components in

workshops. By using this machine, achievement of flexibility of distance and depth variation

for different seed plantation is possible. In this design, a seed-planting machine is used in

order to minimize the efforts of human work and to minimize time delays for a certain farm.

Specifically, the researchers used the processes:

1. Theoretically studying and comparing the different sizes of seeds for the Geneva

mechanism

2. Finding the required information for the soil densities.

3. Determining the material that will perfectly fit the design and will not cause any trouble

4. Designing the diameters of the shafts for the Geneva wheel. The standard diameters will

be used.
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5. The final design of the seed-planter machine will be made in a CAD program, with the

outer part and inner part drawings.

B. Computations

Computations on the mass of the whole object were made using the formula m=pv,

where p is the density of the material that is to be used and v is the assumed volume of the

material. The tables shown below are the computed mass for each object.

Based on the prototype, the volumes were acquired (only for the shafts) and the total

mass of the design was computed.

The total mass of the whole design can be computed by adding all the computed mass

for each shaft:

Total mass of the whole design = 40.85683, say 40 kg

Computation for the deflection of the chassis.

Forces on each column was analyzed and computed, in order for the deflection to be

calculated
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.769 m
.769 m
.50 m

.30 m
.30 m

.30 m .50 m

() 40(9.81)
W= = = 392.4 N
1

Using the calculated weight, a free body diagram can be made in order to calculate the force

needed to push the design

W=390.5361 N
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392.4
F = sin 60

F = 453.9352 N

Since the load will split into two, the calculated force can be divided in half.

F = 450.9532 N

F/2
F/2

F/2=226.55 N

Side view analysis

A
F = 226.55 N

D
B
G

C
F E
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Using a free body diagram, forces on B will be calculated with the given force.

226.55 N
BD

BC

FV = 0

BC = -226.55(sin(60))

BC = 195.198N (C)

FH=0

BD = -226.55(cos(60))

BD = 113.275 N (C)

Calculating forces on joint D

BD = 112.7358

DE
DF
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FH=0

DF = 112.7358 / cos(42.20)

DF= 152.18 N (T)

FV=0

DE= -152.18 sin(42.20)

DE = 102.22 (C)

Calculating the deflection (y):

2
=
2

1
= 0 (450.9523() 400.8966)

1
= [225 2 - 400.8966x]

1
= 0 (225 2 400.8966x)


y(x) = [75 - 200.4483 ]

Calculating for EI

( 4 4 ) (.0154 .0084 )
I= =
64 64

I = 2.283986947x10-9 m4
12

E=207 GPa

EI = 472.7853 N-m2

1
y(.889) = [75(.889)3 - 200.4483(.889)2 ]
472.7853

y=-.22399m

In order to check for the safe diameters of the shaft, it is important to analyze the stresses, forces,

and moments as shown

Computations for the shaft driver:

A D

B C

For flat belt pulley:

2 2(3)
FN = F1-F2 = = - net driving force
.12

FA = 2.0(FN) = 2.0(50) = 100 N - bending force


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Assuming 60o for flat belt pulley

FAx = FA(cos 60o) = 100 (cos 60o) = 50 N

FAy = FA(sin 60o) = 100 (sin 60o) = 86.603 N

For D:

2 2(3)
FD = = = 50 N
.12

Solving for all the reactions on all support bearings in each plane:

For horizontal:

FAx = 50 N FDx = 50 N

.1 m .1 m .1 m

RBx RCx

Solving for the reactions at bearings:

M at A= 0

50(.1) + RCx(.1) - 50(.2) = 0


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RCx = 50 N

Fv=0

-50 + RBx + 50 - 50 = 0

RBx = 50 N

FAx = 50 N FDx = 50 N

.1 m .1 m .1 m

50 N 50 N
For vertical:

FAy = 86.603 N FDy = 50 N

.1 m .1 m .1 m

0
RBy RCy

Solving for the reactions at bearings:

M at A= 0

86.603(.1) + RCy(.1) - 50(.2) = 0

RCx = 13.397 N
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Fv=0

-86.603 + RBy + 13.397 - 50 = 0

RBx = 123.206 N

FAy = 86.603 N FDy = 50 N

RCx = 13.397 N RBx = 123.206 N

50 N
36.603 N
Shear force diagram
0

-86.603 N

Moment diagram
0

-5

-8.6603
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Calculating the bending moment for B and C:

MB = (52 ) + (8.66032 ) = 10 N-m

MC = (52 ) + (52 ) = 7.071 N-m

Calculating for the actual endurance strength (Sn)

Sn= Sn(Cs)(Cr)

From the design properties of carbon and alloy steel table, the tensile strength and yield strength

of AISI 1040 cold-drawn steel: Sy= 490 MPa and from table 5.8, Sn= 200 MPa

Using a reliability of 0.99, the Cr = 0.81. The shaft size should be short, so we can assume

CS=1.0

Sn= 200(1)(0.81) = 162 MPa

Let the factor of safety (N) = 2.5

At point A:

Torque = 3 N-m, M=0

1 1
32 3 32(2.5) 3 3
D1= [
4 []2 ]3 =
[
4 490 106
]2 ]3

D1 = 5.13 x 103 m or 5.13 mm


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At point B to the left:

1 1
32 3 () 2 32(2.5) 3 3 1.5(10)
D2= [
4 []2 + [
] ]3 = [
[
4 490 106
]2 + [162 106 ]2 ]3

D2 = .0133171 m or 13.3171 mm

At point B, Kt = 2.5 (right)

1 1
32 3 () 2 32(2.5) 3 3 2.5(10)
D3= [
4 []2 + [
] ]3 = [
[
4 490 106
]2 + [162 106 ]2 ]3

D3 = .0157836 m or 15.7836 mm

D4 > D5

1 1
32 3 () 2 32(2.5) 3 3 2.5(7.071) 2
D5 = [
4 []2 + [
] ]3 = [
[
4 490 106
]2 + [ 162 106
] ]3

D5 = .0140643m or 14.0643mm

1 1
32 3 () 2 32(2.5) 3 3 1,5(7.071) 2
D6 = [

4 []2 + [
] ]3 = [

[
4 490 106
]2 + [
162 106
] ]3

D6 = .01187067m or 11.87067mm

D7 = D1 = 5.13 x 103 m or 5.13 mm


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Computations for the Maltese Cross shaft

T = 3 N-m

Since 4 turns = 1 revolution (for Maltese cross)

3
T= = 0.75 N-m
4

For E

2 2(0.75)
FE = = = 12.5 N
.12

For G:

2 2(0.75)
FG = = = 12.5 N
.12
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Calculating the reaction for the bearing (For horizontal)

FEx = 12.5 N FGx = 12.5 N

0.1 m 0.1 m

RFx

FV = 0

RFx - 12.5 - 12.5 = 0

RFx = 25 N

12.5 N

Shear force diagram 0


-12.5 N

Moment diagram
0

-1.25
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For the vertical side:

FEy = 12.5 N FGy = 12.5 N

0.1 m 0.1 m

RFy

FV = 0

RFy - 12.5 - 12.5 = 0

RFy = 25 N

12.5 N

Shear force diagram


0
-12.5 N

Moment diagram
0

-1.25

Calculating the moment at point F

MF =(1.252 ) + (1.252 ) = 1.77 N-m


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Calculating the diameters

At point F (left)

1 1
32 3 () 2 32(2.5) 3 0.75 1.5(1.77)
D1 = [
4 []2 + [
] ]3 = = [
[
4 490 106
]2 + [162 106 ]2 ]3

D1 = 7.78 x 103 m

At point F (right)

1 1
32 3 () 2 32(2.5) 3 0.75 2.5(1.77)
D2 = [
4 []2 + [
] ]3 = = [
[
4 490 106
]2 + [162 106 ]2 ]3

D3 = 8.8637 x 103 m

D2 > D3 and D1
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The calculation of the force that is needed to exert by the digger can be calculated by getting the

pressure first with the given height and the clay density.

P = pgh

= 1760 kg/m3(9.81 m/s2)(.2)

P = 3453.12 N/m2

F = PA

The area of the soil that is to be dug can be calculated using the formula for the circular segment.

The computed area will be used to calculate the force needed to exert by the digger.

R = .8 m

d = .6 m

h = .2 m

.6
= 2(cos-1 ) = 2(cos-1 .8 )

= 82.8192o

R2 (.8)2 82.8292
A = ( 2 )(180 - sin) = ( )( - sin82.8192)
2 180

A = .1450595 m2

F = PA
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= 3452.12(.1450595)

F = 500.908 N

Computations for the front wheel shaft:

Computations for the front wheel

Calculating for torque:

Assuming the mass of the whole object to be 40 kg

() 40(9.81)
F= =
1

F = 392.4 N

T = F x r = 392.4(.06) - with a .12 m diameter for the wheel


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T = 23.544 N-m

For the shaft:

2 2(23.544)
FH = = = 392.4
.12

FJ = 500.908 (as computed earlier)

FL = FH

Solving for all the reactions on all support bearings in each plane:

392.4 500.908 392.4

.02m .07m .07m .02m

RI RK

M@I counterclockwise = 0

392.4(.02) - 500.908(.07) + RK (.14) - 392.4(.16) = 0

RK = 642.854 N

FV=0

RI - 392.4 -500.908 + 642.854 = 0

RI = 642.854 N
25

392.4 N
250.454 N

-250.454 N

-392.4 N

9.68378

-7.848 -7.848

Solving for the diameters

1 1
32 3 () 2 32(2.5) 3 23.544 1.5(7.848)
D1= [
4 []2 + [
] ]3 = [
[
4 490 106
]2 + [ 162 106 ]2 ]3

D1 = 0.0128712 m

1 1
32 3 () 2 32(2.5) 3 23.544 2.5(7.848)
D2 = [
4 []2 + [
] ]3 = [
[
4 490 106
]2 + [ 162 106 ]2 ]3

D2 = 0.014829215 m

Torque for the digger = F x r = 500.908(.06)


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TJ = 30.05448 N-m

1 1
32 3 () 2 32(2.5) 3 30.05448 2.5(9.68378) 2
D3 = [
4 []2 + [
] ]3 = [
[
4 490 106
]2 + [ 162 106
] ]3

D3 = .0159251 m

D4 = D3

D5 = D2

D1 = D6

Solving for the rear wheel shaft:

Computations for the rear wheel

Calculating for torque:

Assuming the mass of the whole object to be 40 kg


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() 40(9.81)
F= =
1

F = 392.4 N

T = F x r = 392.4(.06) - with a .12 m diameter for the wheel

T = 23.544 N-m

For the shaft:

2 2(23.544)
FH = = = 392.4
.12

FL = FH

Solving for all the reactions on all support bearings in each plane:

392.4 392.4

.02m .14m .02m

RI RK

M@I counterclockwise = 0

392.4(.02) + RK (.14) - 392.4(.16) = 0

RK = 392.4 N

FV=0

RI - 392.4 +392.4 -392.4 = 0


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RI = 392.4 N

392.4 N

-392.4 N

-7.848 -7.848

Solving for the diameters using the equations in the "Machine Elements in Mechanical Design"

by Robert L. Mott as reference.

1 1
32 3 () 2 32(2.5) 3 23.544 1.5(7.848) 2
D1= [

4 []2 + [
] ]3 = [

[
4 490 106
]2 + [
162 106
] ]3

D1 = 0.0128712 m

1 1
32 3 () 2 32(2.5) 3 23.544 2.5(7.848)
D2 = [
4 []2 + [
] ]3 = [
[
4 490 106
]2 + [ 162 106 ]2 ]3

D2 = 0.014829215 m
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D3 >D2

D4 = D2

D5 = D1

CAD MODEL OF THE DESIGN

Theoretical:
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Actual/Proto:
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Geneva mechanism
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Shaft for the digger


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Dimensions for the front wheel


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CHAPTER III

RESULTS

MATERIAL SELECTION

It is important to select materials that are not costly but can efficiently handle different factors

like deformation, stresses, and corrosion. Availability of materials is also an important factor that

can contribute in the production of the product.

1. GENEVA WHEEL MECHANISM SHAFTS AND THE DIGGER

Cold drawn SAE-AISI 1040

SAE-AISI 1040 is an alloy of iron, manganese, carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus. It is

furnished in the cold worked condition which results in a higher tensile and yield

strength. This material is acceptable in the shafts, because it provides properties that can

withstand the different stress that will act on it. It also has resistance to corrosion because

of the

2. FRAME

Mild Steel

Mild steel is a type of carbon steel that has a low amount of carbon which ranges from

.05% to .25%, making it malleable, ductile, and weldable, which makes it a suitable
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frame for the design. Though it has low tensile strength, it is cheap and can easily be

acquired.

3. BELT

Rubber

Rubber belts are made layers of fabric that has a rubber composition and have thin layers

of rubber on the faces. These belts are very flexible, and is available everywhere. It is

also inexpensive, which makes it easily replaceable in case of some problems.

COST ESTIMATION OF THE PROJECT

No. ITEM DESCRIPTION RATE QUANTITY PRICE

1 Ball bearing WBB1-8713 P25 each 8 P200

2 Stainless steel 120mm(dia)x15mm P200/kg 8 kg P1600

Pipe and plate


3 - 6 per cut 14 P84
cutting costs

Welding and
4 - - - P541
finishing costs

Shaping of

5 cylinders and the - - - P300

Geneva Wheel

Total P2725
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TABULATION OF DATA

Based on the prototype, the volumes were acquired (only for the shafts) and the total mass of the

design will be computed:

Table of the calculation for the chassis

Height Radius1 Radius2 Volume Mass


0.18 0.015 0.008 9.10434E-05 0.716511
0.18 0.015 0.008 9.10434E-05 0.716511
0.45 0.015 0.008 0.000227608 1.791278
0.45 0.015 0.008 0.000227608 1.791278
0.24 0.015 0.008 0.000121391 0.955348
0.24 0.015 0.008 0.000121391 0.955348
0.24 0.015 0.008 0.000121391 0.955348
0.24 0.015 0.008 0.000121391 0.955348
0.135619 0.015 0.008 6.85956E-05 0.539847
0.135619 0.015 0.008 6.85956E-05 0.539847
0.329383 0.015 0.008 0.000166601 1.311148
0.329383 0.015 0.008 0.000166601 1.311148
0.0889 0.015 0.008 4.49653E-05 0.353877
0.0889 0.015 0.008 4.49653E-05 0.353877


The total mass = 13.24672 kg , using the density of AISI 1020 Cold-Drawn steel (7870 3 )

Calculating the mass for the shaft 1 (Driver 1)

Radius Height Volume Mass


0.015 0.05 3.53429E-05 0.27814876
0.018 0.025 2.54469E-05 0.200267107
0.02 0.05 6.28319E-05 0.494486684
0.018 0.025 2.54469E-05 0.200267107
0.015 0.05 3.53429E-05 0.27814876
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With the 5kg mass in the driver, the total mass = 6.451318417 kg

Calculating the mass for shaft 2 (driven shaft)

Radius Height Volume Mass


0.06 0.015 0.000169646 1.335114046
0.009 0.05 1.27235E-05 0.100133553
0.01 0.025 7.85398E-06 0.061810835
0.009 0.05 1.27235E-05 0.100133553
0.015 0.05 3.53429E-05 0.27814876

The total mass = 2.932306074 kg

Calculating the mass for the front wheel

Radius Height Volume Mass


0.06 0.025 0.000282743 2.225190077
0.014 0.05 3.07876E-05 0.242298475
0.015 0.025 1.76715E-05 0.13907438
0.016 0.05 4.02124E-05 0.316471478
0.06 0.025 0.000282743 2.225190077
0.016 0.05 4.02124E-05 0.316471478
0.015 0.025 1.76715E-05 0.13907438
0.014 0.05 3.07876E-05 0.242298475
0.06 0.025 0.000282743 2.225190077

The total mass = 8.071258896 kg

Calculating the mass for the rear wheel

R H V Mass
0.06 0.025 0.000282743 2.225190077
0.014 0.02 1.2315E-05 0.09691939
0.015 0.25 0.000176715 1.390743798
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0.016 0.14 0.000112595 0.886120137


0.015 0.25 0.000176715 1.390743798
0.014 0.02 1.2315E-05 0.09691939
0.06 0.025 0.000282743 2.225190077

The total mass = 9.100651442 kg

The total mass of the machine = 39.81 kg or 40 kg

Dimensions for the shaft driver 1

Mating part Diameter Number Minimum Diameter Specified Diameter


Sheave D1 5.13 mm 6 mm
Nothing D2 13.3171 mm 15 mm
Bearing D3 15.7836 mm 18 mm
Nothing D4 D4 > D5 20 mm
Bearing D5 14.0643 mm 18 mm
Cam D6 11.87067mm 15 mm
Nothing D7 5.13 mm 6 mm

Using appendix 2, the specified diameters were known for D1, D2, D4, D6, and D7. Data on the

NSK Bearings was used for the bearings (D3 and D5). The researchers decided to make D2 and D6

the same, as well as D1 and D2, in order to minimize machine and provide a little safety factor.

Diameters for shaft driver 2

Mating part Diameter Number Minimum Diameter Specified Diameter


Cam D1 7.78 mm 9 mm
Bearing D2 D2 > D3 and D1 10 mm
Nothing D3 8.8637 mm 9 mm

Diameters for the front wheel


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Mating part Diameter Number Minimum Diameter Specified Diameter


Wheel D1 12.8712 mm 14 mm
Bearing D2 14.829215 mm 15 mm
Nothing D3 15.9251 mm 16 mm
Nothing D4 12.8712 mm 14 mm
Bearing D5 14.829215 mm 15 mm
Wheel D6 15.9251 mm 14 mm

The diameters of the left side are equal to the right side, respectively, because they both have the

same moment. Appendix 2 was used for finding the standard sizes of the other diameters while

data on NSK Bearing was used to find the standard diameters for the bearings.

Diameters for the rear wheel

Mating part Diameter Number Minimum Diameter Specified Diameter


Wheel D1 12.8712 mm 14 mm
Bearing D2 14.829215 mm 15 mm
Nothing D3 D3 >D2 16 mm
Bearing D4 14.829215 mm 15 mm
Wheel D5 12.8712 mm 14 mm

The diameters of the left side are equal to the right side, respectively, because they both have the

same moment. Appendix 2 was used for finding the standard sizes of the other diameters while

the Table 14-3 was used to find the standard diameters for the bearings.

PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN THE DESIGN

The seed-planter design can encounter problems in the actual application. The process of

rotating the driver in order to plant a seed can be very exhausting to the user. Based on the

calculations, the force exerted in the digger is high, and the bearings of the wheel will have to
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counter that stress. The weight is also a factor in the design for it will provide assistance to the

digger. Due to the outer cover, the user cannot see if the seeds have fallen or not. The movement

of the design is also the main problem, because it can only move in a straight path and it cannot

turn.
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CHAPTER IV

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

DISCUSSION

The seed-planter is designed to improve the rate of the planted seeds in a certain area, and

to provide fast and reliable way of planting seeds. Other designs incorporate the same idea, but

some wastes a lot of seeds planted in one hole. With this design, one seed for one hole can be

achieved which can save a lot money when it comes to large-scale farms. The design lets the user

manually operate the fall of the seeds, in order for the seeds to be efficiently distributed in the

field.

The problems earlier can be solved with the right materials and better improvement in the

design. The user can see if the seeds have fallen if the cover material is transparent.

Improvements on the design can be made in the driver by converting the rotational motion to

linear motion. With this, less effort will be made by the user. The design is heavy enough to

withstand the force and for the user to easily push it.

CONCLUSION

This design had some limitations on the seeds that it can use, which can result in different

replacements of some parts. Still, this design can be renovated and be subjected into large-scale
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farms. The materials needed in the design are easily available and the price is suitable for the

consumers, but can be lowered with other accessible materials. The main mechanism in the

design is the Geneva Wheel mechanism, and it is suitable for the control of the falling seeds.

Farmers will truly benefit in this design, especially if it is improved.

RECCOMENDATION

Based on the findings and the results of the study, the following are recommended for the

improvement and enhancement of the seed planter design.

1.) Conversion of the rotational driver into a much easier driver.

2.) Materials incorporated in the design.

3.) Enhancement movement of the design.


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REFERENCES/BIBLIOGRAPHY

MACHINE ELEMENTS IN MECHANICAL DESIGN

Robert L. Mott

NSK BEARING CATALOG

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/dirt-mud-densities-d_1727.html (for the soil density)


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APPENDICES
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Table for soil densities:

Table for the properties of carbon and alloy steels