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2006 3 ( ) M ar .

2006
38 2 For eign L anguage T eaching and Research ( bimonthly) Vol. 38 No. 2

: Halliday 1985 / 0 , ,




, ,
, : 1)
; 2) ; 3) ; 4)
:

[ ] H030 [ ] A [ ] 1000- 0429( 2006) 02-0083- 8

metaphor) Butler ( 1988, 1996) M art in


1.
( 1992, 1995 ) L emke ( 1998 ) M at t hiessen
/ 0 ( grammat ical met aphor ) ( 1993)
T hibault ( 1995)
( 1994) ;
M. A. K. Halliday 1985 5 ( text ual metaphor ) M art in
6 ( A n Intr oduction t o Functi onal ( 1992) Matt hiessen ( 1992) ;
Gram mar ) , ( register) Goat ly ( 1993) Rav-
, elli ( 1985) ; Ha-
l



liday ( 1993b, 1997 ) H alliday & M art in
Hal-
l ( 1993) Martin & Veel ( 1997) ( 2005)
iday ( 1985/ 1994, 1992, 1993a, 1996, 1998a, ; Ravelli
1998b) Mat thiessen ( 1988) M at thiessen & ( 1998b)
Nesbitt ( 1996)
Goatly ( 1997) ( 1996)
( 1999, 2001) ; , ,
M art in ( 1992) Goatly :
( 1993) M art in ( f ort hcoming ) ; ;
( language development) ( nominalizat ion) ( take
Derew ianka ( 1995) Paint er ( 1993) ; process as t hing) ,
( ideational metaphor ) H alliday
( 1985/ 1994 ) M art in ( 1992 ) Matt hiessen , ;
( 1993, 1995a, 1995b, 1998)
Ravelli ( 1998a) ( verbalizat ion)
( 1994) ; ( interpersonal
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2006 2

: 1) ; :
2) ; 3) [ 1b] T he driv erps overrapid downhill driv ing of the bus
; 4) caused brake failure.

[ 1b] [ 1a] [ 1a]


21 ,
,
,

( phonology) ( lex icog ram-
,
mar) ( discourse semant ics)

, :
, ( realiza-

,
t ion) ,
: 1) ; 2)
: 1) ( cong ruent
, , ,
form) , ; 2) ( incong ruent
, ; 3)
form) ,
, ,
, ,
( symbolization)
,

,
, ,

( H alliday 1985/
( circumstant ial meaning ) ,
1994; M art in f ort hcoming)
,
31
: 3. 1
[ 1a] T he driver drove the bus too fast down t he hill, Quirk ( 1985)
so the brakes failed. , /
, 0
t he driver, the bus t he brakes
, drove f ailed , ,
, t oo fast ,
, down the
hill , 3. 2
so ,
, , ,

, ,


( ten- 3. 2. 1
sion) ,
# 84 #

, [ 6b] T hey ceased hostilities because they lost person-

, , nel.
[ 7a] T hey w ere nar r ow- minded and I donpt like it.
[ 1b] [ 2b]
[ 3b] [ 4b]
[ 7b] I donpt like their narr ow- mindedness .
:
H alliday ( 1985/ 1994)
[ 2a] T he police inves tigated the matter.
[ 2b] T he police conducted an inves tigation into the ,
matter. , ,
[ 3a] T he floods considerably eroded the land. ( att ribute)
[ 3b] T here w as considerable erosion of the land from ,
t he floods. , [ 5b] hung er,
[ 4a] F irst, she r eview ed how the dorsal fin evolv ed. , [ 6b] host ilit ies [ 7b]
[ 4b] T here was a first review of the evolution o f the
narrow- m indedness,
dorsal fin.
( carrier) , [ 7a]
Halliday ( 1985/ 1994) they [ 7b] t heir,
,
3. 2. 3
,
, , ,
, , ( take
b
, assessment as thing ) , [ 8b ] [ 9b] [ 10b]
, [ 11b] :
,
[ 8a] I achieved w hat I could.
, [ 3b] considerable erosion [ 4b] [ 8b] I achieved my potential.
a first review [ 9a] You can go now .
, , [ 9b] Y ou hav e g ot my p er mission to g o now .
[ 3b] erosion , [ 3a] [ 10a] T hatps w hat y ou should do.
the floods f rom the f loods, [ 10b] It is your obligation to do that .
[ 4b] review , [ 4a] [ 11a] I must do it.
she, , [ 11b] It is my resp onsibility to do it.

, Halliday ( 1985/ 1994)


must should
3. 2. 2 , [ 8a] ] could
, , [ 9a] can , [ 10a ]
, should , [ 11a] must ,
, ( take qualit y
as t hing) , [ 5b]
[ 6b] [ 7b] : , must , could
[ 5a] I was no t hungry to be free. ,
[ 5b] I w as not bor n w ith a hunger to be free. ,
[ 6a] T hey ceased to be hostile because they lost per-
sonnel. ,
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2006 2

, [ 15a] T here w ere strong winds. And in the meantime

t here was a heavy r ain.


[ 15b] Strong w inds were accomp anied by a heavy
4. r ain.

4. 1 ,
,
( t ake non- process as , [ 12a] before; ,
process) , [ 13a] aft erw ards[ 14a] at the same
t im e [ 15a] in the meantime

4. 2 4. 2. 2
, because since
: 1) ; 2) , , :
; 3) ; 4) [ 16a] Because he was careless, a tr affic accident oc-
curred.
, [ 16b] His carelessness caused a traffic accident.
[ 17a] We rushed and so became confused.

/ 0( packing) , [ 17b] Our rushing led to our confusion.

, [ 16a] [ 17a]
4. 2. 1 bacause so , [ 16b]
: , [ 17b] cause lead to
,
, af ter be-
f ore then aft erw ards 4. 2. 3
, if unless ,
: , :
[ 12a] She left bef ore I ar rived. [ 18a] If you hav e g ood food, exercises and enough
[ 12b] Her departur e p r eceded my ar rival. sleep, you will have good health.
[ 13a] M otorcycles came first. M otorcade appeared af- [ 18b] Good health dep ends on g ood food, ex ercises
ter w ar ds. and enough sleep.
[ 13b] T he mo to rcade f ollowed M otorcycles. [ 19a] I sleep w ith the window open unless itps really
cold.
, w hile
[ 19b] W hether I sleep wit h the window open is deter-
, meanwhileconcurrent ly simult aneously
mined by the w eather condition.
, at t he same t ime ,
, : , [ 18a] [ 19a]
if unless , [ 18b]
[ 14a] T he strike took place last M onday. T he party
[ 19b] depend on det ermine
conference was held at the same time.
[ 14b] T he str ike w as t imed to coincide with the party

conference. 4. 2. 4
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alt hough even w ater / 0


though even so , , / 0 / 0
, : , ,

[ 20a] Even though the motor housing w as unstable,


/ 0/ 0
the research staff completed t he field trials. ,
[ 20b] T he instability of the motor housing did not w at er w ater ,
p r eclude the complet ion of the field trials.
[ 21a] She is annoying at times. Even so, I like her . ,
[ 21b] Her annoyance does not stop me from liking :
her .
[ 25] , ? ( : )
[ 22a] I felt he w as w rong, although I didnpt say so at
[ 26] , ( : )
the time.
[ 22b] M y silence didnpt mean that I felt he w as r ight. [ 23] ) [ 26] ,
:
, [ 20a]
[ 21a]
[ 22a]
even though
even so alt hough [ 27] to baby the car

, [ 20b] [ 21b]
[ 22b] [ 28] He dogged my steps all the w ay.

did not precludedoes not st op didnpt ,


mean , baby baby dog
, dog ,
, : ! ,
, / A
4. 3 is B0, [ 27] / car is a
, baby0[ 28] / he is a dog0
, : ,
,
[ 23] to w ater the flowers
[ 24] to stone somebody to death 51

, ,
[ 23] [ 24] , ,
,
,
,

, ,
, t o water ,
to pour w at er on plants, w at er

, to stone to t hrow stones, ,
stone , ,
, ,
,
, ;
# 87 #
2006 2

, ,
; ,

,
, ; ,
, [ 1b] driving caused ,
,
, [ 17b] led t o rushing ;
confusion , ;
,
,


,
,

Butler, C. S. 1988. Politeness and the semant ics of
, [ 1b]
modalised dir ectives in English [ A] . In J. Benson,
[ 1a]
M . Cummings & W . S. G reaves ( eds. ) . Linguis-


tics in a Systemic Persp ective [ C ] . Amsterdam:
, [ 4a] she [ 4b] Benjamins.
Butler, C. S. 1996. O n the co ncept of an inter personal
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Butler & R. P. F aw cett ( eds. ) . M eaning and
Choice in L anguage . Studies f or M ichael H alliday .
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ter p retation [ C] . N orwood, N J: Ablex .


Derewianka, B. 1995. L anguage development in the


transition from childhood to adolescence: T he role of
,
gr ammatical metaphor [ D] . PhD thesis, M acquarie
, ,
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1998b) ken varieties [ A ] . I n M . G hadessy ( ed. ) . Register
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Goatly, A. 1997. T he L anguage of M etap hor s [ M ] .

H alliday ( 1998b) , L ondo n: Routledg e.

, Halliday, M . A. K . 1985/ 1994. A n I ntroduction to


Functional Gr ammar [ M ]. London: Edward
,
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Halliday , M . A . K . 1992. How do you mean? [ A ] In


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temic L inguistics. Recent T heory and Pr actice [ C] .
N ew York: Pinter .
, : Halliday , M . A . K . 1993a. T he act of meaning [ A] . In
, , M . A . K . Halliday. L anguage in a Changing W orld
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[ C] . A pplied Linguistics Association of Australia. Studies of Language in Education, N orthern T er rito-


Halliday, M . A. K . 1993b. W riting Science: Liter acy ry U niversit y.
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Halliday, M . A . K. 1996. O n grammar and g rammatics temic funct ional g rammar [ A] . I n J. D. Benson &
[ A ] . In R. Hasan, C. Cloran & D. G . Butt W . S. Greaves ( eds. ) . Systemic Functional A p-
( eds. ) . Functional Descrip tions. T heor y and Prac- p roaches to Discour se [ C] . ( A dvances in Discourse
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Halliday, M . A. K . 1997. T he grammatical constructio n function [ A] . In M . Davies & L. Ravelli ( eds. ) .
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clause [ A ] . In R . Rossini, G . Sandr i & R. and Practice [ C] . N ew Yor k: Pinter .
Scazzeri ( eds. ) . I ncommensur ability and T r ansla- M atthiessen, C. 1993. T he object of study in cog nitive
tion [ C] . Cheltenham: Elgar . science in relation to its construal and enactment in
Halliday, M . A. K . 1998a. L ing uistics as metapho r [ A] . language [ J] . Cultural Dy namics 6/ 1: 187-242.
In Anne- M arie Simon- Vandenber gen, K. Davidse. M atthiessen, C. 1995a. T heme as an enabling r esource in
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A mster dam: Benjamins. T ex t [ C] . London: P inter.
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g rammaticising exper ience as technical know ledge p hy : English Systems [ M ] . T okyo: Inter national
[ A] . In J. R. M ar tin & R. Veel ( eds. ) . Reading L anguag e Sciences Publishers.
Science: Cr itical and Functional Persp ectives on M atthiessen, C. 1998. Construing processes of conscious-
Discour ses of Science [ C] . London: Routledge. ness: F rom the co mmonsense model to the uncom-
Halliday, M . A. K . & J. R. M artin. 1993. Wr iting monsense model of cog nitive science [ A ] . In J. R.
Science: L iter acy and Discur siv e Pow er [ M ] . L on- M artin & R. Veel ( eds. ) . Reading Science: Cr iti-
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M art in, J. R . 1995. Inter personal meaning, persuasio n study in t he development of languag e as a resource
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Science [ M ] . London: Rout ledge. Ravelli, L . L. 1985. M etaphor, mo de, and complex ity:
M art in, J. R. M aking meaning: T he grammatical politics An ex ploration of co- var ying patter ns ( B. A . the-
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guistics and Education 8/ 4: 367-388. , 1996, [ J] , 5 6 4


R av elli, L . L . 1998b. T he consequences of choice: Dis-
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jamins. , 2006) 1 ) 15
, 2005,5 6 [ M ] : , 2006) 1 ) 22
: 200433

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,
: :


;


; / 0 ,
40
2006 6 30 ( / ) ; 2005
7 20 , 1000 , 500
, 8000 , 5000 (
) :
05 ( : 100871)
: pekinguni2006@ 163. com
: http: / / lg - salon. home. bj001. net/ ,
http: / / sfl. pku. edu. cn/




2005 12

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2006 3 ( ) M ar . 2006
38 2 For eign L anguage T eaching and Research ( bimonthly) Vol. 38 No. 2

Abstracts of major papers in this issue

On nominalization, verbalization and grammatical metaphor, by Zhu Yongsheng , p. 83


Ever since M . A. K. Halliday put forw ar d the concept of g rammatical metaphor in 1985, ther e hav e been a lot of
publicat ions on its natur e, classification, functions, realization forms, wor king mechanisms and its relation to ideology,
languag e dev elopment, r eg ister and genre. How ever, the previous discussions on t he classification and function of nom-
i
nalization are far fro m being ex haustive and the relation betw een ver balizat ion and grammatical metaphor has been largely
igno red. With the pur pose of giving a more comprehensive pictur e of gr ammatical metaphor, this paper attempts to look at
t he follow ing interrelated issues: ( 1) Basic criteria of g rammatical metaphor; ( 2) Definition and classification of nomina-
l
ization; ( 3) Definit ion and classification of verbalization; and ( 4) Compariso n between nominalization and verbalization in
t erms of their metaphor ic functions.

Conceptual metaphor and discourse coherence, by Ren Shaoz eng , p. 91


T his paper is an analysis of the narrative discourse A ll the K ingps M en from a cognitive appr oach, center ing round a
conceptual metaphor, using theories advanced by L akoff and Langacker. T he text is found to unfold within the framew ork
of narrative structure, pr esenting the life of the characters, thus providing the ex periential basis for t he metapho r, and,
meanw hile, pr oceeding w ith the conceptualizatio n and construal of the exper ience by means of the metaphor ization o f the
metaphoric expression / twitch0. T he result is a conceptual mapping across the domains ) a conceptual metaphor: L ife Is
A T witch. T he metaphor serv es as t he unifying factor in t he tex t, w hich ensur es the coher ence of t he discourse, and the
t ex t, in its turn, repr esents the realization of the metaphor.

Frequency of lef-t dislocation and the emergence of topic construction, by Cheng L ix ia , p. 101
Data show t hat the frequency o f left dislocations ( T C1 ) was much higher than T C 2 in A rchaic Chinese but fro m 900
A . D. T C1 declined sharply while t he other g reatly rose. We hypothesize that itps the time that Chinese topic had beg un its
g rammaticalization and T C 1 is the prototype of the grammaticalized topic. In the frequency o f T C1 and T C2 in English,
how ever, we havenpt found the same diachronic change. T o pic in English doesnpt hold its ow n syntactic positio n and has
r etained the functional status from EM dE to PDE. N ew to pic constructions in Chinese offer good ex amples fo r the study of
topic typolo gy.

Analysis of memes in language, by Chen Li nx ia & H e Zi ran , p. 108


T he meme as a unit of cultural infor mation is of great importance in the dev elo pment o f human languages. Its replica-
tion and transmission provide a quick and an effective w ay to enr ich human languages. M emetics r ev eals the law of lan-
guage dev elo pment; provides a new perspective on language research, communication and culture. T his paper introduces
t he memetic theory , the or igin, char acteristics and types of memes, analyses the v ar iation of linguistic memes in the pro-
cess of replication and transmission, as well as the causes of successful memes in language. Based on an analysis of the
memetic phenomena in the use of languag e, the authors tr y to prov ide some useful hints and references for the study of lan-
guage development and changes.

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