You are on page 1of 11

1.

This question is about galactic motion.

  • (a) The wavelength of the Lyman-alpha line in the hydrogen spectrum is measured in the laboratory to be 122 nm. In the hydrogen spectrum of a galaxy, the Lyman-alpha line is measured to be 147 nm. Determine the distance of this galaxy from the Earth. Assume that the Hubble constant H 0 is 75km s 1 M pc

–1

.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

(3)

  • (b) Suggest one reason why there is uncertainty in the value of the Hubble constant. ...................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................

(1)

(Total 4 marks)

  • 2. This question is about the Big Bang model and red-shift.

    • (a) Describe what is meant by the Big Bang model. ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................

(1)

  • (b) In the 1960s, Penzias and Wilson discovered a uniform cosmic background radiation (CMB) in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

    • (i) Explain how the CMB is consistent with the Big Bang model. ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ...........................................................................................................................

 

(3)

(ii)

State why the red-shift of light from galaxies supports the Big Bang model.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

 

(1)

  • (c) Many galaxies are a great distance from Earth. Explain, with reference to Hubble’s law, how the measurement of the red-shift of light from such galaxies enables their distance from Earth to be determined.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

(3)

  • (d) State one problem associated with using Hubble’s law to determine the distance of a galaxy a great distance from Earth. ...................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................

  • 3. This question is about models of the universe.

(1)

(Total 9 marks)

Observations of the night sky indicate that there are many regions of the universe that do not contain any stars.

  • (a) Explain why this observation contradicts Newton’s model of the universe. ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................

(3)

  • (b) Outline how the Big Bang model of the universe is consistent with this observation. ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................

  • 4. This question is about Olbers’ paradox.

(3)

(Total 6 marks)

  • (a) Newton assumed that the universe is static and that the stars are uniformly distributed. State one further assumption of the Newtonian universe. ................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................

 

(1)

  • (b) Explain how Newton’s assumptions led to Olbers’ paradox.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

 

(5)

(Total 6 marks)

5.

This question is about cosmology.

  • (a) The diagram below represents a spherical region of space based on Newton’s model of the universe. Earth is at the centre of the region. The dark line represents a very thin spherical shell of space distance R from Earth.

5. This question is about cosmology. (a) The diagram below represents a spherical region of space

With reference to the diagram and Newton’s model of the universe explain quantitatively Olbers’ paradox.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

(4)

  • (b) Outline how the Big Bang theory provides a resolution to Olbers’ paradox. ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................

(2)

(Total 6 marks)

6.

This question is about cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) and the density of the universe.

The graph shows the relative intensity of the CMB as a function of wavelength.

6. This question is about cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) and the density of the universe.
  • (a) Explain how this graph is consistent with the Big Bang model of the universe. ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................

(3)

  • (b) The density of the universe will determine its ultimate fate. Outline the problems associated with determining the density of the universe. ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................

(2)

(Total 5 marks)

7.

This question is about the density of the universe.

  • (a) Define critical density. ...................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................

(1)

  • (b) Explain how the future of the universe may be predicted by comparing the estimated density of the universe to the critical density. ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................

(3)

  • (c) Explain why the existence of dark matter makes it difficult to measure the density of the universe. ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................

(1)

(Total 5 marks)

8.

This question is about cosmic microwave background radiation.

The graph shows the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

8. This question is about cosmic microwave background radiation. The graph shows the spectrum of the

The shape of the graph suggests a black body spectrum i.e. a spectrum to which the Wien displacement law applies.

  • (a) Use the graph to estimate the black body temperature. ...................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................

 

(2)

  • (b) Explain how your answer to (a) is evidence in support of the Big Bang model.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

 

(2)

  • (c) State and explain another piece of experimental evidence in support of the Big Bang model. ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................

  • 9. This question is about Hubble’s law.

    • (a) State Hubble’s law.

(2)

(Total 6 marks)

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

(2)

  • (b) Suggest why, in verifying Hubble’s law, data from nearby galaxies cannot be used. ...................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................

(1)

(Total 3 marks)

10.

This question is about the density of the universe.

  • (a) Explain, with reference to the possible fate of the universe, the significance of the critical density of matter in the universe. ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................

(3)

  • (b) Suggest one reason why it is difficult to estimate the density of matter in the universe. ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................

  • 11. This question is about cosmology.

(2)

(Total 5 marks)

  • (a) State how the observed red-shift of many galaxies is explained. ......................................................................................................................................

 

(1)

  • (b) Explain how the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation is consistent with the Big Bang model.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

 

(2)

  • (c) Calculate the temperature of the universe when the peak wavelength of the CMB was equal to the wavelength of red light (7.0 × 10 7 m). ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................

(2)

(Total 5 marks)