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2006 11 ( ) Nov .

2006
38 6 For eign L anguage T eaching and Research ( bimonthly) Vol. 38 No. 6


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Halliday & M atthiessen ( 2004:
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608-612) ,
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Rose 2003; K orner 2000; White 1998; M ar tin & White
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2006 6

4. ( Halliday 1994: 91)



they must have known
( possible
they cert ainly know
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/ cert ain)


it must happen
( som etimes
it alw ays happens
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( allow ed you must be patient

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( w illing I must w in!

/ keen Ipm determin ed t o w in!
det ermined)

M artin ,
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( 2) I am [ happy , glad , pleased , sad , r egr et . . . ] that . . .
[ affect] , ,
I am [ happy , g lad , pl eased , sad , regret . . . ] to [ d o] ,
.... ; M artin
( 3 ) I t is [ good , excel lent , bad , not bad , f ai r . . . . ] t o , ,
[ d o] . . . . [ attitude] ,

2) ,
, , feel, fear, fright-

en, scar e, comfo rt good, ex cellent, bad, brig ht,



beautiful, ugly
3) Beaugrande, R. D. 1991. Linguistic T heory : T he D is-
, Hallidy & cour se of Fundamental Wor ks [ M ] . L ondon: Long-
Hasan ( 1987) , , man.
, Butler, C. 2003. Str uctur e and Function. Par t 1 &
: Par t 2 [ M ] . Amsterdam: Jo hn Benjamins.
, Dik, S. 1978. Functional Gr ammar [ M ] . Amsterdam:
Nort h- Holland Publishing Company .
4.
Egg ins, S. & D. Slade. 1997. A naly sing Casual Con-
ver sation [ M ] . London: Cassell.
, Halliday Halliday, M . A. K. 1984. Language as code and language
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) ) ) 5 ) ) ) 6

as behaviour : A systemic- funct ional interpretat ion of Sy dney .


the nature and ontogenesis o f dialogue [ A ] . In R. M ar tin, J. R. & D. Rose. 2003. Wor king w ith D is-
P. Fawcett, M . A. K . Halliday, S. M . Lamb & cour se: M eaning Beyond the Clause [ M ] . L ondon:
A . M akkai ( eds. ) . T he Semiotics of Language and Continuum.
Cultur e: V ol . 1 : L anguage as Social Semiotic M ar tin, J. R. & P. White. 2005. T he L anguage of E-
[ C] . L ondon: Pinter. valuation: A p p raisal in English [ M ] . New Yor k:
Halliday, M . A . K . 1978. Language A s a Social Semi- Palgrave M acM illan.
otic: T he Social I nter p retation of L anguage and M ar tin, J. R. 1992. English T ex t, Sy stem and Str uc-
M eaning [ M ] . London: Edw ar d Arnold. tur e [ M ] . Philadelphia/ A mster dam: Jo hn Ben-
Halliday, M . A. K . 1994/ 2004. A n I ntr oduction to jamins.
Functional Grammar [ M ]. L ondon: Edward M ar tin, J. R. 2000. Beyond exchange: AP PRAISAL
A rnold. systems in English [ A ] . In S. Hunston & G.
Halliday, M . A. K . & R. Hasan. 1987. T he G ram- T hompson ( eds. ) . Evaluation in T ex t : A uthor ial
mar ianps dream: L ex is as mo re delicate grammar Stance and the Constr uction of Discour se [ C] . Ox-
[A ] . In M . A . K. Halliday & R. P. Fawcett ford: OU P .
( eds. ) . N ew Dev elop ments in Systemic L inguistics . White, P. 1998. T elling M edia T ales: T he News Sto ry as
V ol. 1 : T heory and Descr ip tion [ C ] . L ondo n: Rhetoric [ D] . U npublished PhD dissertation. Syd-
Pinter . ney: U niversity of Sy dney .
Halliday, M . A . K. & C. M . I. M . M atthiessen. 2004.
A n I ntr od uction to Functional Gr am mar [ M ] . : 2006) 2 ) 23;
London: Edward Arnold. , 2006 ) 9) 30
K orner , K. 2000. N ego tiating Author ity: T he Lo gogene- : 266071
sis of Dialog ue in Common Law Judg ments [ D] . Un- ( )
published P hD dissertation. Sydney: U niversit y of 250100 ( )

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2006 11 ( ) Nov . 2006
38 6 For eign L anguage T eaching and Research ( bimonthly) Vol. 38 No. 6

Abstracts of major papers in this issue


English indirect conditionals and their degrammaticalization ( II ) , by CH EN G uohua ( N atio nal Research Centre for
F oreign Language Education, Beijing Foreign Studies U niv. , Beijing 100089, P. R. China) , p. 403
In t his part of the paper the author arg ues t hat degrammaticalization should not be defined nar rowly to cov er only cas-
es w here a grammatical item becomes a lex ical item. It should also include t he g radual disappearance of a grammat ical item
and the acquisition of a pragmatic or lex ical function by a grammatical item plus the formal changes it underg oes in the
process. I n this broad definition the deconditionalization of addressee- satisfact ion conditionals such as if it p lease you is a
kind of degrammaticalization. T he author shows that the interjectio n p lease or iginated from the politeness conditional if it
p lease you, without ex cluding the possibility that the sentence- initial please or iginated fr om / Please you to + verb0 and
even / W ill it please you to + verb0, thus disproving the OEDps claim that please is the shor t form of / M ay it p lease
y ou0 and / Be Please to + verb0 . Among the four indirect conditionals that underwent deg rammaticalizat ion, if it p lease
you was completely deg rammaticalized when it w as reduced to a bare inter jection; if it like you became todayps if you
like, retaining the form of a conditio nal clause but expressing mainly politeness and metalinguistic conditions; if you w ill
has remained intact fo rmally, but is now used only to ex press metalinguistic condition; if you list w as the only one that
didnpt surv ive the pro cess.
English features in the spoken Chinese of Chinese speakers of English, by W U Yipan & JI A N G Suhua ( National Re-
search Centre for For eig n L anguage Educatio n, Beijing For eign Studies U niv. , Beijing 100089, P. R. China) , p. 411
T he study investig ates the English features in t he spoken Chinese of four Chinese speakers of Eng lish. T he results
show that: a) they switch fr equently between Chinese and English; b) their spoken Chinese has the following features:
( 1) increased use of pro nouns in subject posit ion and the / subject + shi. . . de0 structure, which result in an increased
number o f SV O constructio ns; ( 2) use of long modifiers before head nouns; ( 3) increased use of the structure of / yi +
quantifier0 ; c) striking differences between the spoken Chinese o f unbalanced bilinguals and that of balanced o nes.
A comparative study on redundancy of negators in Chinese and ne expl
tif in French, by WA N G Zhu ( French L anguage
Dept. , Beijing For eign Studies U niv. , Beijing 100089, P. R. China) , p. 418
In both Chinese and F rench, there is a similar linguistic pheno menon, i. e. some sentences w ith negative w ords have
no negative meaning , and they remain positive w ith or wit hout neg ative wor ds. T hese negativ e words ar e called redundan-
cy of neg ators in Chinese and ne ex p l
tif in French. T his paper analyses the differ ences and similarities of such neg ative
w ords in t he two languages.
Formal and semantic categorizations: A review of The Language of Evaluation: Appraisal in English, by ZH A N G
Delu & LI U Shiz hu ( School of For eig n L anguages, Ocean U niv. of China, Qingdao 266071, P. R. China) , p. 423
T he article first introduces four basic linguistic resear ch approaches w ith different aims and scopes, and then br iefly
compares Halliday. s systemic functional linguistics with M artinps appraisal theory to show the differences in t he aims of
t he linguistic resear ch in their theories. Hallidayps approach is comprehensive and mult-i leveled, but it is restricted by for-
mal catego rization. M artinps appr aisal theory gives the social semiotic aspects a more compr ehensive and systematic cover-
age, but it needs to perfect the relev ant formal categor ization that realizes the appr aisal system.
Politeness strategies, characterization theory, and drama stylistics: A synthetic case study with theoretical modif ica-
tions, by GA O Jianw u & SH EN Dan ( School of Foreign Lang uages, Peking U niv. , Beijing 100871, P. R . China) ,
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