You are on page 1of 12

2014 1 January 2014

37 1 Journal of Foreign Languages Vol37 No1


1004 5139 2014 01 0053 12 H059 A


200240

; ; ;

The Semantic Preferences and Semantic Prosody of Bei Passives


A corpus-based contrastive study

ZHU YifanHU Kaibao


School of Foreign LanguagesShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghai 200240China

Abstract Based on a systematic comparison of the semantic preferences and semantic prosody of bei ( ) passives in
two comparable corporanamely the Corpus of E-C Translated News Articles and the Corpus of Non-translated
Chinese News Articlesthis paper explores the semantic changes of bei ( ) passives in translated Chinese and ana-
lyses the causes of such changes Methodologicallythis study demonstrates that semantic preference and semantic
prosody can be exploited fruitfully in carrying out investigations of semantic features that typically occur in translated
rather than non-translated texts
Key words bei; semantic preference; semantic prosody; corpus

1
semantic preference semantic prosody Sinclair12
co-selection collocation colligation

Stubbs16Tognini-Bonelli 1936Partington
9Xiao McEnery20 Whitsitt 22 Hunston3

Stubbs17 225
Sinclair12
Partington9 151

53


Sinclair10 11 set in happenLouw23 utterlyStubbs15 17 cause
commit37 incident of probability of Hunston
3 persistence persistent
Tognini-Bonelli19
Xiao McEnery20Xiao et al2138
3133

2
2 1

40 430 433

24
27

34 8325 9942 587


27 229 24043 139 140
27 234 50 4% Xiao et al 21
139 141 LCMC

39 92
34 8342 587

2629

/ /

54

2 2
/
/
Mauranen5
Olohan 6
prettyrather quite

28


1
2

/
100
21
2011 8
21

2006
2007
2008

55

1
1

2006 2007 97 3 2006 2007 97 3

44 3 44 7

19 2 19 9

20 6 19 1

8 6 8 5

4 6 5 1


21

AntConc /
KWIC collocates 5

4
4 1
1281
923
10 Xiao et al21 141
142
532 486

9 15
2
2

1281 923

1 32 0 95

532 486

9 15

0 01 0 2

7 9

56

3
3

55 0 06 28 0 03

53 0 05 24 0 02

40 0 04 20 0 02

38 0 04 16 0 02

26 0 03 13 0 01

21 0 02

15 0 02

13 0 01

13 0 01

11 0 01

11 0 01

10 0 01

10 0 01

4 2
AntConc 3
MI 3
4 6
4

/ / /
1

/ /
3

4 /

5 /

41

57

action +

punctual +

affected +

4 6
27 16
6

/ /
1

/ /
3

40 4
/
When asked about / if 7
7
/ p / p / v / ns / n / u / v / g / w eBay / x / m / q / n

/ p / p / v / v / v / v / r / g / w / n / f / u

/ p / p / v / v / d / p / p / ns / v / g / w / r

/ p / t / p / v / nr / v / p / vn / f / v / g

/ v / p / v / nr / v / v / v / g / v / w/ w / r

Hopper Thompson 1 10 participants kinesis aspect


punctuality volitionality affirmation mode agency affectedness of O
individualization of O

58
4 6
/ / /
/ / /

32
( 1) ? ( )
( 2) ( )
( 3) ( )


1 0


100
100
8
8


28 28% 37 36%

21 21% 28 28%

48 48% 29 29%

3 3% 4 4%

1 1% 2 2%

59
1
2
3

10


Jackendoff4 157 preference rules system


4 3
Sinclair12 87

39 88

the principle of least effort the principle of economy George Kingsley Zipf

30

60

8
8
/ r / d / v / p / l / u / n / v / u / l

/ r / v / qt / v / n / v / p / v / a

/ n / f / v / m / qv / w / p / v / u / n / z

/ r / m / q / n / d / d / a / p / v / a

/ p / v / u / r / u / n / d / v / p / v / a

100 9
9 45%
47%
28% 17%
12% 22%
17% 3%

41
17% 11% 0%
10
10 6 7
810 6
be calledbe named

61
9


26 26% 35 35%

1 1% 0 0%

13 13% 41% 6 6% 45%

1 1% 3 3%

0 0% 1 1%

2 2% 2 2%

17 17% 11 11%

28 28% 47% 20 20% 33%

0 0% 0 0%

1 1% 0 0%

0 0% 0 0%

3 3% 17 17%

7 7% 12% 3 3% 22%

2 2% 1 1%

0 0% 1 1%

10

1 / w / r / n / d / p / v / n / n / n / g / w

2 / r / q / n / v / n / g / n / g / d / p / v / a

3 / s / n / p / v/ w / ns / n / u Facebook / x

4 / r / p / v/ w / g / g / n / w / u / n

5 / t / v / n / d / v / p / v/ w / n / n

6 / ns / p / v / a / u/ w / n / n / n

7 / nr / v / ns / n / vn / w / p / v/ w / n / nr

8 / nr / cc / nr / p / v / ns / n / u / m / q/ w

9 / v / ns / d / f / w / r / p / v / ns / n

10 / r / n / d / v / r / p / v/ w / n / n / w / u


8 21%
28%

62
5

1 HopperP S Thompson Transitivity in grammar and discourse J Language


1980
56 51 299
2 HunstonS Corpora in Applied Linguistics M Cambridge Cambridge University Press
2002
3 HunstonS Semantic prosody revisited J Interntaional Journal of Corpus Linguistics2007
12 249 268
4 Jackendoff Semantics and CognitionM Boston MIT Press1983
5 MauranenA Strange strings in Translated Language a study on corpora A M Olohan esearch
Models in Translation Studies I Textual and Cognitive Aspects C Manchester St Jerome Publishing
2000
119 141
6 OlohanM Introducing Corpora in Translation Studies M London and New York outledge
2004
7 OrpinD The Lexis of Corruption in the News A Corpus-based Study in Ideology D Unpublished MA The-
sis Department of EnglishUniversity of Birmingham
1997
8 PartingtonA Patterns and Meanings Using Corpora for English Language esearch and Teaching M Am-
sterdam and Philadelphia J Benjamins Pub1998
9 PartingtonA Utterly content in each others company Semantic prosody and semantic preference J
International Journal of Corpus Linguistic20049 1 131 156
10 SinclairJ Looking Up M London Collins1987
11 SinclairJ CorpusConcordanceCollocation M Oxford Oxford University Press1991
12 SinclairJ The search for units of meaning J TEXTUS19969 1 75 106
13SinclairJ The Lexical Item A E Weigand Contrastive Lexical Semantics C Amsterdam John Ben-
jamins1998 1 24
14 SinclairJ eading Concordances An Introduction M HarlowEssex and London Pearson / Longman
2003
15 StubbsM Collocations and semantic profiles on the cause of the trouble with quantitative studies J Func-
tions of Language19952 1 1 33
16 StubbsM Words and Phrases Corpus Studies of Lexical Semantics M OxfordUK and MaldenMass
USA Blackwell Publishers2001
17 StubbsM Two quantitative methods of studying phraseology in English J International Journal of Corpus
Linguistics20027 2 215 244

63
18 StubbsM The search for units of meaning Sinclair on empirical semantics J Applied Linguistics2009
30 115 137
19 Tognini BonelliE Functionally complete units of meaning across English and Italian Towards a corpus
driven approach A B Altenberg S Granger Lexis in ContrastC Amsterdam John Benjamins
2002 73 95
20 Xiao and A McEnery Collocationsemantic prosodyand near synonymy A cross-linguistic perspec-
tive J Applied Linguistics200627 103 129
21 Xiao A McEnery Y Qian Passive constructions in English and Chinese A corpus-based contrastive
study J Languages in Contrast20066 109 149
22 WhitsittS A critique of the concept of semantic prosody J International Journal of Corpus Linguistics
200510 3 283 305
23 LouwB Irony in the text of insincerity in the writer The diagnostic potential of semantic prosodies A M
BakerG Francis E Tognini Bonelli Text and Technology In Honour of John Sinclair C Amster-
dam John Benjamins1993 157 176
24 A C
2002 209 236
25 M
1961
26 J
2012 3 359 370
27 M 2008
28 M 2011
29 J 2010 3 73 79
30 Zipf J 2005 1 87 95
J 2012
31 1 20 33
32 J 2002 6 55 57
33
J 3 424 436
2012
34 M
1952 /2002
35 M 1990
36 J
2002 4 300 307
37 M 2002
38 J
2011 4 32 42
39 M
1943 /1985
40 M
1958 /1980
41 J
2004 1 1 11
42 M 1968 /
1996
43 1905 1936 M 2011

1980
2010 11CYY005
10ZD127

2012 10 25
1978
1966

64