You are on page 1of 4

2012 1 2012No 1

164 FOREIGN LANGUAGE RESEARCH Serial No 164


100029

Wmatrix

Wmatrix
H0 06 A 1000 0100 2012 01 0051 04

A Corpus-based Approach to Metaphor Use


A Case Study of H1N1 Flu Discourse in Chinese and American Media
Sun Ya
University of International Business and EconomicsBeijing 100029China
This paper employs the corpus tool Wmatrix to compare metaphor use concerning H1N1 fluin Chinese and American
media The findings show that the Chinese and American media both use the same linguistic metaphors and systematic meta-
phorsbut more systematic metaphors and words with more specific meanings are found in American media Underlying meta-
phors as referential strategies in both media reflect China and USs differing ideologies The corpus-based approach to metaphor
use sheds new light on the empirical turn and social turn of cognitive linguistics
Key words H1N1 flu metaphor semantic domain Wmatrix

1 2006 2009
em- Charteris-Black
pirical turn social turn 2004 Deignan 2005 Stefanowitsch Gries 2006
2010 2010
discourse metaphor research
real-world metaphor research Ca-
meron Maslen 2010 Low et al 2010
lemma token
ecologically valid
Wmatrix

MIPVU

51
2012 1

2
6 63 flu
2 3 MIPVU
2 1
flu 4 flu
1 systematic metaphor
flu 2
3 Cameron Maslen 2010 128 5
Wmatrix
2 2 MIPVU
CHD
NYT
flu 3
2009 4 12 3 1 flu
CHD NYT flu CHD NYT 28
71
590 139
453 58 23 1
2 3 Wmatrix B2-
Wmatrix Rayson 2008 B3 B2 L2
swinepig L2
US- flu 2 flu
AS UCREL Semantic Annotation System A2 1 + M1 M7
semantic domain / field W3 3 flu
semantic tagset 21 G3 S8- 4 A13 3
N5 + 5 Z6 +
Wmatrix 1 NYT flu
negative prosody
2 BNC Sam- A1 1 2 G2 1 A15-
pler key semantic domain A5 1- E5 1-
3 2
3 flu
CHD 4
2 4 MIPVU N3 5 G3
Steen et al 2010 M1 S8- pressure
MIPVU 1 warenterfight Wmatrix fight
2 S8-
G3
flu


Unfortunatelythe possible eruption of A H1N1
flu will add more pressure on the authorities to approve the in-
Pragglejaz Group troduction of hog futures
2007 MIPVU The president declared a peoples war against
SARS six years ago
2 5 Tightened measures at airports will stop the virus
1 from entering the country
Wmatrix We are contributing indirectly to the global fight a-
52
2012 1

gainst the epidemic


NYT 8 4 3 31 G3
CHD flu G3N3 5M1 S8- 1 G3 O1 % 1
4 A1 1 2 G3 O2 % 2 G3
G2 1 S4 A15- % 2
devastatepolicedescendantdangerous G3 LL
flu G3
1 G3 CHD NYT

O1 %1 O2 %2 LL
as was the case during the devastating flu pan-
G3 CHD 57 0 08 3152 0 33 167 14
demic of 1918
G3 NYT 238 0 18 3152 0 33 96 03
Local officials hospital workers and doctors are
acting as ad hoc swine flu police 1 G3
All H1N1 flus are descendants of the 1918 pandemic
strain
Top global flu experts struggled to predict how dan- Koller 2009 126
gerous the new A H1N1 swine flu strain would be 3 32 G3
3 3 G3 Wmatrix G3
G3
beatstrikehitblow MIPVU

2 G3





CHD 71
590 57 18 302 57 217 35 25 204 20
NYT 139
453 238 53 589 117 527 89 54 442 40
x2 28 0928 2 3271 0 0003 0 1052 7 5323 1 7960 0 1827 1 5870 0 0093
p 0 000 0 127 0 986 0 746 0 006 0 180 0 669 0 208 0 923

2 7
G3 3 G3 10
G3 p = CHD 71
590 NYT 139
453
0 208 p = 0 923
X2 p
CHD NYT 1
outbreak 120 outbreak 247 0 2459 0 620
warbattlefightattackcam-
fight 32 fight 8 37 8958 0 000
paigncombat 2 defend
shot 15 shot 111 27 2657 0 000
invademobilizeexplosion 3
battle 15 battle 4 17 1858 0 000
defensefrontlineweapon
campaign 12 campaign 30 0 5365 0 464

combat 7 combat 5 3 1904 0 074


CHD NYT
target 3 target 5 0 0457 0 831
gunbul-
letshellbattery repelmarshal
marchfiredischarge shotfight battle shot
3 33 G3 NYT fight
3 CHD NYT battle CHD
53
2012 1

CHD NYT fightbattlecam- 4


paign combat
clusters
5
4

CHD NYT

all human beings to fight federal officials leading the fight

battle of all human beings medical experts say the battle
launched a widespread vacci- campaignas officials suspen- J 2010 1

nation campaign ded J


combat H1N1the world s officials are trying to combat 2011 3
newest
J 2009 2
J
4 CHD 4
2006 5
all human beingswidespreadthe world
J

2010 5

CameronL R Maslen Metaphor Analysis C Lon-

don Equinox2010
NYT 4
Charteris-BlackJ Corpus Approaches to Critical Metaphor
official
Analysis M Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan2004

DeignanA Metaphor and Corpus Linguistics M Amster-

dam John Benjamins2005

KollerV Missions and Empires Religious and Political

Metaphors in Corporate Discourse A In MusolffA

ZinkenJ eds Metaphor and Discourse C



Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan2009
2011
LowGet al Researching and Applying Metaphor in the
World C Amsterdam John Benjamins2010
4
Pragglejaz Group MIP A Method for Identifying Metaphori-
Wmatrix
cally Used Words in Discourse J Metaphor and Sym-

bol2007 1
1 flu
RaysonP From Key Words to Key Semantic Domains J
2
International Journal of Corpus Linguistics2008 4

SteenG Jet al A Method for Linguistic Metaphor Identi-



fication M Amsterdam John Benjamins2010
3
StefanowitschA S T Gries Corpus-Based Approaches

to Metaphor and Metonymy C Berlin Mouton de

Gruyter2006

2011 10 09

54