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Critical reasoning

Answer B

Answer C
Answer D

Answer D
Answer D

Answer C
Answer for 7 is E

Answer is A

Shakespeare is the greatest writer of all time. This is because he wrote the greatest plays, and the
greatest writer is the one who composes the greatest works.

Which of the following statements most effectively challenges the reasoning above?

A. This argument disproves its own premise.


B. This argument uses ambiguous language.
C. This argument assumes what it claims to prove.
D. This argument introduces irrelevant evidence.
E. This argument fails to make a clear claim.

C. This is an example of circular reasoning, in which the proof depends on assumptions which
themselves have not been proven.
26. The latest movie by a certain director gets bad reviews before it opens in theatres. Consequently,
very few people go to the movie and the director is given much less money to make his next movie,
which is also unsuccessful.
What can be inferred from this scenario?
(A) This director makes terrible movies.
(B) The general public does not pay attention to movie reviews.
(C) The movie reviewers wereright about the first movie.
(D) Movie reviewers exert influence on the movie quality.

(E) The director will not make another movie.

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27. The most important determinant of success in life is education. Even children from broken or
dysfunctional homes tend to establish themselves as solid citizens so long as they obtain a high school
education. On the other hand, children who fail to earn a high school diploma are much less likely to
avoid prison, welfare, or divorce. Which of the following statements most effectively strengthens the
above argument?
(A) A recent study demonstrated a link between education and lifetime earnings.
(B) Most federal prisoners receive a high school diploma while incarcerated.
(C) Research indicates that college graduates from abusive homes are more likely to be arrested.
(D) Individuals with heart problems are more likely to have postgraduate education.
(E) Children from functional homes are more likely to attend preschool.

29. Shakespeare is the greatest writer of all time. This is because he wrote the greatestplays, and the
greatest writer is the one who composes the greatest works.

Which of the following statements most effectively challenges the reasoning above?
(A) This argument disproves its own premise.
(B) This argument uses ambiguous language.
(C) This argument assumes what it claims to prove
(D) This argument introduces irrelevant evidence.
(E) This argument fails to make a clear claim.

29. C. This is an example of circular reasoning, in which the proof depends on


assumptions which themselves have not been proven.

30. In the 2000 local election, only 28% of individuals between the ages of 18 and 25 voted. In the 2004
local election, however, candidates made more of an effort to appeal to these younger voters, so
turnout was slightly higher at 39%. Which of the following pieces of information weakens the above
argument?
(A) The candidates for city council were ages 55, 72, and 64.
(B) The turnout among voters between the ages of 35 and 44 was 42% in 2004.
(C) Turnout among African-Americans between18 and 25 decreased from 2000 to 2004.
(D) The polls stayed open later on Election Day in 2000.
(E) In 2004, a referendum on lowering the legal age for purchasing alcohol to 18 was on
the ballot.

30. E. It seems likely that this referendum could influence many young people to vote.

31. Members of Congress should not be paid.After all, members of the school board
receive no payment, and are therefore not beholden to any particular group.
Which of the following facts most significantly weakens the above argument?
(A) Members of Congress can also serve on the school board.
(B) Being in Congress is a full-time job, while school board members have time to pursue other
occupations.
(C) Congress only is in session during part of the year.
(D) Members of Congress typically have been successful in their prior professional lives.
(E) Members of Congress are not allowed to show favoritism to any particular group.

31. B. Drawing an analogy between being a member of Congress and serving on the
school board is highly dubious.

32. All German cars are safe. Dale drives a German car, so his car is safe.

Which of the following arguments contains logic that closely resembles that of the preceding
argument?
(A) The newest cars often get better gas mileage. Helen has a new car, which must get better gas
mileage.
(B) A few of the candidates for governor are women. Dr. Lopez is a woman.
(C) No brands of natural peanut butter contain preservatives. The peanut butter in Daves cabinet
contains preservatives.
(D) Every shark has a tailfin. The hammerheadis a kind of shark and therefore has a tailfin.
(E) Some days of the week are Saturdays and Sundays. Today is neither Saturday norSunday.

32. D. The logic of this argument can be expressed as follows: All A are B. C is A,
Therefore C is B.

33. The Tigers football team usually loses when they score fewer than 30 points. In their game against
the Wildcats, they scored 24 points.
Which of the following statements would logically complete the argument with the above premises?
(A) The Tigers lost to the Wildcats.
(B) The Wildcats are the best football team in the league.
(C) The Wildcats probably lost to the Tigers.
(D) The Tigers are not a very good football team.
(E) The Tigers probably lost to the Wildcats.
33. E. There is no way to be certain that the Tigers lost, though it seems likely.
3
Sentence correction
Reading comprehension

The Food and Drug Administration has formulated certain severe restrictions regarding the use of
antibiotics, which are used to promote the health and growth of meat animals. Though the different
types of medicines mixed with the fodder of the animals kills many microorganisms, it also encourages
the appearance of bacterial strains, which are resistant to anti-infective drugs.
It has already been observed that penicillin and the tetracyclines are not as effective therapeutically as
they once used to be. This resistance to drugs is chiefly caused due to tiny circlets of genes, called
plasmids, which are transferable between different species of bacteria. These plasmids are also one of
the two kinds of vehicles on which molecular biologists depend on while performing gene transplant
experiments. Existing guidelines also forbid the use of plasmids, which bear genes for resistance to
antibiotics, in the laboratories. Though congressional debate goes on as to whether these restrictions
need to be toughened with reference to scientists in their laboratories, almost no congressional
attention is being paid to an ill advised agricultural practice, which produces deleterious effects.

In the present passage, the author's primary concern is with:


1. The discovery of methods, which eliminate harmful microorganisms without generating drug-resistant
bacteria.
2. Attempting an explanation of the reasons for congressional inaction about the regulation of gene
transplant experiments.
3. Portraying a problematic agricultural practice and its serious genetic consequences
4. The verification of the therapeutic ineffectiveness of anti-infective drugs
5. Evaluation of the recently proposed restrictions, which are intended to promote the growth of meat
animals.
Ans : 3

As inferred from the above passage, the mutual transfer of plasmids between different bacteria can
result in which of the following?
1. Microorganisms, which have an in-built resistance to drugs
2. Therapeutically useful circlets of genes
3. Penicillin like anti-infective drugs
4. Viruses used by molecular biologists
5. Carriers for performing gene transplant experiments.
Ans : 1

According to the above passage the author believes that those who favor the stiffening of restrictions on
gene transplant research should logically also.
1. Approve and aid experiments with any plasmids except those, which bear genes for antibiotic
resistance.
2. Inquire regarding the addition of anti-infective drugs to livestock feeds
3. Oppose the using of penicillin and tetracyclines in order to kill microorganisms
4. Agree to the development of meatier live-stock through the use of antibiotics
5. Approve of congressional debate and discussion regarding science and health issues.
Ans : 2
The attitude the author has with reference to the development of bacterial strains that render antibiotic
drugs in effective can best be described as
1. indifferent
2. perplexed
3. pretentious
4. insincere
5. apprehensive
Ans : 5

The existence of mammals on the earth can be traced back to at least the Triassic time. The rate of
development was retarded, till evolutional change suddenly accelerated in the oldest Paleocene. This
resulted in an increase in average size, larger mental capacity, and special adaptations for different
modes of life, during the Eocene time. Further improvement was seen during the Oligocene Epoch, with
the appearance of some new lines and extinction of others. The Miocene and Pliocene times are
especially significant as they mark the culmination of various groups and a continued approach toward
modern characters. It is in the Miocene time that the mammals reached their peak with reference to
variety and size.
The ability of the mammals to adapt to various modes of life finds a parallel in the reptiles of the
Mesozoic time, and apart form their greater intelligence, the mammals apparently have not done much
better than the corresponding reptilian forms. Undoubtedly the bat is a better flying animal than the
pterosaur, but at the same time the dolphin and whale are hardly more fish like than the ichthyosaur.
Quite a few of the swift-running mammals inhabiting the plains, like the horse and the antelope, must
excel any of the dinosaurs. Although the tyrannosaur was a more weighty and robust carnivore than
perhaps any carnivorous mammal, the lion and the tiger, by virtue of their superior brain are far more
efficient and dangerous beasts of prey. It is significant to note that various species of mammals gradually
adapted themselves to various kinds of lifestyles, some took to grazing on the plains and were able to
run swiftly (horse, deer, bison), others started living in rivers and swamps (hippopotamus, beaver),
inhabiting trees (sloth, monkey), burrowing underground (rodent, mole), feeding on flesh (tiger, wolf),
swimming in the water (dolphin, whale, seal), and flying in the air (bat). Human beings on account of
their superior brain have been able to harness mechanical methods to conquer the physical world and
adapt to any set of conditions.

Such adaptation to different conditions leads to a gradual change in form and structure. This is a
biological characteristic of the youthful, plastic stage of a group. It is seen that early in its evolutional
cycle animals possess the capacity for change, but as the animal progresses in its cycle becoming old and
fixed, this capacity for change disappears. The generalized types of organisms retain longest the ability
to make adjustments when required, and it is from them that new, fecund stocks take origin-certainly
not from any specialized end products. With reference to mammals, we see their birth, plastic spread in
many directions, increased specialization, and in some cases, extinction; this is a characteristic of the
evolution of life, which can be seen in the geologic record of life.

From the following, choose the most appropriate title for the above passage?
1. From Dinosaur to Man
2. Adaptation and Extinction
3. The Superior Mammals
4. The Geologic Life Span
5. Man, the Vanquisher of the Physical World.
Ans : 2
According to the passage the chronological order of the geologic periods is:
1. Paleocene, Miocene, Triassic, Mesozoic
2. Paleocene, Triassic, Mesozoic, Miocene
3. Miocene, Paleocene, Triassic, Mesozoic
4. Mesozoic, Oligocene, Paleocene, Miocene
5. Mesozoic, Paleocene, Eocene, Miocene
Ans : 5

From the above passage, we can infer that, the pterosaur


1. resembled the bat
2. was a Mesozoic mammal
3. was a flying reptile
4. inhabited the seas
5. evolved during the Miocene period
Ans : 3
As inferred from the passage, the largest numbers of mammals were found in which of the following
periods?
1. Triassic period
2. Eocene period
3. Oligocene epoch
4. Pliocene period
5. Miocene period
Ans : 5
Among the following statements, which statement, if true, would weaken the argument put forth in the
first sentence of Paragraph 1?
1. It has been found that the tyrannosaur had a larger brain, than was previously known.
2. Within the next thousand years, mammals will become extinct.
3. Recently certain forms of flying ichthyosaurs have been discovered.
4. It has now been proved, that the tiger is more powerful than the carnivorous reptiles.
5. It is now possible to double human mental capacity, by the use of certain recently developed
computers.
Ans : 1
It is clear from the passage, that the evidence used to discuss the life of past time periods
1. was developed by Charles Darwin
2. was unearthed by the author
3. has been negated by more recent evidence
4. was never truly established
5. is based on fossilized remains
Ans : 5

As inferred from the passage, which of the following proverbial expressions is the author most likely to
agree with?
1. It's a cruel world.
2. All the world's a stage.
3. The more things change, the more they remain the same.
4. Footprints in the sands of time.
5. A short life, but a merry one.
Ans : 4

third readingsparagraph
The recent news that local hospitals have had to reroute seriously ill patients because the
community's critical-care beds are full is worrisome. Earlier this week, four of the six local
hospitals ran out of space for the critically ill and had to turn people away.
Federal law requires hospitals to treat anyone who walks in. As a result of having to treat large
numbers of uninsured patients, the emergency rooms often become an economic drain on their
hospitals. Doctors now want to set up their own free-standing ambulatory surgical facilities and
diagnostic centers. Critics contend this would leave hospitals with less revenue and the same
number of indigents to treat.
A bill was recently introduced to phase out the need for a "certificate of public need" for non-
hospital-based facilities, provided those facilities met stringent regulations and requirements.
This would have made it easier to set up alternative facilities to help indigent patients. The
finance committee balked at the hefty price and killed the bill, another casualty of a failed
legislative session.
Unfortunately, the problem of access to medical care for those of limited means is not going to
go away anytime soon and, despite the well-intended regulations, too-full hospitals compromise
everyone's welfare. Healthy competition with small neighborhood surgical and diagnostic centers
may be what is necessary to help dampen rising medical costs. But under no circumstances
should the hospitals be forced to care for everybody without health insurance while competitors
operate free of the burden of caring for those unable to pay.

1) Which of the following is a conclusion supported by the passage?

a. If doctors want to run their own facilities, they should be required to take in at least some of the
indigents.
b. The government should provide health insurance for those unable to buy their own.
c. Voters should tell the finance committee members that they will not be reelected if they do not pass
some new legislation.
d. Emergency rooms that turn patients away due to overcrowding are derelict in their duty .
e. The fundamental problem facing hospitals now is that health care costs have risen dramatically in
recent years.

2) Which of the following best describes the tone of the passage?

a. neutral
b. positive
c. persuasive
d. angry
e. reverential

3) Which of the following is cited as a factor which has contributed to the overburdening of
hospitals?

I. Failure to pass legislation which would have mitigated the problem


II. Limited access to medical care for the poor
III. Federal law

b. I only
c. II only
d. III only
e. I and II
f. I, II, and III

4) The author cites the failed legislation in order to show that

a. the legislature will never resolve this issue.


b. the finance committee does not care about the uninsured citizens.
c. there will always be uninsured hospital patients.
d. the legislature recently attempted to resolve this issue.
e. the doctors successfully lobbied the finance committee.

Solution of this paragraph

1) A. The main idea of this passage is the role that non-hospital-based facilities should play in
health care. Accordingly, A is the correct answer. It is the only choice that draws a conclusion
about the role these institutions should play. B, C and D require inferences that are not supported
by the passage. E is not in any way implied in the passage; remember that outside information is
never needed to answer a reading comprehension question.
2) C. The author argues that small neighborhood diagnostic centers must not be allowed to gain
an unfair business advantage over hospital emergency rooms by not having to shoulder the costs
of caring for indigents. Answer choice D, despite the article's reference to the "consequence of a
failed session," is too extreme to describe the author's overall tone. An extreme answer like this
is never likely to be the correct answer choice on the GMAT. A is incorrect because the passage
takes a stand in favor of a specific position, and so cannot be characterized as neutral. B and E
are simply not correct.

3) E. All 3 of these reasons are cited in the passage. Answer E is correct even though the 3
arguments are not cited in this order, with reason III (federal law) being cited near the
beginning of the passage rather than at the end.

4) D. The author's purpose in writing this passage is to inform the reader. Answer choice D is
therefore correct because it says the author cited the failed legislation in order to inform the
reader of something. Answer choice A makes an absolute and strongly-worded assertion. Its
extreme tone alone should tell you that it can not be correct. Choice B is simply incorrect and it
states a very strong opinion something else the GMAT writers do not like test answers to do.
Choice C is incorrect because it does not relate to the supporting fact referenced by the question.
Choice E is simply not supported by the passage.

a) Journalism as a profession is facing dreadful times. First, it has never been harder to become a
journalist. Second, journalists are facing lower wages and no job security in todays economy.

Todays media has become global and instant. The internet allows everyone to become a
journalist using applications like Twitter or Facebook. Anyone whos on the scene can now write
about it and post their articles online. Anyone with an opinion can start their own journalistic
column in the form of an online blog. The need for real, professional journalism is at its lowest,
and the competition between those few remaining individuals with a background and
education in journalism is fierce.

With global economies going down the toilet, and people buying less and less newspapers for a
variety of reasons, news companies are faced with financial difficulties. They cant hire
journalists or pay them the high salaries they deserve. As a result, journalists face low wages
and lower job security. As a matter of fact, many newspaper companies are converting their
regular journalists into contract-workers for lower pay, or even replacing them with unpaid
interns.

Professional journalism is indeed in trouble. Its hard to become a journalist, and once you do
become one its even harder to make a living. If you are consider going into journalism, you
might want to take this into account. Best of luck to you.

Question 1: The primary purpose of the passage is to advise people to:

a) Support underpaid journalists


b) Buy more newspapers to help news companies
c) Boycott news companies who are underpaying journalists
d) Avoid or reconsider going into the journalism profession
e) Join Twitter or start a blog to become part of the global media

the answer is : D

Question 2: The authors mentions all of the following challenges facing journalists EXCEPT:

a) Fierce competition in the industry


b) Lower demand for professional journalism
c) Maintaining online blogs on time
d) Lower average wages
e) Possibility of being replaced by interns

the answer is : C

Question 3: According to the author, why cant newspaper companies pay journalists the high
wages they deserve?

a) People are not buying as many newspapers as they used to


b) Unpaid interns are a good, cheaper alternative to paid journalists
c) Becoming a journalist is very hard these days
d) Making regular staff writers into contract workers can reduce wages and thus expenses for
companies
e) Job security is low while competition is high

the answer is : A

Question 4: It can be inferred from the article that, in the future:Possible Answers

a) Journalism will bounce back and become a great profession


b) Newspaper companies will all go bankrupt and be replaced by Twitter
c) There will be less students enrolled in journalism programs at college
d) Demand for newspapers will rise until it meets the supply
e) Many existing journalists will have to find new career paths or at least part-time jobs to make
ends meet

the answer is : E

Question 5: Which of the following describes the relationship of the first paragraph to the rest of the
article?

a) It poses a question to be answered later in the passage


a) It provides an introduction to the concept discussed later
b) It introduces conflicting elements to be reconciled
c) It explains one side of the argument
d) It introduces an opinion to be refuted later in the passage

the answer is : B

Data sufficiency
1. How many ewes (female sheep) in a flock of 50 sheep are black?

There are 10 rams (male sheep) in the flock.


Forty percent of the animals are black.

A. statement 1 alone is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is not sufficient to answer the question
B. statement 2 alone is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not sufficient to answer the question
C. both statements taken together are sufficient to answer the question, but neither statement alone is
sufficient
D. each statement alone is sufficient
E. statements 1 and 2 together are not sufficient, and additional data is needed to answer the question

2. Is the length of a side of equilateral triangle E less than the length of a side of square F?

The perimeter of E and the perimeter of F are equal.


The ratio of the height of triangle E to the diagonal of square F is 23 : 32.

A. statement 1 alone is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is not sufficient to answer the question
B. statement 2 alone is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not sufficient to answer the question
C. both statements taken together are sufficient to answer the question, but neither statement alone is
sufficient
D. each statement alone is sufficient
E. statements 1 and 2 together are not sufficient, and additional data is needed to answer the question

3. If a & b are both positive, what percent of b is a?

a = 3/11
b/a = 20

A. statement 1 alone is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is not sufficient to answer the question
B. statement 2 alone is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not sufficient to answer the question
C. both statements taken together are sufficient to answer the question, but neither statement alone is
sufficient
D. each statement alone is sufficient
E. statements 1 and 2 together are not sufficient, and additional data is needed to answer the question

4. A wheel of radius 2 meters is turning at a constant speed. How many revolutions does it make in time
T?

T = 20 minutes.
The speed at which a point on the circumference of the wheel is moving is 3 meters per minute.

A. statement 1 alone is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is not sufficient to answer the question
B. statement 2 alone is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not sufficient to answer the question
C. both statements taken together are sufficient to answer the question, but neither statement alone is
sufficient
D. each statement alone is sufficient
E. statements 1 and 2 together are not sufficient, and additional data is needed to answer the question
===============

5. Are the integers x, y and z consecutive?

The arithmetic mean (average) of x, y and z is y.


y-x = z-y

A. statement 1 alone is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is not sufficient to answer the question
B. statement 2 alone is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not sufficient to answer the question
C. both statements taken together are sufficient to answer the question, but neither statement alone is
sufficient
D. each statement alone is sufficient
E. statements 1 and 2 together are not sufficient, and additional data is needed to answer the question
===================

6. Is x >0 ?

-2x < 0
x > 0

A. statement 1 alone is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is not sufficient to answer the question
B. statement 2 alone is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not sufficient to answer the question
C. both statements taken together are sufficient to answer the question, but neither statement alone is
sufficient
D. each statement alone is sufficient
E. statements 1 and 2 together are not sufficient, and additional data is needed to answer the question
================

7. A certain straight corridor has four doors, A, B, C and D (in that order) leading off from the same side.
How far apart are doors B and C?

The distance between doors B and D is 10 meters.


The distance between A and C is 12 meters.

A. statement 1 alone is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is not sufficient to answer the question
B. statement 2 alone is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not sufficient to answer the question
C. both statements taken together are sufficient to answer the question, but neither statement alone is
sufficient
D. each statement alone is sufficient
E. statements 1 and 2 together are not sufficient, and additional data is needed to answer the question
=================

8. Given that x and y are real numbers, what is the value of x + y ?

(x y) / (x-y) = 7
(x + y) = 49

A. statement 1 alone is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is not sufficient to answer the question
B. statement 2 alone is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not sufficient to answer the question
C. both statements taken together are sufficient to answer the question, but neither statement alone is
sufficient
D. each statement alone is sufficient
E. statements 1 and 2 together are not sufficient, and additional data is needed to answer the question
===================

9. Two socks are to be picked at random from a drawer containing only black and white socks. What is
the probability that both are white?

The probability of the first sock being black is 1/3.


There are 24 white socks in the drawer.

A. statement 1 alone is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is not sufficient to answer the question
B. statement 2 alone is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not sufficient to answer the question
C. both statements taken together are sufficient to answer the question, but neither statement alone is
sufficient
D. each statement alone is sufficient
E. statements 1 and 2 together are not sufficient, and additional data is needed to answer the question
===========
10. A bucket was placed under a dripping tap which was dripping at a uniform rate. At what time was
the bucket full?

The bucket was put in place at 2 pm.


The bucket was half full at 6 pm and three-quarters full at 8 pm on the same day.

A. statement 1 alone is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is not sufficient to answer the question
B. statement 2 alone is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not sufficient to answer the question
C. both statements taken together are sufficient to answer the question, but neither statement alone is
sufficient
D. each statement alone is sufficient
E. statements 1 and 2 together are not sufficient, and additional data is needed to answer the question

The average age of a group of 10 students was 20. The average age increased by 2 years when
two new students joined the group. What is the average age of the two new students who joined
the group?

A. 22 years
B. 30 years
C. 44 years
D. 32 years
E. None of these

The correct choice is (D) and the correct answer is 32 years.

1. Every pupil in a school was given one ticket for a concert. The school was charged a total of
$6000 for these tickets, all of which were of equal value. What was the price of one ticket?

1. If the price of each ticket had been one dollar less, the total cost would have been 1,200
less.
2. If the price of each ticket had been $2 more, the total bill would have increased by 40%.

A. statement 1 alone is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is not sufficient to answer the
question
B. statement 2 alone is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not sufficient to answer the
question
C. both statements taken together are sufficient to answer the question, but neither statement
alone is sufficient
D. each statement alone is sufficient
E. statements 1 and 2 together are not sufficient, and additional data is needed to answer the
question

Correct Answer: D

Explanation:

If the price of one ticket is p, and the total number of tickets is n, then from the information given
we know that (6000/n) = p. From statement (1) we get a new expression (6000 1,200)/ n = p
1. These two expressions can be solved and so the answer must be A or D. Looking only at (2)
we can write another equation: (8400/n) = p + 2. This equation can also be solved when
combined with the original equation. And so the answer is D.

2. What is the ratio of male to female officers in the police force in town T?

1. The number of female officers is 250 less than half the number of male officers.
2. The number of female officers is 1/7 the number of male officers.

A. statement 1 alone is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is not sufficient to answer the
question
B. statement 2 alone is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not sufficient to answer the
question
C. both statements taken together are sufficient to answer the question, but neither statement
alone is sufficient
D. each statement alone is sufficient
E. statements 1 and 2 together are not sufficient, and additional data is needed to answer the
question

Correct Answer: B

Explanation:

To get the ratio we need total numbers male to total numbers female. There is not enough
information in (1), so A and D cannot be correct. A ratio is just a fraction, so if we have the
fraction of female officers we have the ratio (assuming that all officers have to be either male or
female!!!). So the answer is B.
3. What is the value of n?

1. 3n + 2m = 18
2. n m = 2n (4 + m)

A. statement 1 alone is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is not sufficient to answer the
question
B. statement 2 alone is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not sufficient to answer the
question
C. both statements taken together are sufficient to answer the question, but neither statement
alone is sufficient
D. each statement alone is sufficient
E. statements 1 and 2 together are not sufficient, and additional data is needed to answer the
question

Correct Answer: B

Explanation:

Statement (1) can have a variety of solutions (n could be 2, or 4 or a fractional number or


negative etc. etc.), so the answer cannot be A or D. Looking at (2) on its own we should at least
take out the brackets before we decide whether or not it can be solved. So we get n m = 2n - 4
m and then we can add m to both sides to give n = 2n 4. In other words we have solved the
equation (n = 4) and the answer is B.

4. How long did it take Henry to drive to work last Wednesday? (He did not stop on the way).

1. If he had driven twice as fast he would have taken 35 minutes.


2. His average speed was 30 miles per hour.

A. statement 1 alone is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is not sufficient to answer the
question
B. statement 2 alone is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not sufficient to answer the
question
C. both statements taken together are sufficient to answer the question, but neither statement
alone is sufficient
D. each statement alone is sufficient
E. statements 1 and 2 together are not sufficient, and additional data is needed to answer the
question

Correct Answer: A

Explanation:

Dont overcomplicate this one! From statement (1) we can directly say that if he had driven at
his normal speed he would have taken twice the time (i.e. 70 minutes). So the answer must be A
or D. Looking at (2) alone we have speed but not distance and so we cannot get time. The answer
is A.

5. What is the slope of line l which passes through the origin of a rectangular coordinate system?

1. The line does not intersect with the line y = x + 2


2. The line passes through the point (3,3)

A. statement 1 alone is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is not sufficient to answer the
question
B. statement 2 alone is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not sufficient to answer the
question
C. both statements taken together are sufficient to answer the question, but neither statement
alone is sufficient
D. each statement alone is sufficient
E. statements 1 and 2 together are not sufficient, and additional data is needed to answer the
question

Correct Answer: D

Explanation:

If a straight line passes through the origin we only need one other point to fix the line. And so we
should note that (2) gives us one point and the answer must be B or D. Considering (1) alone, if
two lines do not intersect, they must be parallel (have the same slopes). In the equation for a
straight line y = mx + c, m is the slope. In this case m = 1 and we have answered the question.
The answer is D.
6. If x and y are both positive integers, how much greater is x than y?

1. x + y = 20
2. x = y

A. statement 1 alone is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is not sufficient to answer the
question
B. statement 2 alone is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not sufficient to answer the
question
C. both statements taken together are sufficient to answer the question, but neither statement
alone is sufficient
D. each statement alone is sufficient
E. statements 1 and 2 together are not sufficient, and additional data is needed to answer the
question

Correct Answer: C

Explanation:

Considering (1) alone, there are many pairs of positive integers that fit the equation (19 and 1; 18
and 2 etc.) and so the answer cannot be A or D. Considering (2) alone there are many pairs of
numbers that fit the expression (1,1; 4, 2; 16,4 etc.) and so the answer cannot be B. Putting the
information together we can solve the problem. First we can get x = 20-y from (1) which we can
substitute in the rearranged form of (2): that is 0 = y x to give the quadratic expression 0 = y
20 + y. Solving this (no need to bother) will give two solutions but only one will be positive, so
the answer is C.

7. Fifty percent of the articles in a certain magazine are written by staff members. Sixty percent
of the articles are on current affairs. If 75 percent of the articles on current affairs are written by
staff members with more than 5 years experience of journalism, how many of the articles on
current affairs are written by staff members with more than 5 years experience?

1. 20 articles are written by staff members.


2. Of the articles on topics other than current affairs, 50 percent are by staff members with
less than 5 years experience.
A. statement 1 alone is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is not sufficient to answer the
question
B. statement 2 alone is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not sufficient to answer the
question
C. both statements taken together are sufficient to answer the question, but neither statement
alone is sufficient
D. each statement alone is sufficient
E. statements 1 and 2 together are not sufficient, and additional data is needed to answer the
question

Correct Answer: A

Explanation:

There is only one item of information in (1), but we can combine it with the given information to
find that the total number of articles is 40. Further we can see that 24 are on current affairs, of
which 18 are by experienced staff members. So the answer must be A or D. Ignoring (1), we can
see that the information in (2) gives us a fraction and not a number and no amount of trying will
get us one definite number from which we can find a discrete answer. Hence the answer is A.

8. Is xy > 0 ?

1. x/y < 0
2. x + y < 0

A. statement 1 alone is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is not sufficient to answer the
question
B. statement 2 alone is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not sufficient to answer the
question
C. both statements taken together are sufficient to answer the question, but neither statement
alone is sufficient
D. each statement alone is sufficient
E. statements 1 and 2 together are not sufficient, and additional data is needed to answer the
question

Correct Answer: A
Explanation:

If xy is greater than zero, then either both x and y must be negative, or both must be positive. In
statement (1) we have x/y shown as a negative fraction, so either x or y (but not both) must be
negative. Hence xy cannot be positive. Since we have a definite solution, the answer must be A
or D. Looking at (2) alone, we can see that x and y could both be negative, but it is also possible
that one could be negative and the other positive depending on the absolute values of the
numbers. Hence the answer is A.

9. One number, n, is selected at random from a set of 10 integers. What is the probability that
n + 13 = 0 ?

1. The largest integer in the set is 13.


2. The arithmetic mean of the set is zero.

A. statement 1 alone is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is not sufficient to answer the
question
B. statement 2 alone is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not sufficient to answer the
question
C. both statements taken together are sufficient to answer the question, but neither statement
alone is sufficient
D. each statement alone is sufficient
E. statements 1 and 2 together are not sufficient, and additional data is needed to answer the
question

Correct Answer: E

Explanation:

Statement (1) alone tells us the largest number in the set. If that happened to be the number
picked, then we would be certain that n + 13 was not less than or equal to zero. However, we
have insufficient information on the other numbers in the set. (If for example -26 was in the set,
and the number picked happened to be -26, then we are certain that the value of the expression
would be zero.) And so the answer cannot be A or D. From (2) alone we know that some of the
numbers must be positive and some negative, but once again, we have no information on the
actual numbers. (Do not assume that the smallest number has to be -13). Thus B cannot be the
answer. Combining the information is also not sufficient to get the answer because we do not
know what the smallest number is. The answer is E.
10. Is w an integer?

1. 3w is an odd number.
2. 2w is an even number.

A. statement 1 alone is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is not sufficient to answer the
question
B. statement 2 alone is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not sufficient to answer the
question
C. both statements taken together are sufficient to answer the question, but neither statement
alone is sufficient
D. each statement alone is sufficient
E. statements 1 and 2 together are not sufficient, and additional data is needed to answer the
question

Correct Answer: B

Explanation:

If w happened to be 1, then 3w would be an odd number, but we can pick a fraction such as 5/3
for w which also makes 3w an odd number. So the answer cannot be A or D. However, in
statement (2) we are told that twice the number is even. All even numbers when divided by 2
will give us whole numbers, and so the answer is B.