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Structural Steel and Timber


Design SAB3233

Topic 8
Columns Design

Mohammad
Prof Dr Shahrin

Topic 10 - ConnecKons

Topic 9 Trusses
Topic 1 - Overview

Topic 8 Columns Design

Topic 2 - Basis of
Topic 7 Laterally Structural Structural Design
unrestrained beams Steel Design (BS EN 1990)


Topic 6 Laterally Topic 3 AcKons on
restrained beams Structures
(BS EN 1991)
Topic 4 Design of
Topic 5 Cross-secKon
steel structures
classicaKon
(BS EN 1993)

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Structural Steel and Timber


Design SAB3233


Columns subjected to axial load

Prof Dr Shahrin Mohammad

NEd NEd NEd NEd NEd

My,t Mx,t

x
Mx,b

My,b y Squashing, Overall flexural Local


Torsional
normally occurs buckling buckling buckling
in short column

NEd = Design value of compression force

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! compression members subject to


axial compression only
no bending
! however in pracKcally real columns are subject to
eccentriciKes of axial loads
transverse forces
! the treatment disKnguishes between
stocky columns, and
slender columns

Stocky columns
The characterisKcs of stocky columns are
very low slenderness
unaected by overall buckling

The compressive strength of stocky columns is
dictated by the cross-secKon
a funcKon of the secKon classicaKon

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Slender Steel Columns

Slender columns present a quasi elasKc buckling behaviour


2E
Euler criKcal stress cr = 2

= Lcr / r, where r is radius of gyraKon
Lcr is the buckling length

Failure by

yielding

fy
Euler buckling Failure by
buckling
curve and modes Euler
buckling
of failure curve

Behaviour of real
steel columns

q columns of medium slenderness are very sensiKve to


the eects of imperfecKons
q inelasKc buckling occurs before the Euler buckling load
due to various imperfecKons
iniKal out-of-straightness
residual stresses
eccentricity of axial applied loads
strain-hardening

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Eects of imperfecKons
structural imperfecKons most important for
intermediated columns

this represents
most pracKcal
columns

lower bound
curve is obtained
from a staKsKcal
analysis of test
results

Eect of imperfecKons in
relaKon to slenderness

Slender column
largely unaected by imperfecKons
ulKmate failure load Euler load (Ncr)
independent of the yield stress
Intermmediate column
imperfecKons important
failure load less than Euler load
out-of-straightness and residual stresses are the most
signicant imperfecKons

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Residual stresses pa_erns

0 , 3 fy
compression

+ = or=
0 , 2 fy
tension

0 , 2 fy
compression R n< f y fy
N/ A

n reaching f
y

Typical residual stress pa_ern CombinaKon with axial stresses

combined with axial stresses cause yielding


eecKve area reduced
Modify

IniKal out-of-straightness
! induces bending moments

NEd Combined eect of imperfec0ons and axial load



! bending stress B
Yielded ! residual stress, R
zones ! applied axial stress, NEd/A
R B
P/ A max

+ + =

NEd

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Buckling resistance in
axial compression

The design buckling resistance of a compression member

Af y
for Class 1, 2 and 3 cross secKon N b. Rd =
M1

Aefff y
for Class 4 cross secKon N b.Rd =
M1

where a reducKon factor and is related to the reference slenderness


Buckling curves plo_ed as versus reference slenderness raKo

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European buckling curves


(Cl 6.3.1.2)

Ncr is the elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode
based on the gross cross sectional properties.

European buckling curves

Based on experiment more than 1000 tests secKon


Range of slenderness raKos between 55 and 160

Based on a half sine-wave geometric


imperfecKon = L/1000
residual stresses related to secKon
type
4 curves apply to dierent cross-
secKon types corresponding to
dierent values of the imperfecKon
factor

Modify
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ImperfecKon factor
a

depends on
the shape of the column cross-secKon
the direcKon of buckling (y or z axis)
the fabricaKon process (hot-rolled, welded or
cold-formed
imperfecKon factors given in Table 6.1

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Non dimensional slenderness,

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SelecKon of appropriate
buckling curve
Table 6.2 helps with the selection of the appropriate buckling curve

Modify
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Example 1 : Design of an axially loaded column

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Structural Steel and Timber


Design SAB3233

Columns subjected to combined
bending and axial load

Prof Dr Shahrin Mohammad

Mz,t My,t My,t


Mz,t Mz,t

y y
y

My,b My,b

Pin Pin Pin


z Mz,b z
connecKon connecKon Mz,b z
connecKon

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Mz,t My,t My,t


Mz,t Mz,t

y y
y

My,b My,b

Mz,b z Mz,b z Mz,b z

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simple construcKon

Simple construcKon is commonly used for the design of


mulK-storey buildings
Beams are designed as simply supported
Columns are designed for nominal moments arising
from the eccentricity at the beam-to-column
connecKon.
The moment components are small for simple construcKon,
the interacKon factors can be conservaKvely simplied to :

N Ed M M
+ y,Ed +1.5 z,Ed 1
N b,z,Rd M b,Rd M c,z,Rd

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Example 1 : Design of column with


combined bending and axial load

Thank You

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