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6.

0 6 Dimension of BIM

6.1 Introduction

The final BIM model is not only priceless in design and construction stages, but also
during operation and maintenance. A 6D model is a comprehensive model of a built structure
with all attributes to be used for monitoring and planning maintenance and rehabilitation
works.

The BIM model includes all elements and materials related to the information provided
by the subcontractors installing them. During maintenance, the BIM model foresees all effects
of a replacement or rehabilitation of elements on the structure, such as changes in geometry
and cost of maintenance works or rehabilitation required.

6D-BIM helps perform energy consumption analyses. The utilization of 6D-BIM


technology can result in more complete and accurate energy estimates earlier in the design
process. It also allows for measurement and verification during building occupation, and
improved processes for gathering lessons learned in high performance facilities.

The 6D model is usually delivered to the owner when a construction project is finished.
The "As-Built" BIM model is populated with relevant building component information such as
product data and details, maintenance/operation manuals, cut sheet specifications, photos,
warranty data, web links to product online sources, manufacturer information and contacts, etc.
This database is made accessible to the users/owners through a customized proprietary web-
based environment. This is intended to aid facilities managers in the operation and maintenance
of the facility.

6D provides the information required by Facility Management to persist for the lifecycle
of a facility. Data for operations and maintenance starts in design model, it attributes for spaces
rooms components and materials. Next, As-Designed attributes are refined and replaced in
the procurement, fabrication and assembly processes during construction. As-Constructed
attributes in digital format usable by a computerized Maintenance Management System
(CMMS).

6.2 List out the available software

1. Autodesk Ecotect Analysis


2. Autodesk Green Building Studio
3. Graphisoft EcoDesigner
4. IES Solutions Virtual Environment VE-Pro
5. Bentley Tas Simulator
6. Bentley Hevacomp
7. DesignBuilder

6.3 How 6 dimension of BIM improves the construction Supply Chain Management

At delivery phase, 6D enables design teams to consider their impact of their proposals
over a built assets lifecycle, simulating outcomes and anticipated costs. But the ultimate value,
lies in the use of that data to support the operational phase.
At handover, project teams can pass their complete data set (known as an Asset
Information Model or AIM from that point) over to the end-user. The digital model offers them a
more controlled, accessible and easily navigable way of managing their information. Its much
more practical than the bundles of lever arch folders that are handed over traditionally.

With this data on maintenance, lifespans and energy performance to hand, operators
can determine the costs of those activities and create spend profiles over a built assets life, pre-
planning maintenance activities years in advance. It helps them adopt a completely planned and
pro-active approach to facility management and operation as opposed to a reactive one when
unexpected events and costs can crop up at any moment.

6D helps in asset
information management

6.4 Advantages of 6D

This dimension takes the model past the construction phase, into the operations of the built
facility. It integrates the model with the built facilities brilliant data-driven operations. It also
helps perform the analysis on the energy consumption. It has provided several advantages:

Efficient and energy-saving consumption


Proper asset management
Provides a lifetime virtual building model
Provides a localized container for facility design, construction and operation information

6.5 Disadvantages and cost involve

6 Dimension is not yet universally used among construction professionals. There is


always the possibility that one of the subcontractors may not use BIM and may not be able to
use your models. It is also critical for operators and facility management to read and study the
models using the BIM software, since they do not undergo significant training. Problems may
occur if the drawing design and the related information are not precise and accurate.

Besides, various information which comes from various phases of the buildings lifecycle
should be available to operate and maintain the many complex energy systems used by
buildings occupants. However, the building information is fragmented, which is created by
different teams with different objectives and stored in different system. Therefore, this identifies
that lack of integration of information is the barrier for energy managers in using BIM 6D.

The software used are usually cost intensive and not easy to use. This means, specialized
training is necessary to use them. Other than that, a contractor may need to upgrade its
computer system to effectively use the BIM software.
Recommendation

After doing several research, we found that BIM offers an easy platform for quantity
surveyor to measure with greater accuracy and higher speed. However, some of the QS
profession feel that design information within models not being structured correctly or, poorly
designed models deter the QS from using a BIM model in carrying out their role. They also
strongly reflect a lack of understanding and skills in BIM. To solve this problem, we
recommended to organize a program in order to offer the required support, training and
guidance for Quantity Surveyors in Malaysia. BQSM should arrange some Training Seminars and
Workshops on BIM to increase their knowledge and use of BIM amongst QS members.

Next, we recommended to use Clash Detection during constructability process. In


current practice, many conflicts (steel, ductwork, conduits, piping, etc.) are not discovered until
the shop drawing and coordination process has been initiated by the contractor. At this point,
these conflicts could result in design changes which may ultimately lead to claims due to field
required re-work. In addition, and as is current practice, many of the designers who for months
maintained intimate knowledge of the project, may have been assigned to new projects and are
not available months down the road to assist when these issues come up.

Besides, BIM files should be provided to bidders for estimation purposes. By so doing,
quantity variation will be lessened as all bidders would be basing their costs off the same
information. The BIM files should be better able to represent the intent of the design and by
reducing misunderstandings of this nature and therefore lower contractor contingencies should
result.

These recommendations help to develop a strong awareness among the construction


industry players and increase the effectiveness of BIM. The relative newness of BIM means that
there are limited numbers of experts working in the field. Some actions should be taken so that
people could have a chance to contact with this software and slowly introduce BIM to the
market.