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8.

a.
i.




ii.


,

b.
i.


ii.











c.
i.






ii.

d.
d.

di.




.





8.2

8.2.1

i.



ii.


4



iii.








iv.

8.2

i.





ii.




-
-
-





iii.


iv.

-
-
-
-

v.

8.2.2

i.



ii.





iii.





iv.


v.

8.2.3



.

.


i.












ii.




iii.






iv.





,


9




v.




vi.



,

8.2.4

i.

10








ii.








-

-

11

8.3

8.3.1


I.


II.

III.

IV.

V.

VI.

12



I.

II.

III.
IV.
V.

VI.
VII.



VIII.


IX.



X.

XI.

XII.


13

8.3.2


I.
II.
III.

IV.


I.

II.



III.



IV.

14

V.

,

I.


II.

III.


IV.


V.



.

VI.



VII.
VIII.

15

8.3.3

a.
I.


II.



III.


IV.


V.

16

VI. - -

I.
,
II.


III.

b.

I.


II.



III.


IV.

17

V.




VI.


c.

18

19

8.4

8.4.1

a.

i.




lian,nian bian
pian

ii.




20

/////
///////////

iii.



21

8.4.2

i.






ii.



22

8.4.3

23

8.4.5

1
2
3

1987
(1987)

24

2002

1992

25

8.5

,
,
,
,,,,
, ,

8.5.1

a.

i.


,.

ii.

iii.

b.

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

26

vi.

8.5.2

a. :

i.
ii.
iii.

b.

i. ,
.

ii.

iii.

iv.

,

27

,


,

8.5.3

a.

//
//

b.

c.

d.

28

8.5.4

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.



8.6

29

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

8.6.1

1. 2. 3.

30


(
)

8.6.2

8.6.3

()

8.6.4

.

31

8.6.5

8.6.6

8.6.7

8.6.8
( + + )


8.6.8

8.1

32

1.

4.

33

9.1

9.1.1

i.
ii.
iii.
i.
.
i.
ii.
iii.

9.1.2

34

9.1.3

a.

b.

35

c.

d.

1983

9.2

36

9.2.2

a.

b.

37

c.

d.

e.

38

f.

g.

39

1999
(1990) 3
1987

9.3


1.
2.
3.
4.

9.3.1


a,b,c.X,Y,Zz),

hi, h; jia, j
h j ia)
e) i
i,

40

9.3.2

19


1.

) 2. 3.
) 4.
6
6 36 6 36 6
203 203

9.3.3





) )






9.3.4

0-9

41




)
0002 9999
)
2 2, 1, 2,
2 2 2122
2122
3 5

1.
2.

2 ,


42

9.1

1.



2.


3.


4.

= = =

= = =

43



10.

11.

12. 5

44

.1

1.

2.
zhag
zhag chag

3.

4 +

9.1

4 =9502 =2467 =6040 =0391 =0012 =3724

45