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Procedia CIRP 13 (2014) 288 293

2nd CIRP 2nd CIRP Conference on Surface Integrity (CSI)

Surface Integrity in Hard Machining of 300M Steel: Effect of


Cutting-Edge Geometry on Machining Induced Residual Stresses
P. I. Varela, C. S. Rakurty, A. K. Balaji *
Sustainable Manufacturing Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Utah,
50 S. Central Campus Drive, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-801-587-7772; fax: +1-801-585-9826. E-mail address: balaji@eng.utah.edu.

Abstract

300M steel is widely used in the aerospace industry to manufacture landing gears due to its ultrahigh strength and high fracture
toughness. Surface integrity in the hard turning process (one of the final manufacturing processes in making landing gears) can be
influenced by tool geometries and cutting conditions. An experimental study is conducted on 300M steel to understand the role of
cutting tool geometry and cutting conditions on surface integrity (surface roughness and residual stresses). Cutting tool geometries
are varied along the nose edge region (chamfer, hone, and chamfer-hone). These varied geometries are tested at different cutting
conditions to highlight the combinational complexity of cutting edges and cutting conditions in producing surface roughness and
residual stresses. The results show the necessity of edge preparation in improving machining surface integrity in such a material.

2014
2014 The
The Authors.
Authors. Published
Publishedby
byElsevier B.V.Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
ElsevierB.V.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility
Selection and/or peer-review under responsibilityof Theof
International
The International Committee
ScientificScientific of the 2ndofConference
Committee on Surface
the 2nd CIRP Integrity
Conference on
in the person
Surface of theinConference
Integrity the personChair
of theProf Dragos Axinte
Conference dragos.axinte@nottingham.ac.uk
Chair Prof. Dragos Axinte dragos.axinte@nottingham.ac.uk

Keywords: Hard machining; Surface integrity; Tool geometry

1. Introduction 2. Background

It is well known that residual stresses are a natural During the finishing operation residual stresses are
consequence of manufacturing processes. These residual induced on the machined surface. It is well know that
stresses, depending upon their nature, can significantly tensile residual stresses can reduce the fatigue life of a
affect fatigue life, corrosion fatigue, and stress corrosion component [1,2] and even make some high strength steel
cracking with possible catastrophic consequences. susceptible to stress-cracking corrosion [3] that can
Therefore, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms result in catastrophic failures. On the other hand,
and the nature of the residual stresses induced during induced compressive residual stresses can increase
machining operations. This is especially true in the case fatigue life and improve corrosion resistance resulting in
where the safety of the component is of vital importance. an overall increase in safety [3]. Machining surface
In this paper, the effects of tool edge geometry on the residual stresses have been a subject of extensive
residual stress induced by machining 300M steel investigation by many researchers [48].
(modified 4340 steel with higher silicon content) are
discussed. 300M steel can exhibit both high toughness As early as 1950, it was well understood that residual
and ductility at elevated tensile strengths. The mentioned stresses were the result of thermal and mechanical loads
properties make this high strength steel ideal for on the machined surface. Henriksen [9], in his extended
applications like landing gears and slaps tracks in the research on the mechanisms of residual stress creation,
aviation industry. However, given the role of finish concluded that mechanical forces are the main cause and
machining as one of the final steps, it is important to the thermal stresses load is insignificant. Matsumoto et
understand how to control residual stresses in the al. [10] while studying the effect of hardness on residual
machining process. stresses carried out experiments machining 57 HRC

2212-8271 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of The International Scientific Committee of the 2nd Conference on Surface Integrity in the person
of the Conference Chair Prof Dragos Axinte dragos.axinte@nottingham.ac.uk
doi:10.1016/j.procir.2014.04.049
P.I. Varela et al. / Procedia CIRP 13 (2014) 288 293 289

hardened steel with two different geometries. The first The main focus of this paper is to determine the
tool had a sharp edge and the second tool had a chamfer effects of cutting edge geometry on the surface integrity
edge. A microstructure analysis showed that a thin white in hard turning of 300M steels. 300M steel workpieces
layer was present on the surface machined with the were machined with three different edge geometries
chamfer tool. However, the same was totally absent in under constant cutting conditions in an attempt to
the surface machined by a sharp edge. It was concluded explain the edge geometry effect on surface integrity.
that phase transformation was not responsible for the Ceramic inserts with chamfer, hone, and chamfer with
residual stress profile. On the other hand, the increase in hone geometries as shown in Figure 1 were used. The
hardness is correlated with an increase in the magnitude inserts were coated with a PVD TiN coating over an
of the compressive residual stress. In a later study aluminum oxide and titanium carbonitride composite
Matsumoto et al. [11], conducted further research to ceramic (Al2O3/TiCN). The inserts are rhomboid
study the effect of tool edge geometry on residual geometry corresponding to CNGA 432 ISO
stresses. Specimens of carburized case steel with classification with a nose radius of 0.8 mm. The tool
hardness of 58 to 62 HRc were machined with cutting holder used to run the experiments was an ISO
tools having four different edge geometries. The results classification PCLNR 124 BHP with a rake angle -50 and
revealed that when hardness and other cutting an inclination angle -50. The face turning (facing) tests
parameters remain constant, the plastic deformation near were conducted on a HAAS SL-20 turning center as
the cutting edge is a dominant factor in the creation of shown in Figure 1. Round bars of 300M steel (127 mm
residual stresses profile. Thiele and Melkote [12] studied in diameter and 50.8 mm in length) were machined
subsurface residual stresses on hardened AISI 52100 without any coolant with the selected cutting tools. The
steel with hardness of 41 to 57 HRC. As expected, it was experiments consisted of facing with a length of cut of 3
found that the material with a hardness of 57 HRC inches on the diameter. Two depths of cuts of 0.2 mm
produce the highest residual stresses. The surface (low depth of cut) and 0.4 mm (high depth of cut) were
machined with the large hone yielded the most used and the cutting speed was kept constant at 150
compressive residual stress profiles. This was true for all m/min for all tests. Two feed rates of 0.1 mm/rev (low
the different hardness tested. The authors concluded that, feed) and 0.2 mm/rev (high feed) were used in
the increase in residual stress can be the result of combination with the two depths of cut and three
increase in the stresses field induced by the tool. Plastic different edge geometries. Before machining, the 300M
flow created by machining with large edge hone is the steel bars were normalized to a temperature of 1700 Fo
result of this increased residual stress profile along the for 150 minutes in an inert atmosphere. Subsequently
cutting edge. pieces were oil quenched followed by a double temper at
a temperature of 300 Fo for five hours each time.
The previous research was focused on hone, sharp Normalizing, quenching and double tempering heat
and chamfers tool edge geometries; in this paper the treatment resulted in a hardness of 52 HRC. 300M Steel
effect of a combination of chamfer and hone edges are is essentially a modified AISI 4340 with a silicon
studied. This paper presents a study of the effect of content of 1.45% to 1.80%; the details of the
cutting-edge geometry on residual stresses induced by composition are given in Table 1 [13]. 300M has very
hard turning of 300M steel. The effects of other similar properties to 4340, but the addition of silicon
machining parameters such as feed rate and depth of cut adds more hardenability and prevents embrittlement
are analyzed and their influence on the residual stress when the steel is tempered at low temperatures.
profile is presented here.
Table 1: 300M material composition [13].
3. Experimental Setup
Cutting Edge Preparation Details Alloy C Mn Si Cr Ni Mo V
h Chamfer only edge 300M 0.40- 0.65- 1.45- 0.70- 1.65- 0.30- 0.05
1
h = 0.15 mm 0.46 0.90 1.80 0.95 2.00 0.45 min
Sharp edges 1 =250
Hone only edge
The hole-drilling method was used to measure the
V Rhone Rhone 0.02 mm
Feed subsurface residual stresses in the machined work-pieces
h
Chamfer -Hone edge following the ASTM standard E837 [14]. The residual
1
Sharp edge
h = 0.15 mm
1 =250
strains were precisely measured at the same radial
Depth of Rhone Rhone 0.02 mm distance from the center for all the machined work-
cut pieces for consistency. The subsurface residual stresses
h =chamfer land, 1 =chamfer angle, Rhone=hone radius
were calculated from the measured residual strains using
Figure 1. Schematic of the experimental set up and cutting edge
preparation details.
H-Drill software. An optical surface profilometer
290 P.I. Varela et al. / Procedia CIRP 13 (2014) 288 293

Zygo NewViewTM 5000 series along with the preparation can be attributed to the ploughing action,
MetroPro metrology software was used to quantify the and the thermal gradients due to the large local negative
average surface roughness (Ra). An image zoom of 2x rake angles. The chamfer edge, hone edge, and chamfer-
and 5x objective were used. A cutoff length (roughness hone edge produces higher local negative rake angles,
sampling length) of 0.8 mm was used while estimating due to which higher cutting forces and temperatures are
the average roughness profile as recommended [15]. Ra produced. These forces and temperatures primarily
measurements were taken at three different locations for affect the machining induced residual stress formation.
each sample and the average of three measurements was The mechanical loads tend to induce compressive
used for this analysis. Scanning Electron Microscope residual stresses, while the thermal loads induce tensile
(SEM) with 75x magnification was used to analyze the residual stresses [17]. At lower feed rate, the thermal
tool tribological aspects and their effects on the effects on the residual (higher) stress formation can be
machining induced surface integrity. observed in Figure 2. At low feed rate (0.1 mm/rev) the
tool movement is relatively slow, thereby allowing more
4. Results and Discussion time for the heat generated during the machining process
to effect the subsurface. The effect can be seen in higher
After carefully conducting facing experiments on the subsurface residual stress formation. Apparently, the
HAAS SL-20 turning center, subsurface residual stress chamfer edge and the hone edge produced tensile
profile and average surface roughness were measured as subsurface residual stresses at lower feed due to thermal
mentioned above. The maximum principal residual dominance over the ploughing action along the cutting
stress profile is generated for each case and used for the edge.
analysis as it is well known that the failure occurs along
the maximum principal stress plane [16]. The chamfer tool produced a predominantly a tensile
residual stress profile, with a peak residual stress of
The measured machining induced subsurface residual 202.5 MPa. The hone only edge produced a tensile
stress profiles for the low depth of cut (0.2 mm) surface residual stress (47 MPa) but the residual stress
experiments are shown in Figure 2. The solid lines in the profile is predominantly compressive. The peak residual
figure pertain to residual stresses induced by the lower stress due the hone edge is compressive in nature (-138
feed rate (0.1 mm/rev) and the dotted lines show the MPa). The chamfer-hone on the other hand produced a
residual stresses induced by higher feed rate (0.2 higher compressive surface residual stress (-358.28
mm/rev). Figure 2 shows that the chamfer edge cutting MPa) and peak residual stress (-358.28 MPa). In the
tools produce higher surface residual stress compared to chamfer-hone tools, the subsurface residual stresses tend
the hone only and chamfer-hone cutting tools. The to be compressive, possibly due to larger mechanical
chamfer-hone produced larger compressive residual loading than the chamfer and hone edge tools. It is well
stresses compared to hone only tools. The combination established that a chamfer-hone edge produces higher
of chamfer edge and hone edge effectively produced cutting forces than chamfer and hone edge alone, the
better (compressive) residual stresses. same was observed in the measured machining cutting
forces. Also the chamfer-hone has higher local negative
The residual stress formation due the edge rake angles, thereby inducing more compressive residual
stresses in hard machining [4].
250
Additionally, the location of the hone in the chamfer-
Principal Residual stresses (MPa)

hone and hone only tools is near the flank surface,


50 thereby, more material is ploughed underneath the
cutting edge into the just machined surface. It is reported
-150 in the literature that hone radius creates subsurface
Low Feed - Chamfer plastic flow, which in turn produces a compressive
Low feed - Hone subsurface [12]. The hone edge ploughing effectively
-350
Low Feed - Chamfer Hone induces compressive loads into machined surface. Thus
High Feed - Chamfer
the hone only tool generated more compressive residual
-550 High Feed - Hone
High feed - chamfer Hone
stresses than the chamfer (sharp edge near the flank
face) only tool. This process also produces a material
-750 Subsurface Depth (mm)
side flow as observed by Kishawy and Elbestawi at
0.0051 0.3051 0.6051 0.9051
lower feed rates and higher rake angles [18]. Material
side flow effect on the surface integrity is discussed in
Figure 2. Maximum principal residual stresses (MPa) induced in
300M steel with coated ceramic tools at a depth of cut of 0.2 mm. detail later in this paper.
P.I. Varela et al. / Procedia CIRP 13 (2014) 288 293 291

450
At higher feed rate (0.2 mm/rev), the cutting tool
moves relatively faster, thereby providing lesser time for

Principal Residual Stresses (MPa)


250
the heat generated to affect the just machined
subsurface; here a lower or more compressive residual 50
stresses was generated. A similar trend is observed in
hard machining of AISI 52100 steels by Dahlman et al. Pre Machining
-150
[4]. At higher feed rates, higher cutting forces are Low Feed - Chamfer
produced along with a larger plastic deformation thereby -350 Low Feed - Chamfer Hone
contributing to more compressive residual stresses [4].
High Feed - Chamfer
The peak and surface residual stresses for all the three -550
cutting tools were compressive with high feed rate (0.2 High Feed - Chamfer Hone
mm/rev) and low depth of cut (0.2 mm). The peak and Subsurface Depth (mm)
-750
surface residual stress for chamfer, hone and chamfer- 0.0051 0.3051 0.6051 0.9051
hone tools are -412.7 MPa, -456.8 MPa and -703.5 MPa
respectively. Even at higher feed rate, the chamfer-hone Figure 4. Maximum principal residual stress (MPa) induced in
tool produced better subsurface residual stresses due to 300M steel with coated ceramic tools at a depth of cut of 0.4 mm.
its high local negative rake angles.
described in Section 3. All the machining experiments
Also, from the microscopical evidence (images from reduced the residual stresses from the pre-machined
SEM at 75x magnification of the cutting edge as shown state, thus effectively improving the subsurface integrity.
in Figure 3) the tool-chip contact is larger for higher feed
rate as expected, and the complete chamfer land has Figure 4 shows that the chamfer-hone tools produces
been utilized. The complete utilization of the chamfer higher compressive residual stresses compared to
land increases the ploughing action which emphasizes chamfer tools. The surface residual stresses for chamfer-
the compressive mechanical effect. The result is seen in hone tools are -72.3 MPa and -717.9 MPa at 0.1 mm/rev
the subsurface residual stresses. The same effect is seen and 0.2 mm/rev feed rates respectively. The surface
for the chamfer-hone cutting tools as well. residual stresses for chamfer only tools are -121.3 MPa
and 136.422 MPa at 0.1 mm/rev and 0.2 mm/rev feed
Maximum principal residual stresses induced by rates respectively. The scenario of chamfer tool
machining 300M steel at high depth of cut (0.4 mm) are producing better surface residual stresses than chamfer-
plotted as shown in Figure 4. Machining 300M steel at hone is observed at low feed (0.1 mm/rev) and high
high depth of cut with hone only tools resulted in depth of cut (0.2 mm/rev). This can be explained by the
chipped (broken) edges as shown in Figure 5. The exact crater wear formed on the chamfer-hone edge as shown
instance of chipping is difficult to determine, hence the in Figure 5. The crater wear formation can be explained
results from the hone only edges at higher depth of cut by the fact that chamfer-hone tools produce higher
are not considered in the analysis. The hone only edges forces and higher temperatures along the tool chip
chipped for both the feed rates (0.1 mm/rev and 0.2 contact area, thereby higher frictional load along the
mm/rev) at higher depth of cut. Thereby the 0.4 mm tool-chip contact area leading to wear. At low feed rate,
depth cut is established as too high for machining 300M the chip flow along the tool is assumed to have enough
steel for the hone only edged ceramic tool. Figure 4 also time for diffusion process along the tool-chip contact
shows the maximum principal stresses induced before area. Also, 300M steel has high strength at elevated
machining the work-pieces. These residual stresses are temperatures exerting higher pressure along the tool-chip
induced pre-machining by the heat treatment process contact area leading to crater wear. A detailed tool wear

Crater wear on chamfer-hone Chipped edge of a hone tool


Low feed & Low depth of cut High feed & Low depth of cut tool at Low feed & High depth at High depth of cut
Chamfer completely not utilized. Chamfer completely utilized. of cut

Figure 3. Images from SEM at 75x magnification of chamfer tools Figure 5. Images from SEM at 75x magnification of cutting tools
illustrating the utilization of the chamfer land at higher feed rate. illustrating the wear and chipping at higher depth of cut
292 P.I. Varela et al. / Procedia CIRP 13 (2014) 288 293

107 136 surface roughness values as compared to hone only


Surface Residual Stress (MPa)

47 cutting tool and chamfer-hone edge cutting tool. The


theoretical machining surface roughness (Ra) was
calculated using equation 1 given below.
-74
-121

(1)
Chamfer
-358 f is the feed rate and R is the nose radius. The
-413 Hone
-457
theoretical surface roughness values are 0.39 m for the
feed rate of 0.1 mm/rev and 1.56 m for the feed rate of
Chamfer Hone 0.2 mm/rev. It was observed that the measured surface
roughness were higher than theoretical surface
-703 -718
roughness. Similar results have been observed by Thiele
Low Feed Low High Feed Low Low Feed High High Feed High et al [12]. It was demonstrated that the edge hone tools
Depth Depth Depth Depth
create a significant subsurface plastic flow. Additionally,
the same effect is not observed in cutting tools with
Figure 6. Surface residual stresses (MPa) induced in 300M steel with chamfered tools without hones edges.
coated ceramic tools

study is planned for a later stage to understand the tool During the cutting operation, the increased interaction
wear progression and is considered out of scope for the between the cutting edge and the material causes the
present paper. Thus with crater wear along the chamfer material to be pushed to the side of the cutting edge. At
land, higher residual stresses were formed near the higher negative rake angles and lower feed rates, the
subsurface by chamfer-hone tools. material underneath the cutting edge plastically deforms
at higher temperature and behaves like a viscous liquid
The feed rate effect remained same at higher depth of [18]. The plastically deformed material is squeezed out
cut as well. The higher feed rate (0.2 mm/rev) produced of the cutting edge region as material side flow [18].
more compressive residual stresses compared to lower This mechanism increases the height of the peaks of the
feed rate (0.1 mm/rev). The same explanation given cut profile resulting in an increase of surface roughness.
above (for low depth of cut) is attributed to residual It can be concluded that the effect of the hone radius has
stress formation for higher depth of cut. The fact that the a bigger impact on side plastic flow than chamfer
depth of cut has minimal effect on residual stress geometry. This same mechanism is not present in the
formation [4] is established again, but at higher depth cut case of the chamfered tool without hones. As a result the
tool damage and tool wear was seen. surface roughness of the chamfer tool follows more
closely to the values of the theoretical roughness. The
The machining induced surface residual stresses tool edge geometry play an important role in the surface
developed in 300M steel are compared in Figure 6 to roughness but still the feed is the dominant mechanism.
summarize the effect of the cutting edge geometry. The
chamfer-hone out performs the chamfer only and hone
only cutting tools. Even with a crater wear at low feed Chamfer
and high depth as well, a compressive surface residual 1.82
Surface Roughness (m)

1.72 Hone
1.68
stress is induced by the chamfer-hone tool. Also, the 1.61
Chamfer Hone
hone only cutting edge produced better surface residual
1.40
stresses than chamfer only cutting edge. The same trend
is observed for all the experiments expect for the broken
hone edges at higher depth of cut. The residual stress 0.78
0.68 0.68
formation is explained by the ploughing effect of the 0.56
hone edge and the high local negative rake angles. The 0.42
effect of the feed rate and depth of cut was also analyzed
and followed the trend observed by the previous
researchers.
Low Feed Low High Feed Low Low Feed High High Feed High
Depth Depth Depth Depth
The effects of tool edge geometry on machining
generated average surface roughness (Ra) are shown in Figure 7. Average surface roughness (m) generated by machining
Figure 7. The chamfer edge cutting tool produced lower 300M steel with coated ceramic tools
P.I. Varela et al. / Procedia CIRP 13 (2014) 288 293 293

Table 2: Summary of edge-preparation performance damage. Thus, the subsurface integrity generated by the
different edge geometry has exposed the combinational
Edge preparation Chamfer Hone Chamfer + complexity involved in selecting an appropriate cutting
comparative performance Hone tool and cutting conditions for machining 300M steel.
Peak Residual Stress Bad Good* Best
Surface Residual Stress Bad Good* Best Acknowledgements
Surface Roughness Best Good Bad
Tool Tribology Best Bad Good* The authors acknowledge Mr. Eric Jenkins from
* At lower depth of cut Kyocera for providing the cutting tools and Blanchard
Metals Processing Company for heat treating the steel.
5. Summary
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