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Engineering Standard

SABP-A-012 10 September 2006


New Projects Energy Efficiency
Optimization Review Methodology
Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit

New Projects Energy Efficiency


Optimization Review Methodology

Previous Issue: New Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011


Revised paragraphs are indicated in the right margin Page 1 of 92
For additional information, contact Nour Eldin, Mahmoud Bahy Mahmoud on 966-3-8736045

CopyrightSaudi Aramco 2006. All rights reserved.


Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit SABP-A-012
Issue Date: 10 September 2006 New Projects Energy Efficiency
Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011 Optimization Review Methodology

Table of Contents
Page

1 Introduction 3
1.1 Definition 4
1.2 Purpose and Scope 4
1.3 Intended Users 4

2 New Projects Energy Assessment 4


2.1 Project Phases 4
2.2 Energy Efficiency Optimization Tasks Description 5
2.3 Solution Approach 5

3 Energy Assessment Methodology 6


3.1 Energy Assessment Procedures during Project Study Phase 6
3.2 Energy Assessment Procedures during Project Proposal Phase 24
3.3 Quick Guidelines for Efficient Energy System Design 31

4A Appendices for Short-cut Assessment Tools 35


4A.1 Steam and Power Model 35
4A.2 Pinch Method for utilities Targeting and Selection 36
4A.3 Cogeneration Targeting and Drivers Selection 54
4A.4 Cooling Water and Refrigeration System Targeting 72
4A.5 Tri-generation 90

Page 2 of 92
Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit SABP-A-012
Issue Date: 10 September 2006 New Projects Energy Efficiency
Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011 Optimization Review Methodology

1 Introduction

Energy conservation in Saudi Aramco became everyones business. It is mandatory for


each existing process facility to find cost effective solutions to save energy and achieve
more with less in their facilities. It is also equally important for each new project to be
designed and operated in an energy-conscious manner.

A vital contribution towards the success of the company wide energy conservation
policy comes through documenting the company best practices in methodology; tools
and applications in the field of energy efficiency optimization. Besides, capturing the
knowledge of the in-house expertise in such field and distributing such knowledge
among our facilities and engineering services departments. Hence, a consistent effort
has been exerted in Saudi Aramco to produce Best Practices to help our engineers
achieve their energy efficiency optimization mission through the design and building of
energy conscious facilities following the same new paradigm implemented in the
existing facilities.

This particular Best Practice document introduces a brief methodology for grassroots
projects energy assessment, associated with short-cut tools that can help satisfy the
above mission.

The first and most important thing to learn and apply from this quick review
methodology for energy efficiency optimization in grassroots project is that;

Our Big Picture Includes Process and Utility Plants

It is important during the early phase of any project that we see its big picture.

In this document when we talk about project phases we mean only the following three
phases; project studies phase, design basis scoping paper preparation, and project
proposal phases.

We need to make sure that the system-approach that take into consideration the
process(es), hot and electricity utilities, and the cooling and refrigeration utilities needs
is utilized. This approach has to prevail on the current state-of-art sequential sub-
system by sub-system approach during the project study phase.

Removing some degrees of freedom from our options subjectively shall be avoided as
much as possible. During feasibility study phase, it is absolutely necessary to
investigate different combined process and utilities system schemes.

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit SABP-A-012
Issue Date: 10 September 2006 New Projects Energy Efficiency
Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011 Optimization Review Methodology

1.1 Definition

The term Energy Assessment refers to the methodology of collecting and


analyzing available energy utilities related process data without losing the
context of the whole process needs in order to establish the big picture of the
energy requirements for a particular facility and identify component-based-
energy efficiency optimization opportunities from the operating cost point of
view and capital cost of energy and process sub-systems point of view too.
Striking the right balance between such costs will define the close-to-optimum
solution of the energy problem in the design of any new plant. In grassroots
projects available data are mostly uncertain, time is critical and there are infinite
combinations of options. Therefore, the energy assessment process of any new
project has to be conceptual, fast but rigorous-oriented with the right level of
details at each phase of the project.

1.2 Purpose and Scope

The purpose of this best practice document is to describe a methodology for the
quick review of new projects from energy efficiency optimization point of view.
Besides, introducing short cut tools by which quick assessment for energy
efficiency improvement can be conducted. Its scope include quick energy
assessment methodology in a step-by-step manner, simple models for data
representation, and short cut tools for evaluating process schemes for energy
efficiency optimization.

1.3 Intended Users

This Best Practice manual is intended for use by project and process engineers
in Saudi Aramco, who are responsible for process &facilities planning, process
engineering and energy systems engineering. This particular document will
enable them to conduct quick review of new projects from energy efficiency
optimization point of view to make sure that they are planning for and designing
of new energy-conscious facilities in Saudi Aramco.

2 New Projects Energy Assessment

2.1 Project Phases

In Saudi Aramco our projects have four main phases. These phases are the
project study phase, design basis scoping paper phase, project proposal phase
and finally expenditure request approval and completion phase.

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit SABP-A-012
Issue Date: 10 September 2006 New Projects Energy Efficiency
Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011 Optimization Review Methodology

During each of these phases it is important to develop the appropriate level of


details in our modeling and assessment techniques to be able to render at the end
of all project phases a facility which is going to be optimal. This process shall
proceeds in a way that does not hinder next phase decisions from being optimal
too. It is the same philosophy used in dynamic programming approach where
while the flow of information details goes from left to right on the time and
information maturity scales of new projects, the optimization process starts from
right to left.

2.2 Energy Efficiency Optimization Tasks Description

Energy Efficiency Optimization objective aims to specifying the near-optimal


design that minimizes the new plants energy consumption at minimum
deficiency in energy supply of the utility systems to the plants process at
minimum capital cost. Following that, the task will be to list all possible design
options/actions/modifications necessary to achieve the specified/desired process
target(s). This includes identification of all related engineering activities in a
minimum possible time using uncertain plant data and without any interruption
to the overall project schedule. Currently, the scope of the energy efficiency
optimization of new projects assessment include the power, heating and cooling
systems that are mandatory to satisfy certain process demands along the life of
the project.

2.3 Solution Approach

Nowadays in Aramco for the sake of simplicity and timely results,


decomposition and heuristic techniques are adapted in lieu of the time-
consuming but more beneficial Mathematical Programming/Optimization
Techniques.

The evolutionary approach can be adapted versus the more time consuming
revolutionary approach. The old projects data base shall be fully utilized to
facilitate the energy review process and result in merits.

The plants energy utility needs shall be defined with reasonable level of
flexibility and the energy utility system; electricity, fuel, steam and other
energy-related utilities shall be defined one by one to find the near- optimal
consumption of such utilities that guarantee minimum deficiency in the utility
supply to plant processes subject to controlled minimum capital cost. The
company reliability figures shall prevail at least for the time being.

Page 5 of 92
Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit SABP-A-012
Issue Date: 10 September 2006 New Projects Energy Efficiency
Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011 Optimization Review Methodology

On the macro level the energy system components are generation, distribution
and utilization. The objective will be to minimize waste in energy fresh
resources and capital in these three components. This can be done via the
continuous upgrade of the efficiency of energy system components in
generation, distribution and utilization. However, the utilization component has
a unique feature, where its boundaries are not completely dictated by the
process. Therefore, the room of improvement in this component can have
tangible impact on the process capital cost in addition to energy utility system
cost.

3 Energy Assessment Methodology

3.1 Energy Assessment Procedures during Project Study Phase


Preliminary review of similar old process designs, system drawings and data
analysis
Understand the Big Picture of the old plant and the new plant-wide
operations
Understand process energy needs and utility systems preference of both the
old and the new plants
Understand the interaction between the process and hot utility system
Understand the interaction between the process and the cold utility system
Establish your desired objectives Targeting for the new project
(power, steam, fuel, water)
Identify All Opportunities for energy savings in the old project/existing
facility
Define Obvious Quick-hit savings (e.g. better plot plan, considering
cogeneration scheme,etc.)
Prepare do and do not do list for the new project during the study phase
Challenge every process step in the old design to generate new process
alternatives for the sake of a lower energy systems capital and operating
costs
From the available data, establish at least two or more process design
schemes
Propose scope for the second level of the review process that includes more
definitive assessment with some economic analysis including the simulation
of the defined process schemes.
Propose plant-wide energy-utility strategy

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit SABP-A-012
Issue Date: 10 September 2006 New Projects Energy Efficiency
Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011 Optimization Review Methodology

Discuss your findings with the project study team

There are three essential tasks that need to be conducted during the review of the
old project schemes in order to draw useful conclusions for the new project
process and utility design
(A) Data analysis, Models building and establishing Targets
(B) Insights, Opportunities and Estimated savings potential
(C) Screen and Formulate Improvement Strategy

These tasks can be explained in details as follows:


1. Site survey through templates, checklists and interviewing of process
owners/proponents to gather the right amount of data that enable the energy
team build the plants big picture and understand the goals and the
constraints of the facility
2. Define the criteria for focusing on potential areas of interest (when to be
rigorous and get to the second level of details)
3. Develop site energy/utility nominal design/normal operation models with the
appropriate level of details in a high level generic path diagrams for,
power, fuel, H2, steam, water, nitrogen and air. Preliminary purpose of
these models will be to understand what is going on in the energy utility
system, locate the energy consumption elephants (ECEs) in both process
and utility plants and generate insights for energy saving opportunities
4. Add more depth in the level of details of the energy utility model for each
ECE and/or other criterion of focus
5. Define the effect of disturbances and uncertainty on the energy utility system
models
a. Sources of disturbances
b. Site energy utility balance under disturbances
c. Nominal and dynamic targeting of energy utility systems
d. Check that the big picture depicted for the process and the utility
plants is correct with enough degree of confidence before you proceed
6. Target (order of magnitude targeting)
a. _ Identify main processing issues that affect utility utilization
b. _ Link utility-utility interactions
c. _ Integrate and qualitatively optimize site utilities
7. Integrate core processes among themselves and with utilities

Page 7 of 92
Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit SABP-A-012
Issue Date: 10 September 2006 New Projects Energy Efficiency
Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011 Optimization Review Methodology

8. Develop a comprehensive initiatives list via identifying and estimating


energy utility savings opportunities
9. Develop word strategies for realizing savings for the new facility goals,
analysis of the results and the mapping of the opportunities onto the new
facility strategy

Power and Heat Supply Decision

The following example addresses the problem of using cogeneration or not using
cogeneration to satisfy the process heat and power supply to the process. The example
below is an actual study conducted by one of our external consults. It shows that for
process heating and power supply requirements, it is important to consider as much as
possible number of options and economically screen them before you decide where to
go for this issue.

Option 1 Base Case

Steam raised in boilers at 150 psig, power purchased from SEC and all equipment on
electric drives.

Initial steam demand estimate is given below.

Summer
Year Water Desalter Stabiliser Summer Duty Stripping Other Total Steam Demand
Cut Heater Reboiler Steam Users
% MMBTU/h MMBTU/h MMBTU/h Mlb/h Mlb/h Mlb/h Mlb/h MMBTU/h

2011 1 14 167 181 198 30 95 323 295.2


2015 11.1 39 169 208 227 30 95 352 321.7
2022 30 126 173 299 327 30 95 452 413.1
2030 51 153 173 326 357 30 95 482 440.5

Winter
Year Water Desalter Stabiliser Winter Duty Stripping Other Total Steam Demand
Cut Heater Reboiler Steam Users
% MMBTU/h MMBTU/h MMBTU/h Mlb/h Mlb/h Mlb/h Mlb/h MMBTU/h

2011 1 113 178 291 318 30 95 443 404.9


2015 11.1 210 185 395 432 30 95 557 509.1
2022 30 531 197 728 796 30 95 921 841.8
2030 51 600 201 801 876 30 95 1001 914.9

Page 8 of 92
Issue Date: 10 September 2006
Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

Water Cut 1% 1% 6% 9% 11% 14% 17% 19% 22% 24% 27% 30% 32% 35% 38% 40% 43% 46% 48% 51%
Year 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030
Power requirement Aquifer WIPs MW 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93
Formation WIPs MW 9 9 9 9 9 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 50 50 50 50
Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit

ESPs MW 6 7 9 12 14 17 21 25 29 33 38 44 49 55 62 69 76 83 91 99
Other GOSP MW 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46
Utilities MW 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
Total Power MW 139 140 143 145 147 175 178 182 205 210 215 220 226 232 238 245 269 276 284 292
Estimated Power Demands
SABP-A-012
New Projects Energy Efficiency

Page 9 of 92
Optimization Review Methodology
Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit SABP-A-012
Issue Date: 10 September 2006 New Projects Energy Efficiency
Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011 Optimization Review Methodology

The steam demand ranges from 323 Mlb/h for summer 2011 to 1001 Mlb/h for Winter
2030.

Minimum criteria to be used for phased installation of equipment is 7-10 years, however
from the above table it can be seen that >50% of final capacity is required by 2015.
Therefore, 100% capacity installation is required from 2010.

4 x 50% units will be installed each with capacity of 500 Mlb/h, giving N+2 intallation
in year 2030. It is assumed that one boiler will be down for maintenance at any one
time and that the steam load will be shared equally between the remaining boilers.

Refer to tables below showing steam demand and boiler turndown.

During summers the required steam demand can be met by a single boiler. However it is
assumed that the load is shared by two boilers to allow speedy ramp-up should one
boiler trip. It is possible to share this load over 3 boilers but the boilers would be
operating at close to 20% turndown.

Summer
2011 2015 2022 2030
Total Steam demand Mlb/h 323 352 452 482
Running boilers (N+1) 2 2 2 2
Production per boiler Mlb/h 161.5 176.0 226.0 241.0
Turndown % 32% 35% 45% 48%

Winter
2011 2015 2022 2030
Total Steam demand Mlb/h 443 557 921 1001
Production per boiler 2 3 3 3
Production per boiler Mlb/h 221.5 185.7 307.0 333.7
Turndown % 44% 37% 61% 67%

Page 10 of 92
Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit SABP-A-012
Issue Date: 10 September 2006 New Projects Energy Efficiency
Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011 Optimization Review Methodology

Operational cost factors will be based on power import and fuel consumption as shown
in the following table:

Operation Cost Factors 2011 2015 2022 2030

Power Import, Summer MW 139 147 220 292


Power Import, Winter MW 139 147 220 292

Fuel, Summer MMBTU/h 410 447 574 613


Fuel, Winter MMBTU/h 563 708 1,170 1,272

Option 1a Steam Generation at 750psig

This option looks at raising steam at 750 psig (52 bara) and letting down through steam
turbine drivers for the compressors.

The GOSP gas compressors power demands are constant throughout the life of the
plant; therefore 100% steam capacity would be required from 2010.

Compressor Description Power per item Total operating


MW power
K-100A/B Atmospheric Compressor 12,500 12,500
K-101/2 A-C HP compressor 9,960 19,920
K-103 A/B Propane Compressor 3,159 3,159

It is estimated that 35 MW of power is available from 454 t/h (1001 Mlb/h) steam
through 750 100 psig pass-out turbines. This matches the operating duty for all the
running gas compressors.

Page 11 of 92
Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit SABP-A-012
Issue Date: 10 September 2006 New Projects Energy Efficiency
Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011 Optimization Review Methodology

Stand-by machines will be electric motors.

BOILERS

750 psig
1001000 lb/h

4 ST Drivers for Compressors


2 x 10 MW
35 MW 1 x 12.5 MW
1 x 3.2 MW

100 psig

60 psig

Condensing
turbine

Condensate

Excess steam in the summers and during the early years can be used to generate
electricity via a condensing steam turbine generator and hence reduce the amount of
purchased power required further. Refer to tables below:

Summer
2011 2015 2022 2030
Steam Produced Mlb/h 1001 1001 1001 1001
Steam for Process Heating Mlb/h 323 352 452 482
Excess Steam Mlb/h 678 649 549 519
Power produced hp 24726 23668 20021 18927

Page 12 of 92
Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit SABP-A-012
Issue Date: 10 September 2006 New Projects Energy Efficiency
Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011 Optimization Review Methodology

Winter
2011 2015 2022 2030
Steam Produced Mlb/h 1001 1001 1001 1001
Steam for Process Heating Mlb/h 443 557 921 1001
Excess Steam Mlb/h 558 444 80 0
Power produced hp 20350 16192 2918 0

Operational cost factors will be based on power import and fuel consumption as shown
in the following table.

Operation Cost Factors 2011 2015 2022 2030

Power Import, Summer MW 85 94 170 243


Power Import, Winter MW 88 100 183 257

Fuel, Summer MMBTU/h 1,279 1,279 1,279 1,279


Fuel, Winter MMBTU/h 1,279 1,279 1,279 1,279

Page 13 of 92
Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit SABP-A-012
Issue Date: 10 September 2006 New Projects Energy Efficiency
Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011 Optimization Review Methodology

Option 2 PWIPs with individual CGTs & WHRUs

Base Case :

Power Water Injection Pumps (PWIP) are electric motor driven and installed in 2
phases. Each PWIP is limited to 400MBPOD or a motor size of approx 25,000 hp with
4 PWIPs installed in Phase 1 and a 5th installed in 2019.

This option considers same capacity and phasing of PWIPs as base case, however each
PWIP is connected to a combustion gas turbine (CGT) with a waste heat recovery unit
generating low-pressure steam. Refer to sketch below:

Fuel & Air

CGT
WIP 25,000 hp
GE Frame 5

138.9 Mlb/h
To Users
300 Mlb/h
WHRU

From other Base load


WHRUs from Boilers

All other drivers are electric motor with power purchased from SEC.

Back-up steam production by 3 x 50 % boilers is required in case WHRUs fail,


i.e., 3 x 500.5 Mlb/h boilers (3 x 227 t/h) (number of back-up boiler tbc)

Assume that back-up boilers are operating at 30% turndown. In the summers & early
years it is assumed only one back-up boiler is running at turndown, in order to minimize
heat bypassed to GT/WHRU exhaust.

Page 14 of 92
Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit SABP-A-012
Issue Date: 10 September 2006 New Projects Energy Efficiency
Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011 Optimization Review Methodology

Each PWIP is coupled to a GE Frame 5 CGT complete with a WHRU, which can
produce up to 139 Mlb/h steam.

In 2018 at end of Phase 1 total steam that can be generated by WHRUs is 556 Mlb/h.
With back-up boilers operating at 30% turndown there is excess heat from the WHRUs
which is discharged to the GT exhaust.

In 2030 when 5 PWIPs are installed total steam production from WHRUs will be 695
Mlb/h. 306 Mlb/h steam made up from boilers.

Summer Winter

2015 2030 2015 2030

No PWIPs 4 5 No PWIPs 4 5

Power Produced hp 100000 125000 Power Produced hp 100000 125000

Steam from WHRUs Mlb/h 556 695 Steam from WHRUs Mlb/h 556 695

Steam from Boilers Mlb/h 150 150 Steam from Boilers Mlb/h 150 305

Process Steam req'd Mlb/h 395 482 Process Steam req'd Mlb/h 705 1001

Installation requirements:

2010-2018 4 x Frame 5 GE CGTs direct drivers for PWIPs complete with WHRU
[555.6 Mlb/h steam + 100,000 hp (74MW) Power]
3 x 500 Mlb/h back-up boilers

2018-2030 1 additional Frame 5 GE CGT complete with WHRU


[694.5 Mlb/h steam + 125,000 hp (93MW) Power]

Other considerations:

In years 2010 to 2015 there will be excess heat available from WHRU. This can be
used to raise excess LP steam that can be used for BFW preheat or Crude preheating or
by-passing the WHRU to stack.

Operational cost factors will be based on power import and fuel consumption as shown
in the following table (excess heat loss via GT Stack is also included):

Page 15 of 92
Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit SABP-A-012
Issue Date: 10 September 2006 New Projects Energy Efficiency
Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011 Optimization Review Methodology

Operation Cost Factors 2011 2015 2022 2030

Power Import, Summer MW 64 72 126 198


Power Import, Winter MW 64 72 126 198

Fuel, Summer MMBTU/h 1,222 1,222 1,480 1,480


Fuel, Winter MMBTU/h 1,222 1,222 1,575 1,677

Excess Heat from GT Exhaust, Summer MMBTU/h 389 360 399 369
Excess Heat from GT Exhaust, Winter MMBTU/h 267 151 -1 -1

Option 2a PWIPs with individual CGTs & WHRUs

This option is same as Option 2 except 4 off larger PWIPs (and associated GT Direct
Drives) are installed in year 2010. The best GT match is Siemens SGT-700 for the
new PWIPs duty. The Siemens GT operates at higher power output and lower steam
production.

Refer to sketch below:

Fuel & Air

CGT
WIP 30,345 hp
SGT-700

115 Mlb/h
To Users
541 Mlb/h
WHRU

From other Base load


WHRUs from Boilers

Page 16 of 92
Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit SABP-A-012
Issue Date: 10 September 2006 New Projects Energy Efficiency
Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011 Optimization Review Methodology

All other drivers are electric motor with power purchased from SEC.

Back-up steam production by 3 x 50% boilers is required in case WHRUs fail,


i.e., 3 x 500.5 Mlb/h boilers (3 x 227 t/h) (number of back-up boiler tbc)

Assume that back-up boilers are operating at 30% turndown. In the Summers & early
years it is assumed only one back-up boiler is running at turndown, in order to minimise
heat bypassed to GT/WHRU exhaust.

Each PWIP is coupled to a Siemens GT-700 complete with a WHRU, which can
produce up to 115 Mlb/h steam.

In 2018 at end of Phase 1 total steam that can be generated by WHRUs is 460 Mlb/h.
With back-up boilers operating at 30% turndown there is excess steam or heat lost with
by-pass of WRHU to the stack.

Summer Winter
2018 2030 2018 2030
No PWIPs 4 4 No PWIPs 4 4
Power Produced hp 121380 121380 Power Produced hp 121380 121380
Steam from WHRUs Mlb/h 460 460 Steam from WHRUs Mlb/h 460 460
Steam from Boilers Mlb/h 150 150 Steam from Boilers Mlb/h 250 541
Process Steam req'd Mlb/h 395 482 Process Steam req'd Mlb/h 705 1001
excess/ (make-up) Mlb/h 215 128 excess/ (make-up) Mlb/h 5 0

Installation requirements:

2010-2030 4 x Siemens GT-700 complete with WHRU


[460 Mlb/h steam + 123,000 hp (92 MW) Power]
3 x 500.5 Mlb/h back-up boilers

Other considerations:

In years 2010 to 2015 there will be excess heat available from WHRU. This can be
used to raise excess LP steam that can be used for BFW preheat or Crude preheating or
wasted via GT stacks.

Towards 2030 and in winter, two back-up boilers are required to operate @ 54%. This
is due to the lower steam production from the Siemens GT-700, the closest GT size to
the PWIPs power rating.

Operational cost factors will be based on power import and fuel consumption as shown
in the following table (excess heat loss via GT Stack is also included).

Page 17 of 92
Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit SABP-A-012
Issue Date: 10 September 2006 New Projects Energy Efficiency
Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011 Optimization Review Methodology

Operation Cost Factors 2011 2015 2022 2030

Power Import, Summer MW 45 53 126 198


Power Import, Winter MW 45 53 126 198

Fuel, Summer MMBTU/h 1,135 1,135 1,135 1,135


Fuel, Winter MMBTU/h 1,135 1,135 1,530 1,632

Excess Heat from GT Exhaust, Summer MMBTU/h 293 264 162 132
Excess Heat from GT Exhaust, Winter MMBTU/h 171 55 1 1

Option 3 Cogeneration sized for heat match

One back-up boiler will be running at 30% turndown. Base heat load provided by
WHRUs of the GTGs and all the drivers including PWIPs are electric motor.

Central Cogen sized for process heat match remaining power purchased from SEC.

2 x 50% back-up boilers.

2030 steam demand requires 3 x GE Frame 6 CGT.

Fuel & Air

CGT
GEN 72,415 hp
GE Frame 6

335.1 Mlb/h
To Users
350 Mlb/h
WHRU

From other From Boilers


WHRUs

Page 18 of 92
Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit SABP-A-012
Issue Date: 10 September 2006 New Projects Energy Efficiency
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Total Power generated in 2030 (2 GTGs) is 108 MW.

Therefore, purchase power required is 183MW.

Installation.

2010- 2018 2 x GE Frame 6 CGTs complete with WHRU (only 1 operating to


reduce heat waste via GT stacks) with 2 x 500.5 Mlb/h back-up boilers
[670 Mlb/h Steam + (54MW) Power]
~93 MW Purchase Power required in 2018

1 more GE Frame 6 CGT complete with WHRU (with 2 operating)


[670 Mlb/h Steam + (108MW) Power]
~183 MW purchase Power required

Operational cost factors will be based on power import and fuel consumption as shown
in the following table (excess heat loss via GT Stack is also included):

Operation Cost Factors 2011 2015 2022 2030

Power Import, Summer MW 84 93 111 183


Power Import, Winter MW 84 93 111 183

Fuel, Summer MMBTU/h 789 789 1,388 1,388


Fuel, Winter MMBTU/h 789 885 1,515 1,642

Excess Heat from GT Exhaust, Sum MMBTU/h 330 271 561 516
Excess Heat from GT Exhaust, Winter MMBTU/h 86 7 -1 30

Page 19 of 92
Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit SABP-A-012
Issue Date: 10 September 2006 New Projects Energy Efficiency
Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011 Optimization Review Methodology

Option 4 Cogen sized for PWIP Steam Turbine Drivers

PWIPs driven by steam turbine, all other drivers electric motor.

Central Cogen raising enough steam to drive PWIPs

Back-up by 2 x 100% boilers & SEC

Assume PWIP size & phasing as per option 2.

Fuel & Air

CGT
GEN 171,250 hp
GE Frame 7

584.2 Mlb/h
750 psig 2921 Mlb/h

WHRU

2336.8 Mlb/h 125,000 hp


WIPs
From other
WHRUs
150 psig

1001 Mlb/h
To process 150 psig
heating

1920 Mlb/h

Condensing
177,415 hp
turbine

Page 20 of 92
Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit SABP-A-012
Issue Date: 10 September 2006 New Projects Energy Efficiency
Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011 Optimization Review Methodology

In 2018 PWIP power requirement is 100,000 hp. This requires approx 2337 Mlb/h
steam from 750 175 psig pass out turbine. Power required for remaining drives is
approx 155,560 hp (116 MW).

In 2030 PWIP power requirement is 125,000 hp. This requires approx 2921 Mlb/h
steam from 750 175 psig pass out turbine. Power required for remaining drives is
approx 274,910 hp (205 MW).

However, process heat requirement in 2030 is only 1001 Mlb/h (60 psig), therefore,
excess steam is routed to condensing turbine to generate more power.

In 2030 5 x GE Frame 7 CGTs are required to raise steam for PWIP steam turbine
drives, which will generate 856,250 hp. An additional 177,415 hp is generated by the
condensing steam turbine giving total available power generated = 1,033,665 hp. This
is well in excess of the required 274,910 hp.

Installation:

2010- 2018 4 x GE Frame F CGTs complete with WHRU


[2337 Mlb/h Steam + 685,000 hp (511 MW) Power]
2 x 1001 Mlb/h back-up boilers
1 x 174,333 hp (130 MW) condensing turbine

1 additional GE Frame 7 CGT complete with WHRU


[2921 Mlb/h Steam + 1,033,665 hp (769 MW) Power]

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Option 5 Cogeneration sized to match total power demand

No base load boilers required, as the GT system has a N+2 supply arrangement.

In this option all drivers are electric motor and all power is produced by central CGTs
with no back up from SEC. Therefore, N+2 CGTs are required.

Steam is raised at 750 psig in WHRU and passed through a steam turbine. 150 psig
steam is extracted for process heating demand.

Total power requirement in 2030 is ~300 MW or 402,310 hp

Fuel & Air

CGT
GEN 88,370 hp
GE Frame 7

302.5 Mlb/h
750 psig 1210.0 Mlb/h

WHRU 907.5 Mlb/h


87,165 hp
From other
WHRUs

1001 Mlb/h 209.0 Mlb/h


To process 150 psig
heating

To
condenser

GTs running at 100% rate, the actual maximum power or heat demand is supplied with
around 90% turndown on the GT and associated steam turbine generator.

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Installation:

2010 - 2018 5 x GE Frame 7 CGTs complete with WHRU (3 operating, two standby),
[907 Mlb/h Steam + 265,000 hp (198 MW) Power]
1 x 87,165 hp (65MW) condensing turbine
(based on maximum of 1210 Mlb/h of steam)

2018 - 2030 1 additional GE Frame 7 CGT complete with WHRU


[1210 Mlb/h Steam + 440,645 hp (328MW) Power]

In summer, the plant power demand will dictate the turndown ratio of the operating GT
machines, and in all cases, there will be excess heat. In winter 2015 & 2022, the heating
requirement will dictate the GT turndown rates.

Operational cost factors will be based on power import and fuel consumption as shown
in the following table (excess heat loss via GT Stack is also included).

Operation Cost Factors 2011 2015 2022 2030

Power Import, Summer MW 0 0 0 0


Power Import, Winter MW 0 -21 -31 0

Fuel, Summer MMBTU/h 1,118 1,186 1,962 2,603


Fuel, Winter MMBTU/h 1,118 1,355 2,240 2,603

Excess Heat from STG condenser, Summer MMBTU/h 455 427 410 142
Excess Heat from STG condenser, Winter MMBTU/h 455 356 294 142

Excess power in 2015 & 2022, can be reduced by the installation of after burner to
divert energy from power to heat.

The heat loss is via condenser not GTG stacks.

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3.2 Energy Assessment Procedures during Project Proposal Phase

The following are the procedures which normally render an acceptable energy
efficient process design in a project proposal phase:

1- Data extraction for the study to be done for each stream that needs to be
heated or vaporized and any stream that needs to be cooled or condensed
in the base design case. As if each stream will be handled through
utilities. (No integration in the base case design).

2- Targets for energy utility to be calculated for the process with integration
and without integration.

3- The grand composite curve for the base case design shall be utilized to
help show the right/optimal level of utility mix. for heating and cooling
utilities.

4- The same graph (GCC) needs also to be utilized to show the potential
cogeneration opportunities and best drivers for the process, if any.

5- List of possible design and operational modifications to be investigated to


explore its impact on the utility consumption and other process units.

6- These steps should be done for at least 6 DTmin., before selecting the right
one. Of-course, in such cases a preliminary evaluation of the HENs capital
cost will be needed, or whatever targeting method you use, to reach the
close-to-optimum DTmin. (These calculations can be done easily using
state-of-the art software(s) like SPRINT, currently available at Saudi
Aramco ESU)

7- Preliminary HEN synthesis developed will render several process


initiatives for improving the design from energy efficiency point of view
compared with the base case design.

8- The process scheme produced may have some environmental, safety and
control/operability constraints that may justify forbidding streams
matching and warrant the removal of some streams from the heat
integration schemes or even removing all of them from integration
scheme; it does not matter as long as the design is pursued systematically
and the techno-economical justifications are detailed and documented.

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9- One-by-one, of problem stream(s) shall be taken out from the integrated


process scheme and its energy impact in Dollars is defined. In the same
time an engineered solution for solving this problem/ constraint, safety;
control/operability or other problem, shall be suggested and its impact
shall also be roughly quantified/estimated in Dollars if possible and
documented.

10- Trade-off between the energy saving impact $ and for instance the
control/operability impact $ shall be calculated, documented and shown in
the energy assessment study.

11-Other subjective decisions need to be mentioned and documented clearly


with enough techno-economical support as much as possible to support the
decisions of accepting or rejecting process initiatives for the sake of energy
efficiency optimization.

In general, there are very important constraints in form of early decisions taken
at early stages of the project life that confine the scope of work in any energy
efficiency optimization study. It will not be practical, logical and even
beneficial to continue arguing about the logic or correctness of past decisions
because the review process shall move on fast but with enough rigors and
without losing the essence of why we are doing energy studies for new designs.

In order to get the best out of any energy study, we suggest that you explore few
important modifications that would have the most impact on the base case
design from energy efficiency point of view and also help save significant
capital cost.

The following example is an actual one about an oil and gas separation project
where the base case design has been studied from energy efficiency optimization
point of view by an outside consultant/engineering company and has been
reviewed with the comments below.

The proposed comments are a result of small effort spent on an energy study
review with the available information at that stage bearing in mind that only
major things shall be reported back for consideration. Changes have to be
practical and do not have any major change on the project schedule. However, it
may help correct some of the quit clear points in the base case design.

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The first most important item which is fundamental and does not even need
investigation is the unnecessary recycle of the NGL stabilizer over head gas
stream back to the process. This recycle in base case design is not technically
useful. Such type of recycles has to be eliminated as long as these recycle
streams have no separation sink. These recycle streams normally, do not only
affects the size of all equipment, piping,etc., down the stream it joins resulting
in huge capital waste but also has no production benefit from NGL separation
point of view. It also affects energy utilities such as the refrigeration package
capital and operating cost. In any case recycle streams without separation or
conversion sink should not be recycled back to the process.

Deleting NGL Stabilizer OVHD Recycle Example:

The two graphs below show the place of the recycle that need to be demolished
and an idea that need to be investigated with others by the process designers to
explore the extra capital cost used due to the recycle and to enhance if possible
the amount of NGL that can be recovered. Here below some ideas that can be
explored along the major change of using de-ethanizer instead of NGL stripper,
for instance.

Dried HP gas to export

Should not be recycled


TEG unit

HP gas from inlet manifold

425 Psig

260 Psig
445 Psig

440 Psig
GOSP condensate from
condensate inlet manifold
Condensate Feed Drum

NGL Stripper

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Sales Gas
Dried HP gas to export

Should not be recycled


TEG unit

Condenser

HP gas from inlet manifold

425 Psig

260 Psig
445 Psig

440 Psig
GOSP condensate from
condensate inlet manifold
Condensate Feed Drum

NGL

This condenser could use the process stream that have a temperature of
50 F and the rest can come from the refrigeration package

NGL Stripper

NGL Stripper Dried HP gas to export

An idea to avoid recycle and possible


Increase in NGL recovery
TEG unit

HP gas from inlet manifold sales Gas

425 Psig

445 Psig
sales Gas
260 Psig
440 Psig
GOSP condensate from
condensate inlet manifold
Condensate Feed Drum

330 Psig

-New HP flash drum or small stripper with 20% of the feed load to
NGL
recover more NGL
-Smaller existing Stripper using less steam &redesigned to allow
more NGL recovery instead of the heavy components loss in the top

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Heat Integration between Compressors and Crude Stabilization process


Example:

The graph below suggests that integration between the discharge of compressors
and the crude stabilization process can be done through several options upon the
implementation of pinch techniques. One option is possible through a hot water
system. This integration option can result in huge steam saving and savings in
the fin-fans electric power loads as well as a reduction in capital. The scheme
below can have different options based upon the location of the pump-
around/inter-heater and the water return temperature. Note that we are only
giving here a configuration while several configurations can also be produced
and explored. The savings here in capital and operating cost is quite clear and
there is no operability problem but simulation and more in-depth review of the
process will be warranted.

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Steam System Optimization Example:

The graph below shows that electricity can be generated from the proposed
utility system design to minimize the power purchased from the grid.

In the current base case design, only 4 MW could be generated from the current
situation using BPST generator.

Khurais Project
Combined Heat & Power System
HRSG
4GT

*- One working to 3 Boilers


support the 573 Klb/hr High Pressure
at 50% load
process by 168 Klb/hr 133 psig
*- One on standby 428 Deg. F
*- One shutoff 573 Klb/hr

BPST
168 Klb/hr 4 MW

Mid Pressure
95 psig
365 Deg. F

716.17 Klb/hr 24.83 Klb/hr

Process MP Steam 1.65 Klb/hr


Demand
Low Pressure
40 psig
320 Deg. F

24.5 Klb/hr

Process LP Steam
Demand

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The proposed scheme below shows that via increasing the HRSG pressure and
temperature, it is possible to produce about 20 MW power of electricity.

Khurais Project
Combined Heat & Power System
HRSG
4GT

*- One working to 3 Boilers


support the 573 Klb/hr High Pressure
at 50% load
process by 168 Klb/hr 625 psig
*- One on standby 700 Deg. F
*- One shutoff 573 Klb/hr

BPST
168 Klb/hr 20 MW

Mid Pressure
95 psig
365 Deg. F

716.17 Klb/hr 24.83 Klb/hr

Process MP Steam 1.65 Klb/hr


Demand
Low Pressure
40 psig
320 Deg. F

24.5 Klb/hr

Process LP Steam
Demand

The HRSG HP Steam can be utilized to drive a steam turbine generator for
power recovery. The steam balance and the steam property will not be affected.
In general it is recommended to produce the steam at the highest possible
pressure to generate more power. The optimum steam pressure can be decided
by the designer.

Heat Integration of NGL Separation Section Example:

The graph below suggests that simple pinch calculation might also be useful in
exploring the best way to match the shown hot and cold streams in order to
further minimize the utility consumption. The result may exhibit no need to
modify the existing design especially after the consideration of modifying the
NGL recovery and stopping the recycle, however it may worth its exploration.
It is important also to consider both the NGL cold section and the refrigeration
system simultaneously to minimize capital and compressor work-shaft.

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Dried HP gas to export

TEG unit

HP gas from inlet manifold

425 Psig

260 Psig
445 Psig

440 Psig
GOSP condensate from
condensate inlet manifold
Condensate Feed Drum

Cold streams to be heated

Hot streams to be cooled

NGL Stabilizer

It is important to note that the above mentioned suggestions and others in line
with it can saves energy utility in form of steam consumption, electricity
consumption and increase the in-situ generation of electricity to reduce the
purchased power.

It may also result in an increases the NGL recovery and reduces the overall
process plant and utility plant capital cost due to the elimination of boilers, fin
fan coolers and the reduction of the capital cost. These benefits need to be
verified by process designers via simulation and economic analysis.

3.3 Quick Guidelines for Efficient Energy System Design


Consider the process and hot utility system simultaneously and Optimize the
CHP system
Strongly consider the use of Cogeneration if your power-to-heat ratio is
rendering high cogeneration efficiency with respect to central power
generation plants efficiency
Do not allow the carrying through of the undesired species with main
streams, (gas, water or other species) especially if heating or cooling is
required along its path

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Later in the project phase watch for robust condensate recovery system
Do not forget Piping insulation for long distance pipelines
Consider having flexible operation of main equipment to allow for its load
management
Optimize air compressors design
Consider the use of Economizers and Pre-heater in the boilers
Consider the use of turbo-expander instead of JT valves and to drive gas
compressors
Watch for power generation from high pressure liquids
Re-consider the use of gas turbines versus the more efficient steam turbines
Increase boiler steam pressure and temperature to the extent that matches
process needs unless electricity generation is the controlling factor
Use auxiliary turbines to minimize steam let downs
Use steam in the process optimally to save capital cost
Consider using air pre-heaters for combustion air
Use ASD on BFW pumps
Integrate the flue gases in with the rest of the process using grand composite
curve developed by pinch technology( see later section)
Recover valuable gases from fuel gases and fully utilize the streams pressure
Minimize the H2 wheel in your plant
Cool down the inlet temperature to compressors
Reduce cooling medium return temperature in refrigeration cycles
Consider heat rejection of the refrigeration system in process cold or even
hot section, to the ambient and to another refrigerant
Use highest efficiency turbines in your CHP system (thermo-flow software
can help in such selection)
Utilize motors instead of turbine drivers if it is more economical since they
are more efficient
Optimize steam use in strippers
Minimize live steam utilization
Consider Mechanical energy integration

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Reduce natural gas consumption by understanding fuel gas sinks and


constraints
Reduce fuel gas use via considering energy integration
Keep H2 separate from fuel gas system, also measure the composition of
off-gas streams and recover C2 and C3+
Avoid unnecessary processing of off-gas
Avoid unnecessary processing of wastes and inert
Minimize the unnecessary production of off-gas
Avoid unnecessary recycles
Adjust operating pressures and optimize process interaction
Optimize your piping system to minimize excessive pressure drops
Re-use lowest quality water
Maximize use of stripped sour water and Minimize generation of wastewater
Eliminate direct water injection for cooling purposes
Eliminate live steam used for re-boiling and stripping where it is only used
for BTU value
Minimize or eliminate live steam consumption in sour water strippers by
replacing it with re-boilers
Boiler blow-down could be considered for cooling tower make-up
Extract the low pressure steam from the boiler blow-down
Use process water effluent as a source on the next lower water quality level
In general eliminate live steam usage since it becomes water and follows an
energy path through the plant consuming more energy to process it
Should live steam becomes necessary optimize the amount used through
optimal pressure conditions
Use lowest quality water possible for desalter operation
Minimize water used in desalting and/or carried through to desalting
Automate desalter operation, avoid water slipping through with crude during
desalting/maximize the separation of free water upstream of the crude
desalting (each Ib of water will require roughly Ib steam for processing)
Minimize the water-wheel in the plant

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Maximize utilization of treated oily-water from the waste-water treatment


plant
Consider adjustable speed motors/devices for pumps, compressors, .etc
Increase waste heat steam generation
Insulate condensate return lines, valves, flanges,etc.
Cooling- tower blow-down should not be treated but segregated to sewer
Boiler blow-down should not be sent to wastewater treatment but segregate
to sewer

In your plot-plan make sure that energy exporters are close to energy
importers
Avoid non-isothermal mixing of streams
Use cooling water instead of air, if possible, to cool down compressors
discharge

Illustrative Examples for Quick Energy Efficiency Optimization in New Design


Compression Energy % Savings Due to Decrease in compressors Inlet temperature
% Energy saving in a compressor energy consumption = {1- (Tnew/Told)} * 100
Tnew is the new inlet temperature
Told is the old inlet temperature
Back pressure turbines energy available for integration
Thermal energy available for Integration (Q) = Outlet steam flow* (Vapor enthalpy-
liquid enthalpy)
Outlet steam flow= Inlet steam flow (1- actual wetting factor)
Actual wetting factor can be assumed between (8 to 15) %
% Energy saving in heat pumps/refrigeration cycles due to decrease in reject
temperature
W2/W1 = (T reject 2 Tc)/ (T reject 1 Tc)
Treject is the temperature at which heat is rejected to the cooling medium (water)
Tc is the temperature at which heat is taken into the refrigeration) cycle

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4A Appendices for Short-Cut Assessment Tools

4A.1 Steam and Power Model

The basic Steam Mass Balance does not require high accuracy as long as the
developed model still makes sound engineering sense. (i.e., output is much
higher than input)

Common engineering sense shall be used to estimate what the unknowns. For
example condensate return, blow-down and flares can be defined after getting
good idea about main consumers.

98+5 t/h

98 t/h
HP Boiler

HP
68 t/h 21 t/h 8 t/h 0.0 t/h 0.0 t/h
Proc. #1
1 t/h
6.28 MW
HP Process
Proc. #2 Condensate
0.0 t/h
MP Boiler 68 t/h 0.0 t/h
chemicals
MP
27 t/h 9 t/h
Vent 30 t/h
MP Process
Proc. #4 Condensate
Proc. #1 2 t/h
18 t/h
0.0 t/h Vent
38 t/h 1 t/h
Deaerator 0.0 t/h
30 t/h 0.0 t/h
BFW LP
(42+5) t/h 7 t/h 4 t/h
Raw water Effluent 5 t/h LP Process
Make-up Treatment Plant Proc. #1
Proc. #3
Condensate
Process Condensate
Est. 50 % Returned

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4A.2 Pinch Technology for Utilities Targeting and Selection

The purpose of this section is not to conduct a pinch study but to get some
energy targets regarding the utilities consumption for a desired plant area. This
can be done essentially via three methods, graphical, algebraic and using
mathematical programming/optimization. In this document the only one method
is going to be explained. In Saudi Aramco we have some software(s) that can be
used to conduct in depth analysis.

Targeting Using Graphical Method:

Any heat exchanger can be represented as a hot stream that is cooled down by
another cold stream and/or cold utility and a cold stream that is heated up by a
hot stream and/or hot utility with a specified minimum temperature approach
between the hot and the cold called Tmin.

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The process exhibited below in the graph shows the situation when the two
streams do not have a chance of overlap that produce heat integration between
the hot and the cold.

Feed Product
H PROCESS C

120
T HOT UTILITY

100

80

60

40

20

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 H
COLD UTILITY

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Moving the cold stream to the left on the enthalpy axis without changing its
supply and target temperatures till we have small vertical distance between the
hot stream and the cold stream we obtain some overlap between the two streams
that result in heat integration between the hot and the cold and less hot and cold
utilities. As been depicted in the graph below with shrinkage in the hot and cold
lines span.

Feed Product
H PROCESS C

120
T HOT UTILITY

100

HEAT
80
RECOVERY

60
Pinch
(MAT)
40

20

H
COLD UTILITY
0 10 20 30 40 50 60

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For demonstration, all hot streams will be represented in the process by one long
hot stream to be called the hot composite curve. Same thing be done for all
cold streams in the process.

The next step will be drawing the two composite curves/lines on the same page
in Temperature (T)-Enthalpy diagram with two conditions:

1- The cold composite curve should be completely below the hot composite
curve, and

2- The vertical distance between the two lines/curves in terms of temperature


should be greater than or equal to a selected minimum approach
temperature called global Tmin

The resulting graph is depicted below and known as thermal pinch diagram.

Net Heat Sink


Above the Pinch

Opportunity for
heat recovery

Net Heat Source


Below the Pinch

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Grand Composite Curve (G.C.C)


Should Be Drawn To Scale

T* (K) Total hot utility required is equal to 2620 kW

600
Hu3
Hu2

500

Hu1

400

300

Enthalpy ( kW)
200
700 1400 2100 2800

Multiple utility targeting/selection using Grand Composite Curve (GCC)

Upon maximizing heat recovery in the heat exchanger network, those heating
duties and cooling duties not serviced by heat recovery must be provided by
external utilities.

The most common utility is steam. It is usually available at several levels. High
temperature heating duties require furnace flue gas or a hot oil circuit. Cold
utilities might be refrigeration, cooling water, air cooling, furnace air preheating,
boiler feed water preheating, or even steam generation at higher temperatures.

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Although the composite curves can be used to set energy targets, they are not a
suitable tool for the selection of utilities. The grand composite curve drawn
above is a more appropriate tool for understanding the interface between the
process and the utility system. It is also as will be shown in later chapters a very
useful tool in studying of the interaction between heat-integrated reactors,
separators and the rest of the process.

The GCC is obtained via drawing the problem table cascade as we shown
earlier.

The graph shown above is a typical GCC. It shows the heat flow through the
process against temperature. It should be noted that the temperature plotted here
is the shifted temperature T* and not the actual temperature. Hot streams are
represented by Tmin/2 colder and the cold streams Tmin/2 hotter tan they are
in the streams problem definition. This method means that an allowance of
Tmin is already built into the graph between the hot and the cold for both
process and utility streams. The point of zero heat flow in the GCC is the
pinch point. The open jaws at the top and the bottom represent QHmin and
QCmin respectively.

The grand composite curve (GCC) provides convenient tool for setting the
targets for the multiple utility levels of heating utilities as illustrated above.

The graphs below further illustrate such capability for both heating and cooling
utilities.

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The above figure (a) shows a situation where HP steam is used for heating and
refrigeration is used for cooling the process. In order to reduce utilities cost,
intermediate utilities MP steam and cooling water (CW) are introduced. The
second graph (b) shows the targets for all the utilities. The target for the MP
steam is set via simply drawing a horizontal line at the MP steam temperature
level starting from the vertical axis until it touches the GCC. The remaining
heat duty required is then satisfied by the HP steam. This maximizes the MP
steam consumption prior to the remaining heating duty be fulfilled by the HP
steam and therefore minimizes the total utilities cost. Similar logic is followed
below the pinch to maximize the use of the cooling water prior the use of the
refrigeration.

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The points where the MP steam and CW levels touch the GCC are called utility
pinches since these are caused by utility levels. The graph (C) below shows a
different possibility of utility levels where furnace heating is used instead of HP
steam. Considering that furnace heating is more expensive than MP steam, the
use of the MP steam is first maximized. In the temperature range above the MP
steam level, the heating duty has to be supplied by the furnace flue gas. The flue
gas flowrate is set as shown in graph via drawing a sloping line starting from the
MP steam to theoretical flame temperature Ttft.

If the process pinch temperature is above the flue gas corrosion temperature, the
heat available from the flue gas between the MP steam and pinch temperature
can be used for process heating. This will reduce the MP steam consumption.

In summary the GCC is one of the basic tools used in pinch technology for the
selection of appropriate utility levels and for targeting for a given set of multiple
utility levels. The targeting involves setting appropriate loads for the various
utility levels by maximizing cheaper utility loads and minimizing the loads on
expensive utilities.

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T-tft
(C)

T*

MP

CW

Refrigeration

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Normally, Plants Operations have choices of many hot and cold utilities and the
graph below shows some of available options. Generally, it is recommended to
use hot utilities at the lowest possible temperature while generating it at the
highest possible temperature. And for the cold utilities it is recommended to use
it at the highest possible temperature and generate at the lowest possible
temperature. These recommendations are best addressed systematically using
the grand composite curve.

Hot and cold utilities

Boiler House
And Power Plant

Fuel

Steam
W
Turbines

Gas W
Turbines
BFW
Hot Oil preheat
Circuit

Heat W
Process Pump

Furnace

Cooling W
Towers
Refrigeration
Air preheat

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The graph below shows that utility pinches are formed according to the number
of utilities used. Each time a utility is used a utility pinch is created. It also
shows that the GCC right noses sometimes known as pockets are areas of heat
integration/energy recovery. In other words it does not need any external
utilities. These right noses/pockets are caused by;
- Region of net heat availability above the pinch
- Region of net heat requirement below the pinch

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GCC curve can be used by engineers to select the best match between utility
profile and process needs profile. For instance, the steam system shown below
needs to be integrated with the process demands profile to minimize low
pressure steam flaring and high or medium pressures steam let downs. Besides
it helps selecting steam header pressure levels and loads.

HP Boiler

HP

Proc. #1

HP Process
Proc. #2 Condensate

MP Boiler
chemicals
MP
Vent
MP Process
Proc. #4 Condensate
Proc. #1

Vent

Deaerator

BFW LP
Raw water Effluent LP Process
Make-up Treatment Plant Proc. #1 Proc. #3
Condensate
Process Condensate

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Superimposed Utility Profile with Process Profile


Nominal Case Supply-Demand Matching Problem

T HP

MP

Process GCC

LP

BFW
CW
H

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The superimposed steam system on the process grand composite curve shows
that while process heating needs can be achieved electricity can also be
generated to satisfy process demands and/or export the surplus to the grid.

The graph below shows how we can use the GCC not only to select utility type,
load but also to define the steam headers minimum pressure/temperature to
minimize driving force and save energy.

T Qh
HP

MP

LP

BFW

CW

Qc
H

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Grand Composite Curve can also be utilized to select the load and return
temperature of hot oil circuits. The graph below shows that while in many cases
the process pinch can be our limiting point in defining the load (slop of the hot
oil line) and the return temperature of the heating oil. In some other cases the
topology of the GCC is the limiting point not the process pinch. This is also
shown in the second graph below. This practical guide to select the load and the
target temperature of the hot oil circuits is also applicable to furnaces as will be
shown later in this chapter.

Process Pinch temperature is the Limiting temperature for the Hot oil return temperature

T*

T supply

Hot Oil

T return

Process CW
Pinch

Refrigeration

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Process Pinch temperature is not the Limiting temperature for the Hot oil return temperature
But the topology of the GCC curve
T* T supply

Hot Oil

CP-min

T return

Process CW
Pinch

Refrigeration

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Grand composite curve (GCC) can also be used to select the process
refrigeration levels and the synthesis of the multiple-cycles refrigeration systems
as we did in the steam system. The schematic graph below shows a simplified
refrigeration system.

Schematic Diagram for multi-level Refrigeration System

Condenser 25C

CW

Process -5C
0C

-40C
Process
-35C

-70C
Process
-65C

Work
Compressor

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The GCC as we mentioned before can be used to place the refrigeration levels as
we did with steam levels. The graph below shows how we can do that.

We can place the refrigeration levels like steam levels.


Maximizing the highest temperature load to minimize the lower temperature loads

Tcw

- 5 C

- 40 C

- 70 C

When a hot utility needs to be at a high temperature and/or provide high heat
fluxes, radiant heat transfer is used from combustion of fuel in furnace. Furnace
designs vary according to the function of the furnace, heating duty and type of
fuel, and method of introducing combustion air.

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4A.3 Cogeneration Targeting and Drivers Selection

Steam and power balances provide the link between the process utility
requirements and the utility supply. They determine the basis for cogen or no
cogen decision, import power requirements or power export potential, boiler
sizes, fuel consumption, steam-turbines flows, boiler feed-water requirements,
steam flows in various parts of the process,etc.

An easy way to explore the site power and steam optimal generation and
utilization is through what is called site hot and cold composite curve. It is
important to emphasize on that we recommend, on the contrary of most
literatures, that you include other process steam demands in the balance
calculation in order to depict more accurate picture.

Constructing the site- source and sink composite curves

The first step in constructing the site source-sink composite diagram is to draw
the site-source composite curve and the site-sink composite curve via looking at
each process grand composite curve and extract the source(s) and sink(s)
streams while ignoring the pockets, areas of process heat integration, as shown
in graphs below. Source streams are the ones that have negative slopes, while
the sink streams are the streams that are having positive slopes.

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T* Process A heat
sink profile

Process
(A)
GCC
Process A
heat
source profile

H
Process B heat
sink profile
T*

Process
(B)
GCC
Process B heat
source profile

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Now let us use a simple example to show that site composite curves can be
drawn the same we do for drawing single process composite curves.

Data for Constructing Composite Curves

Supply Temp Target Temp.


Stream Type FCp (kW/ C)
(C) (C)
Source/Hot 170 70 10
Source/Hot 120 30 20
Sink/Cold 50 90 40
Sink/Cold 20 110 18

For the simple example shown in the table above, first step will be tabulating the
site sources and sinks as shown. The second step in developing the site-
composite curves now is the development of the two tables below. These two
tables, list all the source and sink streams temperatures of each process (A,
B,.N), extracted from its grand composite Curves like the ones shown above,
in an ascending order with the cumulative enthalpy (result of adding the
enthalpy of all source streams or sink streams laying together in a certain
temperature interval) corresponding to the lowest hot temperature and lowest
cold temperature respectively equal to zero.

In every temperature interval the cumulative source/hot load is calculated using


the following formula:

H= FCp * (Tsupply Ttarget)

In every temperature interval the cumulative sink/cold load is calculated using


the following formula:

H= FCp * (Ttarget Tsupply)

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Source streams temperature list Cumulative Enthalpy (H)


T0=30 H0=0.0
T1=70 H1=800
T2=120 H2=2300
T3=170 H3=2800

Sink streams temperature list Cumulative Enthalpy (H)


T0=20 H0=0.0
T1=50 H1=540
T2=90 H2=2860
T3=110 H3=3220

Temperature (T) - Enthalpy (H) Diagram

Site-source composite curve

Site-sink composite curve

30

20

H
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The site-sink/cold composite curve shall lie completely below or to the left of
the site-source/hot composite curve and this can be done via dragging the site-
sink/cold composite curve to the right on the enthalpy axis (H). This process
shall stop at a vertical distance between the cold and the hot composite curve for
a temperature equal to reasonable minimum temperature approach.

Temperature (T) - Enthalpy (H) Diagram


Site-Minimum Heating Utility

T Qh =480 kW

Site-source composite curve

Site-sink composite curve

Minimum Temperature Approach


30

20
Qc=60 kW

Site-Minimum Cooling Utility

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It is important to note that the construction of the grand composite curve of each
process relies on a built-in Tmin between the hot composite and the cold
composite curves. It is a Tmin/2 (half Tmin) lower shift in the actual hot
streams temperatures and Tmin/2 upper shift in the actual cold streams
temperatures. Since the heating and/or cooling utilities are going to be used as
buffer for the purpose of integration among different processes it is important to
have another shift in hot and cold streams temperatures, which is complete
Tmin instead of half Tmin. If these curves are drawn without considering hot
utility/steam as a buffer the graphs will look like the composite curves shown
above. However, in order to better show site-steam generation capability from
the site-source composite curve and its demand based upon the site-sink
composite curve we need to plot the two composites curves as shown below.

Site Source Profile


Cold streams to be heated/
Hot streams to be cooled/ steam Demand
steam generation/supply

Site Sink Profile

Total Site Profiles

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T
HP

Site Source Profile

MP MP
Site Sink Profile
LP LP

CW

Targeting for steam Generation/Supply and Demand


The site composite curves drawn this way can be utilized to select the required
utility mix and its temperature range. The site composite curve shown above to
the left defines for the site, the overall cooling requirements from both enthalpy
and temperatures points of view. The utility selection shall start from the top-
to-bottom with the intention of maximizing steam generation. As depicted in
the graph, the highest temperature cooling utility in the shown case is medium
pressure steam generation using process high temperature source stream(s).
Again it is beneficiary for the site to maximize the use of such cooling utility
(high pressure steam generation). The second highest temperature cooling
utility is the generation of low pressure steam. This cooling utility has to be
maximized too. The residual heat that needs to be rejected to the environment
can be then handled using air or water cooling systems. The site sink composite
curve to the right shows the site needs for heating utilities. The process of
selecting the heating utilities on that side is a bottom-to-top marsh. We start
at the lowest possible temperature heating utility and we maximize it. In our
case here it is a low pressure steam utility. The next lowest-heating utility is a
medium pressure steam, and also it has to be maximized. The rest of the heating
utility demands can now be handled using high pressure steam.

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Studying the process heating and cooling demands should not be done in
isolation of the process needs for electricity. The interaction between the
process units, hot utility and cold utility systems is extremely important.
Sometimes it is not very clear to the straight forward old perceived intuitions.
Accurate process steam demands and generation capabilities are essential for
proper targeting of the site cogeneration design.

After recovering heat between process steam generation and process steam
usage, the balance of the heating demand and other process steam users will be
satisfied by fuel fired in the utility boilers to generate the required steam
demands. Normally, very high pressure steam will be produced to produce
power and use the exhausted steam in satisfying the process demand. The
shaded area, in the left graph below, is a region where higher pressure steam is
expanded through steam turbine to lower pressure steam to produce power. This
shaded region can be used roughly to compare between the amounts of power
that can be produced from a site at different scenarios. The site steam headers
might also have a pinch where above it there is a steam supply deficiency and
below it there is a surplus of heat/steam supply and the site needs to reject it to
the environment. This is normally rejected to water or air coolers.

In order to maximize the true cogeneration of power and steam from the site,
low pressure steam generated is expanded to vacuum pressure steam, which is
ultimately condensed using cooling water.

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While this graphical procedure can render some insights we recommend that
you use algebraic method to with simple equations for steam turbine to estimate
the exact amount of power that can be co-generated with steam need to satisfy
the process demand. Schematic representation of the method is shown to the
right of the graph below.

Fuel

VHP

HP
Steam generated
by the process
E1

MP
Steam Consumed
E2 by the process
LP
VP
E3 VP
CW

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Back to the graphical method that can give very useful insights, the graph below
can be used to as we said before in getting an idea about amounts of power that
can be produced from a site in different scenarios.

T
Fuel

VHP

VP

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In steam turbine situation, the larger the flow of steam through the turbine, the
greater is the amount of power that will be produced and the larger the pressure
difference and hence the larger the saturation temperature difference across the
turbine, the greater the potential for power generation. Such power generation is
proportional to the Carnot Factor for a heat engine (Th-Tc)/Th, where Th and Tc
are the heat input and the heat reject temperatures respectively in degree k.
Therefore, the shaded areas in the above graph can be considered to be
approximately proportional to the amount of power that can be generated by
steam turbines in the utility system.

The heat and power scheme shown in the graph above represent the process
maximum heat recovery scenario in a site that is pinched. It is important to note
here that this scenario might not be the optimal scenario for the site heat and
power satisfaction economically. Therefore, it is a scenario but not the scenario.

This fact might be against the intuition we built in last decades that in our
process designs we need to maximize heat recovery against heat exchanger
capital cost via minimizing the heat supply from the utility and heat rejection to
cold utility to get optimum designs. Putting power supply for drivers in the
process and for other usage in the big picture changes the old intuition and the
optimality of maximum heat recovery versus HEN design. In addition, when
other elements get into the big picture too such as water and refrigeration system
the intuition might change again. This fact is due to the decomposition of the
process-utility system to sub-systems with high interaction. For the sake of this
document this point will not be further discussed but will be explained with one
example shown in the graph below.

VHP VHP
VHP VHP

= + W-cond

True cogeneration

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In the above graph, waste heat recovery in the process is not maximized as was
the case in the example discussed earlier. In fact, in the above example extra
amount of fuel is being fired generating more very high pressure steam in the
utility boilers. You can notice that larger area between the two steams profiles
have been produced which mean extra power generation capability of the site in
this case.

In this case the site steams profiles corresponds to a scenario in which waste
heat recovery has not been maximized, can be decomposed into two parts as
shown to the right of the graph above.

The first part is the one that exhibit maximum waste heat recovery for a pinched
site, where steam turbine are used to generate electricity after matching the site
steam needs first. The second part represents an area of power generation
through the expansion of steam from VHP all the way to vacuum pressure
through condensing steam turbine. The first part represents what some people
call true cogeneration opportunity in the site. In many cases site should not,
from thermodynamics efficiency point of view, use condensing power
generation in process plants since it will be less efficient than centralized stand-
alone power stations that use condensing power generation in extremely more
efficient cycles. However, for certain ranges of site power- to- heat ratios as we
are showing next it can be more efficient. There are other important factors
such as operability, supply security/reliability and so on which need to be taken
into consideration besides thermodynamics during the design phase of utility
system design.

It is mandatory not only to seek thermodynamic efficiency but also local


economics in selecting the optimal site power and steam system integration
scenario from different schemes.

The cost of imported power must be balanced against the fuel and other costs
(e.g., water treatment) associated with power generation besides the operability,
reliability and so on to be able to strike the right balance between cogeneration
and power import or export. Having said that, depending on the process case we
have we are selecting between two extreme cases. The first one in which all the
power is imported from the grid or third party, and the second where all the
power is generated on site. The second case can be done through true
cogeneration and condensing turbines as per the above graph. The cases in
between which can have infinite combination can be screened used heuristics
and optimization techniques.

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Before we close this point let me emphasize again that it is important to watch
for the amount of steam used by the process for purposes other than process
heating and to include such steam users in the site composite curves or our
algebraic balance.

Site-to-Power Heat ratio:

The selection of the most appropriate cogeneration system for any site depends
entirely upon what is called power-to-heat ratio. This term, in most of the
literatures, is defined as follows:

Rsite = Wsite / Qsite (1)


Where;
Rsite = Site power-to-heat-ratio
Wsite = Power demand of the site (from external source)
Qsite = process heating demand of the site (from external source)

It is important to note here that process steam used in process activities other
than process heating needs to be included in the Qsite term calculated as
follows:

Qsite = Qp + Qp + others
FiredHeaters SteamMains

Where Qp = Individual process heating duties

The efficiency of with which power is generated in a plant can be estimated as


follows:

power = W gen / Q fuel


Where;

power = Power generation efficiency


W gen = Site power generation
Q fuel = Site fuel demand for power generation

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The efficiency of with which steam is generated in a plant can be estimated as


follows:

boilers = ( H steam H BFW ) * m steam / Q fuel boilers


Where,

Q fuel boilers = Fuel consumption in boilers for steam generation

boilers = Boiler(s) efficiency (including stack, walls and blow-down


losses)

( H steam H BFW ) = Specific enthalpies difference of the steam


generated and boiler feed water in the utility steam boiler

m steam = Flowrate of steam generated in the utility steam boiler

Let us now define the cogeneration efficiency

The cogeneration efficiency cogen of a system, where the fuel is fired in the
utility system and some of the energy produced is used to generate power, some
provides useful process heat and some is lost, can be defined as follows:

cogen = (Wgen + Qsite ) / Q fuel cogenerati on ................. (2)

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Now let us plot cogeneration efficiency (2) versus site power-to-heat ratio (1)

Power-to-Heat Ratio Curve

cogen

Rpinch
Rsite
This plot can render very useful information about the cogeneration or no
cogeneration decision as an option in supplying power and process heating to
any new facility.

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The graph shows when cogeneration efficiency starts to decrease at certain


power-to-heat ratio known as R pinch

Power-to-Heat Ratio Curve_ True Cogeneration

cogen

Import
central

Rpinch Rsite

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The second site power-to-heat ratio graph above shows when cogeneration
efficiency becomes less than the central power generation efficiency. Such
information can be used to decide for certain facility the power-to-heat ratio at
which, it is better to import electricity than generating it on-site. It is important
to note here that this curve is using thermodynamics to select between the
cogeneration and no cogeneration option in supplying new facility with its need
of power and process heating, when to choose one over the other and if possible
to what extent we shall have cogeneration as a very good option with clear
merits. However, things in new project studies do normally depend upon
economics rather than thermodynamics. Having said that, the curve can be used
to screen all options and reject the ones that are quite clear to be
thermodynamically unattractive and leave the cases which do deserve rigorous
economic evaluation.

Power-to-Heat Ratio Curve_ Power Export

cogen
Export

Import
central

Rpinch Rsite

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The site power-to-heat ratio graph also shows the true-cogeneration range and
when thermodynamically exporting power will be attractive.

Selection of Driver:

One of the major decisions in any new project is the source of the power supply
to the project. Is it going to be completely from the grid? Or vise versa, on-site
generation and zero dependence on the grid. Is it going to be partially produced
at site and the rest is coming from the grid? How does the split scheme will
look like? Can we generate our power needs and some extra capacity at site and
wheeling to the grid, other company facilities or exporting power to other users
and so on. Studying these alternatives needs a decision regarding not only
process heating needs but also process and utilities drivers types.

Drivers are essential in any oil and gas facility. They are required to drive gas
compressors, refrigeration compressors, air compressors, pumps, fans, mixers
and other equipment. The most frequently used are motors, steam turbines, gas
turbines, diesel generators and turbo-expanders. Many factors need to be taken
into consideration for the selection of most proper combinations of drivers.

These factors include difficult trade-off between capital cost, operating cost,
flexibility, reliability, environmental issues and operations preferences.

Another important choice regarding power supply to new project is how we are
going to supply power to the process equipment? Whether to generate power
and distribute it for use in electric motors to run such equipment or to place
direct drivers or let some of equipment use motors and the others use direct
drivers.

The allocation is an important degree of freedom that can help in the whole
process optimization. In brief most of the times some of the equipment will run
directly using steam and gas turbines and the rest will run through motors.
There are some pros and cons for each selection. A direct drive, steam turbine
driving water injection pump, can be cheaper compared with a large steam
turbine producing power, distribution of the power and utilizing the power in an
electric motor to drive the water injection pump. On the other hand, a large
single generator can serve many electric motors and drives many of the process
plants equipment such as compressors, pumps, fans and so on.

The direct drivers are not very flexible since they are linked to specific
equipment and its hot exhaust might not find the right sink in the process.
Generally the best solution is usually a combination of electric generators and
direct drives.

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4A.4 Cooling Water and Refrigeration Systems Targeting

The graph below simply depicts basic features of a typical closed loop cooling
water system. The main elements of the system are the cooling water tower and
water-process heat exchangers network. Cooling water from the cooling tower
is pumped to heat exchangers where process waste heat is rejected to the
environment.

The cooling water gets heated in the process-water heat exchangers network and
returned to the cooling water tower. The hot water returned to the tower is
cooled mainly by the evaporation of water as it flows down the packed water
cooling tower.

The hot water flows counter currently air in the cooling tower. The packing
provides enough surface area for heat and mass transfer between air and hot
water.

Air is humidified and heated and rises through the packing. The evaporated
water leaving the tower reflects the amount of cooling made to the incoming hot
water.

Water is lost through evaporation and drift in the tower and a frequent blow
down is also another source of losing water, that need to be compensated
through a make-up mechanism. Without going in depth mathematically we can
physically understand what happens inside the cooling tower and the main
variables that affect its size/cost and operational efficiency. The circulated
water return back to the cooling water tower with return temperature that is
higher than the air temperature used in cooling down this water. The air
temperature is function of its water content, too. If the air is saturated or close to
saturation, it will not be efficient in cooling down the circulated water.

A perfectly sized cooling tower allows water to be cooled from the circulated
water temperature to desired water cooling temperature by cooling the coming
water using ambient air through evaporation. Maximum evaporation takes place
when water in the form of tiny quantity is exposed to the maximum air flow for
the longest possible time/biggest heat and mass transfer surface area and highest
possible temperature driving force between the return water and air wet bulb
temperature. Air wet bulb temperature is the temperature of the
entering/ambient air measured with a wet bulb thermometer, which is a one
whose bulb is encased within a wetted wick. In other words it is the air
temperature after being saturated with water. By evaporation water can not be
cooled down below the air wet bulb temperature.

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The process of cooling through evaporation process via the removal of latent
heat allows the water to be cooled below the ambient dry bulb temperature. The
dry air enters the cooling tower and starts to gain moisture and enthalpy till it
reaches equilibrium with water. The water can be cooled 15 F or more while air
mass dry bulb temperature increases only slightly. Water can not be cooled
below the wet bulb temperature of an air stream by evaporation, since this
temperature is the saturation temperature of the air.

Having said that, cooling towers design and operation philosophy affects our
investment and operating costs, energy operating cost due to air coolers power
consumption, and such costs depend heavily on two major variables, the hot
water return temperature and the circulation water flowrate.

Increasing the water return temperature, of-course for fixed flowrate, allows
more heat to be removed from the process if needed or allows lower water
flowrate that is mean smaller cooling towers.

The purpose of this section of the best practice is to give brief but useful
background about cooling water targeting. It enables quick estimation for
cooling water loads using minimum available information especially at project
studies phase. Other documents shall address in more details stuff about cooling
systems components, models and operation which is not the intention of this
best practice document.

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F2,T
2
FE,T
E

Cooling Water
Network (Qcu)
Make-up water
FM,TM

F0,T0 F1,T1

FB
Cold Blow-down

Simple Model for a Cooling Water System

The above graph gives the basis of a cooling water system model that can be the
topic of another best practice document.

In brief, the performance of cooling tower is maximized by maximizing the inlet


temperature to the cooling tower and minimizing the inlet flowrate. It is the
intention of this section to enable the prediction of the minimum water flowrate,
taking into consideration other process constraints.

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Most cooling water networks involve the use of cooling water directly from the
cooling tower in each heat exchanger. This philosophy leads to a parallel
configuration of the process-water coolers. The other logical way of process-
water cooling systems is the series arrangement as shown in graph below.
Mixed configurations can also be used to attain desired performance.

HE1 HE2 HE 3

Series Configuration

HE 1

HE 2

HE 3

Parallel Configuration

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The graph below shows a cooling duty for a hot process stream. The cooling is
being supplied by cooling water stream with an inlet temperature T1. The
cooling water flow is decreased resulting in an increase in the cooling water line
slope (1/FCp) until the temperature difference has been minimized to the desired
one. If the cooling duties are arranged in parallel, then minimizing cooling
water flowrate per process-water cooler will minimize total cooling water
flowrate and maximize the water return temperature.

T
Hot process stream Tmin
T2

Cold water supply line


T1

In case of series configuration, increasing the cooling water return temperature


and consequently decreasing its flowrate will automatically increases the
cooling water performance through the reduction of its power consumption.

The series and the parallel configurations have three main differences as
follows:
The series configuration increases the efficiency of the cooling tower/reduce
its capital cost
In the same time it decreases the temperature driving forces in the process-
water coolers resulting in more expensive water coolers
It also increases the pressure drop through cooling water network and
consequently the pumping cost

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In summary, the parallel configuration shown above maximizes the flowrate of


cooling water around the system and minimizes the return temperature since the
return temperature from each heat exchanger to the cooling tower is limited by
the minimum temperature difference of each heat exchanger. In some cases
series configuration can be used as we mentioned above. In series configuration
the reuse of the cooling water in second and third heat exchangers lowers the
total cooling water flowrate and increases the overall return temperature to the
inlet of the cooling tower. Therefore, for the same cooling load requirement,
using series configuration for cooling instead of parallel configuration can
increase the performance of the cooling tower and hence decrease the cooling
tower size which is major equipment in the cooling water system.

The graph below shows a representation of a heat exchanger using cooling water
in which both the inlet and outlet temperatures of the cooling water have been
maximized.

This situation corresponds to minimum approach temperatures at both sides of


the cooler. The shown profile is known as limiting cooling water profile.

This profile provides a boundary between feasible and infeasible temperatures in


the design of the cooling water network. As long as water is fed to the process-
water coolers to a temperature below its limiting cooling water temperature
profile it will be considered feasible.

T
Hot process stream Tmin
Tout-max

Tmin
Tin-max Feasible Region

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Now we can use the limiting cooling water profile concept for drawing the
composite curve of several cooling operations to obtain the limiting cooling
water profiles of all the process-water cooling operations all in one graph. As
shown in graph below.

T(C)
T(C)
80

60

40

20

Q (kW) Q (kW)

Cooling Water Composite Curve

The, graph to the left, is divided to several temperature intervals. Within each
temperature interval, the heat duty for the individual streams is combined
together to produce the cooling water composite curve. This profile, in the
graph to the right, represents a single stream that is equivalent to the 4 individual
streams.

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To determine the minimum flowrate of cooling water, a cooling water supply


line shall be matched against the cooling water composite curve as shown in
graph below.

Cooling water composite curve


T(C)

Pinch }
Cooling water supply line
For maximum re-use

Q (kW)

The cooling water supply line begins at the at the cooling water temperature
coming from the cooling tower after the addition of the make-up water.
(Cooling water temperature supplied to the process-water coolers)

The slop of this line is 1/Fcp where F is the flowrate of the cooling water and
cp is the water specific heat. Minimizing F which is the cooling water
flowrate achieves our objective. It increases the slope of the line. We can
continue decreasing the cooling water flowrate, increasing the slope of the
cooling water supply line in graph, until we reach a situation where the line
touches the cooling water composite curve. In such case there is no temperature
driving force between the cooling water composite curve and the cooling water
supply line. This point shown in graph is called the cooling water system pinch.
The slope of the red line in the above graph can be used to calculate the
theoretical minimum cooling water required for the process which has the four
cooling operations tasks shown above.

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It is important to note here that the cooling water supply line shown red in the
above graph specify the maximum water return temperature that render the
theoretical minimum cooling water flowrate required by the process. In many
cases, this cooling water return temperature is not dictated by the minimum
cooling water flowrate but by the operational constraints.

Such practical constraints arise from corrosion aspects in the piping and heat
exchangers network, temperature limits in cooling tower packing and/or fouling
of the cooling water. In addition to these constraints other optimization
variables, other than minimum cooling water supply, need to be considered such
as minimum pressure drop to avoid excessive pumping in the system in case of
series configurations as shown earlier. It is outside the scope of this document
to address such constraints and extra optimization variables since we are most of
the time at conceptual phase during the projects studies phase.

Refrigeration System:

A refrigeration system is a heat pump in which heat is absorbed below ambient


temperature. A heat pump is the reverse of a power cycle. For example, a home
refrigerator removes heat from food that is just above freezing (say 5C) and
ejects that heat into the room which is at ambient temperature( say 25C). The
work we put into the pump to move the heat to the higher temperature degrades
to heat. Degrading heat from a high temperature to a low temperature allows us
to create work. Using work allows us to elevate the temperature of low grade
heat.

Before we talk about the integration of refrigeration cycles with the process let
us examine first the refrigeration cycle using a temperature-entropy diagram.

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The figure below shows again the main components of a typical refrigeration
cycle. We start examining the cycle at the exit of the condenser at point # 1.

A Typical Refrigeration Cycle

High Pressure Liquid High Pressure Vapor


1
4
Condenser

Expansion Valve

Compressor

2 3
Low Pressure Vapor Low Pressure Vapor
and Liquid (two Phases)

Evaporator

Here the refrigerant is a high pressure liquid, very near to saturation (i.e., about
ready to boil). We reduces the pressure on the liquid by passing it through an
adiabatic valve (H=0.0). It partially vaporizes at point #2. The heat required
for vaporization, since we do not give it external heat, comes from the fluid
itself, cooling it. We next pass this fluid through the refrigeration coils where
the rest of the liquid evaporates. In doing so, it takes heat from the surroundings
(from food or process). We now have a low pressure liquid/fluid, point # 3,
which is all vapor and very near saturation (just ready to condense). We then
increase the pressure on the fluid by compressing it. An ideal compressor
operates isentrpoically (at constant entropy, S=0.0), arriving to point # 4. It
has been heated up due to compression becoming a superheated vapor well
above saturation. We then cool it by rejecting the heat to the surrounding or
cooling medium in the process, returning ultimately to being a liquid at high
pressure, point # 1.

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The graph below shows this cycle on a plot of temperature versus entropy
diagram. The advantage of viewing such a cycle on temperature versus entropy
and not pressure versus enthalpy is that the area enclosed in the cycle represents
the ideal work needed to run the cycle. Any improvements to the cycle will
show up as reductions in this area, provided that we pick up the same amount of
heat in the evaporator both before and after the improvement since this amount
of heat is normally the one dictated by the process needs.

Temperature- Entropy Diagram for refrigeration Cycle

T, K
4

1
liquid
Vapor

2 3
Vapor and liquid

Entropy, S(J/mol K)

Refrigeration Temperature versus Entropy Diagram


(Ideal Compressor)

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Understanding the above temperature-entropy diagram in the context of the


refrigeration cycle components allows us to generate ideas that can help save
energy. In the graphs below we will present two of such possible
improvements.

The first is to use a multi-stage compressor as shown below to reduce the area
enclosed in the cycle which represents the idea work needed to run the cycle.

Temperature- Entropy Diagram for refrigeration Cycle

T, K

Save this area

liquid
Vapor

Multistage
Vapor and liquid Compressor

Entropy, S(J/mol K)

Refrigeration Temperature versus Entropy Diagram


(Multi-Stage Compressor)

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In such case we compress only part way and then cool the vapor back to its
saturation temperature. We compress again to the final pressure. The area
saved on the right side of the above graph represents the savings in the ideal
work needed to run this cycle.

The second possible improvement shown in the graph below is using a let down
turbine rather than a valve to drop the pressure of the high pressure liquid.

Temperature- Entropy Diagram for refrigeration Cycle

T, K
Turbine Expansion

Save this area

liquid
Vapor

Multistage
Compressor
Vapor and liquid

Extra refrigeration capacity

Entropy, S(J/mol K)

Refrigeration Temperature versus Entropy


(Using Letdown turbine)

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This expansion is shown in the straight line. This step appears to increase the
area enclosed which means extra ideal work will be required to run this cycle.
However, it also increases the length of the line that represents the heat we pick
up in the evaporator from the process. In other words we are increasing our
refrigeration capacity. It is really an improvement since the area (that represent
the ideal work needed to run the cycle) per unit heat we pick from the process
(process demand) in the evaporator is actually reduced when we use the let
down turbine. In general, we should normally use one cycle to elevate the low
temperature heat by no more than 30C. If we need to increase the temperature
of the heat more than that, it pays to use multiple cycles where a lower
temperature cycle passes heat to the cycle above it, which in turns passes the
heat to the cycle above it, repeating until the top cycle, which passes the heat to
the ambient conditions. This configuration is shown in the double cycle shown
in the figure below.

A Two Stage Refrigeration Cycle

Condenser

Expansion Valve
Evaporator Compressor

Condenser
Expansion Valve
Compressor

Evaporator

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Refrigeration cycles are expensive to purchase and expensive to operate. Hence,


they should be run with much smaller driving forces than are typical for above
ambient processes. Smaller driving forces mean we will pay more for the
equipment but less for the operating costs. The evaporator/condenser that
connects the two cycles in figure above requires a temperature driving force for
the heat to transfer. The lower cycle must raise the heat to a temperature just
above the temperature of the fluid in the upper cycle so it can transfer heat to it.

If it is reasonable to use the same refrigerant in the two cycles we can eliminate
this loss in temperature driving force by exchanging heat between the two cycles
as shown in the figure below without this common evaporator/condenser shown
in the figure above.

A Two Stage Refrigeration Cycle

Condenser

Expansion Valve
Flash Compressor
Two phase fluid

Vapor

Liquid

Compressor
Expansion Valve

Evaporator

Two Stage Refrigeration Cycle with Flash Drum

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In this figure we replace the evaporator/condenser unit with a flash drum. The
two cycles trade fluid rather than just heat. The lower cycle puts vapor into the
flash unit while the upper cycle feeds in 2-phase fluid.

The lower cycle takes away the liquid while the upper cycle takes the vapor
from the flash unit. Material balance requires each cycle to remove the same
amount of refrigerant as it put into the flash unit. The lower cycle trades vapor
for liquid, while the upper cycle trades vapor and liquid for vapor alone. It is as
if they have traded heat. This trade is done with no temperature driving force
and makes it an attractive alternative to improve a cascaded refrigeration cycle.

There are many other ways to improve refrigeration cycles and what does really
concerns us is to design a good refrigeration cycle that also best fit with our
process using the type of insights that we got from grand composite curve.

Choice of refrigerant:

The choice of refrigerants in compression refrigeration is an important task.


There are key factors affecting the choice. Such factors are the freezing point,
latent heat of vaporization, shape of the two phase envelope, evaporator pressure
and others.

The freezing point of the refrigerant should be well below the evaporator
temperature.

The table below gives the freezing points of famous refrigerants. (Robin Smith
Chemical Process Design and Integration book, 2005)

Refrigerant Freezing Point at Atmospheric Pressure (C)


Ammonia -78
Chlorine -101
n-Butane -138
Ethylene -169
Ethane -183
Methane -182
Propane -182
Propylene -185
Nitrogen -210

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It is also desirable to have a refrigerant with a high latent heat. A high latent
heat will lead to a lower flowrate of refrigerant around the loop and reduce the
power requirements. Evaporator operating pressure is another important factor,
since it is very desirable not to operate the system at a pressure below
atmospheric to avoid any possibility of air leakage to the system. Another
important factor affecting the choice of refrigerant relates to the shape of the two
phase region on a temperature-entropy diagram. For instance, if the slope of the
saturated vapor phase line is steep, it results in lower need for superheating,
decreases the heat transfer area needed for condensation.

Compression Refrigeration Power Targeting:

In order to be able to evaluate different design options, a quick but rigorous


method for estimating refrigeration power requirements can be very useful. The
benefits from setting shaft-work targets for refrigeration power prior to design of
the refrigeration system is important in screening different design options
through the evaluation of its refrigeration power requirements. It also helps
assess the performance of the whole process prior to detailed design and draw
the line regarding the integration of the process and the refrigeration system.
Last but not least it helps in deciding the desired trade-off between fixed/capital
cost and the operating cost.

In this best practice manual a targeting procedures for compression refrigeration


will be outlined for simple cycles only. For the purpose of refrigeration power
targeting for multi-sage cycles, an assembly of simple cycles can be used. In
such case rather than rejecting heat from the high pressure refrigerant to the
ambient, it will be rejected to the process or to another refrigeration cycle.

Single cycle refrigeration power short-cut targeting procedures:

Given the cooling duty (Qevap), condensing temperature (Tcond) and


evaporating temperature (Tevap) estimate the actual power requirement for a
simple cycle refrigeration system.

Use Antoine equation to calculate the saturation pressure in both the


condenser and the evaporator P cond
sat
and P evap
sat
given both the T cond
sat
and
T evap
sat
as follows:

ln P sat = A B/ (C+T sat )

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Where;

A, B and C are constants specific to a refrigerant and can be look up


from literature or determined experimentally

T is temperature in degree (K)

Once these pressures been calculated the pressure difference across the
compressor and expansion valve will be estimated assuming no significant
pressure drop through the heat exchangers and piping.

Mass flowrate of the refrigerant (M) can be estimated from the process
refrigeration need/ process heat duty that to be rejected to the refrigerant in the
evaporator (Qevap) and the latent heat of vaporization of the refrigerant (ref) at
the evaporator temperature(Tevap)

M = Qevap/ ref

Once the mass flowrate (M) is known we can determine the volumetric flowrate
(F) into the compressor from the refrigerant vapor density ()

F = M/

F: in m/sec; M: in kg; and : in kg/m

Use vendors data to estimate the compressor efficiency , if not available use
the for reciprocating compressor the isentropic efficiency (Eff-isen) that can
be estimated as follows using this empirical equation: (Robin Smith,
Chemical process Design and Integration Book)

Eff-isen = 0.1.091* [ ln (Pout/Pin)] 3 - 0.5247* [ ln (Pout/Pin)] 2


+ 0.8577*[ ln (Pout/Pin)] + 0.3727

For; 1.1 < Pout/Pin < 5

Then the Refrigeration Power can be calculated for reciprocating


compressors using the following formula:

W = ( / 1 ) PevapF / is [1 ( Pcond / Pevap ) 1 /


]

Where;
W = power required for compression in N.m/s
Pevap and Pcond = Inlet and outlet pressure for compressor N/m

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is = Isentropic efficiency
F= Inlet volumetric flowrate m/s
= Ratio of heat capacities Cp/Cv

In simple refrigeration cycles as we shown before, heat is rejected from the


process into the refrigerant at the lowest temperature and the heat rejection from
the refrigeration cycle to complete a closed loop is rejected to the ambient
(cooling water or air) or to the process. In multi-stage refrigeration cycles heat
rejected from one cycle can be accommodated in another. It is important to note
here that refrigeration systems like steam or combined heat and power systems
need to be considered in the same context with the process system for the sake
of optimal integration of the two process and utilities systems.

4A.5 Tri-Generation

Tri-generation is the concept of deriving three different forms of energy from a


primary energy source. Tri-generation is also referred to as CHCP Combined
Heating, Cooling & Power Generation. In applications presently under
consideration within Saudi Aramco the derived energies would be in the form of
power, steam and chilled air. The concept is related to cogeneration except that
some or most of the steam generated in the HRSG is passed through an
absorption chiller to produce chilled water, which can be used in process cooling
and or cool the inlet air to the CGT to increase the amount of electricity that can
be produced.

The popularity of power turbine inlet air cooling for compressor is increasing as
its benefits for producing extra power can result in a significant reduction in
both capital and operating cost. In hot weather environments, cooling inlet air to
the compressor of a gas turbine system is a low cost option for preventing the
loss of output or even increasing it above rates site capacity.

Tri-generation provides flexibility and reliability. The amounts of each of the


energy products produced at any time can be adjusted to suit changing customer
demand. The environment also benefits from Tri-generation, as emissions of
carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas), nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides are
reduced in the process. For facilities that require all three products at various
times of the year, Tri-generation provides a single source for all of these energy
needs.

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Cogeneration / Tri-generation Process


Fuel Supply Inlet Air Cooling Exchange

Exhaust
Mass-flow
ELECTRICITY

Gas Turbine Generator


PROCESS Cooling

Absorption
Exhaust Gas
Chiller

STEAM TO PROCESS

HRSG
PROCESS CONDENSATE / FEED WATER
17

Tri-generation process

Tri-generation to Boost Power


Generation Output

250
P o w e r O u tp u t

200

Approx 20%
150

100
Power Output without Inlet Air Cooling
50
Power Output with Inlet Air Cooling Use of Trigen
0

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

18

Tri-generation Generation output increase

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The above graph shows the improvement of the power generation output of
approximately 20%-30% after the use of Tri-generation with in-let air cooling.

In the Middle East with average temperatures over 115F during the summer
months this curve highlights the in-let air cooling impact during high power
demand period of the year. The cooler winter months with lower power demand
have fewer benefits.

In brief, Tri-generation as a process of producing three energy-utilities from one


source of energy is an important concept. This approach can be very beneficial
to Saudi Aramcos facilities where we usually need steam for heating and
process purposes, electricity to drive equipment and cooling capacity.

The scheme below shows how the absorption-stripping configuration which is


an important part of the tri-generation system can be used to produce
compressed refrigerant vapor which is produced via a compressor in the
compression refrigeration schemes.

Compressed refrigerant vapor


Solvent Compressed refrigerant vapor

W Stripper

Absorber

compressor
Refrigerant vapor Refrigerant vapor

Waste Heat

Pump

Revision Summary
10 September 2006 New Saudi Aramco Best Practice.

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