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CREATING THE CASSAVA REVOLUTION

Cassava
Processors
DADTCO General
DADTCO established in 2002.
Shareholders; people with Africa experience who share the belief that economic
development comes from private businesses with the aim to improve income standards
of African Farmers.

MISSION Create the cassava revolution

OPERATIONS In Africa and then to the rest of the World

APPROACH Reach as many smallholder farmers as possible

HOW Provide a guaranteed market to farmers


Create new processing technologies
Make quality products, matching buyers needs
Substitute expensive imports
Export grade A starch to Europe and the USA.
Why cassava?

An edible root crop with about 23% starch content (82% on dry matter basis).
Root is stable in the ground for up to 2-3 years.
Roots start to degrade as soon as harvested.
Approximately 9 12 months cycle with high yields (10 to 60 MT per HA)
Can be planted and harvested throughout the year.
Easy to grow, drought tolerant, low fertilizers, pesticides and maintenance
demand.

Cassava has many advantages for starch production:

High level of purity.


Excellent thickening characteristics.
A neutral bland taste.
Desirable textural characteristics.

*A cheap crop containing a high concentration of starch that can surpass the properties of other
starches (maize, wheat, sweet potato, and rice).
Global distribution of cassava

Cassava prefers ambient temperatures > 30 C and grows particularly well in the agro-climatic
conditions found in most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa.
Composition starch crops

100% 13%
90%
14%
80%
3%
70% 72% Water
79%
60%
50% Protein+Minerals
40% 70% 2%
30% 5% 4% Fibers
20% 2%
22%
15%
10%
Starch
0%
Maize Cassava Potatoes

*Cassava lowest in protein content, protein major impediment for the production of starch,
Failed cassava processing projects Africa

Nigeria, 178 IITA/C:AVA locally Nigerian Starch Mills, Anambra


built small flash dryers. State.
Capacity: 8Mt roots/Day. Capacity 250 Mt roots/day.
90% is standing idle Little or no production.

Nigeria, Matna Foods Company Nigeria, Psaltry processing


Limited, Ondo State. plant.
Capacity 150 Mt roots/day
In the process of construction
Out of production
No cassava in the surrounding

Nigeria, Ekha Agro (ISI) Syrup Nigeria; TFI cassava flour


glucose plant. plant,
Capacity 400 Mt roots/day Capacity 200 Mt of roots/day.
Sporadic
Out of production and for sale at
the moment. Lack of roots
Failed cassava processing projects Africa

Nigeria, Uzere starch factory Swaziland, Casquip ISI built


Capacity 120 Mt/day starch factory.
Never been in operation. Capacity 120 Mt roots/day
Brazilian design. Has never been in operation is
for sale

Ghana, Ayensu ISI built


starch factory.
Cameroon, Sotramas starch
Capacity 180 Mt roots/day factory. Capacity 120 Mt
Unviable and out of roots/day.
operations. Never been operational.

Rwanda, Kinazi Cassava


Processing Plant. Tanzania, Scheer foundation
Capacity: 120 Mt/day Capacity 80Mt roots/day.
Out of operation and for Has not yet been
operational. Land grabbing
Sale
Failed cassava processing projects Africa

Ivory Coast, ISI built Mozambique Cleanstar,


starch/flake plant for Nestle Bioethanol
Yopougon. Capacity 60 Mt roots/day
Capacity 30 Mt roots/day. Has never has been in
Standing idle at the moment. operation.

Uganda, Lira, Starch factory Malawi. Universal Industries


Capacity 30 Mt roots/day. Capacity 60 Mt roots/day
Erratic production, lack of
Defunct. roots, high fuel consumption.

And Many others


Why cassava projects fail in Africa

Perishability
Roots degenerate the moment they are harvested
Transportation time too long

Smallholder crop
Lack of regular root supplies
Farmers widely scattered, small volumes and bad
feeder roads

Transport costs
65-75% fruit water adds to transport costs
Transport costs too high
Why cassava projects fail in Africa

No Suitable processing technology


Both
Either centralized, large economy of scale or resulting in
Cottage type industries starch losses

Quality issues
Cyanide in the roots, lack of validation methods
Non food grade processing

Plantation farming not feasible


Crop too labour intensive at replanting time
High yielding crop only when personal care is provided.

Over-invoicing by importers
Import monopolies and price cartels
Coastal bound, makes local souring unattractive
DADTCO Solution; 5 essential technologies

Demand
Full release Removal of Removal of Reducing
driven
of all starch fibres and all cyanide moisture
cassava
from plant non starch containing content
farmers
cells substances contents (drying)
management

DADTCO
Roots Supply AMPU, same ASPU (Mobile enzymatic Mobile Drying/
day processing Refinery Unit) process Flash Drying

Production of cyanide free Starch Grade B with 1,8% fibres


DADTCO Solution; same day processing

1. Wet processing part 2. Dry processing part


Decentralized Centralized
Releases starch Close to cheap energy sources
Removes non starch Urban area, markets
Extends shelf life
Why Decentralized Processing

Same day processing


No post harvest losses
Better quality starch

Transport costs
To transport cake instead of roots is
three times more efficient
Pollution
Centralized fruit water causes pollution.

Close to farmers fields


Management regular supply workable
Demand driven cassava farmers management

Root supply management is a core skill:

Alliances with local governments, farmers, research


institutes and agricultural organisations.
Use of advanced information technology systems,
media, barcoding and GPS/GIS systems.
Communication and information sharing with
farmers.
Team of mobilizers in the field organizing farmers
Cash payments
DADTCO ID cards
Track & Trace of all root supplies

*Farmers have a guaranteed market and direct payment upon delivery


Building trust

Processing on farmers door step;

Awareness campaigns involving radio messages, chiefs, farm


leaders and local administrators

Organize farmers sessions and identify farmers

Registration of cassava farmers and issuing of ID cards

Introduce improved agricultural practices and follow-up

Issuing of a purchase guarantee for next year

Organize a cassava platform with research, farmers and


extension services.

Guaranteed market; farmers know the price at planting date


DADTCO supports farmers with know-how

Use clean tools Select healthy plants

Mobilizers spread know-how on 4 most


limiting factors in cassava farming:

1. Access to disease free high


yielding varieties

2. Production, stocking, treatment Store under shade for 10 days Make 30 cm long cuttings
and planting of stems.

3. Replanting dead stems.


Cut off the top and basal parts of the
stems
4. Increase plant density Make sure the cuttings have 5 to 8
nodes
Socio-economic IMPACT one AMPU

Local economy
$1,200,000 per year in the villages amongst 4000 farmer families.
$300 per family additional money on a cash income of not more than $100 -$300.

Foreign exchange savings per AMPU


$3,800,000 foreign exchange savings per year, replacing imported wheat and/or
malted barley.

Building alliances
Creating market attracts other investments
Building bridges between multinationals and local farmers
Autonomous Mobile Processing Unit (AMPU)

AMPU
processing

Washing & peeling


The AMPU is assembled in a 45 foot high cube container
The AMPU moves around a cassava growing region, stays 3 to 4 months Chopping
at one platform(site) and moves in rotation to 4 or 3 sites per year.
Roots are processed into cake with 98% released starch Rasping
50% reduction of water.
Cassava cake properly packaged and stored, can be kept for at least 6 Dewatering by
months under ambient conditions. decanter
Cassava cake
52% moisture

*If the farmer cannot come to the factory lets bring the factory to the farmers
AMPU Capacity

An AMPU has a capacity of 5 MT cassava roots per hour

On a 2 shift basis one AMPU will process 80 MT roots


per day or 24 000 MT per annum.
AMPU Cassava Cake quality standards

This in turn is equivalent to: Dry matter 47-50%

o 13 000 MT Cassava Cake Starch Min 92% (dry matter basis)

o 12 000 MT Cassava Starch Cake Fibers 2.5-5% (depending on enzyme addition)

o 7 000 MT Cassava Flour (HQCF) Ash <0.6%

o 6 500 MT Starch Grade B. Protein <0.5%

o 6 500 MT Starch Grade A HCN <2 ppm

pH 3.8 4.0
o 6 700 MT Mixed syrups Starch granule Excellent integrity for modification process

One AMPU creates a market for 4500 smallholder Shelf life >6 months

farmers. Storage Shade, ventilated, ambient temperature

Density 1m3 equals 1,000 kg

Load 33 ton in standard 40ft container

*A single AMPU can supply sufficient starch adjunct for over 1 million hl beer per annum
DADTCO CASSAVA PRODUCT FLOW

SMALLHOLDER SMALLHOLDER SMALLHOLDER


SMALLHOLDER SMALLHOLDER FARMER FARMER
FARMER FARMER
FARMER

AMPU
AMPU AMPU AMPU AMPU

ASPU
CASSAVA CENTRAL
CAKE *ASPU FLASH ASPU
DRYER
REFINERY
CASSAVA MOBILE/
STARCH DADTCO
CAKE FLOUR FLASH
DRYER CENTRAL
FLASH DRYER

STARCH
STARCH
GRADE B
GRADE A

*The ASPU; a newly developed mobile first step refinery unit, reducing 70% of the fibre content in the cake
Match products with clients real needs, create new markets

4 2 3 1 1
100% 5 5

Ash&Fibres
90%
23
80% 40 49
70%

60% 86 86
82 84
50% Starch

40% 72

30% 56
50
20%

10% 13 13 13 13 Moisture
0%
Cassava DADTCO DADTCO DADTCO DADTCO DADTCO Thai Tapioca
Roots Cake Starch Cake Flour Starch Starch
(Grade B) (Grade A)

Removal of moisture and fibres equals starch


Water Absorption capacity fibres

9% fibres

91%
Starch

*Drying of fibres costs fuel


DADTCO Starch Grade B
DADTCO Cassava Cake: Removal of 6% fibres DADTCO Starch Grade B with
9% fibres on dry matter basis 3% fibres on dry matter basis

9% fibres
7,2%
fibres
= 2,8%
fibres

91% 97%
Starch Starch

* Two-third removal of fibres gives large impact


Average roots requirement per DADTCO product
Product Intermediate product Roots
1 Mt cake, requires 1.8 Mt roots*
1 Mt cassava starch cake requires 1.1 Mt Cassava cake, requires 2.0 Mt roots
1 Mt DADTCO flour, requires 1.9 Mt Cassava cake, requires 3.4 Mt roots
1 Mt Starch grade B, requires 1.8 Mt Cassava starch cake, requires 3.6 Mt roots
1 Mt Starch grade A, requires 1.8 Mt cassava starch cake, requires 3.6 Mt roots

*For rough calculation purposes only


Types of flour made from cassava

Four types of cassava flour can be distinguished: HQCF

1. High Quality Cassava Flour(HQCF), obtained by Washing and Peeling


industrial wet processing
Grating

2. High Quality Cassava Flour(HQCF), obtained by Pressing


Small Medium Enterprises (SME) wet
processing. Drying and Cooling

Milling
3. High Quality Cassava Flour(HQCF), obtained by
cottage industry manual wet processing. Sifting

4. Cassava flour obtained by grinding of dried


cassava chips
Low quality, high in cyanide content,
unhygienic Quality.
The art of making cassava flour
High Quality Cassava Flour, its quality is determined by:

1. The Rasper (to rasp the roots into a mash); the more powerful the rasper the more
released starch and the lower the cyanide content.

2. The Dryer; the quicker the drying and cooling down process the less moulds and
microorganisms in the end-product

3. Hygiene and water quality.

DADTCO Small Cottage Cottage


Industrial industrial industry industry
wet wet Manual wet Grinding of
processing processing processing dried chips
HQCF HQCF HQCF Cassava flour
Major quality issues HQCF

DADTCO
HQCF
Cottage
Cottage Industry
DADTCO
SME HQCF Industry cassava
Starch
HQCF flour
grade B

0 Cyanide content (ppm) 20

Cottage
DADTCO Cottage Industry
DADTCO
Starch SME HQCF Industry cassava
HQCF
grade B HQCF flour

0 Total bacterial counts >1.000.000

DADTCO
HQCF
Cottage
DADTCO Cottage Industry
Starch SME HQCF Industry cassava
grade B HQCF flour

100% Released starch 10%


Elimination of cyanide: a Prerequisite

Cassava roots contain cyanogenic glucosides which breakdown to


form hydrocyanic acid (HCN), a toxic compound.

Processing is necessary to reduce the HCN potential.

Traditional processing methods ineffective to reduce HCN


potential to safe levels.

To reduce cyanide levels you need to mechanical break down the


cell walls with industrial raspers.

Insufficiently processed cassava roots cause high levels of


cyanide causing neurological disorders.
New developments

1. DADTCOs R&D team In collaboration with RIKILT, University of


Wageningen and the Mondlane University Maputo Mz, has validated
the fluctuating and high presence of Linamarin, a cyanogenic
component present in cassava. On the basis of this validation the
team has developed and patented an enzyme to produce 100%
cyanide free cassava products (the research was financed by the
Kutemann fund).

2. DADTCOs technology department has developed an ASPU (Autonomous Starch Processing


Unit). The ASPU is built in a 20ft container and is designed to remove 70% of the fibres in the
cassava slurry. The Starch Cake produced by a combination of AMPU and ASPU is:
Cyanide free
Contains very few fibres (can be compared to native starch in its behaviour) and
contains 20% less water than the original Cassava Cake
Is odourless and white in colour

*DADTCO excited about development new technologies ASPU and Cyanide free cassava products
DADTCOs activities in Africa
NIGERIA MOZAMBIQUE

Flash Dryers
Taraba State
+ 3 AMPUS

Drying 2 AMPUS

Milling

Osun state
Sieving
+3 AMPUS

Cooling

Flour/Starch
GHANA
grade B
Rivers State
+ 3 AMPUS 1 AMPU
Bagging
Bread with 20% of DADTCO s Starch grade B

Baking trials with 20% DADTCOs starch grade B in collaboration with the Research and Technology
department of AB MAURI, the Netherlands.

AB Mauri, part of Associated British Foods (ABF), 2nd largest globally in


yeast and bakery ingredients, operates in 26 countries.

Inclusion of 20% DADTCOs starch grade B showed perfect results in: bread volume, colour, crumb
structure, crumb resilience, taste and shelf life:

Volume Colour Testing Crumb structure

*Results exceeded expectations, 20% of DADTCOs starch grade B gave excellent bread
The SABMiller Partnership

The launch of the worlds first commercially produced cassava lager in Mozambique.

In 2011 DADTCO and SABMiller Africa entered into a partnering arrangement whereby DADTCOs
cassava know- how and AMPU technology would be made available to the brewer to complement its
own cassava beer brewing technology.

DADTCO Mandioca Mozambique (DMM):


Steep increase in cake sales volumes making good profits
SABMiller has invested 10 million US$ in a cassava starch refinery based on cassava cake.
Cassava content Impala 70% cassava cake and 30% malted barley

Increase in cassava cake sales DMM


2,000
1,800
1,600
1,400
1,200
1,000
800
600
400
200
-
Sep 2013- Jan 2014- May 2014- Sep 2014- Jan 2015-
Dec 2013 April 2014 Aug 2014 Dec 2014 April 2015

*Beer with cassava from our own farms..


DADTCO Prices (in Euro)
AMPU 700,000
ASPU 300,000
Mobile Dryer 850,000
Working Capital 400,000
Logistics/Sites 600,000
Refinery 1,500,000
Central Flash Dryer 2,300,000
Cyanide removal 5 Euro/MT
What is in it for the smallholder cassava farmers?

A BRIGHT FUTURE

WWW.DADTCO.NL